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Sample records for biochemical society transactions

  1. Transactions of the nuclear societies of Israel joint meeting 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 18 th convention of the Israel nuclear societies transactions book contains presentations in the following topics: reactor physics, health physics, radiation protection, nuclear medicine and general reviews about the status of nuclear energy in Israel

  2. Pedagogical Transaction in Religious Education: Diversified Society and John Dewey's Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutinen, Ari; Kallioniemi, Arto; Pihlström, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the article is on how a new approach to religious education (RE) in diversified societies can be constructed on the basis of the theory of pedagogical transaction presented by John Dewey. Reflections of developing RE are very current in Western secularized societies. We believe that Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of education and…

  3. University papers in American Nuclear Society (ANS) transactions with enrollment and degrees-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, D.; Wiggins, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    Statistics on nuclear engineering course offerings, enrollment, degrees, and papers published in the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Transactions were presented in 1966 at a conference at the University of West Virginia and in several subsequent publications. Since the 1970s, enrollment and degree data have been compiled by the US Department of Energy and its predecessors. These are the latest statistics. Universities, with perhaps 300 professors of nuclear engineering, continue to contribute substantially to the Transactions. Identification of nuclear engineering at universities is suffering because of reduced enrollment and much less graduate research support. This and the foreign student situation deserve serious attention by those concerned with nuclear engineering in university, government, and industrial communities

  4. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community.

  5. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41

  6. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  7. The first joint congress of the South African Biochemical Society, South African Genetics Society and the South African Society for Microbiology at the University of the Witwatersrand, 29 June-4 July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The South African Biochemical Society, South African Genetics Society and the South African Society for Microbiology held a joint congress at the University of the Witwatersrand from 29 June - 4 July 1986. The papers delivered cover subjects such as Molecular biology, Genetics, Biochemistry, Medical biochemistry, Physiology, Zoology and Isotope and radiation sciences. Different isotopes are used in labelling studies of enzymes, nutrition, metabolism, viruses, bacteria and other biological assays done in the fields of Biochenmistry, Genetics and Microbiology. This work contains only the abstracts of these papers

  8. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  9. Unconventional uranium transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some representative unconventional transactions which have been observed in the uranium market; to explain the circumstances giving rise to these transactions; and to describe the benefits resulting from these transactions. Unconventional transactions are usually quite specialized, since they are tailored to meet the particular needs of specific market participants. Nevertheless, most of these transactions fall into the following basic categories: multi-party (back-to-back; bridge); swap (deconversion; nationality); barter; inventory financing (leasing with repurchase obligation; sale with repurchase option). These transactions are explained and discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas AF [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steckley, Andrew C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  11. Accounting costs of transactions in real estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    in relating theoretical conceptualizations of transaction costs to national accounting and further to the identification and quantification of actions on units of real estate. The notion of satellite accounting of the System of National Accounts is applied to the segment of society concerned with changes......The costs of transactions in real estate is of importance for households, for investors, for statistical services, for governmental and international bodies concerned with the efficient delivery of basic state functions, as well as for research. The paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach...... in real estate. The paper ends up with an estimate of the cost of a major real property transaction in Denmark....

  12. Managerial accounting for transaction costs

    OpenAIRE

    Лабынцев, Николай Тихонович

    2015-01-01

    Essence and significance of transaction accounting and its basic concepts – transaction and transaction costs – have been determined. Main types of transaction costs and elements of transaction accounting for expenses have been considered. Source documents forms for the purpose of accounting for transaction costs have been worked out.

  13. Resources and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2005-01-01

    from resources depends on the property rights that he or she holds and on the transaction costs of exchanging, defining, and protecting them. While transaction costs are a major source of value dissipation, reducing such dissipation may create value. Implications for the RBV analysis of sustained...

  14. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  15. Combining Tasking and Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kienzle, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    This position paper discusses the issues in design and development of a transaction support for Ada 95. Transactions and other fault tolerance mechanisms are reviewed, and their applicability in a concurrent programming language is analyzed. Possible ways of integration are presented and implementation problems are discussed.

  16. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...

  17. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input......Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...

  18. Transactions in Software Components: Container-Interposed Transactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, M.; Plášil, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2002), s. - ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/99/0244; GA AV ČR IAA2030902 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : transactions * component-based software architectures * transaction propagation policy * transaction attributes * container -interposed transactions Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  19. Valuation of Transactive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbert, Erik I. [Navigant Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Chandler, Shawn [Navigant Consulting, Portland, OR (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This is a final report from a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to formulate and test a methodology for valuation of systems where transaction-based mechanisms coordinate the exchange of value between the system’s actors. Today, the principal commodity being exchanged is electrical energy, and such mechanisms are called transactive energy systems. The authors strove to lay a foundation for meaningful valuations of transactive systems in general, and transactive energy systems as a special case. The word valuation is used in many different ways. This report proposes a valuation methodology that is inclusive of many types of valuations. Many will be familiar with cost-benefit valuations, in which both costs and benefits are assessed to determine whether the assets are worth their cost. Another set of valuation methods attempt to optimize an outcome using available resources, as is the case with integrated resource planning. In the end, this report’s methodology was most influenced by and most resembles the integrated-resource-planning approach. Regardless, we wish to enforce the premise that all valuations are comparative and should clearly specify a baseline scenario. A long, annotated list of prior valuation studies and valuation methodologies that influenced this report has been appended to this report. Much research is being conducted today concerning transactive systems, but only a handful of transactive system mechanisms have been formulated and field tested. They are found to be quite diverse, and the documentation of the various mechanisms is uneven in breadth and quality. It is therefore not adequate to simply assert that a valuation scenario includes a transactive system; certain characteristics and qualities of the chosen transactive system mechanism must be defined and stated. The report lists and discusses most of the known transactive system mechanisms. It offers a set of questions that may be used to help specify important

  20. Biochemical Measurements of Free Opsin in Macular Degeneration Eyes: Examining the 11-CIS Retinal Deficiency Hypothesis of Delayed Dark Adaptation (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneken, Anne; Neikirk, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer; Kono, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that delayed dark adaptation in patients with macular degeneration is due to an excess of free unliganded opsin (apo-opsin) and a deficiency of the visual chromophore, 11 -cis retinal, in rod outer segments. A total of 50 human autopsy eyes were harvested from donors with and without macular degeneration within 2-24 hrs. postmortem. Protocols were developed which permitted dark adaptation of normal human eyes after death and enucleation. Biochemical methods of purifying rod outer segments were optimized and the concentration of rhodopsin and apo-opsin was measured with UV-visible scanning spectroscopy. The presence of apo-opsin was calculated by measuring the difference in the rhodopsin absorption spectra before and after the addition of 11 -cis retinal. A total of 20 normal eyes and 16 eyes from donors with early, intermediate and advanced stages of macular degeneration were included in the final analysis. Dark adaptation was achieved by harvesting whole globes in low light, transferring into dark (light-proof) canisters and dissecting the globes using infrared light and image converters for visualization. Apo-opsin was readily detected in positive controls after the addition of 11 -cis retinal. Normal autopsy eyes showed no evidence of apo-opsin. Eyes with macular degeneration also showed no evidence of apo-opsin, regardless of the severity of disease. Methods have been developed to study dark adaptation in human autopsy eyes. Eyes with age-related macular degeneration do not show a deficiency of 11 -cis retinal or an excess of apo-opsin within rod outer segments.

  1. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  2. Value and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2003-01-01

    caused by transaction costs), andnew types of resources (i.e., capture and protection capabilities), clarifies the roleof contracting in the exercise of market power, and suggests that `strategizing'and `economizing' perspectives are related to a larger extent than is normallyrecognized. Refutable......AbstractWe forge linkages between the economics of property rights (Coase, Demsetz,Cheung, Barzel) and strategic management. Property rights to resources consistof the rights to consume, obtain income from, and alienate these resources.Transaction costs are the costs of exchanging, protecting...... and capturing propertyrights. We clarify the key role of transaction costs with respect to understandingvalue creation and the limitations and opportunities of strategizing relative tocompetitive forces. The economics of property rights identifies new sources ofvalue creation (i.e., reducing the dissipation...

  3. Disincentives to voluntary transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Current legal, regulatory and institutional standards and practices provide several disincentives for a utility wishing to engage in voluntary wheeling transactions, and are discussed here. These disincentives largely arise from the fact that regulation, like the transmission system itself, is based on the notion of integrated utilities engaging in transactions largely for reliability reasons. Factors which fall into this category are: a pricing regime based on embedded costs, the ratemaking treatment of revenues derived from coordination and transmission services, and several provisions in legislation and FERC regulations

  4. Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Butler, Michael J.; de Jong, Eduard; Longley, Mark; Olivieira, J.N.; Zave, P.

    A transacted memory that is implemented using EEPROM technology offers persistence, undoability and auditing. The transacted memory system is formally specified in Z, and refined in two steps to a prototype C implementation / SPIN model. Conclusions are offered both on the transacted memory system

  5. Modelling Real Property Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Der er store forskelle i financieringsomkostningerne ved hussalg i forskellige lande. Er disse forskelle nødvendige? og kan udgifterne reduceres? Sådanne spørgsmål søger forskningsprojektet ?Modelling Real Property Transactions?, officielt sat i værk indenfor rammerne af COST (European Co...

  6. Modelling Real Property Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2002-01-01

    for more elaborated concept sets - for a theoretical basis - was among the motives for proposing a concerted research project: Modelling Real Property Transactions. Researchers from 11 European countries co-operate in the project that gained status as a COST action as of March 1st 2001. The majority...

  7. Ring Confidential Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Noether

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a method of hiding transaction amounts in the strongly decentralized anonymous cryptocurrency Monero. Similar to Bitcoin, Monero is a cryptocurrency which is distributed through a proof-of-work “mining” process having no central party or trusted setup. The original Monero protocol was based on CryptoNote, which uses ring signatures and one-time keys to hide the destination and origin of transactions. Recently the technique of using a commitment scheme to hide the amount of a transaction has been discussed and implemented by Bitcoin Core developer Gregory Maxwell. In this article, a new type of ring signature, A Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature is described which allows one to include a Pedersen Commitment in a ring signature. This construction results in a digital currency with hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation. The author would like to note that early drafts of this were publicized in the Monero Community and on the #bitcoin-wizards IRC channel. Blockchain hashed drafts are available showing that this work was started in Summer 2015, and completed in early October 2015. An eprint is also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098.

  8. Transaction based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    Transaction based approach is utilized in some methodologies in business process modeling. Essential parts of these transactions are human beings. The notion of agent or actor role is usually used for them. The paper on a particular example describes possibilities of Design Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO) and Resource-Event-Agent (REA) methodology. Whereas the DEMO methodology can be regarded as a generic methodology having its foundation in the theory of Enterprise Ontology the REA methodology is regarded as the domain specific methodology and has its origin in accountancy systems. The results of these approaches is that the DEMO methodology captures everything that happens in the reality with a good empirical evidence whereas the REA methodology captures only changes connected with economic events. Economic events represent either change of the property rights to economic resource or consumption or production of economic resources. This results from the essence of economic events and their connection to economic resources.

  9. Characterization of the behavior of three definitions of prostate-specific antigen-based biochemical failure in relation to detection and follow-up biases: comparison with the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott G

    2006-03-01

    To examine the impact of detection biases on three prostate cancer biochemical failure (bF) definitions in comparison with the existing American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Definition (ACD). Three alternative bF definitions were tested against the ACD: three rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level without backdating, nadir plus 2 ng/mL, and a threshold PSA level of >3 ng/mL, according to data from 1050 men. The mean time between PSA tests (MTBT), regularity of collection, and calendar year of analysis were examined in each bF definition. The MTBT produced a statistically significant difference in the derived hazard ratio for identification of bF in all definitions. The influence of test regularity was statistically significant beyond the median level of regularity in all definitions. The year of analysis impacted greatly on the ACD, whereas the three alternative definitions exhibited minor follow-up duration variations by comparison. The alternative definitions had reliable follow-up when the crude median time to censoring was at least 1.6 times greater than that of failure. Detection biases will always be a significant issue in defining bF. A number of alternative failure definitions have more predictable interactions with these biases than the existing ACD.

  10. Characterization of the behavior of three definitions of prostate-specific antigen-based biochemical failure in relation to detection and follow-up biases: Comparison with the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Scott G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of detection biases on three prostate cancer biochemical failure (bF) definitions in comparison with the existing American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Definition (ACD). Methods and Materials: Three alternative bF definitions were tested against the ACD: three rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level without backdating, nadir plus 2 ng/mL, and a threshold PSA level of >3 ng/mL, according to data from 1050 men. The mean time between PSA tests (MTBT), regularity of collection, and calendar year of analysis were examined in each bF definition. Results: The MTBT produced a statistically significant difference in the derived hazard ratio for identification of bF in all definitions. The influence of test regularity was statistically significant beyond the median level of regularity in all definitions. The year of analysis impacted greatly on the ACD, whereas the three alternative definitions exhibited minor follow-up duration variations by comparison. The alternative definitions had reliable follow-up when the crude median time to censoring was at least 1.6 times greater than that of failure. Conclusions: Detection biases will always be a significant issue in defining bF. A number of alternative failure definitions have more predictable interactions with these biases than the existing ACD

  11. International business transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Buczkowski, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...

  12. Transaction Costs in Housing Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ommeren, van, Jos

    2008-01-01

    According to economic theory, there are no strong reasons to tax (or to subsidise) residential moves, although low levels of taxation may be potentially justified to deal with the presence of externalities and economic stability. This is in contrast to practise in most countries where governments have created strong barriers to moving (transaction taxes, rent control) which induces substantial transaction costs. Likely, the welfare losses due to these government-induced transaction costs are ...

  13. Transaction Costs For Innovations Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Romanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of transaction costs of the innovations distribution. The factors, affecting the innovations diffusion in accordance with the clusters, relations, dynamics of the distribution are disclosed. Transaction costs as a result of bounded rationality of economic entities are detected. The inevitability of transaction costs as an objective phenomenon is shown. Their dependence on the quality of economic information and information uncertainty is indicated. Correlative approach for the analysis of these costs is applied. The article justifies that the reduction of transaction costs increases the efficiency of innovations.

  14. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  15. Preserving Transactional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Day Thomson

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an adaptation of a longer report commissioned by the UK Data Service. The longer report contributes to on-going support for the Big Data Network – a programme funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The longer report can be found at doi:10.7207/twr16-02. This paper discusses requirements for preserving transactional data and the accompanying challenges facing the companies and institutions who aim to re-use these data for analysis or research. It present...

  16. THE SPECIFICITY OF INTRACOMMUNITY TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU-POPA LUCIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered from the perspective of Romania's accession to the European Union, we can say that starting with 1 January 2007, foreign trade transactions were delimited in relation to the customs borders in intra-Community transactions and international transactions. In this context, the way of conducting these operations is influenced by both the economic and financial features specific to both categories of transactions, that relate to the economic character of the activity, the diversity and specificity of the foreign trade activity, transport of goods, the complexity and regulation of intra-Community and international commercial transactions, and by the specific features of each category of transaction. Starting from the consideration that the economic and financial characteristics of foreign trade activity, specific to intra-Community commercial transactions, have a significant influence in the organization and management of accounting of the entities involved in such transactions, determining in a greater or lesser extent, the way of capitalization of the financial and accounting information in the processes of analysis, decision and control, in this paper we proposed to address the features of intra-Community trade.

  17. Decision, Transaction, Law and Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Copy from ”Preface to Post Doctoral Dissertation” ”Decision, transaction, law and contract” The period since 1970 has witnessed an explosion in contributions to what is now often referred to as the new institutional economics. One of the most influential (but also most atypical) of these approaches...... and Hierarchies” from 1975. Since then Williamson has, almost singlehandedly, erected an impressive research program which aims at explaining the institutional structures at the micro-level under which economic transactions take place. A number of different phenomena that were very hard to rationalize given...... further. Compared to earlier contributions, the mode of analysis employed differs in at least three ways. Firstly, the analysis is made in terms of the decision premises for entering a transactional relationship. This is in opposition to traditional transaction cost economics, where the transaction...

  18. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  19. Principles of Transactional Memory The Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    2010-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing paradigm for concurrent programming on shared memory architectures. With a TM, threads of an application communicate, and synchronize their actions, via in-memory transactions. Each transaction can perform any number of operations on shared data, and then either commit or abort. When the transaction commits, the effects of all its operations become immediately visible to other transactions; when it aborts, however, those effects are entirely discarded. Transactions are atomic: programmers get the illusion that every transaction executes all its operati

  20. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  1. Transaction management with integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide; Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    Database integrity constraints, understood as logical conditions that must hold for any database state, are not fully supported by current database technology. It is typically up to the database designer and application programmer to enforce integrity via triggers or tests at the application level....... 2.~In concurrent database systems, besides the traditional correctness criterion, the execution schedule must ensure that the different transactions can overlap in time without destroying the consistency requirements tested by other, concurrent transactions....

  2. Micro-transactions for concurrent data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meawad, Fadi; Iyer, Karthik; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    implementation of transactional memory that we call micro-transactions. In particular, we argue that hardware support for micro-transactions allows us to efficiently implement certain data structures. Those data structures are difficult to realize with the atomic operations provided by stock hardware and provide......, atomic instructions, and micro-transactions. Our results suggest that transactional memory is an interesting alternative to traditional concurrency control mechanisms....

  3. American Nuclear Society eastern regional student conference. Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-eight abstracts are presented under the following headings: computer applications, safety and economics, fusion, thermal hydraulics, radiation studies, environmental analysis, and reactor design and applications

  4. How to Use EMTS to Report Transactions for Fuel Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reporting instructions for parties who transact Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) and must enter transaction information in the EPA Moderated Transaction System (EMTS) within five (5) business days.

  5. How to increase the benefits of cooperation: Effects of training in transactive communication on cooperative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Transactive communication means referring to and building on a learning partner's idea, by, for example, extending the partner's idea or interlinking the partner's idea with an idea of one's own. This transforms the partner's idea into a more elaborate one. Previous research found a positive relationship between students' transactive communication and their learning results when working in small groups. To increase the benefits of cooperation, we developed and tested a module for training students in transactive communication. We assumed that this training would enhance students' transactive communication and also increase their knowledge acquisition during cooperative learning. Further, we distinguished between an actor's transactive communication and a learning partner's transactive communication and expected both to be positively associated with an actor's knowledge acquisition. Participants were 80 university students. In an experiment with pre- and post-test measurements, transactive communication was measured by coding students' communication in a cooperative learning situation before training and in another cooperative learning situation after training. For the post-test cooperative learning situation, knowledge was pre-tested and post-tested. Trained students outperformed controls in transactive communication and in knowledge acquisition. Positive training effects on actors' knowledge acquisition were partially mediated by the improved actors' transactive communication. Moreover, actors' knowledge acquisition was positively influenced by learning partners' transactive communication. Results show a meaningful increase in the benefits of cooperation through the training in transactive communication. Furthermore, findings indicate that students benefit from both elaborating on their partner's ideas and having their own ideas elaborated on. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Remedial transactions curtailment via optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method developed in this paper is aiming at transmission congestion management (CM. The new, Optimal Transactions Management method (OTM, is based on linear programming (LP, DC load flow (DCLF and linear security constraints. The OTM method is embedded in Available Transfer Capabilities (ATCs and Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs definitions' environment. Well-suited for both preventive and corrective modes of operation, the OTM method aids transmission system operator in running a congested power system network, where congestions are due to transactions. Potential congestion threat is solved by finding the 'culprit' transaction and its optimal reduction. Besides the proposed downsizing of scheduled and/or committed transactions, controls of the OTM method also include redispatching of generation and load levels. The task is to establish a system state without constraint violations. To ensure the feasible network solution, both DC and AC power flows are used. The common 5 nodes/7 lines Ward&Hale sample power system is used to clarify the OTM method. Besides, six other power system networks including the real-life power system network of Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro (part of the South East Europe - SEE grid are used to test remedial potentials and CPU-time performances of the method. The 24-hour daily demand diagram is used with all test networks to study the effects of transactions as they are being superimposed to the regional grid. The remedial, transactions-curtailing OTM method is found well suited for market-related analyses precluding the hour-ahead, the day-ahead dispatch, as well as the real-time generation dispatch. It could also suit for the novel, Day Ahead Congestion Forecast (DACF procedure used in power markets. .

  7. Financial and Cost Aspects of Other Transactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...." This report discusses the DoD administration of "other transactions." The second audit report will discuss the review of costs charged to the agreements by the "other transaction" participant...

  8. 76 FR 40779 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... transaction are offset when: (i) The customer maintains separate accounts managed by different advisors; (ii... could nominate a deposit account as containing margin for its retail forex transactions. Nothing in this...

  9. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...... concurrent access to web service resources and data. In this paper we propose an extension to the WS-Transaction Protocol which ensures the consistency of the data when independent business transactions access the data concurrently under the relaxed transaction properties. Our extension is based...

  10. Transactions in domain-specific information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.

  11. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 543.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 543.201 on transactions or dealings...

  12. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions or...

  13. 31 CFR 541.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 541.406 Section 541.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 541.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 541.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  14. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 548.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 548.201 on transactions or dealings involving...

  15. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 537.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 537.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  16. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 546.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 546.201 on transactions or dealings involving...

  17. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 542.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 542.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  18. 31 CFR 588.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 588.406 Section 588.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 588.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 588.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  19. Rethinking Ethiopian Secured Transactions Law through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various countries have reformed their secured transaction laws recognizing the significance of modern secured transactions law in enhancing access to credit and economic development. Ethiopia has not undertaken comprehensive secured transactions law reform, despite the demonstrable mismatch between the legal ...

  20. From Transactional to Transformational Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bruce S.; Randall, E. Vance

    1998-01-01

    Accurate transactional financial data are necessary for governmental compliance; transformational information is crucial for measuring and improving school performance. Some districts are shifting from a systems to a service, focus, from partial to full-cost accounting, from centralized to decentralized reporting procedures and facilities, and…

  1. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  2. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs

  3. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J. [Centre for Economic Policy OCFEB, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs.

  4. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network. PMID:27441715

  5. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network.

  6. Identifying Bitcoin users by transaction behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, John V.

    2015-05-01

    Digital currencies, such as Bitcoin, offer convenience and security to criminals operating in the black marketplace. Some Bitcoin marketplaces, such as Silk Road, even claim anonymity. This claim contradicts the findings in this work, where long term transactional behavior is used to identify and verify account holders. Transaction timestamps and network properties observed over time contribute to this finding. The timestamp of each transaction is the result of many factors: the desire purchase an item, daily schedule and activities, as well as hardware and network latency. Dynamic network properties of the transaction, such as coin flow and the number of edge outputs and inputs, contribute further to reveal account identity. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for identifying and verifying Bitcoin users based on the observation of Bitcoin transactions over time. The behavior we attempt to quantify roughly occurs in the social band of Newell's time scale. A subset of the Blockchain 230686 is taken, selecting users that initiated between 100 and 1000 unique transactions per month for at least 6 different months. This dataset shows evidence of being nonrandom and nonlinear, thus a dynamical systems approach is taken. Classification and authentication accuracies are obtained under various representations of the monthly Bitcoin samples: outgoing transactions, as well as both outgoing and incoming transactions are considered, along with the timing and dynamic network properties of transaction sequences. The most appropriate representations of monthly Bitcoin samples are proposed. Results show an inherent lack of anonymity by exploiting patterns in long-term transactional behavior.

  7. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  8. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  9. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  10. Nonblocking Scheduling for Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose a novel nonblocking scheduling mechanism that is used prior to the actual service invocations. Its aim is to reach an agreement between the client and all participating providers on what transaction processing times have to be expected, accepted, and guaranteed. This enables service......For improved flexibility and concurrent usage existing transaction management models for Web services relax the isolation property of Web service-based transactions. Correctness of the concurrent execution then has to be ensured by commit order-preserving transaction schedulers. However, local...... schedulers of service providers typically do take into account neither time constraints for committing the whole transaction, nor the individual services' constraints when scheduling decisions are made. This often leads to an unnecessary blocking of transactions by (possibly long-running) others...

  11. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...

  12. Security of M-Commerce transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ion IVAN; Daniel MILODIN; Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2013-01-01

    In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here’s how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taki...

  13. Disintermediation of Inter-Blockchain Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    English, S. Matthew; Orlandi, Fabrizio; Auer, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    Different versions of peer-to-peer electronic cash exist as data represented by separate blockchains. Payments between such systems cannot be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Bitcoin provided part of the solution but its utility is limited to intra-blockchain transactions. The benefits are lost if a trusted third party is required to execute inter-blockchain transactions. We propose a solution to the inter-blockchain transaction problem us...

  14. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  15. 17 CFR 37.8 - Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities. 37.8 Section 37.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.8...

  16. Managing transaction risks in interdependent supply chains: an extended transaction cost economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the management of transaction risks in supply chains. Risk management studies often ignore the wider supply chain context in which individual transactions take place. However, risk management strategies which are suitable to use when only a single transaction is considered

  17. Concurrency Control for Transactional Drago

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño-Martinez, Marta; Jiménez-Peris, Ricardo; Kienzle, Jörg; Arévalo, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    The granularity of concurrency control has a big impact on the performance of transactional systems. Concurrency control granu- larity and data granularity (data size) are usually the same. The e ect of this coupling is that if a coarse granularity is used, the overhead of data access (number of disk accesses) is reduced, but also the degree of concurrency. On the other hand, if a ne granularity is chosen to achieve a higher degree of concurrency (there are less con icts), the cost of data ac...

  18. Banknotes and unattended cash transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Ronald R.

    2000-04-01

    There is a 64 billion dollar annual unattended cash transaction business in the US with 10 to 20 million daily transactions. Even small problems with the machine readability of banknotes can quickly become a major problem to the machine manufacturer and consumer. Traditional note designs incorporate overt security features for visual validation by the public. Many of these features such as fine line engraving, microprinting and watermarks are unsuitable as machine readable features in low cost note acceptors. Current machine readable features, mostly covert, were designed and implemented with the central banks in mind. These features are only usable by the banks large, high speed currency sorting and validation equipment. New note designs should consider and provide for low cost not acceptors, implementing features developed for inexpensive sensing technologies. Machine readable features are only as good as their consistency. Quality of security features as well as that of the overall printing process must be maintained to ensure reliable and secure operation of note readers. Variations in printing and of the components used to make the note are one of the major causes of poor performance in low cost note acceptors. The involvement of machine manufacturers in new currency designs will aid note producers in the design of a note that is machine friendly, helping to secure the acceptance of the note by the public as well as acting asa deterrent to fraud.

  19. Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Twitter Newsletters Documents OAS Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable Development T Telecommunications Terrorism Tourism Trade Treaties and Agreements W Women Y Youth Strategic Partners Permanent Observers Civil Society

  20. 31 CFR 515.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... credit issued by a Cuban bank and confirmed by an American bank. These are permissible transactions under... enhancements. (b) Donation of food. The prohibitions contained in this part do not apply to transactions incident to the donation of food to nongovernmental organizations or individuals in Cuba. [54 FR 5233, Feb...

  1. 31 CFR 597.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 597.406 Section 597.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 597.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 597.201 apply to...

  2. 31 CFR 544.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 544.406 Section 544.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 544.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 544.201 on...

  3. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 593.201 on...

  4. 31 CFR 587.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 587.406 Section 587.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 587.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions...

  5. 31 CFR 357.28 - Transaction requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transaction requests. 357.28 Section 357.28 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.28 Transaction requests. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized...

  6. The transactional approach in company boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chaihuaque Dueñas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relationship between market and firms through the theory of transactional cost and the relationsthat determine the structure and boundaries of the firm. Using the assumptions from the transactional cost approach,this article proposes some variables that determine optimal organizational structures and their boundaries.

  7. Related Party Transactions and Firms Financial Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Chien and Hsu (2010) found a positive moderating effect of corporate governance on the related transactions-firm performance relationship and deduce that presence of corporate governance could 'transfer' related party transactions 'conflict- of-interest' to be efficient. Past studies on the impact of RPT on financial reporting ...

  8. 31 CFR 103.63 - Structured transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 103.63 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.63 Structured transactions. No person shall for the purpose of evading the reporting requirements of § 103.22 with respect to...

  9. 31 CFR 596.304 - Financial transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial transaction. 596.304 Section 596.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... term includes: (a) A transaction which in any way or degree affects interstate or foreign commerce; (1...

  10. Reactions to Corporate Insider’s Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar; Søpstad, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    We test the impact on security prices of top manager’s requirement’s to disclose their own share transactions in the firm. Specifically we study whether buy or sales transactions convey relevant information for market participants thereby studying the effects of legal stock market disclosure rules...

  11. Entrepreneurship, Transaction Costs, and Resource Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    transaction costs and property rights shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  12. Distributed Management of Concurrent Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Balke, Wolf-Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Business processes involve dynamic compositions of interleaved tasks. Therefore, ensuring reliable transactional processing of Web services is crucial for the success of Web service-based B2B and B2C applications. But the inherent autonomy and heterogeneity of Web services render the applicability...... of conventional ACID transaction models for Web services far from being straightforward. Current Web service transaction models relax the isolation property and rely on compensation mechanisms to ensure atomicity of business transactions in the presence of service failures. However, ensuring consistency...... in the open and dynamic environment of Web services, where interleaving business transactions enter and exit the system independently, remains an open issue. In this paper, we address this problem and propose an architecture that supports concurrency control on the Web services level. An extension...

  13. Decoupling of Growth from Production of Biochemicals and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songyuan

    With increasing awareness of sustainability in our current society, alternative approaches to produce fuels and petro-derived chemicals are required. Biofuels and biochemicals produced from microbial cell factories provide an alternative to current fossil based chemicals. Meanwhile, microbial cell...

  14. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  15. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  16. Entrepreneurship, transaction costs, and resource attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    transaction costs shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction.......This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognise how exactly...

  17. Security of M-Commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here's how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taking into account the organization of M-Commerce applications, software used, hardware used and other important issues in the development of these applications.

  18. Entrepreneurship, transaction costs, and resource attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognise how exactly t...... transaction costs shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  19. 21 CFR 1404.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a covered transaction? 1404.200 Section 1404.200 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is a...

  20. The Influence of an External Transaction on a BPEL Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Oliver; Mietzner, Ralph; Leymann, Frank

    Business processes constitute an integral part of today's IT applications. They contain transactions as essential building blocks to ensure integrity and all-or-nothing behavior. The Business Process Execution Language is the dominant standard for modeling and execution of business processes in a Web service environment. BPEL itself contains a transaction model based on compensation, that describes the (local) transactions in a business process. The WS-Coordination framework deals with (external) transactions between Web services and is used to define the transaction behavior between a BPEL process and its partners. In this paper, we investigate how external transactions between Web services interrelate with local transactions of BPEL.

  1. 25 CFR 141.41 - Refinancing transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... keeping requirements of this part and requires the issuance of a new ticket or receipt. (c) The rate of... as extended. (e) The default and sale procedures of this part apply to a refinanced pawn transaction...

  2. Transaction charges allocation using sensitivity factor methodology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Under this framework, the transmission tariff charged for the customers becomes ... Ni et al (2000) applied graph theory to solve the problem of power flow .... The coefficient of linear relationship between the amount of transaction and flow on.

  3. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Ladegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    . Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed...

  4. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    2001-06-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."

  5. Guarding against Collateral Damage during Chromatin Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Lukas, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Signal amplifications are vital for chromatin function, yet they also bear the risk of transforming into unrestrained, self-escalating, and potentially harmful responses. Examples of inbuilt limitations are emerging, revealing how chromatin transactions are confined within physiological boundaries....

  6. 35. Meeting of the Polish Biochemical Society. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the conference various works concerning biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine were presented. Many works applied X-rays, gamma radiation and laser radiation to induce various disorders (changes of metabolism and enzyme activity, damages of cell constituents) in model organisms and cell cultures

  7. 34. Meeting of the Polish Biochemical Society. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During the conference various works concerning biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine were presented. Many works applied gamma radiation and laser radiation to induce various disorders (changes of metabolism and enzyme activity, damages of cell constituents) in model organisms and cell cultures

  8. Stress Testing of Transactional Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meira , Jorge Augusto; Cunha De Almeida , Eduardo; Sunyé , Gerson; Le Traon , Yves; Valduriez , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Transactional database management systems (DBMS) have been successful at supporting traditional transaction processing workloads. However, web-based applications that tend to generate huge numbers of concurrent business operations are pushing DBMS performance over their limits, thus threatening overall system availability. Then, a crucial question is how to test DBMS performance under heavy workload conditions. Answering this question requires a testing methodology to ...

  9. Disclosure requirements for merger and acquisition transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    The legal disclosure requirements for merger and acquisition transactions involving Canadian public companies are described. The focus is on issues regarding merger and acquisition related disclosure, including the potential consequences of failing to provide proper information, Ontario Securities Commission Policy 9.1 considerations regarding valuation, review, and approval, cross border considerations and financing a merger and acquisition transaction. Legal and practical consequences for failing to provide proper disclosure, including the steps involved in establishing the due diligence defence, are also discussed

  10. Combating Corruption in International Business Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Celentani, Marco; Ganuza, Juan-José; Peydró, José-Luis

    2004-01-01

    International business transactions pose the problem of deterring bribing of public officials by foreign firms. We first analyse a convention styled after the OECD's 'Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions', which requires signatory countries to proceed against firms that have bribed public officials of any foreign country. We then study the case in which the convention requires signatory countries to proceed against firms that have ...

  11. Cryptozoology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  12. Management Control of Market Transactions: The Relation Between Transaction Characteristics, Incomplete Contract Design and Subsequent Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.W.; Dekker, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Using an unusually comprehensive database on 858 transactions for information technology products and accompanying services, we study how close partners who are exposed to opportunistic hazards structure and control a significant transaction. We analyze data on the terms of contracting to determine

  13. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with the increase of multi-core processors the use of functional programming languages has increased in recent years. The functional language Clojure has concurrency as a core feature, and provides Software Transactional Memory (STM) as a substitute for locks. Transactions in Cloju...

  14. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS SPECIFIC TO COUNTERPART COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia PALIU - POPA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the lack of availability of funds in foreign currency, felt in many countries, especially in the developing and developed countries and the economic or financial crisis in the global foreign exchange, counterpart commercial transactions were imposed as a “disarming” condition of the international trade. In the counterpart a purchase transaction is combined with a sale transaction, an import with an export in order to ensure balanced trade between the partners, trade that involves eliminating or reducing the currency as a payment source and its replacement with trade of goods and services. Thus, in the context of an acute need to export of greatly industrialized countries, where the overproduction phenomenon tends to have a chronic character, the counterpart has become a highly complex and sustainable phenomenon, which has seen a steady increase in the volume of amounts, with a geographical area and large variety of forms and mechanisms of implementation. Based on the characteristics and structure of counterpart transactions, we shall describe in this paper the accounting models specific to international trade, as part of the combined foreign trade transactions without neglecting the tax treatments that influence the entry in the accounts

  15. The Econometric Procedures of Specific Transaction Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszyń Mariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the econometric procedures of identifying specific transactions, in which atypical conditions or attributes may occur. These procedures are based on studentized and predictive residuals of the accordingly specified econometric models. The dependent variable is a unit transactional price, and explanatory variables are both the real properties’ attributes and accordingly defined artificial binary variables. The utility of the proposed method has been verified by means of a real market data base. The proposed procedures can be helpful during the property valuation process, making it possible to reject real properties that are specific (both from the point of view of the transaction conditions and the properties’ attributes and, consequently, to select an appropriate set of similar attributes that are essential for the valuation process.

  16. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  17. Providing hedging protection for the transaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with methods for assessing commodity price risk in an asset transaction; the setting of risk management objectives; building hedging into the financing; and internal reporting and accounting to mitigate trading risks. It also provided some recent examples of successful hedging in gas asset transactions. The objectives of risk management and the nature of hedging and speculation were explored. An approach to price risk management was proposed. The development of price risk management tools, and techniques for managing risks involving interest rates, foreign exchange, and commodities were examined. figs

  18. Challenges facing transactional e-government systems

    OpenAIRE

    AI-Sebie, Madi M

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 17/10/2005. A review of normative literature, in the field of e-government, indicates that the transactional stage of e-government is one of the most important to the implementation of an e-government system as it represents the highest level of interaction within organisations and between customers and government organisations. Due to the importance of the transactional stage of the e-govern...

  19. Plural Governance: A Modified Transaction Cost Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  20. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  1. 2008 Annual Report of SGCC on Electricity Market Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On April 14,2009,the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) held the press conference in Beijing on electricity market transactions and then released the "2008 Annual Report of SGCC on Electricity Market Transactions".

  2. The neural correlates of endowment effect without economic transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votinov, Mikhail; Mima, Tatsuya; Aso, Toshihiko; Abe, Mitsunari; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Shinozaki, Jun; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-09-01

    People always concern about what they have and what they might lose even it is just imaginary property. According to Prospect Theory, the losses might be weighted by subjects higher than gain, which would cause the disparity between the willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) compensation in economic valuation. Using functional MRI, we investigated neural correlates of this inconsistent value estimation, known as the endowment effect, during a simple pricing task without economic transaction. Brain activation associated with this price discrepancy was observed in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), where voxel-based morphometry of MRI revealed the positive correlation between gray matter concentration and WTA/WTP ratio. These findings suggest the functional relevance of IFG in WTA/WTP discrepancy for pricing without any actual gain and loss, where an integration of loss aversion-related signals from insula and expected value signals may occur. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic Business Transaction Infrastructure Analysis Using Petri Nets and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Andrew Lee

    2010-01-01

    Rapid growth in eBusiness has made industry and commerce increasingly dependent on the hardware and software infrastructure that enables high-volume transaction processing across the Internet. Large transaction volumes at major industrial-firm data centers rely on robust transaction protocols and adequately provisioned hardware capacity to ensure…

  4. Transaction Costs for Design-Build-Finance-Maintain Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favie, R.; Beelen, W.A.; Maas, G.J.; Ceric, A.; Radujkovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives insight in how transaction costs arise and how in theory transaction costs can be reduced. A comparison between theory and practice has been made. A study of a case in the Netherlands, the Second Coentunnel showed how transaction costs in practice appear, in which stage of the

  5. Aid Effectiveness, Transaction Costs and Conditionality in the Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…

  6. A selective logging mechanism for hardware transactional memory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lupon Navazo, Marc; Magklis, Grigorios; González Colás, Antonio María

    2011-01-01

    Log-based Hardware Transactional Memory (HTM) systems offer an elegant solution to handle speculative data that overflow transactional L1 caches. By keeping the pre-transactional values on a software-resident log, speculative values can be safely moved across the memory hierarchy, without requiring expensive searches on L1 misses or commits.

  7. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is the...

  8. Configurations of Control: A Transaction Cost Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Speklé (Roland)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, I present a theory of management control based on Transaction Cost Economics. This theory seeks to integrate into a single framework a set of insights as to the nature of the organization's activities, the control problems that are inherent in these activities, and the

  9. 31 CFR 337.7 - Servicing transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Servicing transactions. 337.7 Section 337.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE...-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, any transfer or...

  10. Towards Online and Transactional Relational Schema Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to draw the attention of the database community to the problem of online schema changes: changing the schema of a database without blocking concurrent transactions. We have identified important classes of relational schema transformations that we want to perform online, and we

  11. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them with ef...

  12. Accounting for Exchange Transactions: An Alternative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rodger G.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    In general, the two basic methods for recording exchange transactions are to record them at gross, and then account for the discounts that are taken, or record them at net, and adjust for discounts that are not taken (are lost). Most principles texts cover only the gross method, and some do not even deal with the discount issue at all. Others may…

  13. Scheduling support for transactional memory contention management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado, Walther; Marler, Patrick; Felber, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Transactional Memory (TM) is considered as one of the most promising paradigms for developing concurrent applications. TM has been shown to scale well on >multiple cores when the data access pattern behaves "well," i.e., when few conflicts are induced. In contrast, data patterns with frequent wri...

  14. Related party transactions and firms financial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related party transactions and firms financial performance. ... African Research Review ... financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock ... on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. ... Result showed RPT has no significant effects on ROA and EPS and not used to ...

  15. 31 CFR 595.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 595.206 Exempt transactions. (a) Personal communications. The prohibitions contained in this part do not apply to any postal, telegraphic, telephonic, or other personal communication, which does not involve the...

  16. FIRM SIZE EFFECTS ON TRANSACTION COSTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOOTEBOOM, B

    1993-01-01

    Associated with effects of scale, scope, experience and learning there are effects of firm size on transaction costs; in the stages of contact, contract and control. These effects are due to ''threshold costs'' in setting up contacts, contracts and governance schemes, and to differences with respect

  17. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED...) Colombia (6) Ecuador (7) French Guiana (8) Guyana (9) Panama (10) Paraguay (11) Peru (12) Suriname (13...

  18. Editorial for IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    Our IEEE transactions on power electronics has had some very positive progress these past years under the leadership of Dr. Daan van Wyk. Papers have been processed efficiently both in review time and publication time. This success has spread throughout the whole power electronics community which...

  19. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...

  20. Private Benefits in Corporate Control Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in block transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer has high security benefits, or because the b...

  1. 31 CFR 800.303 - Lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lending transactions. 800.303 Section 800.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... the creation in the foreign person of a secured interest in securities or other assets of the U.S...

  2. 31 CFR 588.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 588.206 Section 588.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  3. 31 CFR 560.210 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 560.210 Section 560.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  4. 31 CFR 545.208 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 545.208 Section 545.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  5. 31 CFR 542.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 542.206 Section 542.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  6. 31 CFR 587.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 587.206 Section 587.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to...

  7. 31 CFR 539.204 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 539.204 Section 539.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... of services to market, produce or co-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or...

  8. 31 CFR 586.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 586.206 Section 586.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... or assist in the creation of information and informational materials, and payment of royalties to...

  9. 31 CFR 536.205 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 536.205 Section 536.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... creation of information and informational materials, and payment of royalties to a specially designated...

  10. 31 CFR 537.210 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 537.210 Section 537.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  11. 31 CFR 538.212 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 538.212 Section 538.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  12. 31 CFR 548.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 548.206 Section 548.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  13. 31 CFR 544.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 544.206 Section 544.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to...

  14. 31 CFR 541.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 541.206 Section 541.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  15. 76 FR 41676 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... with persons who are not ``eligible contract participants'' (commonly referred to as ``retail forex... temporary Rule 15b12-1T to allow a registered broker-dealer to engage in a retail forex business until July... forex transactions. DATES: Effective Date: Rule 15b12-1T is effective on July 15, 2011 and will remain...

  16. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... \\5\\ (a retail foreign exchange (forex) rule). Transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I...'s retail forex rule must treat similarly all such futures and options and all agreements, contracts... forex rules must prescribe appropriate requirements with respect to disclosure, recordkeeping, capital...

  17. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... a retail forex business, provided that the broker-dealer complies with the Securities Exchange Act...) of which the broker-dealer is a member insofar as they are applicable to retail forex transactions... Exchange Act, to permit a registered broker or dealer (``broker-dealer'') to engage in retail forex...

  18. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... currency with retail customers, subject to the requirements enumerated in the OCC's retail forex rule. The... shall prescribe \\5\\ (a retail forex rule). A transaction described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes... associations are depository institutions. See 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(1). \\3\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules...

  19. 19 CFR 152.103 - Transaction value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise in the United States will not be added to the price actually paid or payable. The right to... value. (a) Price actually paid or payable—(1) General. In determining transaction value, the price..., such as the price in effect on the date of export in the London Commodity Market. The word “payable...

  20. Transformational and transactional leadership styles among leaders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast to transformational leadership where the leader works with employees to identify the needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of the group, transactional leadership styles focus on the use of rewards and punishments ...

  1. 12 CFR 226.3 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personal property used or expected to be used as the principal dwelling of the consumer; or (2) A private... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 226.3 Exempt transactions. This... the consumer, in which the amount financed exceeds $25,000 or in which there is an express written...

  2. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., which could result in control of a U.S. business by a foreign person. ...

  3. Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zimbabwe Scientific Association was founded in Bulawayo in 1899 (called the Rhodesia Scientific Assocation at the time) to promote the study and advancement of science in Zimbabwe and to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Its journal, Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific ...

  4. Gestion des transactions en environnement mobile | Nouali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Transactions In Mobile Computing Environment Increasingly diverse applications have made computers an ubiquitous part of our daily lives. As their range of applications widens, demand is growing for computers that can perform outside the home or office. Accordingly, mobile computing is attracting ...

  5. Governance structures for real estate transactions: Markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    networks in the governance of real-estate transactions under three property rights regimes in .... empirical results of case study research exploring the relationship between .... collaboration (Entwistle, Bristow, Hines, Donaldson & Martin, 2007: 63-79). .... self-help group development (City of Windhoek, 2005). Of these,.

  6. 31 CFR 515.309 - Transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions. 515.309 Section 515.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... national thereof, has any interest of any nature whatsoever, direct or indirect, includes, but not by way...

  7. 31 CFR 500.309 - Transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions. 500.309 Section 500.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN..., but not by way of limitation: (a) Any payment or transfer to any such designated foreign country or...

  8. 16 CFR 802.30 - Intraperson transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... partnership, however, the manufacturing plant it is contributing to the formation is exempt under § 802.30(c... transactions. (a) An acquisition (other than the formation of a corporation or unincorporated entity under... the profits of partnership X. A also holds 100% of the voting securities of corporation Y. A pays B in...

  9. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  10. Transactive Campus Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Allwardt, Craig H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Transactive energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency. The fundamental purpose of transactive energy management is to seamlessly coordinate the operation of large numbers of new intelligent assets—such as distributed solar, energy storage and responsive building loads—to provide the flexibility needed to operate the power grid reliably and at minimum cost, particularly one filled with intermittent renewable generation such as the Pacific Northwest. It addresses the key challenge of providing smooth, stable, and predictable “control” of these assets, despite the fact that most are neither owned nor directly controlled by the power grid. The Clean Energy and Transactive Campus (CETC) work described in this report was done as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Washington State Department of Commerce (Commerce) through the Clean Energy Fund (CEF). The project team consisted of PNNL, the University of Washington (UW) and Washington State University (WSU), to connect the PNNL, UW, and WSU campuses to form a multi-campus testbed for transaction-based energy management—transactive—solutions. Building on the foundational transactive system established by the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), the purpose of the project was to construct the testbed as both a regional flexibility resource and as a platform for research and development (R&D) on buildings/grid integration and information-based energy efficiency. This report provides a summary of the various tasks performed under the CRADA.

  11. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, PART OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA-MARIA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the role of electronic commerce in the digital economy, where information is the main resource. Internet, information society technology vector, made possible transition to a knowledge society at the beginning of XXI century. New economy involves transition from a traditional economy based on resources, to a knowledge-based economy. The development of information technology leads to major changes in the economic and social fields. In a world of globalization, e-commerce, part of the information society, manages to eliminate geographical barriers between participants at economic transactions. I presented e-commerce history, definitions. I pointed out the importance of this sector at european level by quantification of indicators. I used a theoretical research and qualitative analysis of the data. I presented values indicators at the european level, the lowest and highest value, and recorded values for Romania.

  12. How to deal with malleability of BitCoin transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrychowicz, Marcin; Dziembowski, Stefan; Malinowski, Daniel; Mazurek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    BitCoin transactions are malleable in a sense that given a transaction an adversary can easily construct an equivalent transaction which has a different hash. This can pose a serious problem in some BitCoin distributed contracts in which changing a transaction's hash may result in the protocol disruption and a financial loss. The problem mostly concerns protocols, which use a "refund" transaction to withdraw a deposit in a case of the protocol interruption. In this short note, we show a gener...

  13. Transactional distance in a blended learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dron

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study that describes and discusses the problems encountered during the design and implementation of a blended learning course, largely taught online through a web-based learning environment. Based on Moore's theory of transactional distance, the course was explicitly designed to have dialogue at its heart. However, the reality of systemic behaviours caused by delivering such a course within a group of conventional further and higher educational institutions has led to an entirely unanticipated reversion to structure, with unpleasant consequences for both quality and quantity of dialogue. The paper looks at some of the reasons for this drift, and suggests that some of the disappointing results (in particular in terms of the quality of the students' experience and associated poor retention can be attributed to the lack of dialogue, and consequent increase in transactional distance. It concludes with a description and evaluation of steps currently being taken to correct this behaviour.

  14. Accounting mortgage transactions: directions of improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentation methods of accounting of contractual obligations secured by mortgage, discussion questions evaluating the object of mortgage at the stage of conclusion of loan agreements (credit and the probability of default and foreclosure with the mortgagor necessitated a comprehensive research and development of methodical maintenance of accounting mortgage transactions in subjects of its implementation (the mortgagor and mortgagee, including the improvement of the order of accounting reflection operations with a mortgage of property rights, hypothec, «solid mortgage», mortgage securities, the mortgage of goods in circulation or processing. The article also provides the procedure of evaluating the object of mortgage at default of the mortgagor conditions of the contract taking into account its depreciation (physical and moral deterioration during the loan repayment period; the author specifies the procedure for recording of transactions related to the sale of such objects as the basis for providing contractual management process obligations of the debtor with relevant information.

  15. Innovative approaches to structuring the transaction agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Several issues regarding the negotiation and structuring of oil and gas property transactions are reviewed. They include: (1) areas of mutual exclusion covenants, (2) use of the short-form term sheet or letter agreement or the longer, more comprehensive formal offer or letter agreement, (3) coping with standard form purchase and sale agreements and property bid packages, (4) allocations of purchase price and their effect on ROFRs, (5) interim operations covenants, including maintaining insurance, contractual relationships and operational integrity, (6) structuring the transaction to facilitate unique financing requirements, (7) making effective use of adjustment clauses, (8) dealing with the cyclicity of commodity prices in the purchase and sale agreement, and (9) using escrow and trust arrangements to meet closure deadlines

  16. Personality-Relationship transaction in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, F J; Asendorpf, J B

    2001-12-01

    Personality and social relationships were assessed twice across a 4-year period in a general population sample of 489 German young adults. Two kinds of personality-relationship transaction were observed. First, mean-level change in personality toward maturity (e.g., increase in Conscientiousness and decrease in Neuroticism) was moderated by the transition to partnership but was independent of other developmental transitions. Second, individual differences in personality traits predicted social relationships much better than vice versa. Specifically, once initial correlations were controlled for, Extraversion, Shyness, Neuroticism, self-esteem, and Agreeableness predicted change in various qualities of relationships (especially with friends and colleagues), whereas only quality of relationships with preschool children predicted later Extraversion and Neuroticism. Consequences for the transactional view of personality in young adulthood are discussed.

  17. Efficient Mobile Client Caching Supporting Transaction Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IlYoung Chung

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In mobile client-server database systems, caching of frequently accessed data is an important technique that will reduce the contention on the narrow bandwidth wireless channel. As the server in mobile environments may not have any information about the state of its clients' cache(stateless server, using broadcasting approach to transmit the updated data lists to numerous concurrent mobile clients is an attractive approach. In this paper, a caching policy is proposed to maintain cache consistency for mobile computers. The proposed protocol adopts asynchronous(non-periodic broadcasting as the cache invalidation scheme, and supports transaction semantics in mobile environments. With the asynchronous broadcasting approach, the proposed protocol can improve the throughput by reducing the abortion of transactions with low communication costs. We study the performance of the protocol by means of simulation experiments.

  18. Development of Souvenir Production Transaction Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumambi, H.; Kaparang, R.; Lintong, J.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to design a souvenir production transaction processing system for the craftsmen in North Sulawesi. The craftsmen make very simple recordings about souvenir production transactions and use documents that are not in accordance with the generally accepted accounting practices. This research uses qualitative method. The data is collected through interviews, observations, documents and literatures studies. The research stages are conducted in preliminary studies, data collection, data analyzed and system design. The design of system is built from chart of account, accounting cycle and documents as input and get processed in accounting recording. The outputs are financial statements. The system design provides benefits for the craftsmen in assessing the financial performance and getting financing from bank.

  19. The quantum handshake entanglement, nonlocality and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, John G

    2016-01-01

    This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.

  20. Transactive Control of Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    This document details the development and testing of market-based transactive controls for building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. These controls are intended to serve the purposes of reducing electricity use through conservation, reducing peak building electric demand, and providing demand flexibility to assist with power system operations. This report is the summary of the first year of work conducted under Phase 1 of the Clean Energy and Transactive Campus Project. The methods and techniques described here were first investigated in simulation, and then subsequently deployed to a physical testbed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus for validation. In this report, we describe the models and control algorithms we have developed, testing of the control algorithms in simulation, and deployment to a physical testbed. Results from physical experiments support previous simulation findings, and provide insights for further improvement.

  1. Improving Transactional Memory Performance for Irregular Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrero, Manuel; Gutiérrez, Eladio; Romero, Sergio; Plata, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) offers optimistic concurrency support in modern multicore archi- tectures, helping the programmers to extract parallelism in irregular applications when data dependence information is not available before runtime. In fact, recent research focus on ex- ploiting thread-level parallelism using TM approaches. However, the proposed techniques are of general use, valid for any type of application. This work presents ReduxSTM, a software TM system specially d...

  2. Impact of transaction costs on healthcare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Renée A; So, Stephanie A

    2003-06-01

    This article reviews transaction cost economics to frame a discussion of how inefficiencies in healthcare delivery processes affect clinical outcomes and differentiate between inefficiencies that are tractable from those that are transitional or intractable. Recognizing and quantifying these effects improves the ability of organizations to calculate returns on investment in quality improvement, research and development and related value enhancing, but it is subject to high-risk undertakings.

  3. Blockchain Transaction Analysis Using Dominant Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Awan , Malik ,; Cortesi , Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Part 4: Engineering of Enterprise Software Products; International audience; Blockchain is an emerging backbone technology behind different crypto-currencies. It can also be used for other purposes and areas. There are different scalability issues associated with blockchain. It is important to know the in depth structure of blockchain by identifying common behaviors of the transactions and the effect of these behaviors on the nodes of the network. Dominant set approach can categorize the bloc...

  4. Transaction hubs: can tame energy market communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilos, C.

    2002-07-01

    The nature and function of transaction hubs is described in view of their growing usefulness as electric industry deregulation takes hold and with it the urgent requirement for trading partners to exchange information quickly and efficiently. The paper stresses the many difficulties involved in communications between trading partners since each partner operates under a different set of business rules, with the result that there are 'language differences' to overcome, not to mention the sheer volume of data that must be handled. To make it all work, companies turn increasingly to products like communication hubs. They are able to overcome the fact that different companies have different systems, different data formats and different business rules, and are able to help companies to package, transmit, receive and process information. The principal advantage of a hub is that no one has to learn anyone else's interface. Everyone can continue to use their own data format and transaction models. The hub supplies the protocols and processing rules needed to work with any of the partners connected to the hub. In order to achieve the level of efficiency and reliability required in a hub, certain design principles must be satisfied. These are : scalability, facilities for load balancing, availability of standard routine services, ability to recognize a process as consisting of various transactions, and a transaction as belonging to a specific process, ability to allow the user to configure expiration times around the business processes according to market rules, facility to easily configure validation rules, ability to handle exceptions, ability to interoperate with many middle-ware products, and to manage work flow in a manner that is transparent to operating personnel.

  5. Transactive System: Part II: Analysis of Two Pilot Transactive Systems using Foundational Theory and Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ren, Huiying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-24

    This document is the second of a two-part report. Part 1 reviewed several demonstrations of transactive control and compared them in terms of their payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts. It was suggested in Part 1 that these four listed components should be adopted for meaningful comparison and design of future transactive systems. Part 2 proposes qualitative and quantitative metrics that will be needed to compare alternative transactive systems. It then uses the analysis and design principles from Part 1 while conducting more in-depth analysis of two transactive demonstrations: the American Electric Power (AEP) gridSMART Demonstration, which used a double –auction market mechanism, and a consensus method like that used in the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration. Ultimately, metrics must be devised and used to meaningfully compare alternative transactive systems. One significant contribution of this report is an observation that the decision function used for thermostat control in the AEP gridSMART Demonstration has superior performance if its decision function is recast to more accurately reflect the power that will be used under for thermostatic control under alternative market outcomes.

  6. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  7. Transaction aware tape-infrastructure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Fotios; Kruse, Daniele Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Administrating a large scale, multi protocol, hierarchical tape infrastructure like the CERN Advanced STORage manager (CASTOR)[2], which stores now 100 PB (with an increasing step of 25 PB per year), requires an adequate monitoring system for quick spotting of malfunctions, easier debugging and on demand report generation. The main challenges for such system are: to cope with CASTOR's log format diversity and its information scattered among several log files, the need for long term information archival, the strict reliability requirements and the group based GUI visualization. For this purpose, we have designed, developed and deployed a centralized system consisting of four independent layers: the Log Transfer layer for collecting log lines from all tape servers to a single aggregation server, the Data Mining layer for combining log data into transaction context, the Storage layer for archiving the resulting transactions and finally the Web UI layer for accessing the information. Having flexibility, extensibility and maintainability in mind, each layer is designed to work as a message broker for the next layer, providing a clean and generic interface while ensuring consistency, redundancy and ultimately fault tolerance. This system unifies information previously dispersed over several monitoring tools into a single user interface, using Splunk, which also allows us to provide information visualization based on access control lists (ACL). Since its deployment, it has been successfully used by CASTOR tape operators for quick overview of transactions, performance evaluation, malfunction detection and from managers for report generation.

  8. Simulating water markets with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Tohid; Binions, Olga; Harou, Julien J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an optimization model to simulate short-term pair-wise spot-market trading of surface water abstraction licenses (water rights). The approach uses a node-arc multicommodity formulation that tracks individual supplier-receiver transactions in a water resource network. This enables accounting for transaction costs between individual buyer-seller pairs and abstractor-specific rules and behaviors using constraints. Trades are driven by economic demand curves that represent each abstractor's time-varying water demand. The purpose of the proposed model is to assess potential hydrologic and economic outcomes of water markets and aid policy makers in designing water market regulations. The model is applied to the Great Ouse River basin in Eastern England. The model assesses the potential weekly water trades and abstractions that could occur in a normal and a dry year. Four sectors (public water supply, energy, agriculture, and industrial) are included in the 94 active licensed water diversions. Each license's unique environmental restrictions are represented and weekly economic water demand curves are estimated. Rules encoded as constraints represent current water management realities and plausible stakeholder-informed water market behaviors. Results show buyers favor sellers who can supply large volumes to minimize transactions. The energy plant cooling and agricultural licenses, often restricted from obtaining water at times when it generates benefits, benefit most from trades. Assumptions and model limitations are discussed. This article was corrected on 13 JUN 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  9. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  10. Transaction cost of micro and small enterprises financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghana Atma Sulistya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High transaction costs become one of the obstacles for the micro and small enterprises (MSEs to access financial loans to the bank. In order to minimize the transaction costs, group lending scheme become  alternative, so that both sides are pay lower transaction costs, and MSEs are able to improve their welfare. This study aims to analyze the credit process and transaction costs incurred on the model of individuals and groups lending and to compare the magnitude of transaction costs on both models. Mixed Method Analysis is used to analyze the component of transaction costs and the magnitude of the transaction cost on both models.These results indicate there are differences in transaction costs incurred on both schemes. In the amount of the transaction costs, the overall group scheme still allows for greater compared to individual schemes and dominated by the cost of the disbursement. Even so, the transaction cost per member group is much smaller than the individual schemes.

  11. Definitions of biochemical failure in prostate cancer following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a consensus panel definition of biochemical failure following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this paper, we develop a series of alternative definitions of biochemical failure. Using data from 688 patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the various definitions, with respect to a defined 'clinically meaningful' outcome. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO definition of biochemical failure requires 3 consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We considered several modifications to the standard definition: to require PSA rises of a certain magnitude, to consider 2 instead of 3 rises, to require the final PSA value to be greater than a fixed cutoff level, and to define biochemical failure based on the slope of PSA over 1, 1.5, or 2 years. A clinically meaningful failure is defined as local recurrence, distant metastases, initiation of unplanned hormonal therapy, unplanned radical prostatectomy, or a PSA>25 later than 6 months after radiation. Results: Requiring the final PSA in a series of consecutive rises to be larger than 1.5 ng/mL increased the specificity of biochemical failure. For a fixed specificity, defining biochemical failure based on 2 consecutive rises, or the slope over the last year, could increase the sensitivity by up to approximately 20%, compared to the ASTRO definition. Using a rule based on the slope over the previous year or 2 rises leads to a slightly earlier detection of biochemical failure than does the ASTRO definition. Even with the best rule, only approximately 20% of true failures are biochemically detected more than 1 year before the clinically meaningful event time. Conclusion: There is potential for improvement in the ASTRO consensus definition of biochemical failure. Further research is needed, in studies with long follow-up times, to evaluate the relationship between various definitions of biochemical failure and

  12. Sustainable Society Formed by Unselfish Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    It has been pointed out that if the social configuration of the three relations (market, communal and obligatory relations) is not balanced, a market based society as a total system fails. Using multi-agent simulations, this paper shows that a sustainable society is formed when all three relations are integrated and function respectively. When agent trades are based on the market mechanism (i.e., agents act in their own interest and thus only market relations exist), weak agents who cannot perform transactions die. If a compulsory tax is imposed to enable all weak agents to survive (i.e., obligatory relations exist), then the fiscal deficit increases. On the other hand, if agents who have excess income undertake the unselfish action of distributing their surplus to the weak agents (i.e., communal relations exist), then trade volume increases. It is shown that the existence of unselfish agents is necessary for the realization of a sustainable society. However, the survival of all agents is difficult in a communal society. In an artificial society, for all agents survive and fiscal balance to be maintained, all three social relations need to be fully integrated. These results show that adjusting the balance of the three social relations well lead to the realization of a sustainable society.

  13. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-01-05

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  14. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow.

  15. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  16. On Transaction-Cost Models in Continuous-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poufinas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction-cost models in continuous-time markets are considered. Given that investors decide to buy or sell at certain time instants, we study the existence of trading strategies that reach a certain final wealth level in continuous-time markets, under the assumption that transaction costs, built in certain recommended ways, have to be paid. Markets prove to behave in manners that resemble those of complete ones for a wide variety of transaction-cost types. The results are important, but not exclusively, for the pricing of options with transaction costs.

  17. A survey on the history of transaction management: from flat to grid transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Vonk, J.; Kratz, B.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Transactions have been around since the Seventies to provide reliable information processing in automated information systems. Originally developed for simple ‘debit-credit’ style database operations in centralized systems, they have moved into much more complex application domains including aspects

  18. From Intra-transaction to Generalized Inter-transaction: Landscaping Multidimensional Contexts in Association Rule Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q; Feng, L.; Wong, A.K.Y.

    The problem of mining multidimensional inter-transactional association rules was recently introduced in [ACM Trans. Inform. Syst. 18(4) (2000) 423; Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD Workshop on Research Issues on Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, Seattle, Washington, June 1998, p. 12:1]. It extends the

  19. 31 CFR 800.302 - Transactions that are not covered transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... A also negotiates contractual rights that give it the power to control important matters of... Example 2, except that Corporation X, a U.S. business, has developed important technology in connection... Corporation X, including production facilities, customer lists, technology, and staff. This transaction is a...

  20. A transaction assessment method for allocation of transmission services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banunarayanan, Venkatasubramaniam

    The purpose of this research is to develop transaction assessment methods for allocating transmission services that are provided by an area/utility to power transactions. Transmission services are the services needed to deliver, or provide the capacity to deliver, real and reactive power from one or more supply points to one or more delivery points. As the number of transactions increase rapidly in the emerging deregulated environment, accurate quantification of the transmission services an area/utility provides to accommodate a transaction is becoming important, because then appropriate pricing schemes can be developed to compensate for the parties that provide these services. The Allocation methods developed are based on the "Fair Resource Allocation Principle" and they determine for each transaction the following: the flowpath of the transaction (both real and reactive power components), generator reactive power support from each area/utility, real power loss support from each area/utility. Further, allocation methods for distributing the cost of relieving congestion on transmission lines caused by transactions are also developed. The main feature of the proposed methods is representation of actual usage of the transmission services by the transactions. The proposed method is tested extensively on a variety of systems. The allocation methods developed in this thesis for allocation of transmission services to transactions is not only useful in studying the impact of transactions on a transmission system in a multi-transaction case, but they are indeed necessary to meet the criteria set forth by FERC with regard to pricing based on actual usage. The "consistency" of the proposed allocation methods has also been investigated and tested.

  1. Effects of traditional land transactions on soil erosion and land degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Leduka, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    A research report on the effects of traditional land transactions on soil erosion and land degradation in Lesotho. This report focuses on the land transactions in Lesotho and how these transaction affect the growing erosion rates of the soil.

  2. Accountable Care Organizations and Transaction Cost Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Stephen S Farnsworth; Shay, Patrick D

    2016-12-01

    Using a Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) approach, this paper explores which organizational forms Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) may take. A critical question about form is the amount of vertical integration that an ACO may have, a topic central to TCE. We posit that contextual factors outside and inside an ACO will produce variable transaction costs (the non-production costs of care) such that the decision to integrate vertically will derive from a comparison of these external versus internal costs, assuming reasonably rational management abilities. External costs include those arising from environmental uncertainty and complexity, small numbers bargaining, asset specificity, frequency of exchanges, and information "impactedness." Internal costs include those arising from human resource activities including hiring and staffing, training, evaluating (i.e., disciplining, appraising, or promoting), and otherwise administering programs. At the extreme, these different costs may produce either total vertical integration or little to no vertical integration with most ACOs falling in between. This essay demonstrates how TCE can be applied to the ACO organization form issue, explains TCE, considers ACO activity from the TCE perspective, and reflects on research directions that may inform TCE and facilitate ACO development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. 17 CFR 33.3 - Unlawful commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful commodity option... REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.3 Unlawful commodity option... of, or maintain a position in, any commodity option transaction subject to the provisions of this...

  4. 17 CFR 32.11 - Suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of commodity option... REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.11 Suspension of commodity option transactions. (a... accept money, securities or property in connection with, the purchase or sale of any commodity option, or...

  5. 17 CFR 32.3 - Unlawful commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful commodity option... REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.3 Unlawful commodity option transactions. (a) On and after... extend credit in lieu thereof) from an option customer as payment of the purchase price in connection...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1221-2 - Hedging transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... serves a hedging function, or that the transaction serves a similar function or purpose. (4) Coordination... business units. A separate set of books and records is maintained with respect to the activities, assets... under the marking member's method of accounting. (iii) Treatment of intercompany hedging transactions...

  7. Enhancing reliable online transaction with intelligent rule-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing reliable online transaction with intelligent rule-based fraud detection technique. ... These are with a bid to reducing amongst other things the cost of production and also dissuade the poor handling of Nigeria currency. The CBN pronouncement has necessitated the upsurge in transactions completed with credit ...

  8. Transaction Costs, Property Rights, and Organizational Culture: An Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth R.

    1983-01-01

    Applying the language of exchange theory, this paper analyses how organizational culture emerges out of the institutional arrangements developed to regulate the transactions between members. Transaction costs of social exchange, the characteristics and etiology of those institutional arrangements, and three ideal-typical cultural forms are…

  9. Leveraged Public to Private Transactions in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Simons, T.; Wright, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the magnitude and the sources of the expected shareholder gains in UK public to private transactions (PTPs) in the second wave from 1997-2003.Pre-transaction shareholders on average receive a premium of 40% and the share price reaction to the PTP announcement is about 30%.The

  10. 27 CFR 555.127 - Daily summary of magazine transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily summary of magazine....127 Daily summary of magazine transactions. In taking the inventory required by §§ 555.122, 555.123... transactions to be kept at each magazine of an approved storage facility; however, these records may be kept at...

  11. Father Knows Best: Using Adam Smith to Teach Transactions Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Adam Smith's moral philosophy can be used to introduce economics students to the important idea of transactions costs. The author provides a brief background in this article to Smith's moral philosophy and connects it to the costs of transacting in a way that fits easily into the standard principles of microeconomics classroom. By doing…

  12. 31 CFR 575.533 - Certain new transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 575.533 Certain new transactions. (a) New transactions..., including any aviation, financial, or trade requirements of agencies other than the Department of the... subsequent permanent Iraqi government: Agricultural Cooperative Bank Al-Rafidain Shipping Company Industrial...

  13. Two-Layer Transaction Management for Workflow Management Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Boertjes, E.M.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Workflow management applications require advanced transaction management that is not offered by traditional database systems. For this reason, a number of extended transaction models has been proposed in the past. None of these models seems completely adequate, though, because workflow management

  14. 49 CFR 1180.2 - Types of transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Transactions proposed under 49 U.S.C. 11323 involving more than one common carrier by railroad are of four... review and approval of these transactions is not necessary to carry out the rail transportation policy of... renewal of trackage rights by a rail carrier over lines owned or operated by any other rail carrier or...

  15. 31 CFR 585.513 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... telecommunications authorized. 585.513 Section 585.513 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Transactions related to telecommunications authorized. (a) All transactions of U.S. common carriers with respect to the receipt and transmission of telecommunications involving the FRY (S&M) are authorized...

  16. 31 CFR 586.510 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... telecommunications authorized. 586.510 Section 586.510 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Licensing Policy § 586.510 Transactions related to telecommunications authorized. All transactions with respect to the receipt and transmission of telecommunications involving the FRY (S&M) are authorized. This...

  17. A Java Reference Model of Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll, Erik; Hartel, Pieter H.; de Jong, Eduard

    Transacted Memory offers persistence, undoability and auditing. We present a Java/JML Reference Model of the Transacted Memory system on the basis of our earlier separate Z model and C implementation. We conclude that Java/JML combines the advantages of a high level specification in the JML part

  18. A Java Reference Model of Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll, Erik; Hartel, Pieter H.; de Jong, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    Transacted Memory offers persistence, undoability and auditing. We present a Java/JML Reference Model of the Transacted Memory system on the basis of our earlier separate Z model and C implementation. We conclude that Java/JML combines the advantages of a high level specification in the JML part

  19. A Template Model for Multidimensional Inter-Transactional Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Yu, J.X.; Lu, H.J.; Han, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Multidimensional inter-transactional association rules extend the traditional association rules to describe more general associations among items with multiple properties across transactions. “After McDonald and Burger King open branches, KFC will open a branch two months later and one mile away��?

  20. 12 CFR 370.4 - Transaction Account Guarantee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.4 Transaction Account Guarantee Program. (a) In addition to the coverage afforded to depositors under 12 CFR Part 330, a depositor's funds in a noninterest... determining whether funds are in a noninterest-bearing transaction account for purposes of this section, the...

  1. Distributed Global Transaction Support for Workflow Management Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Boertjes, E.M.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Workflow management systems require advanced transaction support to cope with their inherently long-running processes. The recent trend to distribute workflow executions requires an even more advanced transaction support system that is able to handle distribution. This paper presents a model as well

  2. 31 CFR 515.511 - Transactions by certain business enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions by certain business enterprises. 515.511 Section 515.511 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.511 Transactions by certain business...

  3. 31 CFR 500.511 - Transactions by certain business enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions by certain business enterprises. 500.511 Section 500.511 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.511 Transactions by certain business...

  4. Parallel transaction processing in functional languages, towards practical functional databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Huisman, Marieke; de Keijzer, Ander

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how functional languages can be adapted for transaction processing, and discusses the implementation of a parallel runtime system for such functional transaction processing languages. We extend functional languages with current state variables and result state variables to allow the

  5. 16 CFR 802.53 - Certain foreign banking transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certain foreign banking transactions. 802.53 Section 802.53 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND... foreign banking transactions. An acquisition which requires the consent or approval of the Board of...

  6. The price impact of block transactions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Marra, Teye; van Beusichem, Herman Clasinus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the stock price effects of block transactions and the disclosure thereof for Dutch firms. The authors measure a significant positive price effect for block purchases directly around the transaction date, but not for block sales. The authors do not measure a

  7. 31 CFR 515.404 - Transactions between principal and agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions between principal and agent. 515.404 Section 515.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... transaction were in no way affiliated or associated with each other. ...

  8. 31 CFR 500.404 - Transactions between principal and agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions between principal and agent. 500.404 Section 500.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... transaction were in no way affiliated or associated with each other. ...

  9. 25 CFR 117.23 - Transactions between guardian and ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transactions between guardian and ward. 117.23 Section... COMPETENCY § 117.23 Transactions between guardian and ward. Business dealings between the guardian and his ward involving the sale or purchase of any property, real or personal, by the guardian to or from the...

  10. Transactive Systems Simulation and Valuation Platform Trial Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Huang, Qiuhua; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; McDermott, Thomas E.; Sivaraman, Deepak; Tang, Yingying; Veeramany, Arun; Woodward, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Transactive energy systems use principles of value to coordinate responsive supply and demand in energy systems. Work continues within the Transactive Systems Program, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to understand the value of, understand the theory behind, and simulate the behaviors of transactive energy systems. This report summarizes recent advances made by this program. The main capability advances include a more comprehensive valuation model, including recommended documentation that should make valuation studies of all sorts more transparent, definition of economic metrics with which transactive mechanisms can be evaluated, and multiple improvements to the time-simulation environment that is being used to evaluate transactive scenarios.

  11. Transactive Systems Simulation and Valuation Platform Trial Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Qiuhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDermott, Thomas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tang, Yingying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodward, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Transactive energy systems use principles of value to coordinate responsive supply and demand in energy systems. Work continues within the Transactive Systems Program, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to understand the value of, understand the theory behind, and simulate the behaviors of transactive energy systems. This report summarizes recent advances made by this program. The main capability advances include a more comprehensive valuation model, including recommended documentation that should make valuation studies of all sorts more transparent, definition of economic metrics with which transactive mechanisms can be evaluated, and multiple improvements to the time-simulation environment that is being used to evaluate transactive scenarios.

  12. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model......We argue that in the presence of transaction costs, observed productivity measures may in many cases understate the true productivity, as production data seldom distinguish between resources entering the production process and resources of a similar type that are sacrificed for transaction costs....... Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...

  13. 17 CFR 155.6 - Trading standards for the transaction of business on registered derivatives transaction execution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for the transaction of business on registered derivatives transaction execution facilities. 155.6 Section 155.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.6 Trading...

  14. Supply Chain-Wide Consequences of Transaction Risks and Their Contractual Solutions: Towards an Extended Transaction Cost Economics Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    How supply chain actors manage their exposure to both supply- and demand-side risks is a topic that has been insufficiently examined within the transaction cost economics (TCE) literature. TCE studies often only examine transaction risks in the context of bilateral exchanges. This study aims to

  15. Transactions of the 1982 Eastern Regional American Nuclear Society student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The 1982 Eastern Region ANS Student Conference of the ANS Student Branch and the School of Nuclear Engineering and Health Physics was held at Georgia Tech., April 16-17, 1982. Almost all the papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA

  16. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  17. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  18. Tokenless Biometric Electronic Transactions Using an Audio Signature to Identify the Transaction Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-28

    28, 2002 Inventors: Hoffman; Ned (Sebastopol, CA); Pare, Jr.; David Ferrin (Berkeley, CA); Lee; Jonathan Alexander (Oakland, CA); Lapsley; Philip...Transaction Processor 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Hoffman, Ned; Pare Jr, David Ferrin; Lee, Jonathan Alexander; Lapsley, Philip Dean 7...408. 4845636 Jul., 1989 Walker 705/39. 4926480 May., 1990 Chaum 380/23. 4947028 Aug., 1990 Gorog 235/380. 4961142 Oct., 1990 Elliott et al. 364/408

  19. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...... and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such effects may...... account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  20. Midstream purchases and other transaction structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The value of midstream companies in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin was discussed. Midstream business in Canada was created about a decade ago with the deregulation of the natural gas industry. Some of the unique values that a midstream company offers, besides a financing arrangement, are described. A midstream company allows producers to do what they do best, explore and develop the natural resources through drilling of wells, while a midstream company provides the full marketing services for the natural gas including transportation and distribution. Some midstream transaction structure options such as direct cash sale, cash sale with incentive, facility/capacity lease, operating cost guarantee, 'earn in' arrangement are described, with brief summaries of the pros and cons to both producer and midstreamer company

  1. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  2. Foreign exchange transaction exposure of enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogićević Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises involved in international business face transaction exposure to foreign exchange risk. This type of exposure occurs when an enterprise trades, borrows, or lеnds in foreign currency. Transaction exposure has a direct effect on an enterprise’s financial position and profitability. It is one of the three forms of exposure to exchange rate fluctuations, the other two being translation exposure and operating exposure. The aim of this paper is to assess the transaction exposure of enterprises in Serbia operating internationally. In addition to identifying and measuring transaction exposure, this paper explores the practical importance that enterprises in Serbia attach to management of this type of foreign exchange risk. We do not find significant differences between domestic and foreign enterprises in their choice of the type of foreign exchange risk exposure to manage. Although transaction exposure is the most managed type of foreign exchange risk, research has shown that, compared to foreign businesses, Serbian enterprises do not use sufficient protective measures to minimize the negative impact of this type of exposure on their cash flows and profitability. We expected that there would be a statistically significant dependence between the volume of enterprises’ foreign currency transactions and the level of applied transaction exposure management practices. However, the results of our research, based on a sample of enterprises in Serbia operating internationally, show that transaction exposure management practices can be influenced by factors other than the level of an enterprise’s foreign currency transactions, such as the enterprise’s country of origin.

  3. Reclaiming Society Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.

  4. Medium-term load forecasting and wholesale transaction profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selker, F.K.; Wroblewski, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    The volume of wholesale transactions quoted at firm prices is increasing. The cost, and thus profitability, of serving these contracts strongly depends upon native load during the time of delivery. However, transactions extend beyond load forecasts based on weather information, and long-term resource planning forecasts of load peaks and energy provide inadequate detail. To address this need, Decision Focus Inc. (DFI) and Commonwealth Edison (ComEd) developed a probabilistic, medium-term load forecasting capability. In this paper the authors use a hypothetical utility to explore the impact of uncertain medium-term loads on transaction profitability

  5. Uncovering the Hidden Transaction Costs of Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.

    2018-01-01

    A central construct in competitive strategy research is market power, the ability to raise price above marginal cost. Positioning research focuses on attempts to build, protect, and exercise market power. However, this approach contains hidden assumptions about transaction costs. Parties made worse...... off by the exercise of market power can negotiate, bargain, form coalitions, and otherwise contract around the focal firm's attempts to appropriate monopoly profits—depending on transaction costs. We build on property rights economics to explain how transaction costs affect positioning and offer...

  6. The development by the German Transactional Analysis Association of a scientifically-based online evaluation system of transactional analysis training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Nagel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the development and statistical analysis, conducted under the auspices of the German Transactional Analysis Association (DGTA, of an online evaluation system of transactional analysis training.  The understanding of evaluation research is clarified, and the data-entry form and its grounding in the theory of transactional analysis are presented. Emphasis is placed on the development of the competence concept, the definition of competence categories, and the representation of the foundations of a transactional-analytic educational theory.  The scientific examination of the validity and reliability of the scales, the research process with pre-test and re-test, and the evaluation of the data in the system of online evaluation are extensively documented.  In conclusion, it is claimed that this online-based DGTA evaluation is one of the few result-oriented teaching evaluation instruments in the German-speaking countries which meets scientific control criteria and is published. Citation - APA format: Nagel, N., König, J., Ottmann, S., & Hahnle, A. (2017. The development by the German Transactional Analysis Association of a scientifically-based online evaluation system of transactional analysis training. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 8(2, 3-23.

  7. The Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Nath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses various definitions and concepts of the so-called information society. The term information society has been proposed to refer to the post-industrial society in which information plays a pivotal role. The definitions that have been proposed over the years highlight five underlying characterisations of an information society: technological, economic, sociological, spatial, and cultural. This article discusses those characteristics. While the emergence of an information society may be just a figment of one’s imagination, the concept could be a good organising principle to describe and analyse the changes of the past 50 years and of the future in the 21st century.

  8. 26 CFR 157.5891-1 - Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement factoring transactions. 157.5891-1 Section 157.5891-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SETTLEMENT FACTORING TRANSACTIONS Tax on Structured Settlement Factoring Transactions § 157.5891-1 Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions. (a) In general. Section 5891 imposes...

  9. Transactive memory in organizational groups: the effects of content, consensus, specialization, and accuracy on group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, John R

    2003-10-01

    Previous research on transactive memory has found a positive relationship between transactive memory system development and group performance in single project laboratory and ad hoc groups. Closely related research on shared mental models and expertise recognition supports these findings. In this study, the author examined the relationship between transactive memory systems and performance in mature, continuing groups. A group's transactive memory system, measured as a combination of knowledge stock, knowledge specialization, transactive memory consensus, and transactive memory accuracy, is positively related to group goal performance, external group evaluations, and internal group evaluations. The positive relationship with group performance was found to hold for both task and external relationship transactive memory systems.

  10. Implementation and Analysis of the use of the Blockchain Transactions on the Workings of the Bitcoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky Fauzi, Muhammad Reza; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Paryasto, Marisa W.

    2017-11-01

    The present study discusses the workings of blockchain bitcoin in the transactions sector, on the development of today’s emerging computers in the financial sector of blockchain bitcoin traction. In this case the author analyzes how the transaction is running, as well as how blockchain bitcoin is doing work in transactions on the system to make transactions. Transaction is a data structure that encodes the transfer of values between users with in a bitcoin system. Every transaction is a public entry in this bitcoin blockchain. And become a large transaction bookkeeping global.

  11. Use of electronic fare transaction data for corridor planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report documents the initial phase of a project that developed, tested, and used a methodology and tool set for converting electronic transit agency fare card transaction data, the Puget Sound regions ORCA electronic fare card, into informati...

  12. A TRANSACTION COST ANALYSIS OF MICROPAYMENTS IN MOBILE COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gille

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Personalised, location-related and differentiated services in the mobile digitaleconomy create a demand for suitable pricing models. In the case of disaggregated“microservices” (e.g., small digitalized information or service units, as well as for theacquisition of low-value physical goods, the deployment of micropayments seemsappropriate.This paper analyzes the economic efficiency of marginal transaction amounts in the mcommercearea by applying the theoretical approach of transaction cost economics. Forthis purpose, a separation of technical and cognitive transaction costs is applied. Theinfluence of selected determinants such as specifity, uncertainty and bounded rationality ontransaction costs in mobile commerce micropayments is analyzed. The result is a morelikely application of micropayments for physical goods such as beverages or parking ticketsthan for digital goods and services, given the theoretical assumptions of the model. Inaddition, indicators for a significant above-zero lower limit of transaction amounts inmobile commerce are presented.

  13. Strategic R&D transactions in personalized drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Tomohiro; Lim, Yeongjoo; Kodama, Kota

    2018-03-21

    Although external collaboration capability influences the development of personalized medicine, key transactions in the pharmaceutical industry have not been addressed. To explore specific trends in interorganizational transactions and key players, we longitudinally surveyed strategic transactions, comparing them with other advanced medical developments, such as antibody therapy, as controls. We found that the financing deals of start-ups have surged over the past decade, accelerating intellectual property (IP) creation. Our correlation and regression analyses identified determinants of financing deals among alliance deals, acquisition deals, patents, research and development (R&D) licenses, market licenses, and scientific papers. They showed that patents positively correlated with transactions, and that the number of R&D licenses significantly predicted financing deals. This indicates, for the first time, that start-ups and investors lead progress in personalized medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 53171 - Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Department's standards concerning the independence, knowledge, and competence of third-party experts retained... transaction is in the interests of the plan and of its participants and beneficiaries, and for exercising its...

  15. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  16. Transaction-Based Controls for Building-Grid Integration: VOLTTRON™

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Hernandez, George; Katipamula, Srinivas; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) is supporting the development of a “transactional network” concept that supports energy, operational, and financial transactions between building systems (e.g., rooftop units -- RTUs), and the electric power grid using applications, or 'agents', that reside either on the equipment, on local building controllers, or in the Cloud. The transactional network vision is delivered using a real-time, scalable reference platform called VOLTTRON that supports the needs of the changing energy system. VOLTTRON is an agent execution and an innovative distributed control and sensing software platform that supports modern control strategies, including agent-based and transaction-based controls. It enables mobile and stationary software agents to perform information gathering, processing, and control actions.

  17. 77 FR 3037 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Vol. 77 Friday, No. 13 January 20, 2012 Part II Department of Labor Employee Benefits Security... Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Exemptions...

  18. Marketable pollution permits with uncertainty and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Increasing interest in the use of marketable permits for pollution control has become evident in recent years. Concern regarding their performance still remains because empirical evidence has shown transaction costs and uncertainty to be significant in past and existing marketable permits programs. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical models that include transaction costs and uncertainty (in trade approval) to show their effects on market performance (i.e., equilibrium price of permits and trading volume) and aggregate control costs. We also show that in the presence of transaction costs and uncertainty the initial allocation of permits may not be neutral in terms of efficiency. Furthermore, using a numerical model for a hypothetical NO x trading program in which participants have discrete control technology choices, we find that aggregate control costs and the equilibrium price of permits are sensitive to the initial allocation of permits, even for constant marginal transaction costs and certainty

  19. VOLTTRON Lite: Integration Platform for the Transactional Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform. The platform is intended to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or “agents” that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on local building controller or in the Cloud. This document describes the core of the transactional network platform, the Volttron Lite™ software and associated services hosted on the platform. Future enhancements are also discussed. The appendix of the document provides examples of how to use the various services hosted on the platform.

  20. Map of important transactions and master data in SAP ERP

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This image represents the most important transactions and master data in SAP ERP as a tube map. As such, it covers most of the content of Magal & Word (2012) Integrated Business Processes with ERP Systems. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA.

  1. 31 CFR 538.512 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... telecommunications authorized. 538.512 Section 538.512 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... telecommunications authorized. All transactions with respect to the receipt and transmission of telecommunications... a person in Sudan of telecommunications equipment or technology. ...

  2. Transactive Control of Commercial Buildings for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Corbin, Charles D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Pratt, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Transactive control is a type of distributed control strategy that uses market mechanism to engage self-interested responsive loads to achieve power balance in the electrical power grid. In this paper, we propose a transactive control approach of commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems for demand response. We first describe the system models, and identify their model parameters using data collected from Systems Engineering Building (SEB) located on our Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus. We next present a transactive control market structure for commercial building HVAC system, and describe its agent bidding and market clearing strategies. Several case studies are performed in a simulation environment using Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and calibrated SEB EnergyPlus model. We show that the proposed transactive control approach is very effective at peak clipping, load shifting, and strategic conservation for commercial building HVAC systems.

  3. 76 FR 14083 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... firms that litigate securities fraud cases on a contingency fee basis. Finally, IFS stated that the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  4. Cloud model construct for transaction-based cooperative systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloud model construct for transaction-based cooperative systems. ... procure cutting edge Information Technology infrastructure are some of the problems faced ... Results also reveal that credit cooperatives will benefit from the model by taking ...

  5. 49 CFR 534.6 - Reporting corporate transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTEXT OF CHANGES IN CORPORATE RELATIONSHIPS § 534.6 Reporting corporate transactions. Manufacturers who... preparing the report; (iii) Identify the production year being reported on; (iv) Be written in the English...

  6. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  7. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    . Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...... and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model...... and compare different parametric, semiparametric, and nonparametric model specifications. Our results generally support our hypothesis. Especially, large trading networks and dense household networks have a positive influence on a farm’s productivity. Furthermore, our results indicate that transaction costs...

  8. Uncertainty and stochasticity of business transactions: the issue of accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhaylo Luchko

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the questions referred to accounting as a management tool of the related to risk business transactions. Found that accounting as a management function is primarily people's knowledge about the status and behavior of assets, capital and liabilities under the influence of business operations at all levels of the company’s hierarchy. There are also business processes as objects of accounting. Found that all business transactions and business processes associated with the ris...

  9. IMPROVING STUDENT PERFORMANCE AND FACULTY EVALUATION: A TRANSACTIONAL RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    As in any relationship between buyer and seller, the educational transaction between learner and teacher requires that a level of receptivity be created so that features, advantages and benefits of the transaction can be examined. Student responses to instructor efforts to create a vested covenant in the classroom were evaluated. Teaching methods were altered in two of four course sessions taught by the instructor. When efforts were made to gain student ownership of the class, both student gr...

  10. Parallel-Architecture Simulator Development Using Hardware Transactional Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Armejach Sanosa, Adrià

    2009-01-01

    To address the need for a simpler parallel programming model, Transactional Memory (TM) has been developed and promises good parallel performance with easy-to-write parallel code. Unlike lock-based approaches, with TM, programmers do not need to explicitly specify and manage the synchronization among threads. However, programmers simply mark code segments as transactions, and the TM system manages the concurrency control for them. TM can be implemented either in software (STM) or hardware (HT...

  11. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium.

  12. A trusted cryptocurrency scheme for secure and verifiable digital transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Decentralized digital currency systems known as cryptocurrencies are a breakthrough in electronic payments: the absence of a central authority can avoid the risk that a not fully reliable government seizes assets or causes hyperinflation, very small transactions can be made without incurring high costs and transactions can be traced, thus providing a tool to counter laundering and tax evasion. Furthermore, decentralization provides robustness against many attacks. Despite these advantages, cr...

  13. A transaction cost analysis of micropayments in mobile commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Gille, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Personalised, location-related and differentiated services in the mobile digital economy create a demand for suitable pricing models. In the case of disaggregated “microservices” (e.g., small digitalized information or service units), as well as for the acquisition of low-value physical goods, the deployment of micropayments seems appropriate. This paper analyzes the economic efficiency of marginal transaction amounts in the m-commerce area by applying the theoretical approach of transact...

  14. Protecting Online Transactions with Unique Embedded Key Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel approach for protecting transactions over networks. While we use the example of a netbank application, the proposal is relevant for many security-critical transactions. The approach is based on two major changes compared to current solutions. The first one is the use...... difficult. In combination, these techniques allow to build a secure channel between the client program and the server, while current solutions only build such a channel between the client computer and the server....

  15. Emissions trading to combat climate change: The impact of scheme design on transaction costs

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Regina

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the likely impact of emissions trading design on transaction costs. Transaction costs include both the costs for the private sector to comply with the scheme rules and the costs of scheme administration. In economic theory transaction costs are often assumed to be zero. But transaction costs are real costs and there is no reason for treating them differently to other costs. Thus, in setting up an emissions trading scheme, transaction costs have to be taken into account in ...

  16. Biochemical reactions of the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of mercury, strontium chloride, GMDA, trichlorfon as well as some radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 137 Cs, 203 Hg) were studied on rats. Changes in biochemical parameters (histamine content, activity of cholinesterase and histaminase) are noted. Most noticeable changes were observed in enzymatic activity. Distortion of enzymatic systems and accumulation of intermediate exchange and decay products of tissues in excess quantities affecting other systems can be the reason for changes in the organism. The observed changes in biochemical parameters should be necessarily taken into account at hygienic regulations of harmful effects of enviroment

  17. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  18. Dynamic Self-Healing Mechanism for Transactional Business Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that transactional behavior consistency is a prerequisite and basis for construction of a reliable services-based business application. However, in previous works, maintaining transactional consistency during exception handling was ignored. Maintaining transactional consistency requires functionality for rolling back some operations and revoking uploaded data. Replacing only the failed service will eventually lead to overall business application failure. In this study, we take fully into account the behavioral consistency of transactional services and propose two effective self-healing mechanisms for service-based applications. If a service enters into potential failure condition, a rescheduling mechanism is triggered to maintain consistent transactional behavior and to ensure reliable execution; if a service fails during execution, the compensation operation is triggered and the system will take action to ensure transactional behavior consistency. Meanwhile, cost-benefit analysis with compensation support is proposed to minimize the dynamic reselection cost. Finally, the experimental analysis shows that the proposed strategies can effectively guarantee the reliability of Web-based applications system.

  19. The transaction costs driving captive power generation: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Kathuria, Vinish

    2014-01-01

    The 2003 Indian Electricity Act incentivizes captive power production through open access in an attempt to harness all sources of generation. Yet, we observe that only some firms self-generate while others do not. In this paper we give a transaction cost explanation for such divergent behavior. Using a primary survey of 107 firms from India, we construct a distinct variable to measure the transaction-specificity of electricity use. The ‘make or buy’ decision is then econometrically tested using probit model. Results are highly responsive to transaction-specificity and the likelihood of captive power generation is positively related to it. At the industrial level, this explains why food and chemical firms are more likely to make their own electricity. Since the burden of poor grid supply is highest on smaller sized and high transaction-specific firms, the grid access policies need to account for firm-level characteristics if government wants to incentivize captive power generation. - Highlights: • We analyze why some firms opt for captive power generation while others do not. • We examine the role of transaction costs in this decision making using probit model. • Unique data from a primary survey of manufacturing firms in Andhra Pradesh, India. • Transaction-specificity significantly determines who installs captive power plant (CPP). • Firm-level characteristics crucial in policies incentivizing captive generation

  20. Third sector organizations in rural development: a transaction cost perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VALENTINOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, rural development is supported by third sector organizations, such as nongovernmental organizations, farmer associations, and cooperatives. This essay develops a transaction cost explanation of these organizations’ role in rural areas. Since the traditional transaction cost theory is concerned with the choice of governance mechanisms within the for-profit sector, this essay adopts an alternative conceptualization of the notion of transaction cost by building on the theory of the division of labor. This theory regards transaction cost as a constraint on the division of labor causing the replacement of exchange with self-sufficiency. The proposed transaction cost explanation of rural third sector organizations consists of two arguments: 1 third sector organizations embody partial reliance on self-sufficiency; and 2 rural areas exhibit rurality-specific transaction cost acting as a constraint on the division of labor and thus creating a niche for third sector organizations. The essay concludes with suggesting a research program on developing an economic theory of the rural third sector.;

  1. Absorbers in the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Marchildon, Louis

    2013-03-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics, following the time-symmetric formulation of electrodynamics, uses retarded and advanced solutions of the Schrödinger equation and its complex conjugate to understand quantum phenomena by means of transactions. A transaction occurs between an emitter and a specific absorber when the emitter has received advanced waves from all possible absorbers. Advanced causation always raises the specter of paradoxes, and it must be addressed carefully. In particular, different devices involving contingent absorbers or various types of interaction-free measurements have been proposed as threatening the original version of the transactional interpretation. These proposals will be analyzed by examining in each case the configuration of absorbers and, in the special case of the so-called quantum liar experiment, by carefully following the development of retarded and advanced waves through the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We will show that there is no need to resort to the hierarchy of transactions that some have proposed, and will argue that the transactional interpretation is consistent with the block-universe picture of time.

  2. Robustness evaluation of transactional audio watermarking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Christian; Steinebach, Martin; Siebenhaar, Frank; Pickel, Joerg

    2003-06-01

    Distribution via Internet is of increasing importance. Easy access, transmission and consumption of digitally represented music is very attractive to the consumer but led also directly to an increasing problem of illegal copying. To cope with this problem watermarking is a promising concept since it provides a useful mechanism to track illicit copies by persistently attaching property rights information to the material. Especially for online music distribution the use of so-called transaction watermarking, also denoted with the term bitstream watermarking, is beneficial since it offers the opportunity to embed watermarks directly into perceptually encoded material without the need of full decompression/compression. Besides the concept of bitstream watermarking, former publications presented the complexity, the audio quality and the detection performance. These results are now extended by an assessment of the robustness of such schemes. The detection performance before and after applying selected attacks is presented for MPEG-1/2 Layer 3 (MP3) and MPEG-2/4 AAC bitstream watermarking, contrasted to the performance of PCM spread spectrum watermarking.

  3. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel; Kalnis, Panos; Tao, Yufei

    2011-01-01

    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  4. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  5. Using Russian Ruble in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Z. Yarygina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues in international relations of the Russian Federation on the basis of the increased use of the ruble as the currency contracts and payments. The work shows the coordinated support of economic actors, public institutions of countries-partners. Collaborate with international teams, according to the author of the article, the implementation of economic programs of mutual interest and reinforces the trend of creating a multipolar world. The analysis of problems of development cooperation partners countries in the monetary sphere and shows that the main causes hindering greater use of domestic currencies are: hard currency regulation; a rare use of letters of credit and guarantees, which increases the financial risk operations; significant transaction costs; asymmetrical measures, currency regulation, burdening the mutual interests of the parties. To expand the use of the ruble in international relations author offers take into account a number of factors, including the need for a priority international currency contracts to perform the basic functions of money abroad is a measure of the value, means of payment and means of hoarding. The author's position is presented about the prospects of State institutional policy. In particular, the conclusion: the experience of Bulgaria, Romania, Albania has shown that the main task of the departments responsible for implementing the monetary policy should be the containment of inflationary pressures associated, including overdue contributions to the budget. A key priority in such circumstances is to support solvent and transparent banking systems, which are the basis for international cooperation.

  6. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  7. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years

  8. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-10-05

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ∼ 24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-01-01

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ~24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes.

  10. Society-ethics-risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruh, H.; Seiler, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the workshops which was reported in this volume, was the interpretation and evaluation of catastrophic risks for society in an interdisciplinary dialogue between representation of society, ethics, as well as natural science and technology. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  11. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  12. World Society and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…

  13. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  14. Transformation of Neolithic Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    and prepared the way for the appearance of Bronze Age societies. The great era of megalithic architecture came to an end as the production and exchange of gold, copper and bronze objects became the driving force in the development of Copper and Bronze Age societies. This development also had a great influence...

  15. Transaction costs of energy efficiency policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis [International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    This paper identifies the nature and scale of transaction costs (TCs) under different policy instruments aimed to increase energy efficiency. It analyses three cases: a) GHG-driven initiatives, b) tradable 'White Certificate' (TWC) schemes -taking the Energy Efficiency Commitment in Great Britain as a case study-, and c) energy efficiency audits given by grid companies in Denmark. The analysis focuses on TCs borne by project developers or obliged parties under these initiatives. Several sources of TCs are considered, such as search for information, persuasion of customers, negotiation with business partners, and measurement and verification (M and V) activities. Information has been obtained through a literature review, interviews with stakeholders and questionnaires. Some similarities were found as far as the nature of TCs is concerned. Relevant sources of TCs appear to be the search for information (for both potential measures and beneficiaries), negotiation and contract agreements with third parties, follow-up of measures, M and V activities and due accreditation of savings. The scale of TCs differs to a large extent, ranging from 5 % to 36 % of total audit/project costs. Figures must be taken with caution due to a number of specific factors driving their order of magnitude, including levels of uncertainty and the TCs accounting problem. Indications of economies of scale were only found for the case of GHG policy initiatives. In all, estimations are very case-specific and cannot be comparable. It is concluded that a number of endogenous and exogenous determinants affect the nature and scale of TCs for the analysed cases.

  16. MARKET RISK ESTIMATION IN (T+-TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radik B. Begov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Market risk analysis and estimation are presentedin T+ transactionsas they are used within the Moscow Exchange. There is a need to do so as a result of the cut-off of a new REPO product with Central Counterpartner (CCP. Here repurchase agreement goes through the National Clearing Center (NCC, the last being a bank and a clearing structure within the Moscow Exchange group.NCC actsas an intermediary (so called “Central Counterpartner” between trading participants.REPOs with CCP raisecontractor claims and commitments to the CCP which takes the risk of default on commitments from unfair contract side. The REPO with CCP cut-off made ready a technological platform to implement T+2 trades at the Moscow Exchange. As a result of it there appeared the possibility to enter security purchase/sell contracts partially collateralized. All these transactions (the REPO with CCP, T+ made it a must determining security market risks. The paper is aimed at presenting VaR-like risk estimates. The methods used are from the computer fi nance. Unusual TS rate of return indicator is proposed and applied to find optimal portfolios under the Markowitz approach and their VaRs (losses forecasts given the real “big” share price data and various horizons. Portfolio extreme rate and loss forecasting is our goal. To this end the forecasts are computed for three horizons (2, 5 and 10 days and for three significance levels.There were developed R-, Excel- and Bloomberg-basedsoftware tools as needed. The whole range of proposed computing steps and the tables with charts may be considered as candidates to be included in the future market risk standards.Paper results permit capital market participants to choose the correct (as to the required risk level common stocks.

  17. TRANSACTIONAL LEADER IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ciprian CRIȘAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From a managerial point of view, all the media means of professional communication, socialization and interaction emphasize entrepreneurial success stories. One of the modern concerns of all current researchers is to underline the place and role of leaders in the institutional framework. The leadership is perceived as a support pillar in maintaining any business. The analysis of this phenomenon is extremely extensive, starting with the culture of a company, the purpose of its existence and comprises aspects concerning the employees motivation and the degree of identifying themselves with the organizational objective. A constant concern in analyzing this phenomenon is retaining the employees and encouraging them to bring added value to the organization where they perform their daily activities. Nevertheless, the Romanian banking system in Timişoara seems to display a strong resistance towards change. The leadership of this industry is comprised of people with great managerial abilities. The transactional method, manifested by the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, seems to be the main phenomenon at the basis of their daily activity. The manager – leader hypothesis is slowly taking shape. Due to the resistance to change, generated by the educational model, from a managerial point of view, the balance is strongly tilting towards the managerial traits at the expense of the leadership ones. We are still at the stage where the tolerance towards liberty, uncertainty, are some of the traits of the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, which are poorly identified at the management level of this very important segment of activity.

  18. Transactional Mechanism of Territorial Administration: Conceptualisation and Systematization of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Аleksandrovna Petrova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transaction expenses developed by R. Coase allows to consider functioning of economy and its agents from the information viewpoint. This viewpoint implies that information exchange between agents and the urge to overcome information incompleteness start playing the crucial role. Transaction expenses are information exchange costs for the purpose of elimination (reduction of its incompleteness and the related uncertainty. R. Coase showed that creation and the size of firms are closely connected with the urge to minimize transaction expenses. Traditionally transaction expenses are associated with functioning of firms, however, the state actively participates in economy, for example, through formation of tax policy. Besides, financing of the public benefits takes place on the basis of collective decisions. But collective character of the decision causes interest, though smaller in comparison with the private choice, in the maximum efficiency of the decision. It is ensured by two factors: firstly, the position of an individual is not of great importance at collective decision-making; secondly, an individual is responsible for a small part of benefits and expenses which are formed in the course of decision implementation. The article deals with the concept of transaction costs, and systematically occurring types of transaction costs in the following groups: search information costы, the cost of negotiating, measuring costs, the costs of specification and protection of property rights, the costs of opportunistic behavior, the cost of “politicizing”, the costs of collective decisionmaking, influence costs. The authors propose a model of transaction mechanism of territorial administration, which includes the following elements: economic entities; a goal determined by system of indicators; methods; instruments; channels; forms of target use; landmark feedback on the system; subject to the experience stage of modernization; criteria

  19. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  20. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  1. Money laundering: correlation between risk assessment and suspicious transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk assessment system was introduced in the Republic of Croatia in 2009, as a result of harmonization with international standards, especially the Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing. Risk assessment is an extensive concept which requires not only a legislative framework, but also the application of numerous criteria for its effective implementation in practice. Among these criteria are suspicious transactions, closely related to the assessment of the customer, transaction, product or service.The undeniable contribution of suspicious transactions to the quality of the risk assessment system will be confirmed by a statistical analysis of a number of West and East European countries. A combination of strict, but sufficiently flexible legal provisions governing the system for prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing and a statistical analysis of reported suspicious transactions will lead to conclusions that either support or represent criticism of the efficiency of application of the risk assessment system in practice.The aforementioned statistical analysis will show whether suspicious transactions are a reliable criterion for the risk assessment analysis, and whether they can be considered the only such criterion. There is a possibility that the findings of the analysis will be contradictory to those of some international studies.

  2. Measuring the Influence of Networks on Transaction Costs Using a Nonparametric Regression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H.C.A.

    All business transactions as well as achieving innovations take up resources, subsumed under the concept of transaction costs. One of the major factors in transaction costs theory is information. Firm networks can catalyse the interpersonal information exchange and hence, increase the access to non......-public information so that transaction costs are reduced.Many resources that are sacrificed for transaction costs are inputs that also enter the technical production process. As most production data do not distinguish between these two usages of inputs, high transaction costs result in reduced observed productivity...

  3. Measuring the influence of networks on transaction costs using a non-parametric regression technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H.C.A.

    All business transactions as well as achieving innovations take up resources, subsumed under the concept of transaction costs. One of the major factors in transaction costs theory is information. Firm networks can catalyse the interpersonal information exchange and hence, increase the access to non......-public information so that transaction costs are reduced. Many resources that are sacrificed for transaction costs are inputs that also enter the technical production process. As most production data do not distinguish between these two usages of inputs, high transaction costs result in reduced observed productivity...

  4. Biochemical Process Development and Integration | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical Process Development and Integration Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our conversion and separation processes to pilot-scale integrated process development and scale up. We also Publications Accounting for all sugar produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic

  5. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAMBA Link Digital Newsletter Educational Bibliography Research IARS/Anesthesia & Analgesia SCOR About SCOR Sponsor SAMBA Meetings Affinity Sponsor Program We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, ...

  6. Changing Anthropology, Changing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University. PMID:20027281

  7. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  8. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join Now International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development ... nurses in the art and science of pediatric endocrinology nursing. Learn More Text1 2018 PENS Call for ...

  9. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  10. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Picture yourself in L.A. Register now SIR Essentials Purchase/register Search SIR's entire catalog for educational ... Quality Improvement Clinical practice MACRA Matters Health Policy, Economics, Coding Toolkits Society of Interventional Radiology 3975 Fair ...

  11. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apply for Membership Membership Directory Pay Your Dues Industry Mailing List License & eBlast Communications Programs Advertise on ... Hotel Discount Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. ...

  12. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  13. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  14. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  15. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  16. The Society for Scandinavian Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Karina Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]......The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]...

  17. Nuclear technology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Tanaka, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Oyama, Kosuke

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan deals with the relation between nuclear technology and society, and is composed of four papers: (1) Nuclear energy and international politics - sociotechnics around plutonium utilization; (2) Risk recognition and benefit recognition of nuclear facilities and social acceptance; (3) Environmental risk management and radioactive waste problem; and, (4) Public administration around the relation between nuclear energy and society. (1) describes the historical development of nuclear energy since its birth, focusing on how the leading countries tried to control nuclear proliferation. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy is closely connected with the Non-proliferation problem. (1) also discusses the relation of plutonium utilization of Japan with international society. (2) discusses how nuclear facilities can be accepted by society, analyzing the background of risk recognition, in particular, of psychological character of mass society. (3) introduces an new approach (risk-based or risk-informed regulation) of environmental risk management for radioactive waste disposal problem, focusing on HLW (high-level waste). (4) explains the approach from public administration to nuclear energy and general energy policy and introduces PPA (participatory policy analysis) as a means for policy making. (M.M.)

  18. Determinants of Transactions Costs in the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoratto Sanvicente

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lesmond (2005 method for estimating transactions costs, based on a limited-dependent variable model, is used in order to test for the significance of plausible explanations for cross sectional cost differences. Variables such as liquidity, volatility, firm size, quality of corporate governance and participation in ADR programs are considered, in addition to the possible impact of the 2008 crisis. Daily data for 1999-2009 are used, covering at least 250 securities each year. The average total transaction cost declined from 2.95% in 1999 to 1.22% in 2009. Stock volatility and quality of corporate governance appear to be the most relevant factors associated with the measure of transactions cost.

  19. Leadership in Academic Health Centers: Transactional and Transformational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick O

    2015-12-01

    Leadership is a crucial component to the success of academic health science centers (AHCs) within the shifting U.S. healthcare environment. Leadership talent acquisition and development within AHCs is immature and approaches to leadership and its evolution will be inevitable to refine operations to accomplish the critical missions of clinical service delivery, the medical education continuum, and innovations toward discovery. To reach higher organizational outcomes in AHCs requires a reflection on what leadership approaches are in place and how they can better support these missions. Transactional leadership approaches are traditionally used in AHCs and this commentary suggests that movement toward a transformational approach is a performance improvement opportunity for AHC leaders. This commentary describes the transactional and transformational approaches, how they complement each other, and how to access the transformational approach. Drawing on behavioral sciences, suggestions are made on how a transactional leader can change her cognitions to align with the four dimensions of the transformational leadership approach.

  20. Transformational and transactional leadership skills for mental health teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, P W; Garman, A N

    1999-08-01

    Many treatments for persons with severe mental illness are provided by mental health teams. Team members work better when led by effective leaders. Research conducted by organizational psychologists, and validated on mental health teams, have identified a variety of skills that are useful for these leaders. Bass (1990, 1997) identified two sets of especially important skills related to transformational and transactional leadership. Leaders using transformational skills help team members to view their work from more elevated perspectives and develop innovative ways to deal with work-related problems. Skills related to transformational leadership promote inspiration, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration, participative decision making, and elective delegation. Mental health and rehabilitation teams must not only develop creative and innovative programs, they must maintain them over time as a series of leader-team member transactions. Transactional leadership skills include goal-setting, feedback, and reinforcement strategies which help team members maintain effective programs.

  1. Transaction costs and sequential bargaining in transferable discharge permit markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, N R; Braden, J B

    2001-03-01

    Market-type mechanisms have been introduced and are being explored for various environmental programs. Several existing programs, however, have not attained the cost savings that were initially projected. Modeling that acknowledges the role of transactions costs and the discrete, bilateral, and sequential manner in which trades are executed should provide a more realistic basis for calculating potential cost savings. This paper presents empirical evidence on potential cost savings by examining a market for the abatement of sediment from farmland. Empirical results based on a market simulation model find no statistically significant change in mean abatement costs under several transaction cost levels when contracts are randomly executed. An alternative method of contract execution, gain-ranked, yields similar results. At the highest transaction cost level studied, trading reduces the total cost of compliance relative to a uniform standard that reflects current regulations.

  2. COULD SOCIOECONOMIC METABOLISM BE MOLDED BY TRANSACTION COSTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA I. IORGULESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two key issues that shape the economic development and growth of a country are the independence and effectiveness of the judicial system and the level of bureaucracy. The theory of transaction costs, developed, among others, by Douglass C. North, explores both. Increasing the independence and effectiveness of the judicial system reduces corruption and protects private property and economic freedom while reducing bureaucracy is absolutely necessary to increase a country's competitiveness by lowering the cost and increasing the speed of transactions. This paper introduces the transaction costs approach, the concept of ‘socioeconomic/societal metabolism’ and takes advantage of the Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM to examine how the ‘socioeconomic/societal metabolism’ could be impacted.

  3. The long memory and the transaction cost in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daye; Nishimura, Yusaku; Men, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the fractal dimensions of 30 important stock markets from 2006 to 2013; the analysis indicates that the Hurst exponent of emerging markets shifts significantly away from the standard Brownian motion. We propose a model based on the Hurst exponent to explore the considerable profits from the predictable long-term memory. We take the transaction cost into account to justify why the market inefficiency has not been arbitraged away in the majority of cases. The empirical evidence indicates that the majority of the markets are efficient with a certain transaction cost under the no-arbitrage assumption. Furthermore, we use the Monte Carlo simulation to display "the efficient frontier" of the Hurst exponent with different transaction costs.

  4. A Method for Visualizing Transaction Logs of a Faceted OPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Niu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce a method for visualizing user transaction logs from a library catalog application. Simple visualization supporting intuitive or qualitative analysis to quickly make sense of complicated patterns can be a useful supplement or alternative to more common quantitative analysis. To this end, a visual flowchart is created illustrating an individual user session. This visualization can be used to qualitatively grasp user behavior within the application, possibly as an aid to identifying patterns or clusters of use. These flowcharts are created by automatically pre-processing apache transaction logs into an XML representation of meaningful user actions, which are then converted via JavaScript in a web browser to HTML table based flowcharts. The particular toolkit introduced is named Visualization for Understanding Transaction Logs (VUTL, and is available with an open source license. The toolkit has been prototyped with logs from the catalog applications of several academic and one public library.

  5. Blockchain – The Gateway to Trust-Free Cryptographic Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Roman; Stenum Czepluch, Jacob; Lollike, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Bitcoin-underlying blockchain technology gained prominence as a solution that offers the realization of distributed trust-free systems, where economic transactions are guaranteed by the underlying blockchain. We are still at an early stage and thus require a deeper understanding...... of how the blockchain potentials can be realized, and what are the opportunities and challenges in so doing. Following a design science approach, we developed a proof of concept prototype that has the potential to replace a trust-based coffee shop payment solution that is based on an analogue, pre......-paid punch card solution. The demonstrator provides a starting point to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the blockchain technology when replacing a trust-based by a trust-free transaction system. We conclude that the secure and trust-free blockchain-based transaction has the potential to change many...

  6. FCJ-149 Affect and Care in Intimate Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Bertelsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the ‘co-affective’ power of the new media artwork Intimate Transactions. This co-affective power operates at the ‘trans-subjective’ level of experience. In order to explore this level of experience the article draws on the work of Brian Massumi, Bracha Ettinger and Felix Guattari amongst others. For these thinkers the ‘trans-subjective’ level of experience, precisely because it is ‘co-affective’, holds ethical potential. The article argues for the importance of tending to ‘co-affective’ level of experience – both in designing “interactive” art, such as Intimate Transactions, and in life more generally.

  7. Reconsidering Money: Monetary Exchange with Additive Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2001-01-01

    Under the assumption of purely additive transaction costs in exchange, the literature on money has a standard example of direct exchange dominating indirect (monetary) exchange. From here it is frequently concluded that subadditive costs (e.g. search costs) must be examined in order to explain...... money. In contrast, this paper presents an additive transaction costs model in which the mere absence of double coincidences of wants suffices to motivate monetary exchange. Furthermore it is found that not all commodity moneys, that are collectively desirable, qualify for the core, but that all fiat...

  8. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A. K.; Wen, F. S.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  9. Method and apparatus for managing transactions with connected computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Phillips, Laurence R.; Spires, Shannon V.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus that make use of existing computer and communication resources and that reduce the errors and delays common to complex transactions such as international shipping. The present invention comprises an agent-based collaborative work environment that assists geographically distributed commercial and government users in the management of complex transactions such as the transshipment of goods across the U.S.-Mexico border. Software agents can mediate the creation, validation and secure sharing of shipment information and regulatory documentation over the Internet, using the World-Wide Web to interface with human users.

  10. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...

  11. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of MP Finance Group CC (In Liquidation v CSARS the High Court of Appeal ruled that income "received by" a taxpayer from illegal gains will be taxable in the hands of the taxpayer. This article explores whether or not the decision in the MP Finance-case (and preceding cases on the taxation of illegal receipts can be applied to determine if illegal transactions are subject to VAT and moreover if a trader in illegal goods and services should register as a VAT vendor. Although strictly speaking no analogy can be drawn between the charging provisions for income tax and VAT, it is clear that in the determination of the taxability of illegal income, the courts applied the principle of tax neutrality. In terms of the principle of tax neutrality, taxes are not concerned with the legality or illegality of a transaction, but rather with whether the transaction complies with the requirements for it to be taxed or not. That said, the European Court of Justice has a different approach in applying this principle. According to the European Court of Justice where the intrinsic nature of the goods excludes it from the commercial arena (like narcotic drugs it should not be subject to VAT, but where the goods compete with a legal market it must be subject to VAT. Charging VAT on illegal transactions might give the impression that government benefits from criminal activities. However, if illegal transactions are not subject to VAT the trader in illegal goods will benefit as his products will be 14% cheaper than his rival’s. Is this necessarily a moral dilemma? In conclusion three arguments can be deduced on the question if illegal transactions should be subject to VAT:1. Illegal transactions should not be taxed at all. Illegal goods or services fall outside the sphere of the application of the charging provision in section 7(1 of the VAT Act. Moreover, taxing illegal transactions lends a quasi-validity to the contract and gives the impression that

  12. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  13. Society and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    in Europe. Elaborating on the Castoriadian ontology, the book delves into the magma of social imaginary significations that characterise and associate pivotal epochs of the continent’s history, Classical Greece and Modernity, and exemplifies their incarnation in educational systems and in the formation...... countries. Nevertheless, as Moutsios suggests, the European tradition, notwithstanding its ideological usage by much of social sciences, contains an indissoluble critical and self-reflective dimension, which needs to be sustained and advanced in education and its cross-cultural comparison, perhaps, more......'Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison' explores the relation of society to education in Europe, as well as its comparative perspective towards overseas societies and their institutions. It is an enquiry into the social-historical institution of education and cross-cultural studies...

  14. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  15. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X’s contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  16. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X's contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  17. Trust and Control Dynamics in Agrifood Supply Networks: Communication Strategies for Electronic Transaction Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Melanie; Hausen, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Agrifood supply networks are dynamic structures where firms regularly face the need to search for new market partners. A decision for a transaction with a new partner requires the existence of appropriate control and safeguard mechanisms as well as trust to overcome perceived risk and uncertainties. Electronic transaction environments offer new potentials for the identification of new transaction partners. However, trust and control need to be communicated appropriately in electronic transact...

  18. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  19. Advanced information society(7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  20. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  1. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process

  3. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. How Is the Liberalization of Food Markets Progressing? Market Integration and Transaction Costs in Subsistence Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modification of Baulch's parity bounds model to measure the market integration of food markets in developing countries. Instead of extrapolating a single observation of transaction costs, we estimate transaction costs. Predicted transaction costs compare well with survey data of

  5. 24 CFR 100.110 - Discriminatory practices in residential real estate-related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residential real estate-related transactions. 100.110 Section 100.110 Housing and Urban Development... Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions § 100.110 Discriminatory practices in residential real estate-related transactions. (a) This subpart provides the Department's interpretation of the...

  6. 7 CFR 1927.53 - Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions... and Loan Closing § 1927.53 Costs of title clearance and closing of transactions. The borrower or the... payment of all costs of title clearance and closing of the transaction and will arrange for payment before...

  7. New Evidence of the Effect of Transaction Costs on Residential Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Leuvensteijn, van Michiel

    2002-01-01

    Transaction costs have attracted considerably attention in the theoretical literature on residential mobility. In many European countries, these costs mainly consist of ad-valorem transaction costs. In the current paper, we demonstrate empirically for the Netherlands that the transaction costs have

  8. Continuous time Black-Scholes equation with transaction costs in subdiffusive fractional Brownian motion regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liang, Jin-Rong; Lv, Long-Jin; Qiu, Wei-Yuan; Ren, Fu-Yao

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of continuous time option pricing with transaction costs by using the homogeneous subdiffusive fractional Brownian motion (HFBM) Z(t)=X(Sα(t)), 0transaction costs of replicating strategies. We also give the total transaction costs.

  9. Components of the costs of controlling quality: a transaction cost economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, R A; Mick, S S

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies the components that contribute to a healthcare organization's costs in controlling quality. A central tenet of our argument is that at its core, quality is the result of a series of transactions among members of a diverse network. Transaction cost economics is applied internally to analyze intraorganizational transactions that contribute to quality control, and questions for future research are posed.

  10. The transaction management perspective on procurement in the era of globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Butter, F.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Fragmentation of production into more and more complex supply chains is a prominent feature of globalisation. Transaction management purports to minimise the transaction costs associated with this fragmentation of production. In this era of globalisation, transaction costs carry a large weight in

  11. 17 CFR 405.4 - Financial recordkeeping and reporting of currency and foreign transactions by registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reporting of currency and foreign transactions by registered government securities brokers and dealers. 405... reporting of currency and foreign transactions by registered government securities brokers and dealers... Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970 shall comply with the reporting, recordkeeping and...

  12. 76 FR 56103 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions; Conforming Changes to Existing Regulations in Response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... off-exchange foreign currency transactions with members of the retail public (i.e., retail forex... various provisions of the CEA as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act with respect to retail forex transactions... counterparty to a retail forex transaction under CEA Section 2(c)(2)(B) (``permitted counterparty''), which...

  13. 15 CFR 908.14 - Business to be transacted in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business to be transacted in writing... MAINTAINING RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.14 Business to be transacted in writing. All business transacted with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration with...

  14. 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) - Bond transactions on national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond transactions on national....11a1-4(T) Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. A transaction in a bond, note, debenture, or other form of indebtedness effected on a national securities exchange by a member for its own...

  15. 31 CFR 103.25 - Reports of transactions with foreign financial agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 103.25 Reports of transactions with foreign financial agencies. (a) Promulgation of reporting... financial institutions to file reports of certain transactions with designated foreign financial agencies...

  16. Transactional Infrastructure of the Economy: the Evolution of Concepts and Synthesis of Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruschak Irina Valeryevna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The overview of evolution of market infrastructure concepts is provided, the first concepts of institutional infrastructure are revealed in the paper. Evolutionarily developed narrowing of essence of infrastructure in connection with the priority analysis of its physical (material and technological components is proved. It ignores the fact that transactional resources, being drivers (driving forces of economic systems evolution, in turn evolve, becoming harder and harder, combining increase in efficiency of the elements and strengthening of heterogeneity and discrepancy of their structure. Transactional evolution of economy in general and evolution of separate transactional resources of production are the perspective directions of the special analysis. Transactional infrastructure is considered as the integrated complex of institutional, organizational (relational and information infrastructures. The problems of the first concepts of transactional infrastructure connected with difficulties of differentiation of its subsystems always operating jointly are revealed. Prospect of transition from the isolated analysis of separate resources of transactional type (institutes, organizations, information, social capital, trust, etc. to studying corresponding specific software infrastructures and to the system analysis of integrated transactional infrastructure of economy are argued. The transactional sector (as set of the specialized industries and the appropriate collective and individual subjects providing with resources market transaction is offered to be considered as transactional structure of economy. Transactional infrastructure is treated as critically significant factor of economic evolution which in the conditions of post-industrial type of economy gradually purchases transactional nature.

  17. Sampling returns for realized variance calculations: tick time or transaction time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, J.E.; Oomen, R.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a new model for transaction prices in the presence of market microstructure noise in order to study the properties of the price process on two different time scales, namely, transaction time where prices are sampled with every transaction and tick time where prices are

  18. Towards a Transaction Cost Theory of Management Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Speklé (Roland)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, I present and discuss a theory of management control based on Transaction Cost Economics. This theory specifies the composition of various archetypal control structures, and links these to their respective habitat. These are: (1) arm's length control; (2) machine control;

  19. 47 CFR 32.27 - Transactions with affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... affiliates. (a) Unless otherwise approved by the Chief, Wireline Competition Bureau, transactions with.... Non-tariffed assets sold or transferred between a carrier and its affiliate that qualify for prevailing price valuation, as defined in paragraph (d) of this section, shall be recorded at the prevailing...

  20. 12 CFR 563.41 - Transactions with affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capital requirements; (C) The savings association commenced de novo operations within the past two years...-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.41 Transactions with affiliates. (a) Scope. (1) This section...) 12 CFR 223.3(d)—Definition of “capital stock and surplus.” Does not apply. Capital stock and surplus...

  1. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The first section is concerned with the creation of Petri net models and their validation The second section addresses semantic issues and analysis methods The third section is devoted to the automatic synthesis of Petri nets These Transactions publish archival papers in the broad area of Petri n...

  2. 18 CFR 367.14 - Transactions with associate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... all transactions with associate companies. The statements may be required to show the general nature... associate companies. 367.14 Section 367.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005...

  3. Scalable Transactions for Web Applications in the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Pierre, G.E.O.; Chi, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Cloud Computing platforms provide scalability and high availability properties for web applications but they sacrifice data consistency at the same time. However, many applications cannot afford any data inconsistency. We present a scalable transaction manager for NoSQL cloud database services to

  4. 17 CFR 1.38 - Execution of transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Management and Budget under control numbers 3038-0007 and 3038-0022) [46 FR 54523, Nov. 3, 1981, as amended... trades involving the exchange of futures for cash commodities or the exchange of futures in connection with cash commodity transactions, shall identify and mark by appropriate symbol or designation all such...

  5. 77 FR 76770 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Training Fund (the Fund); L-11738, The Coca-Cola Company (TCCC) and Red Re, Inc. (Red Re) (together, the... trustee specializing in complex financial transactions. GreatBanc has offices in Chicago, New York City... consultants, including Prairie Capital Advisors, Inc. (Prairie), GreatBanc's independent financial advisor...

  6. Transaction Cost Of Borrowing Among Small Scale Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined transaction cost of borrowing among small scale farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 109 randomly selected small scale farmers in the study area. Data analysis was by frequency, percentage and mean. It was found that farmers mostly ...

  7. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  8. Distance, Transaction Costs, and Preferences in European Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) have suggested that international trade is not determined by supply-side factors alone—perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, and country preferences in Europe. The results ...... channels, both indirectly through transaction costs and more directly, as countries seem to prefer some trade partners before others....

  9. Testing Affine Term Structure Models in Case of Transaction Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Melenberg, B.; Nijman, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we empirically analyze the impact of transaction costs on the performance of affine interest rate models. We test the implied (no arbitrage) Euler restrictions, and we calculate the specification error bound of Hansen and Jagannathan to measure the extent to which a model is

  10. 1991 transactions of the American Association of Cost Engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding of the 1991 transactions of the AACE under the following subject: Power plant dismantling cost studies; Understand the costs and schedule of hydroelectric projects; Environmental project control- A government perspective; and Nuclear hazardous waste control management

  11. Transactional sex in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study describes the nature, context and implications of a unique form of transactional sexual relationships in the fishing communities along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions and 17 key informant interviews among fishermen, fishmongers and fish transporters in Kisumu.

  12. 7 CFR 1927.58 - Closing the transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.58 Closing the transaction. The closing agent will cooperate with the approval official, borrower, seller, and... when a loan is being made to a borrower who already owns the real estate to be mortgaged. This...

  13. Top IS research on Quality of Transaction Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Jakobs, Kai; Berends, Wouter; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; Oude luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of a systematic literature review executed to determine the coverage of transaction standards in top information systems (IS) and management journals. Specifically, it aims to identify a research gap with respect to this topic. The top 25 journals are thoroughly

  14. 75 FR 54542 - Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2570 RIN 1210-AA98 Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans Correction In proposed rule document 2010-21073 beginning on page 53172 in the issue of Monday, August 30, 2010, make the following correction...

  15. 76 FR 66637 - Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2570 RIN 1210-AB49 Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security... Determinations, Employee Benefits Security Administration, Room N-5700, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC...

  16. A Transactional Approach to "Sing" by Raposo and Lichtenheld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Tom Lichtenheld shares a new story of the power of music by illustrating Joe Raposo's classic "Sesame Street" song "Sing." In addition to lesson suggestions for general music classes, a discussion of and application to the theory of transactional reading are included.

  17. Farmers' choice of cattle marketing channels under transaction cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theoretical predictions of transaction cost economics were tested based on primary data collected from 230 cattle farm households in 13 communities of the Okhahlamba Local Municipality. The results of a multinomial logit regression revealed some unique insights. They showed that the probability of selling at auction ...

  18. An overview of the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) and consider various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI). Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed. 12 refs.

  19. 7 CFR 3015.83 - Federal cash transactions report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal cash transactions report. 3015.83 Section 3015.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Financial Reporting...

  20. Academic Activities Transaction Extraction Based on Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting information about academic activity transactions from unstructured documents is a key problem in the analysis of academic behaviors of researchers. The academic activities transaction includes five elements: person, activities, objects, attributes, and time phrases. The traditional method of information extraction is to extract shallow text features and then to recognize advanced features from text with supervision. Since the information processing of different levels is completed in steps, the error generated from various steps will be accumulated and affect the accuracy of final results. However, because Deep Belief Network (DBN model has the ability to automatically unsupervise learning of the advanced features from shallow text features, the model is employed to extract the academic activities transaction. In addition, we use character-based feature to describe the raw features of named entities of academic activity, so as to improve the accuracy of named entity recognition. In this paper, the accuracy of the academic activities extraction is compared by using character-based feature vector and word-based feature vector to express the text features, respectively, and with the traditional text information extraction based on Conditional Random Fields. The results show that DBN model is more effective for the extraction of academic activities transaction information.

  1. 31 CFR 594.508 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... telecommunications authorized. 594.508 Section 594.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to telecommunications authorized. All transactions ordinarily incident to the receipt or transmission of telecommunications involving persons whose property or interests in property are blocked...

  2. 31 CFR 545.508 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... telecommunications authorized. 545.508 Section 545.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to telecommunications authorized. All transactions ordinarily incident to the receipt or transmission of telecommunications involving the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban are...

  3. 31 CFR 500.571 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... telecommunications authorized. 500.571 Section 500.571 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... telecommunications authorized. All transactions of U.S. common carriers incident to the receipt or transmission of telecommunications involving North Korea are authorized. Note: Exports or reexports to North Korea of goods and...

  4. Slaying Monsters: Students' Aesthetic Transactions with Gothic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nero, Jennifer Renner

    2017-01-01

    This study employed case study methodology and design research to examine what aesthetic transactions (readers' thoughts, feelings, associations, etc. that arise during a text encounter) students constructed in response to texts in a Gothic studies reading unit created by the author. The study was conducted in a seventh-grade reading classroom.…

  5. Editorial for the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    I am entering the fourth year as the Editor in Chief of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. A position like this becomes more and more important for the technical field as publishing in a peer-reviewed highly ranked journal has influence on the industrial and academic career. It is a way...

  6. Public-to-Private Transactions : LBOs, MBOs, MBIs and IBOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Simons, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that a vibrant and economically important public-to-private market has reemerged in the US, UK and Continental Europe, since the second half of the 1990s.The paper shows recent trends and investigates the motives for public-to-private and LBO transactions.The reasons for the

  7. 26 CFR 1.1502-13 - Intercompany transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 382 or the SRLY rules. Example 11. Section 475. Example 12. Section 1092. Example 13. [Reserved... a loan is a separate transaction. In addition, an accrual of premium is treated as a separate..., source, treatment as excluded from gross income or as a noncapital, nondeductible amount, and treatment...

  8. INTER-BANK CALL MONEY MARKET TRANSACTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Haryadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the effect of Indonesian Bank loan, the amount of demand deposits, and the Indonesia economic crisis in 1997 on the interbank call money market transactions in Indonesia using a multiple linear regression method. This study finds that the variables influencing the interbank call money market transactions are the interest rate of interbank call money market and the check money. Both variables have positive effect on the interbank money market transactions in Indonesia.Keywords: Loans, Interest Rate, Check Money, Monetary Crisis, Interbank Money Market TransactionsJEL Classification Numbers: G21, G28AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis pengaruh pinjaman Bank Indonesia terhadap tingkat bunga pasar uang antar bank, jumlah uang giral, dan krisis ekonomi Indonesia tahun 1997 terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank di Indonesia menggunakan metode regresi linier berganda. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa variabel yang berpengaruh terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank tersebut adalah tingkat bunga pasar uang antar bank dan jumlah uang giral. Dua variabel tersebut berpengaruh positif terhadap transaksi pasar uang antar bank di Indonesia.Keywords: Pinjaman, Tingkat Bunga, Uang Giral, Krisis Moneter, Transaksi Pasar Uang antar BankJEL Classification Numbers: G21, G28

  9. 19 CFR 4.90 - Simultaneous vessel transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mentioned in this section and the conditions stated in the sections indicated in the list: 121 For the purposes of this part, an inward foreign voyage is completed at the port of final discharge of inbound... ports (§ 4.88). (b) When a vessel is engaged simultaneously in two or more such transactions, the master...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6111-3 - Disclosure of reportable transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of fees paid to the person making the statement or the fees are contingent in the manner described in... taxpayer to another are contingent on the taxpayer's realization of tax benefits from the transaction in...) Special rules—(A) Capacity as an employee. A material advisor generally does not include a person who...

  11. International business and economic geography : knowledge, time and transactions costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    This paper sketches out how the ways in which a combination of economic geography and international business approaches can shed light on the spatial behaviour of multinational companies. The emphasis of the argument here is on the nature of the knowledge content embedded in the transactions of the

  12. Proving Opacity of Transactional Memory with Early Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siek Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transactional Memory (TM is an alternative way of synchronizing concurrent accesses to shared memory by adopting the abstraction of transactions in place of low-level mechanisms like locks and barriers. TMs usually apply optimistic concurrency control to provide a universal and easy-to-use method of maintaining correctness. However, this approach performs a high number of aborts in high contention workloads, which can adversely affect performance. Optimistic TMs can cause problems when transactions contain irrevocable operations. Hence, pessimistic TMs were proposed to solve some of these problems. However, an important way of achieving efficiency in pessimistic TMs is to use early release. On the other hand, early release is seemingly at odds with opacity, the gold standard of TM safety properties, which does not allow transactions to make their state visible until they commit. In this paper we propose a proof technique that makes it possible to demonstrate that a TM with early release can be opaque as long as it prevents inconsistent views.

  13. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    . This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  14. The organisation of transactions : studying supply networkd using gaming simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book studies the organisation of transactions in supply networks. More specifically it investigates the influence of social structure on the mode of organisation in supply networks. To gain new insights, the results in this book have been gathered using gaming simulation as a research method.

  15. 12 CFR 226.8 - Identification of transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintains procedures reasonably adapted to obtain and provide the information; and (2) the creditor treats... was a mail, Internet, or telephone order. 19 [Reserved] (2) Creditors need not comply with paragraph... creditor shall identify credit transactions on or with the first periodic statement that reflects the...

  16. An Overview of the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    1988-02-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) is summarized and various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI) are considered. Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed.

  17. An overview of the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) and consider various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI). Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed. 12 refs

  18. Transaction cost determinants of credit governance structures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores transaction cost determinants of credit governance structures (CGS) of commercial banks in Tanzania. Descriptive statistics, linear regression model, binary and multinomial logistic regression models were employed for analysis. Findings revealed four modes of credit governance structures that are ...

  19. Automatic Verification of Transactions on an Object-Oriented Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, D.; Balsters, H.

    1998-01-01

    In the context of the object-oriented data model, a compiletime approach is given that provides for a significant reduction of the amount of run-time transaction overhead due to integrity constraint checking. The higher-order logic Isabelle theorem prover is used to automatically prove which

  20. 12 CFR 270.4 - Transactions in obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS Regulations Relating to Open Market Operations of Federal Reserve Banks... engage in open market operations as directed by the Committee. (b) Transactions for the System Open... open market operations and the effectuation of open market policies. [38 FR 2753, Jan. 30, 1973, as...

  1. Ongoing Development of Land Administration Standards : Blockchain in Transaction Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Vos, J.; Beentjes, B.

    2017-01-01

    This article in the special edition on blockchain and land transfer in the European Property Law Journal (EPLJ) discusses available standards in land administration and options for further standardisation, including standardisation of transactions of those rights, as a possible first step to

  2. Transactional Analysis in the Classroom, Staffroom and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Giles

    2015-01-01

    The author considers the application of transactional analysis (TA) in the field of education. Initially, the focus is on the use of TA in reducing conflict in the classroom and staffroom before offering observations about its broader relevance to contemporary UK schooling. Concepts covered include the egostate model of personality, functional…

  3. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions | van Zyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores whether or not the decision in the MP Finance-case (and preceding cases on the taxation of illegal receipts) can be applied to determine if illegal transactions are subject to VAT and moreover if a trader in illegal goods and services should register as a VAT vendor. Although strictly speaking no analogy ...

  4. Vegetables procurement by Asian supermarkets: A transaction cost approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Boselie, D.M.; Hualiang, L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The paper seeks to understand the conditions that motivate Asian supermarkets' choices for vegetable sourcing through wholesale procurement or preferred supplier systems. Design/methodology/approach - Insights from transaction cost theory are used to analyze the evolution of fresh produce

  5. Vegetables procurement by Asian supermarkets: a transaction cost approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Boselie, D.M.; Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The paper seeks to understand the conditions that motivate Asian supermarkets' choices for vegetable sourcing through wholesale procurement or preferred supplier systems. Design/methodology/approach - Insights from transaction cost theory are used to analyze the evolution of fresh produce

  6. Financial Transaction Tax: Determination of Economic Impact Under DSGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about the possible taxation of the financial sector has started in the European Union as a result of the financial crisis which has spread to the Europe from the United States in 2008 and consequently of the massive financial interventions by governments made in favour of the financial sector. On 14 February 2013, after rejection of the draft of the directive introducing a common system of financial transaction tax in 2011, the European Commission introduced the financial transaction tax through enhanced cooperation. The aim of the paper is to research economic impact of financial transaction tax on EU (EU27 or EU11 with respect to the DSGE model which was used for the determination of impacts. Based on our analysis the DSGE model can be considered as underestimated in case of the impact on economic growth and an overestimated in case of the revenue collection. Particularly, the overall impact of the financial transaction tax considering cascade effects of securities (tax rate 2.2% and derivatives (tax rate 0.2% is ranged between −4.752 and 1.472 percent points of GDP. And further, is assumed that the relocation effects of business/trade can be in average 40% causes a decline of expected tax revenues in the amount of 13bn EUR. Thus, at a time of fragile economic growth across the EU and the increased risk of recession in Europe, the introduction of the FTT should be undesirable.

  7. 31 CFR 800.214 - Foreign government-controlled transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign government-controlled transaction. 800.214 Section 800.214 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... control of a U.S. business by a foreign government or a person controlled by or acting on behalf of a...

  8. A Transactional Way of Analysing the Learning of "Tacit Knowledge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Joacim; Östman, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Methodological challenges point to a reconceptualization of "tacit knowledge" to "tacit knowing". The paper outlines the concept of "tacit knowing" and explores the need for educational research to reformulate questions about tacit knowledge as a practical learning concern. Using John Dewey's transactional perspective…

  9. Risk Factors for Transactional Sex among Young Females in Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to examine the risk factors for engaging in transactional sex among young females in Montserrado County, Liberia. Data from an HIV behavioral survey conducted among young people aged 14 – 25 years were used. The analytical sample included 493 sexually-experienced females. Bivariate and ...

  10. Deadline-aware scheduling for Software Transactional Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado, Walter; Marlier, Patrick; Felber, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Software Transactional Memory (STM) is an optimistic concurrency control mechanism that simplifies the development of parallel programs. Still, the interest of STM has not yet been demonstrated for reactive applications that require bounded response time for some of their operations. We propose...

  11. 47 CFR 43.21 - Transactions with affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... communications plant at the end of that year. This letter must be filed no later than April 1 of the following....21 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) REPORTS OF COMMUNICATION COMMON CARRIERS AND CERTAIN AFFILIATES § 43.21 Transactions with affiliates. (a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.446-4 - Hedging transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general. The method of accounting used for hedges of aggregate risk must comply with the matching...) INCOME TAXES Methods of Accounting § 1.446-4 Hedging transactions. (a) In general. Except as provided in... disbursements method of accounting is used or in which § 1.471-6 is used for inventory valuations if, for all...

  13. Automated Measurement and Signaling Systems for the Transactional Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Brown, Richard; Price, Phillip; Page, Janie; Granderson, Jessica; Riess, David; Czarnecki, Stephen; Ghatikar, Girish; Lanzisera, Steven

    2013-12-31

    The Transactional Network Project is a multi-lab activity funded by the US Department of Energy?s Building Technologies Office. The project team included staff from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The team designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network (TN) platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). PNNL was responsible for the development of the TN platform, with agents for this platform developed by each of the three labs. LBNL contributed applications to measure the whole-building electric load response to various changes in building operations, particularly energy efficiency improvements and demand response events. We also provide a demand response signaling agent and an agent for cost savings analysis. LBNL and PNNL demonstrated actual transactions between packaged rooftop units and the electric grid using the platform and selected agents. This document describes the agents and applications developed by the LBNL team, and associated tests of the applications.

  14. Transactional and Transformational Leader Behaviors and Christian School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, James Ward, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    School enrollment trends and how leaders respond are critical to the sustainability of Christian schools. This study applied quantitative and qualitative approaches to address the question, are there significant differences in the mean scores for behavioral factors or in the mean scores for transactional and transformational leadership styles for…

  15. Identifying Interbank Loans, Rates, and Claims Networks from Transactional Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.; Cely, Jorge; Cadena, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We identify interbank (i.e. non-collateralized) loans from the Colombian large-value payment system by implementing Furfine’s method. After identifying interbank loans from transactional data we obtain the interbank rates and claims without relying on financial institutions’ reported data.

  16. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  17. Comparing empirical results of transaction avoidance rules studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, G.

    2008-01-01

    Empirical legal research in the UK and in the Netherlands has provided data on the extent to which the transaction avoidance rules (avoidance powers, actio Pauliana) generate practical problems. This article’s goal is to explore the similarities and differences of the data. To achieve this, existing

  18. Accounting for control and trust building in interfirm transactional relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, E.G.J.; van der Meer-Kooistra, J.

    This paper theorises the accounting-control-trust nexus in interfirm transactional relationships. In the context of such relationships, accounting has predominantly been conceptualised as a control technology. However, in our paper we analyse stable and durable relationships as being the results of

  19. 12 CFR 344.7 - Settlement of securities transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of securities transactions. (a) A bank shall not effect or enter into a contract for the purchase or... for payment of funds and delivery of securities later than the third business day after the date of... offering. A bank shall not effect or enter into a contract for the purchase or sale of the securities that...

  20. Trust as a Leap of Hope for Transaction Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2015-01-01

    trustor’s propensity to trust as well as above and beyond trustor confident expectation of trustee’s trustworthiness (either due to trustee’s trait-like characters or due to institutional assurance). In this sense, trust should be reframed as a leap of hope to enhance transaction value by taking advantage...

  1. Hardware Transactional Memory Optimization Guidelines, Applied to Ordered Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.; Karlsson, Sven

    2015-01-01

    efficiently requires reasoning about those differences. In this paper we present 5 guidelines for applying hardware transactional memory efficiently, and apply the guidelines to BT-trees, a concurrent ordered map. Evaluating BT-trees on standard benchmarks shows that they are up to 5.3 times faster than...

  2. Rationality in Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary theories of rational behavior in human society augment the orthodox model of rationality both by adding various forms of bounded rationality and relaxing the assumptions of self-interest and materialistic preferences. This entry discusses how these extensions of the theory of rational

  3. The Mediated Transparent Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2001-01-01

    in the mediated transparent society. The paper concludes that, based on these analyses, the mediated panopticism working on the business segment is not an effective disciplinary apparatus, which can guarantee that business corporations are carrying out important ecological or ethical improvements....

  4. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the exclusive property of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society which in its sole discretion may use this material as it sees fit. I agree to the terms of the Standard Photography Release.* Submit * This field is required * Please fix the validation error messages in the Form Your story was ...

  5. MARX EMBRYOLOGY OF SOCIETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUTERS, A

    This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's

  6. Exploratory of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  7. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  8. The Duplex Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Alvin L.

    1984-01-01

    The duplex society, in which the poor live in close proximity to others but in a separate compartment, is already with us. Unless something deeply changes about family income, more than one-third of future generations will come to adulthood having spent a portion of their childhood in official poverty. (RM)

  9. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...

  10. Radiation protection and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skryabin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the

  11. Consumption in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  12. Multi-period fuzzy mean-semi variance portfolio selection problem with transaction cost and minimum transaction lots using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Barati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-period models of portfolio selection have been developed in the literature with respect to certain assumptions. In this study, for the first time, the portfolio selection problem has been modeled based on mean-semi variance with transaction cost and minimum transaction lots considering functional constraints and fuzzy parameters. Functional constraints such as transaction cost and minimum transaction lots were included. In addition, the returns on assets parameters were considered as trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. An efficient genetic algorithm (GA was designed, results were analyzed using numerical instances and sensitivity analysis were executed. In the numerical study, the problem was solved based on the presence or absence of each mode of constraints including transaction costs and minimum transaction lots. In addition, with the use of sensitivity analysis, the results of the model were presented with the variations of minimum expected rate of programming periods.

  13. 75 FR 38837 - Amendment to Prohibited Transaction Exemption (PTE) 84-14 for Plan Asset Transactions Determined...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... compliance with the conditions of the exemptions and have an independent auditor conduct an annual exemption... contingent upon an ``independent auditor'' conducting an annual ``exemption audit'' to determine whether the... written policies and procedures and a representative sample of plan transactions by an independent auditor...

  14. Understanding the application of OSC policy 9.1 during a takeover transaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayduk, M.F.; Rasmuson, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Legal aspects of ownership of publicly traded companies in Canada are explored, with particular emphasis on transactions involving 'related parties'. In this context, Policy 9.1 of the Ontario Securities Commission is examined. The policy seeks to enhance minority shareholder protection by providing for independent valuation, majority of minority approval, enhanced disclosure and review of substantial transactions by independent directors. This paper focuses on four types of transactions governed by Policy 9.1, i.e. insider bids, issuer bids, going private transactions, related party transactions and the recent proposed rule reformulation proposed by the Ontario Securities Commission (OSC)

  15. The relationship between trading volumes, number of transactions, and stock volatility in GARCH models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Tetsuya; Chen, Ting Ting

    2016-08-01

    We examine the relationship between trading volumes, number of transactions, and volatility using daily stock data of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Following the mixture of distributions hypothesis, we use trading volumes and the number of transactions as proxy for the rate of information arrivals affecting stock volatility. The impact of trading volumes or number of transactions on volatility is measured using the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model. We find that the GARCH effects, that is, persistence of volatility, is not always removed by adding trading volumes or number of transactions, indicating that trading volumes and number of transactions do not adequately represent the rate of information arrivals.

  16. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Shimooka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Misima, Tsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy has a strong relation to a society. However, due to accidents and scandals having occurred in recent years, people's reliability to nuclear energy has significantly swayed and is becoming existence of a worry. Analyzing such a situation and grasping the problem contained are serious problems for people engaging in nuclear field. In order that nuclear energy is properly used in society, communication with general public and in nuclear power plant site area are increasingly getting important as well as grasping the situation and surveying measures for overcoming the problems. On the basis of such an analysis, various activities for betterment of public acceptance of nuclear energy by nuclear industry workers, researchers and the government are proposed. (J.P.N.)

  17. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  18. Society and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has record­ed phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights, peace and global governance are the result of the exponential development of the capacity of society to harness human energies and convert them into social power for productive purposes. Today, humanity possesses the power and capabilities needed to fully meet the multi-dimensional challenges confronting global society. The source of this energy is people. Human energy is transformed into social power by the increasing reach, frequency and complexity of human relationships. Society is a complex living network of organized relationships between people. Its power issues from channelizing our collective energies in productive ways by means of organizing principles such as coordination, systems, specialization of function, hierarchy of authority, and integration. This immense social power remains largely underutilized. Social science needs to evolve a comprehensive, trans-disciplinary understanding of the roots of social power and the process by which it is generated, distributed and applied. This knowledge is the essential foundation for formulating effective social policies capable of eradicating forever persistent poverty, unemployment and social inequality. This article is based on a series of lectures delivered by the author in the WAAS-WUC course on “Toward a Trans-disciplinary Science of Society” at Dubrovnik on September 1-3, 2014. It traces the development of social power in different fields to show that human and social capital are inexhaustible in potential. The more we harness them, the more they grow. Unleashing, directing, channeling and converting human potential into social

  19. Quality and human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  20. Cooking and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Teplá, Hedvika

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "Cooking and Society" focuses on cooking, a process of food preparation. The thesis analyzes cooking as a leisure activity, type of housework and it also discusses the relation between cooking and cultural identity. It focuses on the importance of national and ethnic cuisine and deals with the differences in cooking influenced by religion and social stratification. The thesis also deals with the acquisition of cooing skills and transgeneral transfer of cooking skills. It d...

  1. Man in Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单祝堂

    1994-01-01

    Men usually want to have their own way.They want to thinkand act as they like.No one,however,can have his own way all thetime.A man cannot live in society without considering the interestsof others as well as his own interests.’Society’ means a groupof people with the same laws and the same way of life.People in

  2. The new totalitarian society

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout hi...

  3. Creativity In Conscience Society

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gh. Rosca; Dumitru Todoroi

    2011-01-01

    Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, and for Society in general. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence Creativity should be devel...

  4. Radiation Sensitivity of Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uray, I.; Hille, R.; Rohloff, F.

    1998-01-01

    Investigating the mean dose values as well as dose distributions of the inhabitants in a large number of settlements maybe set down, that the generally calculated mean exposure is a good measure to estimate the collective dose for a settlement or for a large region. Its uncertainty is however too high, and the dose distribution is very broad (250-300%) to estimate the external exposure of any single person. However, models may take into account more details of influencing factors. First of all the surveying of the local contamination density distribution could be more detailed and more accurate. Measure and distribution of the internal exposure (is not the subject of the present work, but it is similarly problematic. In this situation it is very difficult to search the dose-effect relationships exactly, and is also difficult to satisfy the people that their fears are unjustified. Society pays the costs of the nuclear industry and of the possible consequences as well. But society can neither control the nuclear industry nor the possible consequences at all. Both science and single people are waiting for more and detailed information. If we can not decrease the r adiation sensitivity of societies , then the consequences of Chernobyl will be growing unnecessarily, and it can strongly retard the justified development of the nuclear industry as well. (author)

  5. The new totalitarian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout history. For instance, the Inquisition, which, contrary to what happened at scholastic universities, severely berated rational thinking in practice. Catholicism helped carry out genocide against the Jews, and Orthodoxy is in a certain manner tied in with Stalinism. The new totalitarian society is anchored in American Protestantism. On the whole, Christian rationalism is a sphere of science, techniques and technologies efficiently employed to promote the West to the status of a society of plenty and the conception of human rights, which turn into their opposite and irrational behavior of the worst kind. An example of such inhumanity is the attack against Yugoslavia/Serbia in 1999.

  6. A transactional framework for pediatric rehabilitation: shifting the focus to situated contexts, transactional processes, and adaptive developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Imms, Christine; Stewart, Debra; Freeman, Matt; Nguyen, Tram

    2018-07-01

    A paradigm shift is taking place in pediatric rehabilitation research, practice, and policy - a shift towards the real-life contexts of clients rather than requiring clients to navigate the world of pediatric rehabilitation. This article proposes a conceptual framework to bring about a broader awareness of clients' lives and transactional processes of change over the life course. The framework draws attention to transactional processes by which individuals, situated in life contexts, change and adapt over the life course and, in turn, influence their contextual settings and broader environments. This framework is based on (a) basic tenets derived from foundational theories taking a life course perspective to change, and (b) transactional processes identified from relevant pediatric rehabilitation models that bring these foundational theories into the pediatric rehabilitation sphere. The framework identifies three types of transactional processes relevant to pediatric rehabilitation: facilitative, resiliency, and socialization processes. These processes describe how contexts and people mutually influence each other via opportunities and situated experiences, thus facilitating capacity, adaptation to adversity, and socialization to new roles and life transitions. The utility of the framework is considered for research, practice, service organizations, and policy. Implications for Rehabilitation The framework supports practitioners going beyond person and environment as separate entities, to provide services to the "situated person" in real-life contexts The framework shifts the focus from "body structures/functions" and "person in activity" to "person in changing and challenging life contexts" Working from a transactional perspective, practitioner-client conversations will change; practitioners will view client situations through a lens of opportunities and experiences, assess client experiences in real-life contexts, and strive to create context-based therapy

  7. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  8. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  9. Consortia based production of biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Sukumara, Sumesh; Özdemir, Emre

    2016-01-01

    One of the great challenges facing society is how to sustainably produce food, chemicals and other commodities required to maintain and develop our current life style. To compete with and ultimately replace existing petrochemical-based manufacturing processes, the development of innovative...

  10. International topical meeting TOPSEAL 2006. Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    From 17-20 September 2006, over 100 nuclear scientists and engineers from across Europe, Canada, the USA, Japan and Korea converged on the Olkiluoto Information Centre in Finland to attend TOPSEAL 2006. This international topical meeting dedicated to the subject of radioactive waste management was organised by the European Nuclear Society (ENS) in co-operation with the Finnish Nuclear Society (ATS) and the OECD/NEA. The conference was hosted by TVO, Finland's largest power utility and POSIVA, a daughter company of TVO and the country's number one radioactive waste management specialist. The main message that emerged from the conference is that a range of technological solutions exist and are currently being developed and applied across Europe - and beyond - to ensure the safe and efficient long term management of all categories of nuclear waste and spent fuel. Against the background of the nuclear revival, more and more countries are now looking closely at all available options. The TOPSEAL 2006 agenda centred upon four main sessions devoted respectively to: international perspectives on radioactive waste management; research, development and demonstration of waste storage and disposal; existing experiences with low and intermediate level radioactive waste and deep geological and near surface repositories. The conference concluded with a panel discussion entitled Future Challenges in radioactive Waste Management and a visit of the waste management facilities in Olkiluoto. Among the many issues discussed by TOPSEAL delegates was EU policy and legislation related to waste management, deep underground repositories, near surface storage, the experimental modelling of safety barriers, radiation shielding and research funding. Research and development programmes, benchmarking and long term strategies in several countries were also presented and discussed at length. A recurring theme that underpinned the discussions was the need to increase public understanding and

  11. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  12. Risk and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Vrousos, C.; Pages, J.P.; Carde, C.

    1999-01-01

    This book brings together the communications presented at the colloquium 'risk and society' held in Paris (France) on November 1998. During this colloquium, the various aspects of risk and of its management were discussed by medical specialists, historians, industrialists, engineers, philosophers, lawyers, politicians and administration representatives. The first theme concerns the controversies generated by the development of some activities (genetics, bio-technologies, nuclear and radiations use). The second theme concerns the management of risks and the way to conciliate the point of view of authorities and citizens (confidence of the public with respect to experts, scientists, industrialists, government and administrative representatives, role played by the media). The debates that took place during the colloquium have shown that the public opinion concerning the nuclear activities or the new technologies greatly depends on the ideological attitudes and on the public's likes and dislikes with respect to some categories of actors (distrust with respect to public decisions, fears with respect to changes and future, nostalgia of the past). The following aspects are reviewed: Notions of risk and hazard (risk and health, risk in today's society, medicine and society, the point of view of the industrialists and of the scientific and technical specialists); from the psychological aspects of the risk to its social aspects (survey of the risk assessment battlefield, social attenuation and amplification of risk, the feeling of risks in Europe, insecurity and delinquency, controversies around radioactivity and health); the negotiation and communication about risks (risk and public health, negotiation around risks, risks and information dissemination about the public debate, communication and crisis, evolution of risk communication, comparison between American and European approaches, the Seveso directive); the public debate and the evolution of risks management (the

  13. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  14. The post Chernobyl society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenofontov, Ion.

    2011-01-01

    The disaster from the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl that took place on April 26, 1986 is considered to be the worst ecologic disaster in Europe during the entire nuclear power producing history (estimated on the highest level, the seventh). The disaster had an poisonous impact on people's health and ambitions, it also gave birth to a new vision on the impact of the human factor on the universe. The post Chernobyl society is an alarming sign as regarding the human surviving perspectives, and a violent lesson on the 'global biography'. (author)

  15. Advanced information society (9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  16. Connecting Science with Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating......, for driving innovation or for disseminating results to the scientific community and beyond. And, as a look at the CRIS2010 conference program will tell, there are many more, often little known purposes for which CRIS are used. These applications stimulate with their demands the progress in designing, building...

  17. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration......- and citizenship-regimes. Locating transnationalism as part of the political opportunity structure also indicates that the state(s) to some degree can facilitate transnationalism, directly and indirectly. A substantial part of political engagement now occurs via transnational channels. What is uncertain is to what...

  18. The plutonium society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de

  19. Investigating the cognitive precursors of emotional response to cancer stress: re-testing Lazarus's transactional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert-Williams, N J; Morrison, V; Wilkinson, C; Neal, R D

    2013-02-01

    Lazarus's Transactional Model of stress and coping underwent significant theoretical development through the 1990s to better incorporate emotional reactions to stress with their appraisal components. Few studies have robustly explored the full model. This study aimed to do so within the context of a major life event: cancer diagnosis. A repeated measures design was used whereby data were collected using self-report questionnaire at baseline (soon after diagnosis), and 3- and 6-month follow-up. A total of 160 recently diagnosed cancer patients were recruited (mean time since diagnosis = 46 days). Their mean age was 64.2 years. Data on appraisals, core-relational themes, and emotions were collected. Data were analysed using both Spearman's correlation tests and multivariate regression modelling. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated weak correlation between change scores of theoretically associated components and some emotions correlated more strongly with cognitions contradicting theoretical expectations. Cross-sectional multivariate testing of the ability of cognitions to explain variance in emotion was largely theory inconsistent. Although data support the generic structure of the Transactional Model, they question the model specifics. Larger scale research is needed encompassing a wider range of emotions and using more complex statistical testing. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: • Stress processes are transactional and coping outcome is informed by both cognitive appraisal of the stressor and the individual's emotional response (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). • Lazarus (1999) made specific hypotheses about which particular stress appraisals would determine which emotional response, but only a small number of these relationships have been robustly investigated. • Previous empirical testing of this theory has been limited by design and statistical limitations. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: • This study empirically investigates the cognitive precedents of a

  20. Observations of radiographer communication: An exploratory study using Transactional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Lisa A.; Manning, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. Methods: The present study has investigated the styles of communication used in medical imaging, using an approach known as Transactional Analysis. This approach has been demonstrated previously as having reliability and validity, using observations and supporting interviews with medical imaging staff, along with inter-rater observations of radiographer-patient interactions. Results: The results indicate that Transactional Analysis can be used effectively for identifying and naming interaction events in diagnostic radiography, with diagnostic radiographers using five styles of communication. Conclusion: Radiographers tend to use Parental styles of communicating; these styles are commonly associated with a practitioner-centred approach to dealing with patients which often result in non-adherence

  1. Conference Proceedings: Structuring oil and gas property transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 12 presentations at this conference dealt with issues concerning the legal aspects of oil and gas property transaction agreements. Several issues regarding sales and purchase negotiations of oil and gas property are reviewed and some of the basic principles of contract law are explained. Advantages, disadvantages and opportunities of structuring oil and gas property acquisitions, as well as their tax consequences are also identified. The issue of risk assessment regarding environmental consequences and how public concerns regarding the state of the environment has had an impact on oil and gas transactions, is addressed. Interest in this topic stems from the fact that improved enforcement of existing laws regarding the environment can potentially make purchasers liable for significant costs associated with remediation or clean-up of contaminated properties. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Financial Transaction Tax (Davek na finančne transakcije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Ahtik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Financial transaction tax has been proposed already by Keynes; however it has been introduced only in some individual countries and not globally, which would reduce possibilities for tax evasion. Nevertheless, the topic gained importance during the recent financial crisis – the tax is supposed to reduce risky activities of the financial industry and fill the budgets with the means for alleviating the consequences of the crisis, largely caused by the financial industry. Proposal of the European Commission is therefore the first concrete proposal that addresses a wider economic area. This paper investigates economic, theoretical rationale for the introduction of a financial transaction tax and studies its structure and consequences in several European countries: United Kingdom, France, Italy and Sweden. Special emphasis is given to the proposal of the European Commission that would, in case it is confirmed, apply also to Slovenia, although some concerns have arisen recently, weather Slovenia should introduce the tax or not.

  3. Optimal power transaction matrix rescheduling under multilateral open access environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, M.P.; Raoofat, M.; Haghifam, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a new concept for determining optimal transactions between different entities in a multilateral environment while benefits of both buyer and seller entities are taken into account with respect to the rules of the system. At the same time, constraints of the network are met, which leads to an optimal power flow problem. A modified power transaction matrix is proposed for modeling the environment. The optimization method in this paper is the continuation method, which is suited for complex situations of power system studies. This complexity will become more serious when dual interaction between financial and electrical subsystems of competitive power system are taken into account. The proposed approach is tested on a typical network with satisfactory results. (author)

  4. AN AGENT BASED TRANSACTION PROCESSING SCHEME FOR DISCONNECTED MOBILE NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Walter Jeyakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a mobile transaction framework in which mobile users can share data which is stored in the cache of a mobile agent. This mobile agent is a special mobile node which coordinates the sharing process. The proposed framework allows mobile affiliation work groups to be formed dynamically with a mobile agent and mobile hosts. Using short range wireless communication technology, mobile users can simultaneously access the data from the cache of the mobile agent. The data Access Manager module at the mobile agent enforces concurrency control using cache invalidation technique. This model supports disconnected mobile computing allowing mobile agent to move along with the Mobile Hosts. The proposed Transaction frame work has been simulated in Java 2 and performance of this scheme is compared with existing frame works.

  5. REAL-TIME OBJECT DETECTION IN PARALLEL THROUGH ATOMIC TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sivakumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Object detection and tracking is important operation involved in embedded systems like video surveillance, Traffic monitoring, campus security system, machine vision applications and other areas. Detecting and tracking multiple objects in a video or image is challenging problem in machine vision and computer vision based embedded systems. Implementation of such a object detection and tracking systems are done in sequential way of processing and also it was implemented using hardware synthesize tools like verilog HDL with FPGA, achieves considerably lesser performance in speed and it does support lesser atomic transactions. There are many object detection and tracking algorithm were proposed and implemented, among them background subtraction is one of them. This paper proposes a implementation of detecting and tracking multiple objects based on background subtraction algorithm using java and .NET and also discuss about the architecture concept for object detection through atomic transactional, modern hardware synthesizes language called Bluespec.

  6. Transactional Analysis: Conceptualizing a Framework for Illuminating Human Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Thomas Stewart PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Myriad methods exist for analyzing qualitative data. It is, however, imperative for qualitative researchers to employ data analysis tools that are congruent with the theoretical frameworks underpinning their inquiries. In this paper, I have constructed a framework for analyzing data that could be useful for researchers interested in focusing on the transactional nature of language as they engage in Social Science research. Transactional Analysis (TA is an inductive approach to data analysis that transcends constant comparative methods of exploring data. Drawing on elements of narrative and thematic analysis, TA uses the theories of Bakhtin and Rosenblatt to attend to the dynamic processes researchers identify as they generate themes in their data and seek to understand how their participants' worldviews are being shaped. This paper highlights the processes researchers can utilize to study the mutual shaping that occurs as participants read and enter into dialogue with the world around them.

  7. Traffic Rules in Electronic Financial Transactions (EFT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Batoš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traffic rules in the EFT (ElectronicFinancial Transactions networks, based on the implementationof the solution called Gold-Net developed and implementedby Euronet Worldwide Inc. Following the traffic rulesin EFT networks, out of its worldwide experience, Gold-Netevolved a comprehensive and expandable EFT network solutiondesigned to meet an institution's needs today and in the future.It is an ITM (Integrated Transaction Management solution,modular and expandable, and consists of a comprehensiveEFT software modules with ATM and POS driving capabilities.The combination of ATM management and the onlineconnection form the intercept processing control module. Asthe marketplace grows, this solution ensures that an ente1prisemay position itself for future growth and expanded service offerings.

  8. The Transaction Footprints of Scottish Food And Drink SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copus Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey approach to measuring the “transaction footprints” of rural small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Combined with a graphical presentation of results, this contributes to the evidence base on the roles of local and global linkages. Findings suggest that the food and drink industry of Scotland is relatively localised in its input and sales interaction pattern, although substantial variations, associated with product specialisms, remoteness/accessibility, input purchasing and marketing strategies, exist. Localised SMEs have weathered the recession slightly better, but more outward-looking in firms tend to have greater optimism about the future. Transaction footprint analysis should be viewed as component of an ongoing process of re-mapping the network infrastructure of the rural economy, alongside analysis of untraded interdependencies, and institutional networks in the realm of governance.

  9. Are transaction taxes a cause of financial instability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontini, Fulvio; Sartori, Elena; Tolotti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    We analyze a stylized market where N boundedly rational agents may decide to trade or not a share of a risky asset at subsequent trading dates. Agents' payoff depends on returns, which are endogenously determined taking into account observed and forecasted demand and an exogenous transaction tax. We study the time evolutions of demand, returns and market activity. We show that the introduction of a transaction tax generally helps in reducing variability of returns and market activity. On the other hand, there are market conditions under which a low taxation may lead the market into a very unstable phase characterized by the fluctuation of the fundamentals around two different regimes; indeed, under these circumstances, heteroscedasticity of time series is detected and statistically analyzed.

  10. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  11. Transformational and transactional leadership and problem solving in restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The study tries to give information on the leadership behavior of restaurant managers in their problem solving. The results of the study were collected by evaluating three restaurant managers by interviewing them. The restaurant managers’ answers were compared to transformational and transactional leadership model and the aspects of it. Their problem solving skills were evaluated by the help of a rational and creative problem solving model. The study showed that restaurant managers have both ...

  12. THREE APPLICATIONS OF TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Radu A. Păun

    2008-01-01

    We begin by investigating the use of complex contracts in Romania. A transparent transaction cost economics (TCE) model generates the hypothesis that buyer and seller relationship-specific investments have opposite effects on contract complexity. Our analysis counters the problem of unobserved heterogeneity, generates estimates of the effects of specific investments that are opposite in sign on opposite sides of the agreement, and explains the patterns in the biases of ordinary least-squares ...

  13. A Transactions Cost Economics (TCE) Approach to Optimal Contract Type

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Raymond; Melese, Francois; Dillard, John

    2006-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) This study examines defense acquisition through the new lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE). TCE is an emergent field in economics that has multiple applications to defense acquisition practices. TCE''s original focus was to guide ''make-or-buy?'' decisions that define the boundaries of a firm. This study reviews insights afforded by TCE that impact government outsourcing (''buy'' decisions), paying special attention to defense pro...

  14. A New Contention Management Technique for Obstruction Free Transactional Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Ammlan; Sahin, Anubhab; Silsarma, Anirban; Chaki, Rituparna

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Algorithms; International audience; Transactional Memory, one of the most viable alternatives to lock based concurrent systems, was explored by the researchers for practically implementing parallel processing. The goal was that threads will run parallel and improve system performance, but the effect of their execution will be linear. In STM, the non-blocking synchronization can be implemented by Wait-Freedom, Lock-Freedom or Obstruction-Freedom philosophy. Though Obstruction Free Tran...

  15. Blockchain – The Gateway to Trust-Free Cryptographic Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Roman; Stenum Czepluch, Jacob; Lollike, Nikolaj; Malone, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Bitcoin-underlying blockchain technology gained prominence as a solution that offers the realization of distributed trust-free systems, where economic transactions are guaranteed by the underlying blockchain. We are still at an early stage and thus require a deeper understanding of how the blockchain potentials can be realized, and what are the opportunities and challenges in so doing. Following a design science approach, we developed a proof of concept prototype that has the po...

  16. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  17. Two-Stage Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Transaction Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yanju; Wang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a two-period portfolio selection problem. The problem is formulated as a two-stage fuzzy portfolio selection model with transaction costs, in which the future returns of risky security are characterized by possibility distributions. The objective of the proposed model is to achieve the maximum utility in terms of the expected value and variance of the final wealth. Given the first-stage decision vector and a realization of fuzzy return, the optimal value expression of the s...

  18. Transaction Costs in Collective Waste Recovery Systems in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to identify the institutional flaws of the current EU waste management model by analysing the economic model of extended producer responsibility and collective waste management systems and to create a model for measuring the transaction costs borne by waste recovery organizations. The model was approbated by analysing the Bulgarian collective waste management systems that have been complying with the EU legislation for the last 10 years. The analysis focuses on waste oils becau...

  19. Institutional failures and transaction costs of Bulgarian private research institutes

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the reasons for poor performance of private research institutes in Bulgaria. In this regard the Institutional Economics methods are used. A connection between smart growth policy goals and Bulgarian membership in EU is made. The gaps in the institutional environment are identified as well as measures for their elimination are proposed. The main accent of the study is put on the identification of transaction costs, arisen as a result of the failures of the institutional envi...

  20. Challenges of hotel outsourcing in Ghana: A transaction cost perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Edem Hiamey

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing is one of the many business strategies adopted by hotels due to the many opportunities that it provides. These opportunities notwithstanding, there are teething challenges with outsourcing. This study sought to find out from hotel managers in the Accra Metropolis of Ghana some of the challenges they face with outsourcing from a transaction cost perspective. Eight in-depth interviews were conducted in six hotels that outsourced. After capturing and transcribing ...

  1. E-banking: Online Transactions and Security Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed Ullah Khan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the technology involved in the more important payment systems currently available to internet users. As the field is undergoing a major upheaval by changing the traditional banking services, e-commerce is facilitating change in recent years. These programs in-returns have shown lucrative growth in internet businesses and capital generation. Transactions on an international scale are the mark of highly demanding businesses with a global consumer base. Banks around the world...

  2. A transaction cost approach to strategic alliances in telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Camino Blasco, David; Trecu, Juan Ramón

    1996-01-01

    An emerging form of international business organization is the strategic alliance, a species of joint-venture in which an innovator of technology contracts with another firm for the joint exploitation of technology and other assets across a number of national territories. This work will examine international alliances, applying insights from both the transaction cost and foreign investment theories to the telecommunications service industry and asking whether these cooperation agreements are ...

  3. Do Patents Shield Disclosure or Assure Exclusivity When Transacting Technology?

    OpenAIRE

    Gaétan de Rassenfosse; Alfons Palangkaraya; Elizabeth Webster

    2013-01-01

    Patents may assist trade in technology either by protecting buyers against the expropriation of the idea by third parties (the appropriation effect) or by enabling sellers to more frankly disclose the idea during the negotiation phase (the disclosure effect). We test for the presence of both these effects using quasi-experimental matching analysis on a novel dataset of 860 technology transaction negotiations. We identify the appropriation effect by comparing the probability of successful nego...

  4. Trans-acting translational regulatory RNA binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert F; Smith, Tom S; Mulroney, Thomas; Queiroz, Rayner M L; Pizzinga, Mariavittoria; Dezi, Veronica; Villenueva, Eneko; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Lilley, Kathryn S; Willis, Anne E

    2018-05-01

    The canonical molecular machinery required for global mRNA translation and its control has been well defined, with distinct sets of proteins involved in the processes of translation initiation, elongation and termination. Additionally, noncanonical, trans-acting regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary to provide mRNA-specific translation, and these interact with 5' and 3' untranslated regions and coding regions of mRNA to regulate ribosome recruitment and transit. Recently it has also been demonstrated that trans-acting ribosomal proteins direct the translation of specific mRNAs. Importantly, it has been shown that subsets of RBPs often work in concert, forming distinct regulatory complexes upon different cellular perturbation, creating an RBP combinatorial code, which through the translation of specific subsets of mRNAs, dictate cell fate. With the development of new methodologies, a plethora of novel RNA binding proteins have recently been identified, although the function of many of these proteins within mRNA translation is unknown. In this review we will discuss these methodologies and their shortcomings when applied to the study of translation, which need to be addressed to enable a better understanding of trans-acting translational regulatory proteins. Moreover, we discuss the protein domains that are responsible for RNA binding as well as the RNA motifs to which they bind, and the role of trans-acting ribosomal proteins in directing the translation of specific mRNAs. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes Translation > Translation Regulation Translation > Translation Mechanisms. © 2018 Medical Research Council and University of Cambridge. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. General Equilibrium in a Segmented Market Economy with Convex Transaction Cost: Existence, Efficiency, Commodity and Fiat Money

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Ross M.

    2002-01-01

    This study derives the monetary structure of transactions, the use of commodity or fiat money, endogenously from transaction costs in a segmented market general equilibrium model. Market segmentation means there are separate budget constraints for each transaction: budgets balance in each transaction separately. Transaction costs imply differing bid and ask (selling and buying) prices. The most liquid instruments are those with the lowest proportionate bid/ask spread in equilibrium. Exist...

  6. Nuclear power and modern society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treatise consisting of the following sections: Development of modern society (Origin of modern society; Industrial society; The year 1968; Post-industrial society; Worldwide civic society); Historic breaks in the development of the stationary power sector (Stationary thermal power; Historic breaks in the development of nuclear power); Czech nuclear power engineering in the globalization era (Major causes of success of Czech nuclear power engineering; Future of Czech nuclear power engineering). (P.A.)

  7. Transactional Sex among Youths in Post-conflict Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen B.; Barbu, Ernlee M.; Nagbe, Wede; Seekey, Wede; Sirleaf, Prince; Perry, Oretha; Martin, Roland B.; Sosu, Fred

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings on sexual risk behaviours of Liberian youths based on five focus-group discussions conducted with 6th and 7th graders (n=36) attending an elementary/middle school in Monrovia, Liberia. The purpose of the focus-group discussions was to gain an understanding of the sexual behaviours of in-school Liberian adolescents. The focus-group discussions were part of a larger study to adapt an evi-dence-based HIV-prevention intervention—Making Proud Choices!—for in-school youths. Post-conflict conditions were discussed as a contributor to the emergence of high-risk sexual behaviours, including transactional sex, sexual violence, and lack of condom-use. Transactional sex was often described by the focus-group participants as occurring between young females and older, more financially-secure males to obtain cash, food, clothing, western commodities, and school-fees and was often encouraged by parents and promoted by peers. The findings also indicate that female adolescents make choices to engage in transactional sex to gain access to a continuum of material and consumer needs. These findings suggest that individual risk-taking behaviours are nested within complex sexual economies and that HIV-prevention interventions should be considered that leverage females’ agency and control. PMID:21608420

  8. [Pay for performance explained by transaction costs theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbaneff, Yuri; Cortes, Ariel; Torres, Sergio; Yepes, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of transaction costs theory to explain incentives in the health care chain. We performed a case study of CPS, a health insurance company in Bogota (Colombia), which preferred not to publish its name. CPS moves in the environment of high transaction costs and uses the hybrid form of governance at the outpatient level. Incentive intensity, administrative control and the contract all agree with the theory. At the hospital level, the market is used, despite greater uncertainty. Because of the discrete form (1.0) of the incentives and the absence of administrative control, it is difficult for CPS to relate payment to hospital performance. Transaction costs theory explains the configuration of incentives. Another contribution made by this theory to the literature is the criterion to differentiate between the market and the hybrid. We propose that the market uses discrete-type (1.0) incentives, while the hybrid uses continuous, commission-like incentives. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Resilient data staging through MxN distributed transactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwan, Karsten (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Oldfield, Ron A.; Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick, II; Dayal, Jai (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2011-11-01

    Scientific computing-driven discoveries are frequently driven from workflows that use persistent storage as a staging area for data between operations. With the bad and progressively worse bandwidth vs. data size issues as we continue towards exascale, eliminating persistent storage through techniques like data staging will both enable these workflows to continue online, but also enable more interactive workflows reducing the time to scientific discoveries. Data staging has shown to be an effective way for applications running on high-end computing platforms to offload expensive I/O operations and to manage the tremendous amounts of data they produce. This data staging approach, however, lacks the ACID style guarantees traditional straight-to-disk methods provide. Distributed transactions are a proven way to add ACID properties to data movements, however distributed transactions follow 1xN data movement semantics, where our highly parallel HPC environments employ MxN data movement semantics. In this paper we present a novel protocol that extends distributed transaction terminology to include MxN semantics which allows our data staging areas to benefit from ACID properties. We show that with our protocol we can provide resilient data staging with a limited performance penalty over current data staging implementations.

  10. Financial sector taxation: Financial activities tax or financial transaction tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.

  11. Linear versus quadratic portfolio optimization model with transaction cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norhidayah Bt Ab; Kamil, Karmila Hanim; Elias, Siti Masitah

    2014-06-01

    Optimization model is introduced to become one of the decision making tools in investment. Hence, it is always a big challenge for investors to select the best model that could fulfill their goal in investment with respect to risk and return. In this paper we aims to discuss and compare the portfolio allocation and performance generated by quadratic and linear portfolio optimization models namely of Markowitz and Maximin model respectively. The application of these models has been proven to be significant and popular among others. However transaction cost has been debated as one of the important aspects that should be considered for portfolio reallocation as portfolio return could be significantly reduced when transaction cost is taken into consideration. Therefore, recognizing the importance to consider transaction cost value when calculating portfolio' return, we formulate this paper by using data from Shariah compliant securities listed in Bursa Malaysia. It is expected that, results from this paper will effectively justify the advantage of one model to another and shed some lights in quest to find the best decision making tools in investment for individual investors.

  12. Transaction Costs in Global Supply Chains of Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bremen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing has advanced to an important measure that is applied broadly in operations management. Nowadays, suppliers of manufacturing companies do not only provide direct material like raw material and operational supplements but offer components and advanced modules incurring many value-adding stages. Whereas in the past companies built up local supplier networks, they recently tend to search for global sources. However, not all companies reach their expectations towards the success of global sourcing projects. Important reasons for relocating manufacturing capacities back to local suppliers or in- house manufacturing are costs for unexpected coordination activities, limited flexibility and declined or fluctuating quality. The theory of Transaction Cost Economics postulates that transaction costs of the types information, communication and coordination determine the governance structure of a supply chain, i.e. market, hybrid or firm. The objective of this paper is to analyze the cause-and-effect chain of inter-firm transaction costs concerning global sourcing. The resulting qualitative model is based on explorative multiple-case study.

  13. Optimization-based sale transactions and hydrothermal scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasannan, B.; Luh, P.B.; Zhang, L.

    1996-01-01

    Selling and purchasing power are important activities for utilities because of potential savings. When a selling utility presents an offer including prices, power levels and durations, a purchasing utility selects power levels and durations within the offered range subject to relevant constraints. The decisionmaking process is complicated because transactions are coupled with system demand and reserve, therefore decisions have to be made in conjunction with the commitment and dispatching of units. Furthermore, transaction decisions have to be made in almost real time in view of the competitiveness of the power market caused by deregulation. In this paper, transactions are analyzed from a selling utility's viewpoint for a system consisting of thermal, hydro and pumped-storage units. To effectively solve the problem, linear sale revenues are approximated by nonlinear functions, and non-profitable options are identified and eliminated from consideration. The multipliers are then updated at the high level by using a modified subgradient method to obtain near optimal solutions quickly. Testing results show that the algorithm produces good sale offers efficiently

  14. Presidential addresses of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: 1907–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I.; McHugh, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    Presidents have been required to give an inaugural address on commencing office at the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) since its foundation in 1907. All presidential addresses were identified, sourced and assembled into an annotated bibliography. The majority of presidential addresses have been published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Unpublished and in some cases ‘lost’ contributions have now been sourced where possible and archived at the RSTMH. This unique, rich and rewarding archive provides a vista into the development of the RSTMH and the discipline of tropical medicine. The archive is freely available to all. PMID:24026462

  15. Realisation of functions of planning and organisation in the system of management of transaction expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krush Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in building a functional model of management of transaction expenses of an enterprise with specification of stages of realisation of planning functions in an organisation. In the result of the study the article marks out functions of management of transaction expenses, which ensure transformation of incoming (financial resources into outgoing ones (optimised transaction expenses. The article identifies stages of realisation of “Planning transaction expenses” and “Organisation of management of transaction expenses” functions. It characterises in detail responsibilities of enterprise subdivisions that deal with management of transaction expenses. It establishes that the original element of the planning function is the budget of transaction expenses for a planning period and organisation – job descriptions of employees with detailed description of their duties and authorities, rights and obligations. The prospect of further scientific developments is study of stages of realisation of such management functions as “Motivation of personnel on rational use of funds and management of transaction expenses”, “Control over the state of management of transaction expenses” and “Regulation of the process of management of transaction expenses” of enterprises.

  16. Organic and biochemical synthesis group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Stable isotopes, because of their unique properties and non-radioactive nature, have great potential for many fields of science and technology. In particular, isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (the basic building blocks of all biological molecules) would be widely used in biomedical and environmental research if they were economically available in sufficient quantities and in the required chemical forms. The major objective of our program continues to be stimulation of the widespread utilization of stable isotopes and commercial involvement through development and demonstration of applications which have potential requirements for large quantities of isotopes. Thus, demand will be created which is necessary for large-scale production of stable isotopes and labeled compounds and concomitant low unit costs. The program continues to produce a variety of labeled materials needed for clinical, biomedical, chemical, and environmental applications which serve as effective demonstrations of unique and advantageous utilization of stable isotopes. Future commercial involvement should benefit, and is a consideration in our research and development, from the technology transfer that can readily be made as a result of our organic and biochemical syntheses and also of various techniques involved in applications

  17. Communicating Science to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  18. Nanotechnology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2007-01-01

    Past experience has shown that the successful introduction of a new technology requires careful attention to the interactions between the technology and society. These interactions are bi-directional: on the one hand, technology changes and challenges social patterns and, on the other hand, the governance structures and values of the society affect progress in developing the technology. Nanotechnology is likely to be particularly affected by these kinds of interactions because of its great promise and the unusually early public attention it has received. Moreover, it represents a new kind of experiment in packaging a rather wide range of fundamental research activities under a single 'mission-like' umbrella. Although this gives it more impetus as a field, it sets a higher bar for showing successful applications early on and because it links disparate fields, regulatory regimes reasonable for one kind of nanotechnology development may be inappropriately extended to others. There are a number of lessons to be gleaned from experience with the introduction of other technologies, which offer guidance with respect to what pitfalls to avoid and what issues to be sensitive to as we move forward with the development of nanotechnology applications. The problems encountered by nuclear power point out the dangers of over-promising and the role the need for the technology plays in ameliorating fears of risk. The public reaction to biomedical engineering and biotechnology highlights, in addition, the cultural factors that come into play when technologies raise questions about what is 'natural' and what is 'foreign' and what conceptions are involved in defining 'personhood'. In all cases, it has been clear that a main task for those introducing new technology is building public trust-in the safety of the technologies and the integrity of those introducing it. The advocates of nanotechnology have already shown that they are generally aware of the need to consider the public

  19. 35. Meeting of the Polish Biochemical Society. Abstracts; 35. Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Biochemicznego. Streszczenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    During the conference various works concerning biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine were presented. Many works applied X-rays, gamma radiation and laser radiation to induce various disorders (changes of metabolism and enzyme activity, damages of cell constituents) in model organisms and cell cultures.

  20. 34. Meeting of the Polish Biochemical Society. Abstracts; 34. Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Biochemicznego. Streszczenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    During the conference various works concerning biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine were presented. Many works applied gamma radiation and laser radiation to induce various disorders (changes of metabolism and enzyme activity, damages of cell constituents) in model organisms and cell cultures.