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Sample records for biochemical methods

  1. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, ρ-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc

  2. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  3. Optical methods for monitoring physiological and biochemical variables

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, John; Rea, Philip; Dr. Philip Rea

    1986-01-01

    The use of optical methods for performing non-invasive physiological and biochemical monitoring has been investigated, with particular emphasis on the application of near-infrared spectrophotocetry for following changes in the redox state of cytochrome oxidase. Initial studies of the gross optical properties of in vivo tissue were made using an image intensifier. These demonstrated that some light is transmitted through biological tissues and that such material is very hi...

  4. Improved methods for the mathematically controlled comparison of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwacke John H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.

  5. Simulation methods with extended stability for stiff biochemical Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rué Pau

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing computer power, simulating the dynamics of complex systems in chemistry and biology is becoming increasingly routine. The modelling of individual reactions in (biochemical systems involves a large number of random events that can be simulated by the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA. The key quantity is the step size, or waiting time, τ, whose value inversely depends on the size of the propensities of the different channel reactions and which needs to be re-evaluated after every firing event. Such a discrete event simulation may be extremely expensive, in particular for stiff systems where τ can be very short due to the fast kinetics of some of the channel reactions. Several alternative methods have been put forward to increase the integration step size. The so-called τ-leap approach takes a larger step size by allowing all the reactions to fire, from a Poisson or Binomial distribution, within that step. Although the expected value for the different species in the reactive system is maintained with respect to more precise methods, the variance at steady state can suffer from large errors as τ grows. Results In this paper we extend Poisson τ-leap methods to a general class of Runge-Kutta (RK τ-leap methods. We show that with the proper selection of the coefficients, the variance of the extended τ-leap can be well-behaved, leading to significantly larger step sizes. Conclusions The benefit of adapting the extended method to the use of RK frameworks is clear in terms of speed of calculation, as the number of evaluations of the Poisson distribution is still one set per time step, as in the original τ-leap method. The approach paves the way to explore new multiscale methods to simulate (biochemical systems.

  6. Methods for assessing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, S; Recoules, L; Durand, M J; Boukabache, A; Picot, V; Primault, Y; Lakel, A; Sengelin, M; Barillon, B; Thouand, G

    2014-02-01

    The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is one of the most widely used criteria for water quality assessment. It provides information about the ready biodegradable fraction of the organic load in water. However, this analytical method is time-consuming (generally 5 days, BOD5), and the results may vary according to the laboratory (20%), primarily due to fluctuations in the microbial diversity of the inoculum used. Work performed during the two last decades has resulted in several technologies that are less time-consuming and more reliable. This review is devoted to the analysis of the technical features of the principal methods described in the literature in order to compare their performances (measuring window, reliability, robustness) and to identify the pros and the cons of each method.

  7. A general method for modeling biochemical and biomedical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Lerd Ng, Jia; Hughes, Tyler; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The impressive achievements of biomedical science have come mostly from experimental research with human subjects, animal models, and sophisticated laboratory techniques. Additionally, theoretical chemistry has been a major aid in designing new drugs. Here we introduce a method which is similar to others already well known in theoretical systems biology, but which specifically addresses biochemical changes as the human body responds to medical interventions. It is common in systems biology to use first-order differential equations to model the time evolution of various chemical concentrations, and we as physicists can make a significant impact through designing realistic models and then solving the resulting equations. Biomedical research is rapidly advancing, and the technique presented in this talk can be applied in arbitrarily large models containing tens, hundreds, or even thousands of interacting species, to determine what beneficial effects and side effects may result from pharmaceuticals or other medical interventions.

  8. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger information capacity and is more efficient in information transmission. This is consistent with theory of evolution.

  9. An effective method for computing the noise in biochemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Nie, Qing; He, Miao; Zhou, Tianshou

    2013-02-01

    We present a simple yet effective method, which is based on power series expansion, for computing exact binomial moments that can be in turn used to compute steady-state probability distributions as well as the noise in linear or nonlinear biochemical reaction networks. When the method is applied to representative reaction networks such as the ON-OFF models of gene expression, gene models of promoter progression, gene auto-regulatory models, and common signaling motifs, the exact formulae for computing the intensities of noise in the species of interest or steady-state distributions are analytically given. Interestingly, we find that positive (negative) feedback does not enlarge (reduce) noise as claimed in previous works but has a counter-intuitive effect and that the multi-OFF (or ON) mechanism always attenuates the noise in contrast to the common ON-OFF mechanism and can modulate the noise to the lowest level independently of the mRNA mean. Except for its power in deriving analytical expressions for distributions and noise, our method is programmable and has apparent advantages in reducing computational cost.

  10. Systematic methods for synthesis and design of sustainable chemical and biochemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    for process intensification, sustainable process design, identification of optimal biorefinery models as well as integrated process-control design, and chemical product design. The lecture will present the main concepts, the decomposition based solution approach, the developed methods and tools together......Chemical and biochemical process design consists of designing the process that can sustainably manufacture an identified chemical product through a chemical or biochemical route. The chemical product tree is potentially very large; starting from a set of basic raw materials (such as petroleum...... with illustrative examples covering chemical and biochemical process synthesis and design....

  11. An investigation on clinical, radiological and biochemical methods for assessing periodontitis activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to recognize in which stage rapidly progressing destruction of periodontal ligament fibers occurs, a number of diagnostic methods are studied in this thesis. It turns out that the actual much utilized clinical methods can not be improved while radiological and biochemical diagnositic methods are much more promising. 106 refs.; 20 figs.; 36 tabs

  12. A Geometric Method for Model Reduction of Biochemical Networks with Polynomial Rate Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Satya Swarup; Grigoriev, Dima; Fröhlich, Holger; Weber, Andreas; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2015-12-01

    Model reduction of biochemical networks relies on the knowledge of slow and fast variables. We provide a geometric method, based on the Newton polytope, to identify slow variables of a biochemical network with polynomial rate functions. The gist of the method is the notion of tropical equilibration that provides approximate descriptions of slow invariant manifolds. Compared to extant numerical algorithms such as the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold method, our approach is symbolic and utilizes orders of magnitude instead of precise values of the model parameters. Application of this method to a large collection of biochemical network models supports the idea that the number of dynamical variables in minimal models of cell physiology can be small, in spite of the large number of molecular regulatory actors.

  13. Study of goiter in Madagascar using biochemical and nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiopathological and etiological characteristics of goiter in Tananarive and Majunga were compared, using the following methods: 131iodine uptake, thyroid scintigraphy, radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones, neutron activation analysis of iodine. The results are discussed and differences between goiter in Tananarive and Majunga are emphasized

  14. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  15. Modified Step Variational Iteration Method for Solving Fractional Biochemical Reaction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yulita Molliq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method called the modification of step variational iteration method (MoSVIM is introduced and used to solve the fractional biochemical reaction model. The MoSVIM uses general Lagrange multipliers for construction of the correction functional for the problems, and it runs by step approach, which is to divide the interval into subintervals with time step, and the solutions are obtained at each subinterval as well adopting a nonzero auxiliary parameter ℏ to control the convergence region of series' solutions. The MoSVIM yields an analytical solution of a rapidly convergent infinite power series with easily computable terms and produces a good approximate solution on enlarged intervals for solving the fractional biochemical reaction model. The accuracy of the results obtained is in a excellent agreement with the Adam Bashforth Moulton method (ABMM.

  16. Biochemical method for fast affinity diagnosis in grape-vine transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term experiments have proved the affinity of cv. Mavroud in transplantations on various root stocks. Best affinity was observed in the combination cv. Mavroud X Riparia tomanteau, followed, in a descending order, by the combinations Mavroud X Mavroud (autotransplantation), Mavroud X Berlandieri X Riparia Kobber SBB and Mavroud X Riparia 33 EM. In view to establish indices for predicting the transplantation affinity a great number of physiological-biochemical and morphological-anatomical studies were carried out. The results obtained showed that a most clearly expressed positive, statistically significant correlation exists between the amount of 15N transported from the root stock to the scions, shoots and leaves. As a result, a biochemical method for fast affinity diagnosis in grape-vine transplantation has been developed. The reliability of the method has been checked up also with other cultivars. Up to the present no such method was known in grape-vine science and practice. (author)

  17. Epidemiology of Candida infection. II. Application of biochemical methods for typing of Candida albicans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, A

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical profiles of 350 C. albicans isolates from five towns in Poland and from Freiburg in Germany were determined on the basis of nine biochemical tests of Odds and Abbott method. API 20 C AUX system and additionally a resistogram. The analysis of the strains according to Odds' and Abbotts's system showed that investigated strains can be typed into 9 profile codes of common biochemical patterns. There were some differences among the profiles according to their geographical origin and anatomical sources of the isolation. On the basis of the ability C. albicans strains to assimilate of carbon sources, 350 isolates were categorised into 13 separate auxotrophic profiles with the major one: 2,576,174 accounting for 81% of the total. The majority of the investigated isolates were susceptible to antifungal agents (83%). A disproportionate distribution of auxotrophic profiles limited the use of resistogram method and API 20 C AUX as systems for typing C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the method of Odds and Abbott provides valuable criteria for typing of C. albicans. PMID:2130802

  18. A moment-convergence method for stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Nie, Qing; Zhou, Tianshou

    2016-05-01

    Traditional moment-closure methods need to assume that high-order cumulants of a probability distribution approximate to zero. However, this strong assumption is not satisfied for many biochemical reaction networks. Here, we introduce convergent moments (defined in mathematics as the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of the probability-generating function at some point) to overcome this drawback of the moment-closure methods. As such, we develop a new analysis method for stochastic chemical kinetics. This method provides an accurate approximation for the master probability equation (MPE). In particular, the connection between low-order convergent moments and rate constants can be more easily derived in terms of explicit and analytical forms, allowing insights that would be difficult to obtain through direct simulation or manipulation of the MPE. In addition, it provides an accurate and efficient way to compute steady-state or transient probability distribution, avoiding the algorithmic difficulty associated with stiffness of the MPE due to large differences in sizes of rate constants. Applications of the method to several systems reveal nontrivial stochastic mechanisms of gene expression dynamics, e.g., intrinsic fluctuations can induce transient bimodality and amplify transient signals, and slow switching between promoter states can increase fluctuations in spatially heterogeneous signals. The overall approach has broad applications in modeling, analysis, and computation of complex biochemical networks with intrinsic noise.

  19. A new computational method to split large biochemical networks into coherent subnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verwoerd Wynand S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to more general networks, biochemical networks have some special features: while generally sparse, there are a small number of highly connected metabolite nodes; and metabolite nodes can also be divided into two classes: internal nodes with associated mass balance constraints and external ones without. Based on these features, reclassifying selected internal nodes (separators to external ones can be used to divide a large complex metabolic network into simpler subnetworks. Selection of separators based on node connectivity is commonly used but affords little detailed control and tends to produce excessive fragmentation. The method proposed here (Netsplitter allows the user to control separator selection. It combines local connection degree partitioning with global connectivity derived from random walks on the network, to produce a more even distribution of subnetwork sizes. Partitioning is performed progressively and the interactive visual matrix presentation used allows the user considerable control over the process, while incorporating special strategies to maintain the network integrity and minimise the information loss due to partitioning. Results Partitioning of a genome scale network of 1348 metabolites and 1468 reactions for Arabidopsis thaliana encapsulates 66% of the network into 10 medium sized subnets. Applied to the flavonoid subnetwork extracted in this way, it is shown that Netsplitter separates this naturally into four subnets with recognisable functionality, namely synthesis of lignin precursors, flavonoids, coumarin and benzenoids. A quantitative quality measure called efficacy is constructed and shows that the new method gives improved partitioning for several metabolic networks, including bacterial, plant and mammal species. Conclusions For the examples studied the Netsplitter method is a considerable improvement on the performance of connection degree partitioning, giving a better balance of

  20. Biochemical reasoning for radiation protection and screening methods for radiation sensitivity and potential carcinogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells of different genetic characteristics respond differently to agents that modify radiation effects. When the modification is a result of chemical repair, reduction of the amount of damage by radical scavenging, production of hypoxia, or any other such mechanism, then the modification of the response will be the same for all types of cells, but not the same when biological or biochemical parameters are involved, because the differences between the cells affect the final outcome, and the genetic traits obviously become affected by chemical modifying agents. Some of these agents directly affect the repair of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by mechanisms not yet understood. Another agent nicotinamide (NA), is directly linked to a repair pathway. Thus, a system that uses NA as a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+, and uses NAD+ to produce the polymer polyadenosine diphosphate ribose (PADPR) appears to be an interesting and important factor in the biochemical events that may be linked to improved radioprotection. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs

  1. Method and apparatus for energy efficient self-aeration in chemical, biochemical, and wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-05-28

    The present invention is a pulse spilling self-aerator (PSSA) that has the potential to greatly lower the installation, operation, and maintenance cost associated with aerating and mixing aqueous solutions. Currently, large quantities of low-pressure air are required in aeration systems to support many biochemical production processes and wastewater treatment plants. Oxygen is traditionally supplied and mixed by a compressor or blower and a mechanical agitator. These systems have high-energy requirements and high installation and maintenance costs. The PSSA provides a mixing and aeration capability that can increase operational efficiency and reduce overall cost.

  2. Endothelin-1 As A Biochemical Marker in Asthmatic Children Using Induced Sputum Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelin-1 is a physiological normal potent bronchoconstrictor peptide produced in the respiratory airways and increase excessively their inflammation. Endothelin-1 (Et-1) level was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in saliva, sputum and plasma of thirty children suffering from mild to moderate asthma with age ranged from 6-12 years. Ten healthy children of matching age and sex were used as control group. The patients were further classified according to previous regular treatment into 21 steroid dependent and 9 non-steroid dependent. The results revealed that the saliva, sputum and plasma levels of ET-1 in asthmatic patients were significantly higher than that of control children. In both control and asthmatic children, ET-1 levels were more pronounced in the order of saliva>sputum>plasma. On the other hand, the saliva, sputum and plasma levels of ET-1 were significantly lower in steroid dependent asthmatic children than that of the non-steroid dependent ones. High levels of ET-1 in mild to moderate asthmatic children clarify the implication of this biochemical mediator marker in the pathology of the disease. The regular inhaled steroid therapy reduced the level of this mediator but did not return to the basal levels of controls, so, ET-1 antagonist may be useful in management of bronchial asthma in children. Moreover, ET-1 in sputum was more valuable biochemical indicator to monitor airway inflammation than in plasma

  3. Correlation of serum arylesterase activity on phenylacetate estimated by the integrated method to common classical biochemical indexes of liver damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fei; ZHU Xiao-yun; WANG Yong-mei; ZHAO Yun-sheng; ZHU Lian-ping; ZUO Yu-ping

    2007-01-01

    The correlation of serum arylesterase (PON1) activity on phenylacetate determined by an integrated method to classical biochemical indexes of liver damage was investigated for the use of PON1 activity to evaluate liver damage. PON1 reaction curve as absorbance at 270 nm for 0.20 mmol/L phenylacetate hydrolysis was analyzed by the integrated method to determine maximal PON1 reaction rate. Classical biochemical indexes of liver damage were determined routinely. The 95% confidence threshold of PON1 activity in sera from healthy individuals was 2.12 mkat/L [(4.73±1.31) mkat/L, n=105]. PON1 activity in clinical sera was closely correlated to serum albumin, total protein and the ratio of albumin to globulins, but was weakly correlated to both direct and total bilirubin in serum. There were no correlations of PON1 activity to γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Among 127 clinical sera with PON1 activity>2.12 mkat/L, there were 92% healthy individuals examined by albumin, 90% healthy individuals examined by total protein, 88% healthy individuals examined by total bilirubin, 86% healthy individuals examined by direct bilirubin and 64% healthy individuals examined by the ratio of albumin to globulins, respectively. In each group of healthy individuals judged by classical biochemical indexes of close correlation to PON1 activity, percentage of healthy individuals examined by PON1 activity was always >80%. These results suggested PON1 activity on phenylacetate estimated by the integrated method was also suitable for the evaluation of liver damage.

  4. SU-8 cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing; Fabrication, characterisation and development of novel read-out methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, M.; Keller, Stephan Urs; Lillemose, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show...... examples of different integrated read-out methods and their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity to changes in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, we show that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly...

  5. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  6. Towards a more representative in vitro method for fish ecotoxicology: morphological and biochemical characterisation of three-dimensional spheroidal hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Matthew G; Purcell, Wendy M; Jackson, Simon K; Owen, Stewart F; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2012-11-01

    The use of fish primary cells and cell lines offer an in vitro alternative for assessment of chemical toxicity and the evaluation of environmental samples in ecotoxicology. However, their uses are not without limitations such as short culture periods and loss of functionality, particularly with primary tissue. While three-dimensional (spheroid) technology is now established for in vitro mammalian toxicity studies, to date it has not been considered for environmental applications in a model aquatic species. In this study we report development of a reproducible six-well plate, gyratory-mediated method for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocyte spheroid culture and compare their functional and biochemical status with two-dimensional (2D) monolayer hepatocytes. Primary liver spheroid formation was divided into two stages, immature (1-5 days) and mature (≥6 days) according to size, shape and changes in functional and biochemical parameters (protein, glucose, albumin and lactate dehydrogenase). Mature spheroids retained the morphological characteristics (smooth outer surface, tight cell-cell contacts) previously described for mammalian spheroids as demonstrated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Glucose production and albumin synthesis were significantly higher in mature spheroids when compared to conventional 2D monolayer cultures (P ecotoxicological studies.

  7. Atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits. Evaluation by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical methods and comparison of atherosclerosis variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F;

    1994-01-01

    estimation of aortic atherosclerosis extent and by biochemical analysis of aortic cholesterol content. No noteworthy atherosclerosis was demonstrated within 19 months in heterozygous rabbits. In homozygous rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions were seen from the age of 4 months and progressed with age. All 19......-month-old rabbits had severe atherosclerotic disease. As much as 64% of the variation in atherosclerosis extent/severity could be explained by serum cholesterol and age. A highly significant correlation between the various methods for quantitation of atherosclerosis extent and/or severity...... was demonstrated, suggesting that quantitative microscopy, macroscopic morphometry and determination of aortic cholesterol content may be equally valid as a measure of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and are therefore interchangeable....

  8. Biochemical determination of lipid content in hepatic steatosis by the Soxtec method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth; Hijona; Lander; Hijona; Mikel; Larzabal; Cristina; Sarasqueta; Pablo; Aldazabal; Juan; Arenas; Luis; Bujanda

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To establish a quantitative method to measure the amount of lipids.METHODS:The livers of 53 male Wistar rats(225 g) with different degrees of hepatic steatosis were studied.This model of hepatic steatosis was based on a high carbohydrate,fat-free modified diet.Biopsies were classified into four grades depending on fat accumulation,using the Kleiner and Brunt classification.Total fat was studied by the Soxtec method(SoxtecTM 2050 Auto Fat Extraction System),and agreement between both assays was assessed ...

  9. Approximation and inference methods for stochastic biochemical kinetics - a tutorial review

    CERN Document Server

    Schnoerr, David; Grima, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic fluctuations of molecule numbers are ubiquitous in biological systems. Important examples include gene expression and enzymatic processes in living cells. Such systems are typically modelled as chemical reaction networks whose dynamics are governed by the Chemical Master Equation. Despite its simple structure, no analytic solutions to the Chemical Master Equation are known for most systems. Moreover, stochastic simulations are computationally expensive, making systematic analysis and statistical inference a challenging task. Consequently, significant effort has been spent in recent decades on the development of efficient approximation and inference methods. This article gives an introduction to basic modelling concepts as well as an overview of state of the art methods. First, we motivate and introduce deterministic and stochastic models for chemical networks, and give an overview of simulation and exact solution methods. Next, we discuss several approximation methods, including the chemical Langev...

  10. Species identification of strains belonging to genus Citrobacter using the biochemical method and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolínská, Renáta; Spanělová, Petra; Dřevínek, Michal; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Zemličková, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Strains of genus Citrobacter (152 isolates from 1950 to 1988 deposited in the Czech National Collection of Type Cultures, Prague) were re-classified using biological and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods. One-hundred thirty-six strains (ca. 90 %) were identified to the species level using the biological method with evaluation by Farmer matrix. MALDI-TOF MS exhibited better identification capability, the data being more compact; the method was unambiguously successful in typing 145 (95 %) strains. Comparison of the results of identification by the two methods revealed differences (for 12 samples) in identified species which, considering all biochemical and/or MS characteristics, could be attributed to the natural variability of strains and close relation of the misidentified species (all of them belonged to the Citrobacter freundii complex). Taking into account all the above data, both methods can be considered reliable; however, the MALDI-TOF MS exhibits higher accuracy, efficiency, and rapidity.

  11. A novel method for accurate collagen and biochemical assessment of pulmonary tissue utilizing one animal

    OpenAIRE

    Kliment, Corrine R.; Englert, Judson M; Crum, Lauren P; Oury, Tim D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop an improved method for collagen and protein assessment of fibrotic lungs while decreasing animal use. methods: 8-10 week old, male C57BL/6 mice were given a single intratracheal instillation of crocidolite asbestos or control titanium dioxide. Lungs were collected on day 14 and dried as whole lung, or homogenized in CHAPS buffer, for hydroxyproline analysis. Insoluble and salt-soluble collagen content was also determined in lung homogenates using ...

  12. Infra red express method of definition of the main biochemical indices of winter wheat seed quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callibrie equations are received to analyse quality indices of winter wheat seed that is the main task in the case of development of the programmes of infrared method analysis. Comparison of the results both chemical and infra red analysis of quality of winter wheat seed shows their high simularity

  13. Assessment of liver fibrosis by a noninvasive method of transient elastography and biochemical markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaki Kawamoto; Toru Mizuguchi; Tadashi Katsuramaki; Minoru Nagayama; Hideki Oshima; Hiroyuki Kawasaki; Takayuki Nobuoka; Yasutoshi Kimura; Koichi Hirata

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the correlation between the fibrotic area (FA) as calculated by a digital image analysis (DIA), and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FibroScan to the other existing Liver fibrosis (LF) markers using the receiver operating curve analysis.METHODS: We recruited 30 patients who underwent a liver resection for three different etiologies including normal liver, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Liver stiffness was measured by using a FibroScan. The FA was then calculated by DIA to evaluate LF in order to avoid any sampling bias.RESULTS: The FA negatively correlated with Prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and pre-albumin (ALB). On the other hand, the findings of FibroScan correlated with similar markers. The FA positively correlated with FibroScan, serum hyaluronate level, and type Ⅳ collagen level, and aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI). The area under the receiver operating curve for FibroScan was higher than that for the other markers,even though the statistical significance was minimal.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that FibroScan can initially be used to assess LF as an alternative to a liver biopsy (LB) and serum diagnosis, because it is a safe method with comparable diagnostic accuracy regarding the existing LF markers.

  14. A new method for studying caffeine's antioxygenic property: Peroxidase-Oxidase biochemical reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CAI Ruxiu; LIN Zhixin; LIU Zhihong

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Caffeine on Peroxidase-Oxidase (PO) reaction was studied systematically in this paper. We proved that the valley of PO oscillation is the best phase angle which was used to research antioxygenic property by the Analyte Pulse Perturbation Technique (APP), based on investigating the mechanism. Area integral calculus was proposed to use in quantitative analysis for the first time. There is a good linear relationship (R = 0.9950) between the ratio of amplitude changes of PO oscillation and the concentration of caffeine in the range 4.61×10-7 mol/L-1.84×10-5 mol/L. A new method for analysis by PO oscillation was set up. We also investigated two-dimensional projections and Fourier spectrum of nonlinear complicate system--PO reaction which was perturbed by caffeine, in order to provide a theoretical basis for studying effects of kinds of antioxidants on life system.

  15. Phene Plate (PhP) biochemical fingerprinting. A screening method for epidemiological typing of enterococcal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, B; Tärnberg, M; Gill, H; Hällgren, A; Jonasson, J; Nilsson, L E; Isaksson, B; Kühn, I; Hanberger, H

    2005-09-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently considered the gold standard for genotyping of enterococci. However, PFGE is both expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the PhP system can be used as a reliable clinical screening method for detection of genetically related isolates of enterococci. If so, it should be possible to minimize the number of isolates subjected to PFGE typing, which would save time and money. Ninety-nine clinical enterococcal isolates were analysed by PhP (similarity levels 0.90-0.975) and PFGE (similarity levels PhP also belong to the same cluster according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE)=B(PFGE) * A(PhP)=B(PhP)), and the probability that a pair of isolates of different types according to PhP also belong to different clusters according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE) not equalB(PFGE) * A(PhP) not equalB(PhP)), was relatively high for E. faecalis (0.86 and 0.96, respectively), but was lower for E. faecium (0.51 and 0.77, respectively). The concordance which shows the probability that PhP and PFGE agree on match or mismatch was 86%-93% for E. faecalis and 54%-66% for E. faecium, which indicates that the PhP method may be useful for epidemiological typing of E. faecalis in the current settings but not for E. faecium.

  16. Combination of Biochemical and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Methods for Detection of Heavy Metal Pollutions in Eucalyptus Leaves (case Study: the City of Bam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, R.; Anvari, S.; Honarmand, M.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental pollution may be caused due to mines and mineral deposits. The accumulation of the associated heavy metals in soil and especially at the root zone of plants would result in plant contamination. This paper aims to detect the dominant heavy metals in Eucalyptus leaves using both biochemical and hyperspectral techniques for northern part of Bam in Iran. In this regards, using biochemical approach, some Eucalyptus leaf samples were collected, and their laboratory data containing the concentration of heavy metals were measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS). Using ASD FieldSpec3 Pro spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Devices) also, the spectral profile of leaf samples was measured and compared with healthy ones namely control samples. Finally, using supervised classification methods, the spatial distribution of heavy metals was determined by combination of biochemical results, spectral measurements of samples and hyperspectral images of EO-1 satellite. Results showed that Eucalyptus trees accumulates the heavy metals of As and Pb with the average concentrations equalling 9.98 and 14.31 ppb while compared with the relevant control samples equalling 2.32 and 8.98 ppb, respectively. Combination of biochemical and hyperspectral data analysis also proved by increasing heavy metals concentrations in all samples, their spectral profiles for the visible and near infrared regions will be changed in comparison with those obtained from the control sample.

  17. A Review on the Role of Vibrational Spectroscopy as An Analytical Method to Measure Starch Biochemical and Biophysical Properties in Cereals and Starchy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cozzolino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the major component of cereal grains and starchy foods, and changes in its biophysical and biochemical properties (e.g., amylose, amylopectin, pasting, gelatinization, viscosity will have a direct effect on its end use properties (e.g., bread, malt, polymers. The use of rapid and non-destructive methods to study and monitor starch properties, such as gelatinization, retrogradation, water absorption in cereals and starchy foods, is of great interest in order to improve and assess their quality. In recent years, near infrared reflectance (NIR and mid infrared (MIR spectroscopy have been explored to predict several quality parameters, such as those generated by instrumental methods commonly used in routine analysis like the rapid visco analyser (RVA or viscometers. In this review, applications of both NIR and MIR spectroscopy to measure and monitor starch biochemical (amylose, amylopectin, starch and biophysical properties (e.g., pasting properties will be presented and discussed.

  18. Automatic Verification of Biochemical Network Using Model Checking Method%基于模型校核的生化网络自动辨别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Il Moon

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on automatic searching and verifying methods for the reachability, transition logics and hierarchical structure in all possible paths of biological processes using model checking. The automatic search and verification for alternative paths within complex and large networks in biological process can provide a consid-erable amount of solutions, which is difficult to handle manually. Model checking is an automatic method for veri-fying if a circuit or a condition, expressed as a concurrent transition system, satisfies a set of properties expressed ina temporal logic, such as computational tree logic (CTL). This article represents that model checking is feasible in biochemical network verification and it shows certain advantages over simulation for querying and searching of special behavioral properties in biochemical processes.

  19. Methods in the use of GC/C/IRMS for the analysis of biochemical and pollutant isotope signatures of compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for application of GC/C/IRMS analysis to any multitude of environmental, ecological or biochemical research areas is only beginning to be realized. Extension of compound-specific isotope analytical data derived from modern organisms and settings to yield interpretations of ancient depositional environments certainly appears possible. Further application of GC/C/IRMS approaches to understand the cycling of carbon and nitrogen, the identification and alteration of pollutants, or resolve metabolic relationships between compounds in living or extinct organisms are all within the scope of future research. (author)

  20. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Boisen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five yearswith cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interestingpolymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processingand low Young’s modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methodsand their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity tochanges in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, weshow that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly with receptormolecules for analyte detection, thereby avoiding gold-thiol chemistry.

  1. Methods of mesophyll conductance estimation: its impact on key biochemical parameters and photosynthetic limitations in phosphorus-stressed soybean across CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Reddy, Vangimalla R

    2016-06-01

    Despite the development of various methods, the rapid estimation of mesophyll conductance (gm ) for a large number of samples is still a daunting challenge. Although the accurate estimation of gm is critical to partition photosynthetic limitations by stomatal (Ls ) and mesophyll (Lm ) conductance and by photo-biochemical (Lb ) processes, the impact of various gm estimation methods on this is ambiguous. As phosphorus (P) starvation and elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) strongly affect photosynthetic processes, their combined effect on the proportional changes in these limitations are not well understood. To investigate this, while also evaluating distinct recent methods of gm estimation sharing few common theories and assumptions, soybean was grown under a range of P nutrition at ambient and eCO2 . Methods significantly affected gm and carboxylation efficiency (VCmax ) but not other photosynthetic parameters. In all the methods, all photosynthetic parameters responded similarly to treatments. However, the percentage difference between VCmax assuming finite and infinite gm was highly inconsistent among methods. The primary mechanism responsible for P limitation to soybean photosynthesis was not CO2 diffusion limitations but Lb comprised of reduced chlorophyll, photochemistry and biochemical processes. The eCO2 decreased Lb but increased Lm without affecting Ls across leaf P concentration. Although each method explored advances of our understanding about gm variability, they all require assumptions of varying degrees, which lead to the discrepancy in the gm values. Among the methods, the oxygen sensitivity-based gm estimation appeared to be suitable for the quick assessment of a large number of samples or genotypes. Digital tools are provided for the easy estimation of gm for some methods.

  2. High removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand from tequila vinasses by using physicochemical and biological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retes-Pruneda, Jose Luis; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Medina-Ramírez, Iliana; Chavez-Vela, Norma Angelica; Lozano-Alvarez, Juan Antonio; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Jauregui-Rincon, Juan

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this research is to find a more effective treatment for tequila vinasses (TVs) with potential industrial application in order to comply with the Mexican environmental regulations. TVs are characterized by their high content of solids, high values of biochemical oxygen demand (BODs), chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and intense colour; thus, disposal of untreated TVs severely impacts the environment. Physicochemical and biological treatments, and a combination of both, were probed on the remediation of TVs. The use of alginate for the physicochemical treatment of TVs reduced BOD5 and COD values by 70.6% and 14.2%, respectively. Twenty white-rot fungi (WRF) strains were tested in TV-based solid media. Pleurotus ostreatus 7992 and Trametes trogii 8154 were selected due to their ability to grow on TV-based solid media. Ligninolytic enzymes' production was observed in liquid cultures of both fungi. Using the selected WRF for TVs' bioremediation, both COD and BOD5 were reduced by 88.7% and 89.7%, respectively. Applying sequential physicochemical and biological treatments, BOD5 and COD were reduced by 91.6% and 93.1%, respectively. Results showed that alginate and selected WRF have potential for the industrial treatment of TVs.

  3. Development of on-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-biochemical detection methods as tools in the identification of bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Christiaan J; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical detection (BCD) methods are commonly used to screen plant extracts for specific biological activities in batch assays. Traditionally, bioactives in the most active extracts were identified through time-consuming bio-assay guided fractionation until single active compounds could be isolated. Not only are isolation procedures often tedious, but they could also lead to artifact formation. On-line coupling of BCD assays to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is gaining ground as a high resolution screening technique to overcome problems associated with pre-isolation by measuring the effects of compounds post-column directly after separation. To date, several on-line HPLC-BCD assays, applied to whole plant extracts and mixtures, have been published. In this review the focus will fall on enzyme-based, receptor-based and antioxidant assays.

  4. Development of On-Line High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-Biochemical Detection Methods as Tools in the Identification of Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Joubert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical detection (BCD methods are commonly used to screen plant extracts for specific biological activities in batch assays. Traditionally, bioactives in the most active extracts were identified through time-consuming bio-assay guided fractionation until single active compounds could be isolated. Not only are isolation procedures often tedious, but they could also lead to artifact formation. On-line coupling of BCD assays to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC is gaining ground as a high resolution screening technique to overcome problems associated with pre-isolation by measuring the effects of compounds post-column directly after separation. To date, several on-line HPLC-BCD assays, applied to whole plant extracts and mixtures, have been published. In this review the focus will fall on enzyme-based, receptor-based and antioxidant assays.

  5. New imaging methods for non-invasive assessment of mechanical, structural and biochemical properties of Human Achilles tendon: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fouré

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of tendon play a fundamental role to passively transmit forces from muscle to bone, withstand sudden stretches and act as a mechanical buffer allowing the muscle to work more efficiently. The use of non-invasive imaging methods for the assessment of human tendon’s mechanical, structural and biochemical properties in vivo is relatively young in sports medicine, clinical practice and basic science. Non-invasive assessment of the tendon properties may enhance the diagnosis of tendon injury and the characterization of recovery treatments. While ultrasonographic imaging is the most popular tool to assess the tendon’s structural and, indirectly, mechanical properties, ultrasonographic elastography and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF MRI have recently emerged as potentially powerful techniques to explore tendon tissues. This paper highlights some methodological cautions associated with conventional ultrasonography and perspectives for in vivo human Achilles tendon assessment using ultrasonographic elastography and UHF MRI.

  6. A flow-cytometric method for quantification of neurolipofuscin and comparison with existing histological and biochemical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, M R J

    2002-01-01

    The ability to measure lipofuscin accumulation accurately is essential for understanding its role in physiological ageing and human disease, and for its recent use as an ecological tool for age determination. Existing quantification methods are problematic. In situ histological measurement by microscopy can be very precise but is labour intensive. Spectrofluorimetric measurement of whole lipid extracts is rapid but not sufficiently specific. A recent HPLC assay for the retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin fluorophore, A2-E, is potentially both precise and rapid but not applicable to lipofuscin in other tissues, or from fixed samples. In this study, I explore the use of flow cytometry or fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) for specific quantification of lipofuscin granules in formalin-fixed CNS homogenates from lobsters (Homarus gammarus). Free neurolipofuscin granules were discriminated in FACS samples by their size distribution (forward scatter), distinctive orange autofluorescence (FL3) and refractive internal structure (side scatter). A quantitative neurolipofuscin index was developed, which was highly correlated with the microscopically measured neurolipofuscin concentration in the same tissue. Sample-processing rate was at least an order of magnitude greater for FACS than for quantitative microscopy but the latter yielded a much more precise estimate of neurolipofuscin concentration. While the FACS approach may be ideal where rapid handling and only semiquantitative results are required, loss of precision will preclude use in many ecological studies where the highest available resolution is needed. Further refinements to the FACS approach are possible but advanced histological methods for neurolipofuscin quantification remain the most reliable at this time. PMID:14764326

  7. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  8. First step towards a fast analytical method for the determination of biochemical methane potential of solid wastes by near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lesteur, M.; Latrille, E.; Bellon-Maurel, V.; Roger, J.M.; Gonzalez, C.; Junqua, G.; Steyer, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Methane can be produced by anaerobic digestion. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is widely applied to determine the anaerobic biodegradability of wastes. It is based on a fermentation process, which is time consuming, about 30 days. This study investigates the use of near infrared spectroscopy to predict the biochemical methane potential value of municipal solid waste. Near infrared spectroscopy has the advantage to be very fast and applicable to solid waste with a light sample...

  9. Nuevos métodos de diagnóstico en Periodoncia: Métodos bioquímicos New methods in periodontol diagnostic: Biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Faria

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de diagnóstico tradicionales no son suficientemente fiables y solo nos permiten un diagnóstico retrospectivo sobre la pérdida del nivel de inserción. Luego, con el objetivo de aumentar su fiabilidad han sido desarrollados métodos complementarios de diagnóstico y alternativos para detectar la actividad de la enfermedad periodontal. En realidad existen un conjunto de nuevos métodos de diagnóstico, basados en la respuesta inmunológica que nos ayudan a hacer un diagnóstico más preciso y eficaz. Es pues, necesario conocer sus ventajas y desventajas y su aplicabilidad clínica. Fue hecha una revisión de artículos de los últimos dos años del Journal Clinical of Periodontology y en Journal of Periodontol.The Tradicional Methods of Diagnosis aren't enought predictible, and they only give us na retrospective diagnosis about the attachement level. So, with the objective of improving the predictibility of our diagnosis, new methods are desenvolved to detecting the progression of periodontal disease, based on inmunological response. Nowadays the clinicians have to know this new methods, to understand when they are realy useful. It has been done un bibliographic revision of the 2 last years in the Journal Clinical of Periodontology y en Journal of Periodontol.

  10. Recent abstracts in biochemical technology

    OpenAIRE

    R R Siva Kiran; Brijesh P

    2008-01-01

    “Recent abstracts in biochemical technology” is a collection of interesting research articles published in “List of biochemical technology journals” (Table 1). The abstracts are most likely to report significant results in biochemical technology.

  11. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  12. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  13. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  14. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals. PMID:24685537

  15. Evaluation of Bioeffects of a Long-term Administering ChangLe on Rat by Proton NMR Method and BIochemical Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯江华; 聂毓秀; 等

    2003-01-01

    High resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to assess long-term toxicological effects of ChangLe( a kind of rare earth complex applied in agriculture),Male Wistar rats were administrated orally with ChangLe at doses of 0,0.1,0.2,2.0,10and 20mg/kg body weight daily,respectively,for 6 months,Urine was collected at day 30,60,90 and serum samples were taken after 6 months.Many low-molecular weight metabolites were identified by 1H NMR spectra of rat urine.A decrease in citrate and an increase in ketone bodies,creatinine,DMA,DMGbiochemical measurements and enzymatic assay.No obviously toxicological effects on metabolism were found for low-dosage ChangLe,but further studies on safety of ChangLe applied to agriculture are still required.

  16. Biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, E.; Richter, G.

    1978-03-30

    Until now, biochemical fuel cells have suffered a reduction of capacity in operation due to omission of internal contact between the electrodes and the diaphragm. This disadvantage is remedied by the invention by connecting the oxygen electrode with a rigid electrode frame and providing means for pressing the fuel electrode to the diaphragm and the diaphragm to the oxygen electrode on the side of the fuel electrode away from the diaphragm. The means of exerting pressure can be metal springs, but preferably elastomers, particularly silicon rubber, or springy gels are used.

  17. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu; Murat Caloglu; Sevgi Eskiocak; Ebru Tastekin; Alaattin Ozen; Nukhet Kurkcu; Fulya Oz-Puyan; Zafer Kocak; Cem Uzal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC) and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7); irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8); amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8); LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8); LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7); and amifostine and sham irradia...

  18. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  19. Modelling the anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste - Substrate characterisation method for ADM1 using a combined biochemical and kinetic parameter estimation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, D; Walker, M; Nimmo, W; Ma, L; Pourkashanian, M

    2016-07-01

    This work proposes a novel and rigorous substrate characterisation methodology to be used with ADM1 to simulate the anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste. The proposed method uses data from both direct substrate analysis and the methane production from laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments and involves assessment of four substrate fractionation models. The models partition the organic matter into a mixture of particulate and soluble fractions with the decision on the most suitable model being made on quality of fit between experimental and simulated data and the uncertainty of the calibrated parameters. The method was tested using samples of domestic green and food waste and using experimental data from both short batch tests and longer semi-continuous trials. The results showed that in general an increased fractionation model complexity led to better fit but with increased uncertainty. When using batch test data the most suitable model for green waste included one particulate and one soluble fraction, whereas for food waste two particulate fractions were needed. With richer semi-continuous datasets, the parameter estimation resulted in less uncertainty therefore allowing the description of the substrate with a more complex model. The resulting substrate characterisations and fractionation models obtained from batch test data, for both waste samples, were used to validate the method using semi-continuous experimental data and showed good prediction of methane production, biogas composition, total and volatile solids, ammonia and alkalinity. PMID:27156366

  20. Modelling the anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste - Substrate characterisation method for ADM1 using a combined biochemical and kinetic parameter estimation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, D; Walker, M; Nimmo, W; Ma, L; Pourkashanian, M

    2016-07-01

    This work proposes a novel and rigorous substrate characterisation methodology to be used with ADM1 to simulate the anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste. The proposed method uses data from both direct substrate analysis and the methane production from laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments and involves assessment of four substrate fractionation models. The models partition the organic matter into a mixture of particulate and soluble fractions with the decision on the most suitable model being made on quality of fit between experimental and simulated data and the uncertainty of the calibrated parameters. The method was tested using samples of domestic green and food waste and using experimental data from both short batch tests and longer semi-continuous trials. The results showed that in general an increased fractionation model complexity led to better fit but with increased uncertainty. When using batch test data the most suitable model for green waste included one particulate and one soluble fraction, whereas for food waste two particulate fractions were needed. With richer semi-continuous datasets, the parameter estimation resulted in less uncertainty therefore allowing the description of the substrate with a more complex model. The resulting substrate characterisations and fractionation models obtained from batch test data, for both waste samples, were used to validate the method using semi-continuous experimental data and showed good prediction of methane production, biogas composition, total and volatile solids, ammonia and alkalinity.

  1. Biochemical synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descriptions of the biochemical synthesis of glucose-13C6 from Agmenellum quadruplication; the biochemical labelling of [13C, 15N] Chlorella and [13C] E. coli, [15N] E. coli, and the production of lactic-13C3 acid utilizing Lactobacillus casei are discussed

  2. Microbial community structure at the U.S. -Joint Global Ocean flux Study Station ALOHA: Inverse methods for estimating biochemical indicator ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, James R.; Karl, David M.

    1994-07-01

    Modeling biogeochemical fluxes in the marine plankton requires the application of factors for extrapolation of biomass indicators measured in the field (chlorophyll a, adenosine triphosphate, bacterial counts) to biomass carbon or nitrogen. These are often inferred from culture studies and are poorly constrained for natural populations. A least squares inverse method with a simple linear model constrains the values of several common indicator ratios, giving self-consistent solutions that provide useful information about the structure of the microbial community at our North Pacific Ocean study site (Station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment)). These results indicate that the fraction of the microbial biomass that is autotrophic (pigmented) is greater in the mixed layer than at the deep chlorophyll maximum layer and that heterotrophic bacteria are a significant but not necessarily predominant component of the microbial community in the euphotic zone.

  3. EVALUATING BIOCHEMICAL INTERNET RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Many people fail to properly evaluate INTERNET information. This is often due to alack of understanding of the issues, by responsible authorities, and, morespecifically, a lack of understanding of the structure and modis operandi of theINTERNET tool. The aim of this project was to analyze biochemical issuesavailable in WEB pages, evaluating contents quality, coverage, accuracy, authorityand currency. Twenty three sites were analyzed for their contents, presence ofbibliographical references, authorship, titles responsibility and adequacy to targetpublic. The great majority (95% did not mention bibliographic references andtarget public. Less than half divulged names and/or graduation status ofresponsibles. Some sites contained critical conceptual errors, such as: oxygen isessential for anaerobic respiration; presence of H2O in photosynthesis dark phase;yeast is a pluricellular fungal; the overall equation of photosynthesis with errors;NADH2 instead NAD+; etc. None of the analyzed sites was thus consideredexcellent. Although the use of the internet is expanding rapidly on collegecampuses, little is known about students usage; how they perceive the reality ofinternet information and how successful they are in searching through it. Our datastrenghthen the need for rigorous evaluation concerning to educational research ofbiochemical themes on the WEB.

  4. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  5. Biochemical Methods to Analyze Wnt Protein Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Kathrin; Boutros, Michael; Gross, Julia Christina

    2016-01-01

    Wnt proteins act as potent morphogens in various aspects of embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. However, in addition to its physiological importance, aberrant Wnt signaling has been linked to the onset and progression of different types of cancer. On the cellular level, the secretion of Wnt proteins involves trafficking of lipid-modified Wnts from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and further compartments via the Wnt cargo receptor evenness interrupted. Others and we have recently shown that Wnt proteins are secreted on extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as microvesicles and exosomes. Although more details about specific regulation of Wnt secretion steps are emerging, it remains largely unknown how Wnt proteins are channeled into different release pathways such as lipoprotein particles, EVs and cytonemes. Here, we describe protocols to purify and quantify Wnts from the supernatant of cells by either assessing total Wnt proteins in the supernatant or monitoring Wnt proteins on EVs. Purified Wnts from the supernatant as well as total cellular protein content can be investigated by immunoblotting. Additionally, the relative activity of canonical Wnts in the supernatant can be assessed by a dual-luciferase Wnt reporter assay. Quantifying the amount of secreted Wnt proteins and their activity in the supernatant of cells allows the investigation of intracellular trafficking events that regulate Wnt secretion and the role of extracellular modulators of Wnt spreading. PMID:27590148

  6. CTMP Wastewater Treatment with Compound Electrochemical-biochemical Method%复合电化学-生化法处理桉木CTMP制浆废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志军; 李友明; 刘宝鉴

    2011-01-01

    Compound electrochemical-biochemical method was developed for the treatment of eucalyptus CTMP wastewater, meanwhile it was compared with micro-electrolysis method and coagulation method. The effects of galvanic corrosion current/potential, surface morphology of modified electrode, f potential, temperature, density of metal ion on electrochemical treatment efficiency were investigated, and the reaction mechanism of compound electrochemical method was preliminarily discussed. The results showed that metal M3 is the appropriate material for micro-cell anode, Ti/SnO2-Sb2O3-MnO2/PbO2 electrode prepared by electro-deposition method has good performance, transition metal ion can accelerate the radical chain reactions, the stability of the color colloidal particles is destroyed by nascent metal ions complex and they are easily removed. The color and CODCr are removed efficiently by compound electrochemical method, and the biodegradability of the wastewater is improved obviously, the treatment result is significantly better than the methods of normal coagulation and micro-electrolysis. CODCr removal rate is about 79.8% - 86.6% when the outlet wastewater is treated further by SBR.%采用复合电化学-生化法对桉木CTMP制浆废水进行处理,并与微电解法和混凝法进行比较,考察了电偶腐蚀电流电位,修饰电极表面形貌,Zeta电位,温度和金属离子浓度等对电化学处理效果的影响,并初步探讨了复合电化学法的作用机制.结果表明,金属M3是合适的微电池阳极材料,电沉积法制备的Ti/SnO2 -Sb2 O3 -MnO2/PbO2电极性能良好,过渡金属离子可加速自由基链反应,新生态金属离子络合物能破坏色度胶粒的稳定性从而易于脱除色度.复合电化学法能有效降低色度(去除率>95%)和CODCr,可生化性明显改善,处理效果显著优于混凝法和微电解法.SBR生化法进一步处理废水,CODCr降低约79.8%~86.6%.

  7. Definitions of biochemical failure in prostate cancer following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a consensus panel definition of biochemical failure following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this paper, we develop a series of alternative definitions of biochemical failure. Using data from 688 patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the various definitions, with respect to a defined 'clinically meaningful' outcome. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO definition of biochemical failure requires 3 consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We considered several modifications to the standard definition: to require PSA rises of a certain magnitude, to consider 2 instead of 3 rises, to require the final PSA value to be greater than a fixed cutoff level, and to define biochemical failure based on the slope of PSA over 1, 1.5, or 2 years. A clinically meaningful failure is defined as local recurrence, distant metastases, initiation of unplanned hormonal therapy, unplanned radical prostatectomy, or a PSA>25 later than 6 months after radiation. Results: Requiring the final PSA in a series of consecutive rises to be larger than 1.5 ng/mL increased the specificity of biochemical failure. For a fixed specificity, defining biochemical failure based on 2 consecutive rises, or the slope over the last year, could increase the sensitivity by up to approximately 20%, compared to the ASTRO definition. Using a rule based on the slope over the previous year or 2 rises leads to a slightly earlier detection of biochemical failure than does the ASTRO definition. Even with the best rule, only approximately 20% of true failures are biochemically detected more than 1 year before the clinically meaningful event time. Conclusion: There is potential for improvement in the ASTRO consensus definition of biochemical failure. Further research is needed, in studies with long follow-up times, to evaluate the relationship between various definitions of biochemical failure and

  8. 常规生化检验的酶转换法对血清同型半胱氨酸的检测分析%Enzymatic Conversion Method of Conventional and Biochemical Examination of Serum Homocysteine Detection Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨微

    2015-01-01

    目的:常规生化检验的酶转换法对血清同型半胱氨酸的检测分析。方法选取我院临床血清样本开展血清同型半胱氨酸的检测工作,将其检测结果和相应的指标结果进行分析对比。结果本研究采用酶转换法、荧光偏振免疫法以及高效液相色谱法检测,每一种检测方式都得出了线性检测关系式,其相应检测结果值和酶转化法的检测结果值两两对比存在显著差异(P <0.05)。结论对血清样本开展血清同型半胱氨酸的检测工作,采用酶转换法有较高的检测准确性,可以保证检测线性范围比较广,检测精度高。%Objective Normal biochemical tests of enzymatic conversion method of serum homocysteine detection analysis. Methods To choose the hospital clinical serum samples of serum homocysteine detection work, the test results and the corresponding measure results are analyzed. Results This study adopts the enzymatic conversion method, fluorescence polarization immunoassay method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to detect, each a way of testing the linear detection equation is obtained, and the corresponding test results and the test results of enzyme catalysis value two contrast exists significant difference (P<0.05), with statistical significance. Conclusion The serum samples of serum homocysteine detection work, by enzymatic conversion method has high detection accuracy, can be tested to ensure wider linear range and detection precision is high, is worth popularizing in clinical application.

  9. Hydrogel-based piezoresistive biochemical microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Margarita; Schulz, Volker; Gerlach, Gerald; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Solzbacher, Florian; Magda, Jules J.; Tathireddy, Prashant; Lin, Genyao; Orthner, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This work is motivated by a demand for inexpensive, robust and reliable biochemical sensors with high signal reproducibility and long-term-stable sensitivity, especially for medical applications. Micro-fabricated sensors can provide continuous monitoring and on-line control of analyte concentrations in ambient aqueous solutions. The piezoresistive biochemical sensor containing a special biocompatible polymer (hydrogel) with a sharp volume phase transition in the neutral physiological pH range near 7.4 can detect a specific analyte, for example glucose. Thereby the hydrogel-based biochemical sensors are useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. The response of the glucosesensitive hydrogel was studied at different regimes of the glucose concentration change and of the solution supply. Sensor response time and accuracy with which a sensor can track gradual changes in glucose was estimated. Additionally, the influence of various recommended sterilization methods on the gel swelling properties and on the mechano-electrical transducer of the pH-sensors has been evaluated in order to choose the most optimal sterilization method for the implantable sensors. It has been shown that there is no negative effect of gamma irradiation with a dose of 25.7 kGy on the hydrogel sensitivity. In order to achieve an optimum between sensor signal amplitude and sensor response time, corresponding calibration and measurement procedures have been proposed and evaluated for the chemical sensors.

  10. Correlations between female breast density and biochemical markers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Park, Hyong-Keun; Yang, Han-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify biochemical markers related to breast density. The study was performed with 200 patients who received mammography and biochemical marker testing between March 1, 2014 to October 1, 2014. [Subjects and Methods] Following the American College of Radiology, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR BI-RADS), breast parenchymal pattern density from mammography was categorized into four grades: grade 1, almost entirely fat; grade 2, fibroglandula...

  11. Haematological and biochemical analysis in canine enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Bhat

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation screened eighteen clinical cases of canine enteritis for haematological and biochemical analyses. Materials and Methods: Eighteen dogs suffering from enteritis were selected and detailed clinical manifestations were noted. Hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated by using various kits. Blood was also collected from twelve healthy dogs for establishing control values and data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The affected dogs showed anorexia, diarrhoea, depression, varying degree of dehydration and tachycardia. There were significant changes in packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Biochemical investigation revealed significant decrease in plasma glucose, total plasma protein, albumin and albumin:globulin ratio (A:G ratio. The level of potassium and chloride was markedly decreased. Significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN was observed. Conclusion: Packed Cell Volume (PCV and Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC remained almost similar between healthy dogs and dogs affected with diarrhoea. Mean Total Leukocyte Count (TLC value was significantly higher as compared to the control group. Hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia and increase in blood urea nitrogen was observed in dogs suffering from enteritis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 380-383

  12. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-01-01

    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  13. Assessment of biochemical concentrations of vegetation using remote sensing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main biochemicals (such as lignin, protein, cellulose, sugar, starch, chlorophyll and water) of vegetation are directly or indirectly involved in major ecological processes, such as the functions of terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., nutrient-cycling processes, primary production, and decomposition). Remote sensing techniques provide a very convenient way of data acquisition capable of covering a large area several times during one season, so it can play a unique and essential role provided that we can relate remote sensing measurements to the biochemical characteristics of the Earth surface in a reliable and operational way. The application of remote sensing techniques for the estimation of canopy biochemicals was reviewed. Three methods of estimating biochemical concentrations of vegetation were included in this paper: index, stepwise multiple linear regression, and stepwise multiple linear regression based on a model of the forest crown. In addition, the vitality and potential applying value are stressed.

  14. Biochemical Changes in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husamettin Erdamar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After cardiovascular diseases, the most common reasons of death in the world is cancer. However, oncologists think that %u201CNobody dies from cancer, the patiences pass away due to the results of metabolic changes stemmed from cancer%u201D. The identification of metabolic changes which is caused by cancer opens new insights to doctors in diagnosing and therapy. For instance, the method of imaging of Positron emission tomography (PET, which is used for the cancer grading, involves the changes of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Another case related to this subject is that the differential diagnosis between residue metastasis and edema of the suspect area in the image of postoperative control brain magnetic resonance (MR for a patient who is operated because of brain tumor can be made via MR spectroscope device by analyizing the metabolic activity of that area regarding the level of choline, creatinine, N-Asetyl aspartene and lactate. In this review, the main changes of metabolism of protein, carbonhydrate and lipid, and membrane structure in cancer patience will be mentioned. Furthermore, paraneoplastic syndrome and the tumor lysis syndrome, an urgent oncologic case, which can be seen in the 20 percent of cancer patience, will be undertaken.

  15. Hyponatraemia: biochemical and clinical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G; Leese, G

    1998-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is a common bio-chemical abnormality, occurring in about 15% of hospital inpatients. It is often associated with severe illness and relatively poor outcome. Pathophysiologically, hyponatraemia may be spurious, dilutional, depletional or redistributional. Particularly difficult causes and concepts of hyponatraemia are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and the sick cell syndrome, which are discussed here in detail. Therapy should always be targeted at the underlying disea...

  16. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  17. BNDB – The Biochemical Network Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmann Michael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances in high-throughput techniques and efficient data acquisition methods have resulted in a massive amount of life science data. The data is stored in numerous databases that have been established over the last decades and are essential resources for scientists nowadays. However, the diversity of the databases and the underlying data models make it difficult to combine this information for solving complex problems in systems biology. Currently, researchers typically have to browse several, often highly focused, databases to obtain the required information. Hence, there is a pressing need for more efficient systems for integrating, analyzing, and interpreting these data. The standardization and virtual consolidation of the databases is a major challenge resulting in a unified access to a variety of data sources. Description We present the Biochemical Network Database (BNDB, a powerful relational database platform, allowing a complete semantic integration of an extensive collection of external databases. BNDB is built upon a comprehensive and extensible object model called BioCore, which is powerful enough to model most known biochemical processes and at the same time easily extensible to be adapted to new biological concepts. Besides a web interface for the search and curation of the data, a Java-based viewer (BiNA provides a powerful platform-independent visualization and navigation of the data. BiNA uses sophisticated graph layout algorithms for an interactive visualization and navigation of BNDB. Conclusion BNDB allows a simple, unified access to a variety of external data sources. Its tight integration with the biochemical network library BN++ offers the possibility for import, integration, analysis, and visualization of the data. BNDB is freely accessible at http://www.bndb.org.

  18. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  19. 比较去离子水稀释法与高速离心法减少血脂对生化检测结果干扰的效果%To compare the effect of the interference of the blood lipid in the biochemical test results by comparing the dilution method with the high speed centrifugal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小林

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of reducing blood lipid in biochemical test results by the method of dilution water dilution and high speed centrifugation.Methods: We used the (TAG) three acyl glycerol interference experiment to apply the matched dilute multiple of distilled water, and then treated with high speed centrifugation and de ionized water dilution method. To compare the effect of two groups on reducing blood lipid interference.Results: the difference between the results of P and Ca was significant (P 0.05), not statistically significant.Conclusion:the use of de ionized water dilution method can effectively reduce the blood lipids, and the results of biochemical tests, it is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探究去离子水稀释法与高速离心法减少血脂对生化检测结果干扰的效果。方法:我院采用(TAG)三酰甘油干扰实验应用相匹配的去离子水稀释倍数,然后再采用高速离心法和去离子水稀释法对血清进行处理。比较两组方法的减少血脂干扰的效果。结果:经去离子水稀释法与高速离心法处理后,Ca与P的结果之间的差异显著(P<0.05),具有统计学意义。而其他检查项目,未有显著差异(P>0.05),不具有统计学意义。结论:采用去离子水稀释法能有效减少血脂,精确生化检查的结果,值得临床应用。

  20. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  1. Biochemical Markers of Myocardial Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Geza S

    2016-04-01

    Heart diseases, especially coronary artery diseases (CAD), are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Effective therapy is available to ensure patient survival and to prevent long term sequelae after an acute ischemic event caused by CAD, but appropriate therapy requires rapid and accurate diagnosis. Research into the pathology of CAD have demonstrated the usefulness of measuring concentrations of chemicals released from the injured cardiac muscle can aid the diagnosis of diseases caused by myocardial ischemia. Since the mid-1950s successively better biochemical markers have been described in research publications and applied for the clinical diagnosis of acute ischemic myocardial injury. Aspartate aminotransferase of the 1950s was replaced by other cytosolic enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and their isoenzymes that exhibited better cardiac specificity. With the availability of immunoassays, other muscle proteins, that had no enzymatic activity, were also added to the diagnostic arsenal but their limited tissue specificity and sensitivity lead to suboptimal diagnostic performance. After the discovery that cardiac troponins I and T have the desired specificity, they have replaced the cytosolic enzymes in the role of diagnosing myocardial ischemia and infarction. The use of the troponins provided new knowledge that led to revision and redefinition of ischemic myocardial injury as well as the introduction of biochemicals for estimation of the probability of future ischemic myocardial events. These markers, known as cardiac risk markers, evolved from the diagnostic markers such as CK-MB or troponins, but markers of inflammation also belong to these groups of diagnostic chemicals. This review article presents a brief summary of the most significant developments in the field of biochemical markers of cardiac injury and summarizes the most recent significant recommendations regarding the use of the cardiac markers in

  2. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena;

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a biorefinery concept for biological production of chemicals, drugs, feed and fuels using plant biomass as raw material in well-defined cell-factories. Among the important goals is the discovery of new biocatalysts for production of enzymes, biochemicals and fuels and already our...... screening of a large collection of fungal strains isolated from natural habitats have resulted in identification of strains with high production of hydrolytic enzymes and excretion of organic acids. Our research focuses on creating a fungal platform based on synthetic biology for developing new cell...

  3. The Biochemical Properties of Antibodies and Their Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnasko, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are powerful molecular recognition tools that can be used to identify minute quantities of a given target analyte. Their antigen-binding properties define both the sensitivity and selectivity of an immunoassay. Understanding the biochemical properties of this class of protein will provide users with the knowledge necessary to select the appropriate antibody composition to maximize immunoassay results. Here we define the general biochemical properties of antibodies and their similarities and differences, explain how these properties influence their functional relationship to an antigen target, and describe a method for the enzymatic fragmentation of antibodies into smaller functional parts.

  4. Advances in Biochemical Screening for Phaeochromocytoma using Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Malcolm J; Doogue, Matthew P

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical testing for phaeochromocytoma is performed in diagnostic laboratories using a variety of tests with plasma, serum or 24-hour urine collections. These tests include catecholamines and their methylated metabolites - the metanephrines, either individually or in combination with their sulfated metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) continues to be the dominant analytical method for biogenic amine quantitation. Chromatographic techniques are changing, with improveme...

  5. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  6. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  7. Clinical and biochemical features of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, L.; Ngu, L.H.; Keng, W.T.; Ch'ng, G.S.; Choy, Y.S.; Hwu, W.L.; Lee, W.T.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Verbeek, M.M.; Wassenberg, T.; Regal, L.; Orcesi, S.; Tonduti, D.; Accorsi, P.; Testard, H.; Abdenur, J.E.; Tay, S.; Allen, G.F.; Heales, S.; Kern, I.; Kato, M.; Burlina, A.; Manegold, C.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Blau, N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current treatment; clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings; and clinical follow-up of patients with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency. METHOD: Clinical and biochemical data of 78 patients with AADC deficiency were tabulated in a database of pediat

  8. A study for multiple steady states of biochemical reactions under substrate and product inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien

    2000-08-01

    This paper combines Sturm's method with the tangent analysis method to solve a biochemical reaction involving multiplicity. This method can easily derive the necessary conditions for multiplicity. In addition, we find a starting bifurcation point for multiplicity which cannot be obtained by the tangent method alone. Moreover, a start-up strategy is suggested to obtain a high conversion and unique steady state in four selected kinetic models of biochemical reactions, with inhibition.

  9. Biochemical Analysis of Microbial Rhodopsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Julia A; Keffer, Jessica L; Miller, Kelsey J

    2016-01-01

    Ion-pumping rhodopsins transfer ions across the microbial cell membrane in a light-dependent fashion. As the rate of biochemical characterization of microbial rhodopsins begins to catch up to the rate of microbial rhodopsin identification in environmental and genomic sequence data sets, in vitro analysis of their light-absorbing properties and in vivo analysis of ion pumping will remain critical to characterizing these proteins. As we learn more about the variety of physiological roles performed by microbial rhodopsins in different cell types and environments, observing the localization patterns of the rhodopsins and/or quantifying the number of rhodopsin-bearing cells in natural environments will become more important. Here, we provide protocols for purification of rhodopsin-containing membranes, detection of ion pumping, and observation of functional rhodopsins in laboratory and environmental samples using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27153387

  10. Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigle Bernie J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods

  11. Polynomial analysis of canopy spectra and biochemical component content inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chunyan; LIU Qiang; NIU Zheng; WANG Jihua; HUANG Wenjiang; LIU Liangyun

    2005-01-01

    A polynomial expression model was developed in this paper to describe directional canopy spectra, and the decomposition of the polynomial expression was used as a tool for retrieving biochemical component content from canopy multi-angle spectra. First, the basic formula of the polynomial expression was introduced and the physical meaning of its terms and coefficients was discussed. Based on this analysis, a complete polynomial expression model and its decomposition method were given. By decomposing the canopy spectra simulated with SAILH model, it shows that the polynomial expression can not only fit well the canopy spectra, but also show the contribution of every order scattering to the whole reflectance. Taking the first scattering coefficients a10 and a01 for example, the test results show that the polynomial coefficients reflect very well the hot spot phenomenon and the effects of viewing angles, LAI and leaf inclination angle on canopy spectra. By coupling the polynomial expression with leaf model PROSPECT, a canopy biochemical component content inversion model was given. In the simulated test, the canopy multi-angle spectra were simulated by two different models, SAILH and 4-SCALE respectively, then the biochemical component content was retrieved by inverting the coupled polynomial expression + PROSPECT model. Results of the simulated test are promising, and when applying the algorithm to measured corn canopy multi-angle spectra, we also get relatively accurate chlorophyll content. It shows that the polynomial analysis provides a new method to get biochemical component content independent of any specific canopy model.

  12. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. P. Sedlukho; Yu. O. Stankevich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation....

  13. Biochemical bases of mineral waters genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Zhernosekov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work directs data about mineral water genesis. The accent on balneological sense is done. We suggest the criteria of biochemical processes estimation which take part in mineral water compounds creation. These criteria can be used for illustration of dependence between waters medical properties and biochemical processes of their genesis.

  14. Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for

  15. The preparation method of the type 1 pneumococcal polysaccharide - protein binding biochemical and immunological characteristics of vaccine%不同方法制备的1型肺炎球菌多糖-蛋白结合疫苗生化及免疫学特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴吉平

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较不同方法制备的1型肺炎球菌多糖-蛋白结合疫苗生化及免疫学特性。方法采用胺还原法以及溴化氰活化法分别对结合物进行制备,并采取生化以及免疫学检测的方式对其进行检测。结果相对于胺还原法制造出来的结合物,利用溴化氰活化法具有较高的高分子结合物含量以及较高的结合率,与此同时,免疫小鼠产生的抗体提高的也十分明显。结论相对于胺还原法制造出来的结合物,利用溴化氰活化法对1型肺炎球菌多糖-蛋白结合疫苗进行制备要优。%Objective To compare the different methods of preparation of type 1 pneumococcal polysaccharide - protein conjugate vaccine biochemical and immunological properties. Methods amine reduction and cyanogen bromide activation method was used to conjugate prepared and take biochemical and immunological detection methods for its detection. The results relative to the amine reduction conjugates produced using cyanogen bromide activation method combined with high polymer content and higher binding rate, while the immunized mice produced antibodies increased very significantly. Conclusion reduction relative to the amine conjugates produced using cyanogen bromide activation method for type 1 pneumococcal polysaccharide - protein conjugate vaccine prepared to excellent.

  16. Biochemical disease-free survival following adjuvant and salvage irradiation after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present the biochemical cure rates (biochemically no evidence of disease) after external irradiation (RT) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and subsequent RT were included in this analysis. No patient received hormonal therapy. Adjuvant RT was administered in 35 patients (46%), and 41 patients (54%) underwent salvage RT. After prostatectomy, the Gleason score was <7 in 87%, and 24% had seminal vesicle invasion. The median RT dose in the adjuvant RT and salvage RT groups was 60 Gy and 65 Gy, respectively. The biochemical cure rate was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen of ≤0.2 ng/mL. Results: The overall 5-year Kaplan-Meier biochemical control rate from the end of RT was 70%. The 5-year biochemical cure rate for adjuvant RT was significantly superior to that after salvage RT (86% vs. 57%). The significant predictors of biochemical failure were seminal vesicle invasion in the adjuvant RT group and the presence of Gleason grade 4 or 5 in the salvage RT group. The clinical local control rate in the prostate bed was 100%. Conclusion: This report demonstrates the efficacy of RT in achieving high biochemical cure rates after radical prostatectomy. Additional clinical studies are required to determine the optimal treatment of patients at high risk of biochemical failure after postprostatectomy RT

  17. BIOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following- Persistent albuminuria (>300mg/d or >200μg/min, that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months apart diabetic, progressive decline in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR, elevated arterial blood pressure. The earliest biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is the presence of micro-albumin in the urine, which if left untreated will eventually lead to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. Micro-albuminuria refers to the excretion of albumin in the urine at a rate that exceeds normal limits. The current study was conducted to establish the prevalence of micro-albuminuria in a sequential sample of diabetic patients attending hospital and OPD Clinic to determine its relationship with known and putative risk factors to identify micro- and normo-albuminuric patients in their sample for subsequent comparison in different age, sex, weight and creatinine clearance of the micro- and normo-albuminuric patients. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in one hundred patients at Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Anwarpur, Hapur, U. P. Patients having diabetes mellitus in different age group ranging from 30 to 70 years were selected. Data was analysed by SPSS software. Micro-albuminuria was observed in 35% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was observed that 65% patients were free from any type of albuminuria. Also micro-albuminuria was present in 10% of the patients less than 50 yrs. of age, while 15% of the patients more than 50 yrs. of age were having micro-albuminuria. There was a statistically significant correlation of micro-albuminuria with duration of diabetes. Incidence of micro-albuminuria increases with age as well as increased duration of diabetes mellitus. Our study shows that only 5% patients developed macro-albuminuria. Glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose was significantly raised among all these

  18. SBMLsqueezer 2: context-sensitive creation of kinetic equations in biochemical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draeger, Andreas; Zielinski, Daniel C.; Keller, Roland;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The size and complexity of published biochemical network reconstructions are steadily increasing, expanding the potential scale of derived computational models. However, the construction of large biochemical network models is a laborious and error-prone task. Automated methods have...... during kinetic model construction would thus benefit from automated methods for rate law assignment. Results: We present a high-throughput algorithm to automatically suggest and create suitable rate laws based upon reaction type according to several criteria. The criteria for choices made...

  19. ADVANCES ON BILINEAR MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL BATCH PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This thesis is aimed to study the implications of the statistical modeling approaches proposed for the bilinear modeling of batch processes, develop new techniques to overcome some of the problems that have not been yet solved and apply them to data of biochemical processes. The study, discussion and development of the new methods revolve around the four steps of the modeling cycle, from the alignment, preprocessing and calibration of batch data to the monitoring of batches trajectories....

  20. Novel Biochemical Markers of Psychosocial Stress in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Asberg; Ake Nygren; Rosario Leopardi; Gunnar Rylander; Ulla Peterson; Lukas Wilczek; Håkan Källmén; Mirjam Ekstedt; Torbjörn Akerstedt; Mats Lekander; Rolf Ekman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thyroid stimulating hormone (T...

  1. Biochemical functionalization of silicon dioxide surfaces for sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Römhildt, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to functionalize silicon dioxide surfaces with biochemical molecules in such a way that biorecognition of target molecules in solution will be possible. By introducing a tool set of different molecules and characterization methods, a more universal approach towards various biosensor setups is presented. This includes on the one hand preparation of the biosensor surfaces to allow further molecule attachment via their reactive functional groups. Secondly, the select...

  2. POCT血糖仪、生化仪葡萄糖氧化酶法和己糖激酶法检测新生儿血糖的研究%Study on Neonatal Blood Glucose Detected by POCT Glucose Meters and Biochemical Analyzer with Glucose Oxidase Method and Hexokinase Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小斌; 杨阳; 张士朋; 贺菊晖; 郭威

    2012-01-01

    目的 从众多型号的POCT血糖仪中寻找与生化分析仪法相关性好的POCT血糖仪用来新生儿血糖的过筛和动态监测. 方法 模拟新生儿血液(高红细胞压积)检测:取高、中、低三种不同血糖浓度的成人患者样本各30人次,取静脉血用肝素抗凝,同一人次取3份.第一份用6个品牌8种型号血糖仪分别进行检测;第二份模仿新生血液、离心后吸去部分血浆,调红细胞压积至60%再用8款血糖仪分别进行检测;第三份用生化分析仪己糖激酶法检测.新生儿血液实例检测:取40例总胆红素正常新生儿和20例总胆红素升高的新生儿分别用强生稳步ONE Touch Sure Step血糖仪检测毛细血管血糖,同时用生化分析仪(葡萄糖氧化酶法、己糖激酶法)检测静脉血的血糖. 结果 模拟新生儿血液的检测中:8款POCT血糖仪中,使用葡萄糖氧化酶光化学法原理的强生稳步ONE Touch Sure Step和罗氏ACCU- CHEK Active(机外进样)正常压积组A组和高红细胞压积组B组,高、中、低浓度血糖检测差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),A组和B组与生化仪己糖激酶法有很好的相关性(r>0.95).新生儿血液实例检测中:强生稳步血糖仪与生化仪葡萄糖氧化酶法和己糖激酶法检测结果差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 POCT血糖仪葡萄糖氧化酶光化学法抗高红细胞压积的影响优于葡萄糖氧化酶电极法、葡萄糖脱氢酶电极法,使用葡萄糖氧化酶光化学法原理的POCT血糖仪与生化分析仪葡萄糖氧化酶法、己糖激酶法检测结果有很好的相关性,适合于新生儿血糖过筛和动态的监测.%Objective To find a good POCT glucose meter whose detection results could be well correlated with those by biochemical analyzer and could be used to measure and dynamically monitor the neonatal blood glucose. Methods In the detection of glucose of simulated neonatal blood (high hematocrit), anticoagulant vein

  3. Weighting schemes in metabolic graphs for identifying biochemical routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Baloni, P; Vishveshwara, S; Chandra, N

    2014-03-01

    Metabolism forms an integral part of all cells and its study is important to understand the functioning of the system, to understand alterations that occur in disease state and hence for subsequent applications in drug discovery. Reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic graphs from genomics and other molecular or biochemical data is now feasible. Few methods have also been reported for inferring biochemical pathways from these networks. However, given the large scale and complex inter-connections in the networks, the problem of identifying biochemical routes is not trivial and some questions still remain open. In particular, how a given path is altered in perturbed conditions remains a difficult problem, warranting development of improved methods. Here we report a comparison of 6 different weighting schemes to derive node and edge weights for a metabolic graph, weights reflecting various kinetic, thermodynamic parameters as well as abundances inferred from transcriptome data. Using a network of 50 nodes and 107 edges of carbohydrate metabolism, we show that kinetic parameter derived weighting schemes [Formula: see text] fare best. However, these are limited by their extent of availability, highlighting the usefulness of omics data under such conditions. Interestingly, transcriptome derived weights yield paths with best scores, but are inadequate to discriminate the theoretical paths. The method is tested on a system of Escherichia coli stress response. The approach illustrated here is generic in nature and can be used in the analysis for metabolic network from any species and perhaps more importantly for comparing condition-specific networks.

  4. Acromegaly Clinical Trial Methodology Impact on Reported Biochemical Efficacy Rates of Somatostatin Receptor Ligand Treatments: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CARMICHAEL, JOHN D.; Bonert, Vivien S.; Nuño, Miriam; Ly, Diana; Melmed, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Biochemical efficacy of somatostatin receptor ligand (SRL) treatment in acromegaly is defined by metrics for GH and IGF-1 control. Since the earliest therapeutic trials, biochemical control criteria, medical formulations, and assay techniques have evolved. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed for English-language trials published from 1974 to 2012 evaluating 10 or more patients, with a duration of more than 3 months and biochemical control as a key objective. We used a rand...

  5. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  6. 磺基水杨酸检测尿液和脑脊液蛋白自动比浊法的建立%Establishment of a method for detecting urine and cerebro-spinal fluid proteins by sulfosalicylic acid turbidimetry using automatic biochemical analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春海; 黄敏洁; 吴娟芳; 赵忆凡; 沈玉萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and improve the method for detecting urine and cerebro-spinal fluid proteins by sulfosalicylic acid turbidimetry using automatic biochemical analyzer. Methods The improved sulfosalicylic acid turbidimetry using automatic biochemical analyzer(I-SS assay) and its parameters were established. The precision, linear range and recovery rate were evaluated and compared with the traditional sulfosalicylic acid turbidimetry ( T-SS assay). Results The within-run and between-rum coefficients of variation (CV) were 1. 2%-l. 5% and 2. L%-3. 5%. The linear range was 0. 037-2. 38 g/L. The recovery rate was 85. 6%-109. 2%. The correlation with the T-SS assay was Y I-ss - 0.980 AX T-ss +0.010 8, and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.982. Conclusions The I-SS assay is sensitive and accurate, and it is suitable to automatic biochemical analyzer.%目的 对磺基水杨酸比浊法进行改良,并对其测定尿液和脑脊液蛋白的自动化分析进行评价.方法 应用改良磺基水杨酸仪器比浊法(简称仪器法),在全自动生化分析仪上建立测定参数,评价其方法的精密度、线性范围、回收率,并与手工磺基水杨酸比浊法(简称手工法)进行比较.结果 批内和批间变异系数(CV)分别为1.2% ~1.5%和2.1% ~3.5%.线性范围为0.037 ~ 2.38 g/L.回收率为85.6% ~ 109.2%.与手工法比较,Y仪器=0.980 4X手工 +0.010 8,相关系数(r)=0.982.结论 改良的磺基水杨酸比浊法测定微量总蛋白具有较高的精密度和准确度,适合于全自动生化分析仪.

  7. [Biochemical indicators of anaphylactic shock and the application in forensic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Li; Chen, Jie; Gao, Wei-Min; Du, Zhong-Bo; Cao, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Bao-Li

    2014-04-01

    Fatal anaphylactic shock is common in forensic practice. However, it is difficult to diagnose for lacking specific pathological and morphologic changes in forensic autopsy. The application of some biochemical indicators is of great significance. This paper reviews the biological characteristics of some biochemical indicators and detection methods. The forensic application, problems and prospects of these indicators are also introduced in details. The stable biochemical indicators, IgE, tryptase and chymase, show great potential and advantages in the identification of fatal anaphylactic shock in forensic medicine.

  8. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  9. Insulin resistance as a non-invasive method for the assessment of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C: a comparative study of biochemical methods La resistencia a la insulina en la valoración no invasiva de la fibrosis en pacientes con hepatitis C: Estudio comparativo de métodos bioquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romera

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: insulin resistance (IR promotes the progression of fibrosis and diminishes response to treatment in patients with hepatitis C. Recently, Sydney's index (includes IR has been proposed as a non-invasive method for the prediction of fibrosis. Objective: to assess the usefulness of Sydney's index for the prediction of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4 or absence of significant fibrosis (F0-F1 in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Patients and methods: we included 131 patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C. Mean age was 40 ± 11, 78 men and 53 women. Fibrosis stage was (F0-F1 69 patients, F2: 40, and advanced (F3-F4 in 22 patients. We measured baseline AST, ALT, GGT, platelet, cholesterol, alcohol, and IR (HOMA - IR levels. Sydney, Forns' and APRI indexes were calculated. Results: the area under the curve for the diagnosis of absence of significant fibrosis in each method was: Sydney: 0.80, Forns: 0.71, APRI: 0.70; p = ns. Moreover, the diagnostic capacity of advanced fibrosis was: Sydney: 0.88, Forns: 0.83, APRI: 0.82; p = ns. The predictive negative value of significant fibrosis was 74, 72, and 67%, respectively. Due to the presence of intermediate values, the indexes were not applicable to 36, 44 and 43% of patients respectively. Conclusions: the incorporation of insulin resistance among biochemical non-invasive methods slightly improves the yield of other indexes. Nevertheless, results are suboptimal, and more than one third of patients might not be correctly classified.Introducción: la resistencia a la insulina (RI promueve la progresión de la fibrosis y disminuye la respuesta al tratamiento en pacientes con hepatitis C. Recientemente, se ha propuesto el índice de Sidney como método no invasivo de predicción de la fibrosis que incluye la RI. Objetivo: valorar la utilidad del índice de Sidney en la predicción de fibrosis avanzada (F3-F4 o ausencia de fibrosis significativa (F0-F1 en pacientes con hepatitis C. Pacientes y m

  10. Current diagnostic guidelines for biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, D; Resmini, E; Bocca, L; Giusti, M; Barreca, A; Minuto, F

    2004-12-01

    Acromegaly is a rare and chronic disease that, in the majority of cases, is due to the presence of a benign growth hormone (GH)-producing tumor of the pituitary. In the past, the diagnosis of acromegaly was established basically on physical changes, and only the patients with a severe clinical picture were brought to medical attention. The development of a radioimmunoassay for detecting GH allowed for the first time to confirm the diagnosis biochemically. Subsequently, methods for measuring insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) became available and added another important biochemical marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. Progressive improvements in assay methods have allowed for progressively better definitions of normality and, as a result, have permitted the diagnosis to be biochemically established in patients with only mild forms of the disease. Moreover, new potential markers of disease activity, such as other GH-dependent IGF system parameters, have been investigated and proposed in the diagnostic work-up and for monitoring the therapeutic outcome. Optimal assessment of disease activity, for both diagnostic and follow-up purposes, is mandatory. This subject has been strongly debated regarding proper cut-off values using highly sensitive GH assays as well as the problems linked to IGF system components measurement. Consequently, several consensus reports, as well as original studies, have been issued giving special attention to diagnostic procedures, cut-off revisions and definition of disease activity. The present review discuss principally the biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly based on these articles and on the experience collected in an endocrinological unit considered as reference center for pituitary diseases. PMID:15765030

  11. Stiffness detection and reduction in discrete stochastic simulation of biochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Watson, Layne T.; Cao, Yang

    2011-02-01

    Typical multiscale biochemical models contain fast-scale and slow-scale reactions, where "fast" reactions fire much more frequently than "slow" ones. This feature often causes stiffness in discrete stochastic simulation methods such as Gillespie's algorithm and the Tau-Leaping method leading to inefficient simulation. This paper proposes a new strategy to automatically detect stiffness and identify species that cause stiffness for the Tau-Leaping method, as well as two stiffness reduction methods. Numerical results on a stiff decaying dimerization model and a heat shock protein regulation model demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed methods for multiscale biochemical systems.

  12. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  14. Reconfigurable neuromorphic computation in biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Ju Katherine; Jiang, Jie-Hong R; Fages, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Implementing application-specific computation and control tasks within a biochemical system has been an important pursuit in synthetic biology. Most synthetic designs to date have focused on realizing systems of fixed functions using specifically engineered components, thus lacking flexibility to adapt to uncertain and dynamically-changing environments. To remedy this limitation, an analog and modularized approach to realize reconfigurable neuromorphic computation with biochemical reactions is presented. We propose a biochemical neural network consisting of neuronal modules and interconnects that are both reconfigurable through external or internal control over the concentrations of certain molecular species. Case studies on classification and machine learning applications using the DNA strain displacement technology demonstrate the effectiveness of our design in both reconfiguration and autonomous adaptation. PMID:26736417

  15. CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT THE CIRRHOSIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bilalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. To carry out a comparative description of the clinical and biochemical parameters at patients with cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis (CP-HGA and cirrhosis of mixed etiologies — CP-HGM (HСV+ alcohol.Materials and methods. The study involved 62 patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies, who carries out clinical, immunogenetic and biochemical studies.Results. Patients with the 3d genotype and low viral load were registered with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies (HСV+ alcohol. At the cirrhosis Class B for Child-Pugh basic data biochemical parameters were similar in patients with CP-HGA and CP-HGM, but ALT and AST activity, which are significantly higher than observed in patients with CP-HGM. At dismissal, ALT and GGT activities were detected significantly higher in patients with CP-HGM than the CP-HGA. At the cirrhosis Class C for Child-Pugh the baseline, reflecting cholestasis — is total bilirubin, GGT and alkaline phosphatase and were detected significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM significantly reduced, and thore is no differences between the groups to be discharged from the hospital, in addition to the activity of GGT, which it remained significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM. Cytolytic activity of enzymes (ALT, AST during the entire period of the disease was observed significantly higher normal values and did not depend on the CP etiology.Conclusion decision. The maximum rate of change of the basic biochemical parameters is observed in patients with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies Class B for Child-Pugh and at the cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis — in patients with cirrhosis Class C.

  16. Biochemical effects of Calotropis procera on hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali Abd Alrheam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropis procera commonly known as Sodom apple is a 6-meter high shrub that belongs to the Aclepiadaceae plant family and is commonly found in West Africa and other tropical places. In Saudi Arabia the plant is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of diseases including fever, constipation, muscular spasm and joint pain. Aim: In the present study C. procera were investigated for the hepatoprotective activity. Material and Methods: Carbon tetrachloride is used to produce hepatotoxicity. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats. Carbon tetrachloride 2ml/kg was administered twice a week to all of the groups of animals except group I, which served as control and given the normal saline. Group II served as Carbon tetrachloirde control. Group III received Silymarin at 100 mg/kg/day dose, Group IV received aqueous leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group V received chloroform leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group VI received ethanol leaves extracts C. procera 200 mg/kg, Group VII received latex of C. procera 200mg/kg. The effect of aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera on biochemical parameters of liver was measured. Results: The results showed that the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera produced significant decrease in Acid phosphatase, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Total protein, Albumin and total bilirubin levels compared to the CCL4 treated group II. Conclusion: Calotropis procera appears to to have hepatoprotective activity and these may be due to enrich of the plant by phytoconstituents that activate and in hence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the plant. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(12.000: 446-453

  17. Simulation of Biochemical Pathway Adaptability Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosl, W J

    2005-01-26

    The systems approach to genomics seeks quantitative and predictive descriptions of cells and organisms. However, both the theoretical and experimental methods necessary for such studies still need to be developed. We are far from understanding even the simplest collective behavior of biomolecules, cells or organisms. A key aspect to all biological problems, including environmental microbiology, evolution of infectious diseases, and the adaptation of cancer cells is the evolvability of genomes. This is particularly important for Genomes to Life missions, which tend to focus on the prospect of engineering microorganisms to achieve desired goals in environmental remediation and climate change mitigation, and energy production. All of these will require quantitative tools for understanding the evolvability of organisms. Laboratory biodefense goals will need quantitative tools for predicting complicated host-pathogen interactions and finding counter-measures. In this project, we seek to develop methods to simulate how external and internal signals cause the genetic apparatus to adapt and organize to produce complex biochemical systems to achieve survival. This project is specifically directed toward building a computational methodology for simulating the adaptability of genomes. This project investigated the feasibility of using a novel quantitative approach to studying the adaptability of genomes and biochemical pathways. This effort was intended to be the preliminary part of a larger, long-term effort between key leaders in computational and systems biology at Harvard University and LLNL, with Dr. Bosl as the lead PI. Scientific goals for the long-term project include the development and testing of new hypotheses to explain the observed adaptability of yeast biochemical pathways when the myosin-II gene is deleted and the development of a novel data-driven evolutionary computation as a way to connect exploratory computational simulation with hypothesis

  18. Engineering interpenetrating network hydrogels as biomimetic cell niche with independently tunable biochemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels have been widely used as artificial cell niche to mimic extracellular matrix with tunable properties. However, changing biochemical cues in hydrogels developed-to-date would often induce simultaneous changes in mechanical properties, which do not support mechanistic studies on stem cell-niche interactions. Here we report the development of a PEG-based interpenetrating network (IPN), which is composed of two polymer networks that can independently and simultaneously crosslink to form hydrogels in a cell-friendly manner. The resulting IPN hydrogel allows independently tunable biochemical and mechanical properties, as well as stable and more homogeneous presentation of biochemical ligands in 3D than currently available methods. We demonstrate the potential of our IPN platform for elucidating stem cell-niche interactions by modulating osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. The versatility of such IPN hydrogels is further demonstrated using three distinct and widely used polymers to form the mechanical network while keeping the biochemical network constant.

  19. Long-term function studies using radiological, radionuclide and biochemical methods following gastroplication according to Nissen-Rossetti. Radiologische, nuklearmedizinische und biochemische Langzeitfunktionskontrollen der Fundoplikatio nach Nissen-Rossetti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsdiek, F.W.

    1986-06-05

    Gastroplication is an operation to eliminate regurgitation associated with hiatal hernia. Elimination of reflux leading to a considerable improvement of the patients' well-being and relief of symptoms could be achieved in 90% of cases. Comparisons of the various methods available for an unbiassed evaluation of the results of surgery have shown that standardised anamnestic record sheets and questionnaires provide an adequate basis for the further medical surveillance of the patients. It was also found that the advantages of X-ray examinations lie just as well in a precise visualisation of the resultant changes in organ topography as in valuable information relating to the level of functional performance that is obtained through the use of a high-density contrast medium (ultrastructure of the mucosa, balanced gastric secretion). Scintigrams recorded to assess the gastric function which are known to have a high diagnostic accuracy are easy to handle, cause little discomfort to the patient and require only a low dose of radiopharmaceutical. In about 10% of patients showing recurrent reflux symptoms the operation fails to have the expected effect. (TRV).

  20. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, P.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Siemann, D.W.; Shapiro, D.L.; Van Houtte, P.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve.

  1. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  2. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  3. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  4. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the vibratio

  5. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve

  6. [Biochemical diagnostics in acute pancreatitis recognition and outcome predicition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczyk, Paweł; Kozma, Ewa M; Olczyk, Krystyna; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease associated with an improper activation of pancreatic zymogens leading to autodigestion of the gland and if excessive--to multiple organ dysfunction. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis manifested by 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis is a life threatening disorder requiring subsequent management in intensive care unit. Unfortunately, none of biochemical tests presently used for laboratory assessment of acute pancreatitis at the early stage of the disease is able to estimate accurately: diagnosis, etiology and severity. At present, diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on evaluation of serum amylase and lipase activity due to easy availability and simplicity of these enzymatic tests. Low specificity of the mentioned enzymes resulted in studies concerning pancreatic isoamylase, elastase-1, chymotrypsine, procarboxy-peptidase B, trypsinogen-2 and immunoreactive trypsinogen usefulness in the laboratory diagnosis of AP. The prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis using multifactorial scoring systems is cumbersome especially due to their complexity. On the other hand the biochemical method of choice, estimation of serum C reactive protein, is useless in the early phase of disease. Unfortunately, the computed tomography--the most accurate method in severity assessing--is not always available. Recent studies have brought some progress in severity predicting, such as phospholipase A2, cellular immunity markers, cytokines, activation peptides of trypsinogen and carboxypeptidase B, procalcitonine, pancreatitis associated protein and serum amyloid A. All these newly introduced biochemical methods allow to look optimistically into the future of laboratory diagnostics of the acute pancreatitis believing that the problem of diagnosing and predicting the AP severity will be solved. PMID:15850341

  7. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes......BACKGROUND: To examine whether time of the day has an effect on the circulating levels of metabolism parameters. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained under standardized conditions from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 hours. The metabolic markers and melatonin were examined...

  8. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.;

    2004-01-01

    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive s...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin...

  9. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  10. The Development of a Biochemical Profile of Acacia Honey by Identifying Biochemical Determinants of its Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru MARGHITAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Codex Alimentarius Standard, EU Legislation and National Standards state honey authenticity. Authenticity in respect of production (to prevent adulteration and authenticity in respect of geographical and botanical origin are the two main aspects of general honey authenticity. Quality of honey depends on the plant source, the chemical composition of these plants as well, as on the climatic conditions and soil mineral composition. Romanian acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia honey that came from the most important Transylvanian massif (Valea lui Mihai, Bihor County, Romania was evaluated for authenticity by pollen-analysis, several physico-chemical analyses, including sugar profile and mineral content. As polyphenolic content could be also an important factor for botanical authentification, HPLC-DAD-MS analyses were performed to assess the fingerprint of this important secondary plant metabolite. Statistical data were processed in order to develop a biochemical profile of this type of honey and the main quality categories identification. The results of physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that the tested honey samples could be framed into monofloral type of acacia honeys. The analysis of acacia honeys originating from Valea lui Mihai, Romania, showed that polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids and flavonoids could be used as a complementary method for authenticity determination together with pollen analysis and other physico-chemical analysis.

  11. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elhiblu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG, and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for

  12. 阴道分泌物湿片法联合阴道炎化学试剂盒检查在诊断阴道炎的应用%Application of Vaginal Wet Film Method Combined with Vaginitis Biochemical Kits Examination in the Diagnosis of Vaginitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严家来; 梅振海

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较阴道分泌物湿片检查和阴道炎化学试剂盒检查在诊断阴道炎的差异,探讨两者联合检测的临床价值.方法 对中铁四局集团中心医院2011年5月~2012年10月门诊1 526例阴道分泌物标本同时进行湿片检查和阴道炎化学试剂盒检测.结果 湿片检查检出滴虫、真菌、同时检出滴虫和真菌、细菌性阴道炎分别为37,223,2和457例,检出率分别为2.4%,14.6%,0.13%和29.9%;阴道炎化学试剂盒检查检出滴虫、真菌、同时检出滴虫和真菌、细菌性阴道炎分别为42,231,0和605例,检出率分别为为2.8%,15.1%,0和39.6%.阴道炎化学试剂盒检查对滴虫和真菌的检出率比湿片检查稍高,但差异无统计学显著性意义(P>0.05);在细菌性阴道炎(BV)的检出率方面则差异具有统计学显著性意义(P0. 05). The rate in bacterial vaginosis detection was significant difference (P<0. 01). Conclusion Vaginitis biochemical kits could not be detected with trichomonas vaginalis and fungi moreover. Wet film examination method of vaginal secretions combined with vaginitis biochemical detection kits can complement each other,and improve the diagnostic rate and accuracy of vaginitis.

  13. [Biochemical methods for the determination of a clinical protein catabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E; Funovics, J; Schulz, F; Karner, J

    1980-12-01

    1. 20 patients before surgery received enteral nutrition for three days (12 g nitrogen, 1800 Kcal). Nitrogen and urea excretions in urine during the second and third day were determined. Eleven patients had a negative nitrogen balance (-2,7 and -2,4 g/day). In these patients urea production rates were 21,1 and 20,1 g/day. An urea production rate exceeding 15 g urea/day is probable an indication for a protein catabolism. The reason for this catabolic state seems to be a decreased protein utilisation (49 and 47 percent) as the result of a metabolic stress situation. This metabolic stress was determined according the stress index (Bistrian). The patients were in a stress situation comparable to postoperative stress (+3,7 and +3,9). The determination of urea production rate and catabolic index seems a suitable tool for defining a catabolic state. 2. 3-met-histidine excretion in urine were measured in seven patients postoperatively. In different periods saline or aminoacids solutions (5% alanine) were infused. During alanine administration protein (+49%)--and 3-met-histidine excretions (+50%) increased. It is not possible to state a catabolic situation out of the 3-met-histidine excretion, because an increased excretion may result from a stimulated protein synthesis in muscle tissue or from an increased muscleprotein wasting. 3. Free amino acid pools in plasma and muscle tissue were analysed in patients with severe illness of liver and pancreas. The free amino acid pattern differed from healthy volunteers. In patients with liver disease significantly increased concentrations of phenylalanine, tyrosine and methionine were found. In patients with acute pancreatitis highly abnormal pattern of intracellular amino acids occurred with decreased concentrations of glutamine, cysteine, histidine, lysine, arginine and ornithine. The highly significant decreased concentrations of glutamine (p less than 0,01) indicate a catabolic situation of these patients. A quantification of the severity of the catabolic state out of amino acid concentrations is not possible.

  14. Validation of EIA sampling methods - bacterial and biochemical analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheelu, G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.

    the Indian Experiment (INDEX) during September 1996 and June-Sept. 1997. Analysis were done for lipid, protein and carbohydrates, which comprise the labile organic matter (LOM), total organic carbon (TOC) and total bacterial counts (TC). Of the 5 variables...

  15. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of Cushing’s disease with different suppression rates by high-dose dexamethasone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and biochemical characteristics of Cushing’s disease with different suppression rates by high-dose dexamethasone.Methods Two hundred and two consecutive patients with

  16. Cytologic-Biochemical Radiation Dosimeters in Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of radiation interacting with living tissue is the deposition of energy therein. This energy triggers numerous chemical reactions within the molecules of the target tissues. We have measured in man the results of some of these reactions at doses up to 300 rads: chromosome aberrations; alterations in the kinetics of specific human cell populations; changes in 37 biochemical constituents of serum and/or urine. The utilization of chromosomes as a biological dosimeter is partially perfected but there are numerous discrepancies in data between different laboratories. Etiocholanolone can be used to evaluate marrow injury before the white-cell count falls below 5000/mm3. Most biochemical dosimeters evaluated gave negative or inconsistent results. However, salivary amylase is a promising indicator of human radiation injury from doses as low as 100 rads. (author)

  17. Optical Biochemical Platforms for Nanoparticles Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Campanella, Clarissa Martina

    2014-01-01

    In the biochemical sensing field, a fervent research activity related to the development of real time, low cost, compact and high throughput devices for the detection and characterization of natural or synthetic nanoparticles NPs actually exists. In this research scenario, different platforms for biosensing purposes have been developed according to the huge amount of physical effects involved in the transduction of the biochemical-signal into a measurable output signal. In the present work two different optical platforms for NP detection have been investigated, one based on integrated optics and the other based on microscopy. Both the approaches rely on the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with a small particle in the hypothesis of dealing with a Rayleigh scatterer, i.e. a nanoparticle having a size really smaller than the one of the wavelength of the incident light and scattering light elastically.

  18. Advancement in biochemical assays in andrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolf-BernhardSchill; RaftHenkel

    1999-01-01

    Determination of maikers of sperm function, accessory sex gland secretion and silent male genital tract inflammation is of considerable diagnostic value in the evaluation of male infertility. The introduction of biochemical tests into the analysis of male factor has the advantage that standardized assays with a coefficient of variafion characteristic of clinical chemistry are performed, in contrast to biological test systems with a large variability .Biochemical parameters may be used in clinical practice to evaluate the sperm fertitizing capacity (acrosin, aniline blue,ROS), to characterize male accessory sex gland secretinns (fructose, a-glucosidase, PSA), and to identify men with silent genital tract inflammation (elastase, C'3 complement component, coeruloplasmin, IgA, IgG, ROS). (As/an J Androl 1999 Jun; 1: 45-51)

  19. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic...

  20. The stochastic dynamics of biochemical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Challenger, Joseph Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the stochastic dynamics of biochemical reaction systems. The importance of the intrinsic fluctuations in these systems has become more widely appreciated in recent years, and should be accounted for when modelling such systems mathematically. These models are described as continuous time Markov processes and their dynamics defined by a master equation. Analytical progress is made possible by the use of the van Kampen system-size expansion, which splits the dynamics...

  1. SIMULATING BIOCHEMICAL SIGNALING NETWORKS IN COMPLEX MOVING GEOMETRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychalski, Wanda; Adalsteinsson, David; Elston, Timothy C

    2010-01-01

    Signaling networks regulate cellular responses to environmental stimuli through cascades of protein interactions. External signals can trigger cells to polarize and move in a specific direction. During migration, spatially localized activity of proteins is maintained. To investigate the effects of morphological changes on intracellular signaling, we developed a numerical scheme consisting of a cut cell finite volume spatial discretization coupled with level set methods to simulate the resulting advection-reaction-diffusion system. We then apply the method to several biochemical reaction networks in changing geometries. We found that a Turing instability can develop exclusively by cell deformations that maintain constant area. For a Turing system with a geometry-dependent single or double peak solution, simulations in a dynamically changing geometry suggest that a single peak solution is the only stable one, independent of the oscillation frequency. The method is also applied to a model of a signaling network in a migrating fibroblast. PMID:24086102

  2. Electronic modulation of biochemical signal generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordonov, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; Cheng, Yi; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Ghodssi, Reza; Rubloff, Gary; Yin, Jun-Jie; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.

    2014-08-01

    Microelectronic devices that contain biological components are typically used to interrogate biology rather than control biological function. Patterned assemblies of proteins and cells have, however, been used for in vitro metabolic engineering, where coordinated biochemical pathways allow cell metabolism to be characterized and potentially controlled on a chip. Such devices form part of technologies that attempt to recreate animal and human physiological functions on a chip and could be used to revolutionize drug development. These ambitious goals will, however, require new biofabrication methodologies that help connect microelectronics and biological systems and yield new approaches to device assembly and communication. Here, we report the electrically mediated assembly, interrogation and control of a multi-domain fusion protein that produces a bacterial signalling molecule. The biological system can be electrically tuned using a natural redox molecule, and its biochemical response is shown to provide the signalling cues to drive bacterial population behaviour. We show that the biochemical output of the system correlates with the electrical input charge, which suggests that electrical inputs could be used to control complex on-chip biological processes.

  3. [Biochemical antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfadóttir, G; Jónsson, J J

    2001-05-01

    Biochemical antenatal screening started 30 years ago. Initially, the goal was to detect neural tube defects by measuring a-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) and amniotic fluid (AF-AFP). The serendipitous discovery of an association between low AFP maternal serum concentration and chromosomal anomalies resulted in increased research interest in biochemical screening in pregnancy. Subsequently double, triple or quadruple tests in 2nd trimester of pregnancy became widely used in combination with fetal chromosome determination in at risk individuals. In Iceland, antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies has essentially been based on fetal chromosome studies offered to pregnant women 35 years or older. This strategy needs to be revised. Recently first trimester biochemical screening based on maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (MS-PAPP-A) and free b-human chorionic gonadotropin (MS-free b-hCG) and multivariate risk assessment has been developed. This screening test can be improved if done in conjunction with nuchal translucency measurements in an early sonography scan. PMID:17018982

  4. Biochemical reaction engineering for redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Redox reactions are still a challenge for biochemical engineers. A personal view for the development of this field is given. Cofactor regeneration was an obstacle for quite some time. The first technical breakthrough was achieved with the system formate/formate dehydrogenase for the regeneration of NADH2. In cases where the same enzyme could be used for chiral reduction as well as for cofactor regeneration, isopropanol as a hydrogen source proved to be beneficial. The coproduct (acetone) can be removed by pervaporation. Whole-cell reductions (often yeast reductions) can also be used. By proper biochemical reaction engineering, it is possible to apply these systems in a continuous way. By cloning a formate dehydrogenase and an oxidoreductase "designer bug" can be obtained where formate is used instead of glucose as the hydrogen source. Complex sequences of redox reactions can be established by pathway engineering with a focus on gene overexpression or with a focus on establishing non-natural pathways. The success of pathway engineering can be controlled by measuring cytosolic metabolite concentrations. The optimal exploitation of such systems calls for the integrated cooperation of classical and molecular biochemical engineering.

  5. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  6. Surrogate biochemical markers: precise measurement for strategic drug and biologics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Hulse, J D; Colburn, W A

    1995-05-01

    More efficient drug and biologics development is necessary for future success of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. One way to achieve this objective is to use rationally selected surrogate markers to improve the early decision-making process. Using typical clinical chemistry methods to measure biochemical markers may not ensure adequate precision and reproducibility. In contrast, using analytical methods that meet good laboratory practices along with rational selection and validation of biochemical markers can give those who use them a competitive advantage over those who do not by providing meaningful data for earlier decision making. PMID:7657845

  7. Identification of protein biochemical functions by similarity search using the molecular surface database eF-site

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2003-01-01

    The identification of protein biochemical functions based on their three-dimensional structures is strongly required in the post-genome-sequencing era. We have developed a new method to identify and predict protein biochemical functions using the similarity information of molecular surface geometries and electrostatic potentials on the surfaces. Our prediction system consists of a similarity search method based on a clique search algorithm and the molecular surface database eF-site (electrost...

  8. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the barrier sterols and image the lipid structures in the matrix of acquired cholesteatoma and compare the distribution with that found in stratum corneum from normal skin, with the goal to resolve their potential influence on cholesteatoma growth. METHODS: High-performanc......OBJECTIVES: To quantify the barrier sterols and image the lipid structures in the matrix of acquired cholesteatoma and compare the distribution with that found in stratum corneum from normal skin, with the goal to resolve their potential influence on cholesteatoma growth. METHODS: High......-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used to achieve a quantitative biochemical determination of the sterols. The intercellular lipids were visualized by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, which enables label-free imaging of the lipids in intact tissue samples. RESULTS...

  9. Salvage Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate whether hypofractionation is well tolerated and to preliminarily assess biochemical control of this regimen in a postprostatectomy, salvage setting. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed in 50 patients treated between May 2003 and December 2005 with hypofractionated radiotherapy for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Radiotherapy was prescribed to the prostatic fossa to 65-70 Gy in 26-28 fractions of 2.5 Gy each, using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image localization. Toxicities were scored using a modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale and the Fox Chase modification of Late Effects Normal Tissue scale. The median follow-up was 18.9 months (range, 5.3-35.9). Results: No Grade 3 or greater acute or late toxicities were observed. Grade 2 toxicities included four acute genitourinary, one acute gastrointestinal, two late genitourinary, and two late gastrointestinal toxicities. Of the 50 patients, 39 demonstrated a continuous biochemical response after salvage therapy, 3 had an initial response before prostate-specific antigen failure, and 7 had prostate-specific antigen progression, 1 of whom died of progressive metastatic disease. Finally, 1 patient discontinued therapy because of the diagnosis of a metachronous pancreatic cancer and died without additional prostate cancer follow-up. All remaining patients were alive at the last follow-up visit. A lower presalvage prostate-specific antigen level was the only significant prognostic factor for improved biochemical control. The estimated actuarial biochemical control rate at 2 years was 72.9%. Conclusions: The toxicity and early biochemical response rates were consistent with expectations from conventional fractionation. Additional follow-up is required to better document the biochemical control, but these results suggest that hypofractionation is a well-tolerated approach for salvage radiotherapy

  10. BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERN IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To study different biochemical parameters and serum agarose gel electrophoresis patterns of patients consistent with clinical symptoms of multiple myeloma. SETTING : The study was carried out at Apollo Hospitals, Bhubaneswar, the premier tertiary care C ent re in Orissa. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : A total of 1057 referred cases for protein electrophoresis were analysed and reviewed between March 2010 to July 2015. RESULTS : Out of 1057 cases of protein electrophoresis 94 were confirmed cases of Multiple Myeloma. T he mean age of detected cases of Multiple Myeloma was 64.8 years. There was a male prevalence. Anaemia was initially found in 85.0% cases . The mean protein concentration was 9.0gm/dL and albumin was 3.2gm/dL . Hypercalcemia was seen in 28.0% case. Serum Cre atinine level of >2.0mg/dL was seen in cases 38.0% case. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed a localized band in 99% of patients. Immuno fixation electrophoresis showed monoclonal band in 92 cases (98% and a biclonal pattern in 2 cases (2%. Light chain myeloma was detected in 11 cases (19.0%. CONCLUSION : Serum protein electrophoresis should be routinely used in all elderly patients with features of bone pain, anemia and hyperproteinemia . It is still the gold standard for diagnosing Multiple Myeloma and it collaborate well with the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings. The abnormal band can be well characterized by Immunofixation electrophoresis.

  11. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics.Methods:Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study.

  12. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  13. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60Co and to a lesser extent by 137Cs, 182Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  14. Induced biochemical conversions of heavy crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products formed during multiple interactions of microorganisms with oils fall into two major categories: those formed due to the action of indigenous microorganisms under reservoir conditions over geological periods of time and those products which are generated by the action of introduced organisms. The extreme end product of the first category is the production of heavy 'biodegraded' crudes. The extreme end product of the second category is the production of reduced sulfates due to the introduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria which may lead to the souring of a field. There is, however, a select group of microorganisms whose action on the crudes is beneficial. The interactions between such microorganisms and different crude oils occur through complex biochemical and chemical reactions. These reactions depend on multiple variables within and at the interface of a multicomponent system consisting of organic, aqueous, and inorganic components. Studies, carried out in this laboratory (BNL) of biochemical and chemical reactions in crude oils which involve extremophilic organisms (organisms which thrive in extreme environments), have shown that the reactions are not random and follow distinct trends. These trends can be categorized. The use of a group of characteristic chemical markers, such as mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of light and heavy hydrocarbons, heterocyclic and organometallic compounds, as well as total trace metal and heteroatom contents of crude oils before and after the biochemical treatment allows to follow the type and the extent of chemical changes which occur during the biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils by microorganisms. The bioconversion involves multiple, simultaneous, and/or concurrent chemical reactions in which the microorganisms serve as biocatalysts. In this sense, the biocatalysts are active in a reaction medium which depends on the chemical composition of the crude and the selectivity of the biocatalyst. Thus, the

  15. Relationship Between Hyperspectral Parameters and Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of Flue-Cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-yang; LIU Guo-shun; YANG Yong-feng; ZHAO Chun-hua; YU Qi-wei; SONG Shi-xu

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was set up for examining the physiological and biological indexes quickly and exactly, for obtaining information of tobacco-field fertilizing and tobacco growing. The ASD Field spec FR 2500 was used to measure spectra reflectance of flue-cured tobacco and the relationship between hyperspectral parameters and biochemical contents (total nitrogen, chlorophyll, carotenoid), and physiological indexes (fresh weight, dry weight, moisture content) of flue-cured tobacco leaves was studied by correlation and stepwise regression statistic methods at different nitrogen and potassium levels. The results indicated that the spectra curves of different treatments had obvious rules and great diversities. There were high correlations between different types of spectra parameters and ten physiological and biochemical indexes of flue-cured tobacco leaves. Hyperspectral characteristic variables of ten physiological and biochemical indexes were found through stepwise regression, and SDr/SDb was the characteristic variable closest to seven biochemical contents. Simultaneously, the R2 and regression coefficient of equations reached 0.05 significant level and the equations had good estimating effects through the examination of other samples. Accordingly, this study suggested that the ten physiological and biochemical indexes could be estimated quickly by the estimating models, at the same time nitrogen-potassium fertilization and growth condition of flue-cured tobacco could be inspected.

  16. A Study Of The Clinical and Biochemical Profile Of Acute Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dabadghao, Varsha Shirish; Barure, Ram; Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Mangudkar, Sangram

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was performed to compare the clinical, biochemical and etiological properties of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and to compare clinical and laboratory parameters of faeco-oraly transmitted hepatitis: hepatitis A+ hepatitis E (A+E) with hematologicaly transmitted: hepatitis B, C, D (B+C+D) hepatitis.Material and Methods: Biochemical and clinical data were collected from 40 patients with AVH. They were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM anti-Hepatitis A virus (HAV)...

  17. Biochemical antioxidant levels respond to supplementation with an enriched drink in frail elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Wagenaar, L.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Bindels, J.G.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether a drink enriched with essential vitamins and minerals can improve biochemical status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in frail elderly people. Methods: A six-month randomized, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study. Frail elderly people 65 ye

  18. A structured approach for the engineering of biochemical network models, illustrated for signalling pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, Rainer; Gilbert, David; Heiner, Monika; Orton, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative models of biochemical networks (signal transduction cascades, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory circuits) are a central component of modern systems biology. Building and managing these complex models is a major challenge that can benefit from the application of formal methods adopted

  19. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  20. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  1. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  2. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  3. [Effect of the increasing levels of soil radioactive pollution on the biochemical composition of plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromova, V S; Pchelenok, O A; Kozlova, N M

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to study a relationship between the changes of some parameters of the biochemical and mineral composition of different plants, such as rape, pods, and lentil, and the levels of soil radiation pollution, by using the conventional methods. Radioactive pollution of dark-grey forest soils was found to cause a change in the biochemical composition of plant seeds even at the level of cesium 137 (137Cs) within the present temporary permissible levels (TPL) (600 Bq/kg): there were elevated concentrations of salts of potassium, phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, catechols, sucrose, and some amino acids. With the radioactive cesium level exceeding the TPL, biochemical changes in the seeds depended on the species of the plants: in the rape seeds, the additional formation of sucrose and amino acids continued, but less intensively than with its lower radiation; the pod beans were significantly positively correlated with the increasing amounts of catechols.

  4. The clinical significance of biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment in the newborns. Methods: Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in neonates were measured with RIA, retinol-binding protein (RBP) and prealbumin (PA) were measured with enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The tested groups consisted of 65 SGAs and AGAs (according to birth weight) with nutritionally normals and abnormals approximately equally numbered. Results: The serum levels of IGF-1, RBP and PA in the 32 malnutritional SGAs were significantly lower than those in the 35 nutritionally normal SGAs. The serum levels of the above-mentioned three in the 33 malnutritional AGAs were also significantly lower than those in the 35 nutritionally normal AGAs. Conclusion: IGF-1, RBP and PA could be used as biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment and would not be affected by the gestational age and birth weight. Biochemical measurements cannot be substituted by anthropometric measurements for the diagnosis of neonatal malnutrition

  5. CADLIVE toolbox for MATLAB: automatic dynamic modeling of biochemical networks with comprehensive system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Yu; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Mathematical modeling has become a standard technique to understand the dynamics of complex biochemical systems. To promote the modeling, we had developed the CADLIVE dynamic simulator that automatically converted a biochemical map into its associated mathematical model, simulated its dynamic behaviors and analyzed its robustness. To enhance the feasibility by CADLIVE and extend its functions, we propose the CADLIVE toolbox available for MATLAB, which implements not only the existing functions of the CADLIVE dynamic simulator, but also the latest tools including global parameter search methods with robustness analysis. The seamless, bottom-up processes consisting of biochemical network construction, automatic construction of its dynamic model, simulation, optimization, and S-system analysis greatly facilitate dynamic modeling, contributing to the research of systems biology and synthetic biology. This application can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/CADLIVE_MATLAB/ together with an instruction.

  6. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were ...

  7. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  8. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease: Hormonal and Biochemical Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Larrad-Mur, Luis; Kallen, Amanda; Chedraui, Peter; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by an increase in vascular wall thickness owing to the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix between the endothelium and the smooth muscle cell wall. There is evidence that females are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to males. This has led to an interest in examining the contribution of genetic background and sex hormones to the development of CVD. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of factors, including those related to gender, that influence CVD. Methods Evidence analysis from PubMed and individual searches concerning biochemical and endocrine influences and gender differences, which affect the origin and development of CVD. Results Although still controversial, evidence suggests that hormones including estradiol and androgens are responsible for subtle cardiovascular changes long before the development of overt atherosclerosis. Conclusion Exposure to sex hormones throughout an individual's lifespan modulates many endocrine factors involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:20460551

  9. Conceptual Aspects of Theory Appraisal: Some Biochemical Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Michael Akeroyd

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers papers on conceptual analysis by Laudan (1981 and Whitt (1989 and relates them to three biochemical episodes: (1 the modern 'biochemical explanation' of acupuncture; (2 the chemio-osmotic hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation; (3 the theory of the complete digestion of proteins in the gut. The advantages of including philosophical debate in chemical/biochemical undergraduate courses is then discussed.

  10. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, U.; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The ex....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts.......The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy...

  11. Hemoglobin variants: biochemical properties and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S; Dickson, Claire F; Gell, David A; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2013-03-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples.

  12. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  13. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  14. Transcription fluctuation effects on biochemical oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nishino

    Full Text Available Some biochemical systems show oscillation. They often consist of feedback loops with repressive transcription regulation. Such biochemical systems have distinctive characteristics in comparison with ordinary chemical systems: i numbers of molecules involved are small, ii there are typically only a couple of genes in a cell with a finite regulation time. Due to the fluctuations caused by these features, the system behavior can be quite different from the one by deterministic rate equations, because the rate equations ignore molecular fluctuations and thus are exact only in the infinite molecular number limit. The molecular fluctuations on a free-running circadian system have been studied by Gonze et al. (2002 by introducing a scale parameter [Formula: see text] for the system size. They consider, however, only the first effect, assuming that the gene process is fast enough for the second effect to be ignored, but this has not been examined systematically yet. Here we study fluctuation effects due to the finite gene regulation time by introducing a new scale parameter [Formula: see text], which we take as the unbinding time of a nuclear protein from the gene. We focus on the case where the fluctuations due to small molecular numbers are negligible. In simulations on the same system studied by Gonze et al., we find the system is unexpectedly sensitive to the fluctuation in the transcription regulation; the period of oscillation fluctuates about 30 min even when the regulation time scale [Formula: see text] is around 30 s, that is even smaller than 1/1000 of its circadian period. We also demonstrate that the distribution width for the oscillation period and amplitude scales with [Formula: see text], and the correlation time scales with [Formula: see text] in the small [Formula: see text] regime. The relative fluctuations for the period are about half of that for the amplitude, namely, the periodicity is more stable than the amplitude.

  15. Effect of age and gender on some blood biochemical parameters of apparently healthy small ruminants from Southern Punjab in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shumaila Kiran; Arif Mahmood Bhutta; Bakhtyawar Ali Khan; Sobia Durrani; Muhammad Ali; Muhammad Ali; Furhan Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To report and compare the hematological and serum biochemical profile of goat and sheep from Rahim Yar Khan district in Southern Punjab. Methods: One hundred and twenty blood samples (98 goat and 22 sheep) were collected and their blood glucose, hemoglobin and serum biochemical parameters, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by using spectrophotometer. Parameters were compared between goat and sheep. Results: It was observed that glucose (P=0.001), LDH (P=0.001) and ALT (P=0.001) concentrations differed significantly between sheep and goats. The studied parameters were compared between buck and goats and also between young goats (less than 12 months old) and adults (more than 12 months old). It was found that age and gender did not affect these hematological and serum biochemical parameters.Conclusions: It can be concluded that sheep have overall higher values than goats for studied hematological and serum biochemical parameters.

  16. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.

  17. Biologically effective dose and definitive radiation treatment for localized prostate cancer. Treatment gaps do affect the risk of biochemical failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not clear if prolongation of definitive external radiation therapy for prostate cancer has an effect on biochemical failure. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the biologically effective dose (BED), and in particular the duration of radiotherapy, intended as overall treatment time, has an effect on biochemical failure rates and to develop a nomogram useful to predict the 6-year probability of biochemical failure. A total of 670 patients with T1-3 N0 prostate cancer were treated with external beam definitive radiotherapy, to a total dose of 72-79.2 Gy in 40-44 fractions. The computed BED values were treated with restricted cubic splines. Variables were checked for colinearity using Spearman's test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate freedom from biochemical relapse (FFBR) rates. The Cox regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors of biochemical relapse in the final most performing model and to create a nomogram. Concordance probability estimate and calibration methods were used to validate the nomogram. Neoadjuvant and concomitant androgen deprivation was administered to 475 patients (70 %). The median follow-up was 80 months (range 20-129 months). Overall, the 6-year FFBR rate was 88.3 %. BED values were associated with higher biochemical failure risk. Age, iPSA, risk category, and days of radiotherapy treatment were independent variables of biochemical failure. A prolongation of RT (lower BED values) is associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure. The nomogram may be helpful in decision making for the individual patient. (orig.)

  18. Dietary intakes and some biochemical markers in hemodialysis patients

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    Emine Yassibas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intake of energy and some nutrients is frequently inadequate in dialysis patients because of eating and appetite disorders due to uremic syndrome. Inadequate energy and protein intake cause to malnutrition. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers and dietary intake records have great importance in determining the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD patients. Therefore this study was planned to determination of daily energy, nutrient intake and some biochemical markers of adult hemodialysis patients. Method and Material:  A hundred and thirty six (male = 73, female = 63 clinically stable HD patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were taken 24-hour dietary recall. The daily energy and nutrient intakes of patients were calculated by food consumption records and anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: The mean age was found 45.5±13.51 years. The ratio of patients with body mass index (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2 was 7.4% and 25 kg/m2 or upper was 16.9%. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total protein levels were below the normal levels. The daily dietary energy and protein intakes were found under the recommended level in the study period. A significant positive correlation was found between daily protein intake and serum albumin levels (r=0.210, p=0.014, daily protein intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.201, p=0.019, daily energy intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.178, p=0.039. Conclusions: HD patients often have low protein and energy intakes and most of them suffer from malnutrition. Therefore nutritional status of patients should be evaluated and periodically nutrition education should be given for improving eating habits and increasing dietary compliance is recommended.

  19. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

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    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 yearsand older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories.Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husbandheaded households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had highersugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocyte counts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucoselevels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations.Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  20. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 years and older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories.Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husband-headed households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had higher sugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocytecounts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucose levels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations.Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  1. Bayesian inference of biochemical kinetic parameters using the linear noise approximation

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    Finkenstädt Bärbel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent and luminescent gene reporters allow us to dynamically quantify changes in molecular species concentration over time on the single cell level. The mathematical modeling of their interaction through multivariate dynamical models requires the deveopment of effective statistical methods to calibrate such models against available data. Given the prevalence of stochasticity and noise in biochemical systems inference for stochastic models is of special interest. In this paper we present a simple and computationally efficient algorithm for the estimation of biochemical kinetic parameters from gene reporter data. Results We use the linear noise approximation to model biochemical reactions through a stochastic dynamic model which essentially approximates a diffusion model by an ordinary differential equation model with an appropriately defined noise process. An explicit formula for the likelihood function can be derived allowing for computationally efficient parameter estimation. The proposed algorithm is embedded in a Bayesian framework and inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo. Conclusion The major advantage of the method is that in contrast to the more established diffusion approximation based methods the computationally costly methods of data augmentation are not necessary. Our approach also allows for unobserved variables and measurement error. The application of the method to both simulated and experimental data shows that the proposed methodology provides a useful alternative to diffusion approximation based methods.

  2. Model-Based Design of Biochemical Microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbinger, Tobias; Gahn, Markus; Neuss-Radu, Maria; Hante, Falk M; Voll, Lars M; Leugering, Günter; Knabner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of biochemical pathways is an important resource in Synthetic Biology, as the predictive power of simulating synthetic pathways represents an important step in the design of synthetic metabolons. In this paper, we are concerned with the mathematical modeling, simulation, and optimization of metabolic processes in biochemical microreactors able to carry out enzymatic reactions and to exchange metabolites with their surrounding medium. The results of the reported modeling approach are incorporated in the design of the first microreactor prototypes that are under construction. These microreactors consist of compartments separated by membranes carrying specific transporters for the input of substrates and export of products. Inside the compartments of the reactor multienzyme complexes assembled on nano-beads by peptide adapters are used to carry out metabolic reactions. The spatially resolved mathematical model describing the ongoing processes consists of a system of diffusion equations together with boundary and initial conditions. The boundary conditions model the exchange of metabolites with the neighboring compartments and the reactions at the surface of the nano-beads carrying the multienzyme complexes. Efficient and accurate approaches for numerical simulation of the mathematical model and for optimal design of the microreactor are developed. As a proof-of-concept scenario, a synthetic pathway for the conversion of sucrose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) was chosen. In this context, the mathematical model is employed to compute the spatio-temporal distributions of the metabolite concentrations, as well as application relevant quantities like the outflow rate of G6P. These computations are performed for different scenarios, where the number of beads as well as their loading capacity are varied. The computed metabolite distributions show spatial patterns, which differ for different experimental arrangements. Furthermore, the total output of G6P

  3. Fuzzy clustering of physicochemical and biochemical properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indrajit; Maulik, Ujjwal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we categorize presently available experimental and theoretical knowledge of various physicochemical and biochemical features of amino acids, as collected in the AAindex database of known 544 amino acid (AA) indices. Previously reported 402 indices were categorized into six groups using hierarchical clustering technique and 142 were left unclustered. However, due to the increasing diversity of the database these indices are overlapping, therefore crisp clustering method may not provide optimal results. Moreover, in various large-scale bioinformatics analyses of whole proteomes, the proper selection of amino acid indices representing their biological significance is crucial for efficient and error-prone encoding of the short functional sequence motifs. In most cases, researchers perform exhaustive manual selection of the most informative indices. These two facts motivated us to analyse the widely used AA indices. The main goal of this article is twofold. First, we present a novel method of partitioning the bioinformatics data using consensus fuzzy clustering, where the recently proposed fuzzy clustering techniques are exploited. Second, we prepare three high quality subsets of all available indices. Superiority of the consensus fuzzy clustering method is demonstrated quantitatively, visually and statistically by comparing it with the previously proposed hierarchical clustered results. The processed AAindex1 database, supplementary material and the software are available at http://sysbio.icm.edu.pl/aaindex/ .

  4. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail. PMID:23294864

  5. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: amartin@univap.br [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  6. Biochemical and Proteomic Characterization of Alkaptonuric Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconi, Daniela; Bernardini, Giulia; Bianchini, Claretta; Laschi, Marcella; Millucci, Lia; Amato, Loredana; Tinti, Laura; Serchi, Tommaso; Chellini, Federico; Spreafico, Adriano; Santucci, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease associated with the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized/polymerized products which leads to the deposition of melanin-like pigments (ochronosis) in connective tissues. Although numerous case reports have described ochronosis in joints, little is known on the molecular mechanisms leading to such a phenomenon. For this reason, we characterized biochemically chondrocytes isolated from the ochronotic cartilage of AKU patients. Based on the macroscopic appearance of the ochronotic cartilage, two sub-populations were identified: cells coming from the black portion of the cartilage were referred to as “black” AKU chondrocytes, while those coming from the white portion were referred to as “white” AKU chondrocytes. Notably, both AKU chondrocytic types were characterized by increased apoptosis, NO release, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed that intracellular ochronotic pigment deposition was common to both “white” and “black” AKU cells. We then undertook a proteomic and redox-proteomic analysis of AKU chondrocytes which revealed profound alterations in the levels of proteins involved in cell defence, protein folding, and cell organization. An increased post-translational oxidation of proteins, which also involved high molecular weight protein aggregates, was found to be particularly relevant in “black” AKU chondrocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 3333–3343, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22213341

  7. NUTRITION AND SPORTS: A BIOCHEMICAL APPROACH

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    A.A.G. Bianco

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a course dedicated to the pedagogical instruction of graduate students (Ensino deBioqumica - QBQ 5711 in which they have to plan and teach a 30 hour-discipline for undergraduatestudents. The graduate students have to choose a subject for the discipline and, in 2003, the cho-sen subject was Nutrition and Sports: a Biochemical Approach, which is not specically broached inregular disciplines. The discipline was structured in the basis of collaborative learning, thus, the 75 en-rolled undergraduate students (from dierent courses as Nutrition, Sports, Pharmacy, Chemistry andBiology were organized in small working groups. The students were given a study guide produced bythe graduate teachers (available in Portuguese at http://www.sbbq.org.br/revista/mtdidaticos.php,in which the following contents were covered: muscle contraction, O2 up-take, oxidative stress andanti-oxidant response, cramp, hydration, doping and nutritional supplies. In the nal activity thestudents had to evaluate critically myths and true facts in 80 statements usually associated to physi-cal activities and sports. The discipline was evaluated through questionnaires. From the analysis ofthe answers of both undergraduate and graduate/teachers students it is possible to conclude that thediscipline was well conduced and succeeded. These results emphasize the relevance and contribution ofthis kind of discipline to the pedagogical instruction of the graduate students and also to the increaseof undergraduate students interests in Biochemistry.

  8. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

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    Stöckel Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at http://www.ball-project.org. Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  9. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail.

  10. Relationship between two year PSA nadir and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio da Silva Franca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the relationship between two year PSA nadir (PSAn after brachytherapy and biochemical recurrence rates in prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods In the period from January 1998 to August 2007, 120 patients were treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy alone. The results analysis was based on the definition of biochemical recurrence according to the Phoenix Consensus. Results Biochemical control was observed in 86 patients (71.7%, and biochemical recurrence, in 34 (28.3%. Mean PSAn was 0.53 ng/ml. The mean follow-up was 98 months. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1, with two year PSAn < 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (74 patients; 61.7%, and group 2, with two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy (46 patients; 38.3%. Group 1 presented biochemical recurrence in 15 patients (20.3%, and group 2, in 19 patients (43.2% (p < 0.02. The analysis of biochemical disease-free survival at seven years, stratified by the two groups, showed values of 80% and 64% (p < 0.02, respectively. Conclusion Levels of two year PSAn ≥ 0.5 ng/ml after brachytherapy are strongly correlated with a poor prognosis. This fact may help to identify patients at risk for disease recurrence.

  11. Inferring biochemical reaction pathways: the case of the gemcitabine pharmacokinetics

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    Lecca Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The representation of a biochemical system as a network is the precursor of any mathematical model of the processes driving the dynamics of that system. Pharmacokinetics uses mathematical models to describe the interactions between drug, and drug metabolites and targets and through the simulation of these models predicts drug levels and/or dynamic behaviors of drug entities in the body. Therefore, the development of computational techniques for inferring the interaction network of the drug entities and its kinetic parameters from observational data is raising great interest in the scientific community of pharmacologists. In fact, the network inference is a set of mathematical procedures deducing the structure of a model from the experimental data associated to the nodes of the network of interactions. In this paper, we deal with the inference of a pharmacokinetic network from the concentrations of the drug and its metabolites observed at discrete time points. Results The method of network inference presented in this paper is inspired by the theory of time-lagged correlation inference with regard to the deduction of the interaction network, and on a maximum likelihood approach with regard to the estimation of the kinetic parameters of the network. Both network inference and parameter estimation have been designed specifically to identify systems of biotransformations, at the biochemical level, from noisy time-resolved experimental data. We use our inference method to deduce the metabolic pathway of the gemcitabine. The inputs to our inference algorithm are the experimental time series of the concentration of gemcitabine and its metabolites. The output is the set of reactions of the metabolic network of the gemcitabine. Conclusions Time-lagged correlation based inference pairs up to a probabilistic model of parameter inference from metabolites time series allows the identification of the microscopic pharmacokinetics and

  12. 自拟加味生化汤治疗子宫内膜炎56例%Treating 56 cases of endometritis with modified biochemical decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彩琴

    2012-01-01

      Objective: To observe the clinical applications of modified biochemical decoction in treating endometritis, and the clinical effect. Methods: On the basis of modified biochemical decoction, according to the disease to use modified biochemical decoction. Results: Modified biochemical decoction has a significant effect, indicating that biochemical decoction can achieve the purpose of infection control and stoping the bleeding pain.%  目的:通过加味生化汤治疗子宫内膜炎的临床应用观察,了解其临床效果。方法:在生化汤的基础上根据病情加减。结果:疗效显著,表明生化汤加减治疗子宫内膜炎能达到控制感染和止血止痛之目的。

  13. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vaca, Oscar Rodrigo; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. PMID:23193429

  14. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodrigo López-Vaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification.

  15. Computer extracted texture features on T2w MRI to predict biochemical recurrence following radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B.; Rusu, Mirabela; Kurhanewicz, John; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    T2w MRI texture features are potential independent prognostic markers of PSA failure, we implement a partial least squares (PLS) method to embed the data in a low{dimensional space and then use the variable importance in projections (VIP) method to quantify the contributions of individual features to classification on the PLS embedding. In spite of the poor resolution of the 1.5 T MRI data, we are able to identify three Gabor wavelet features that, in conjunction with a logistic regression classifier, yield an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.83 for predicting the probability of biochemical recurrence following radiation therapy. In comparison to both the Kattan nomogram and semantic MRI attributes, the ability of these three computer-extracted features to predict biochemical recurrence risk is demonstrated.

  16. Virtual NEURON: a strategy for merged biochemical and electrophysiological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sherry-Ann; Moraru, Ion I; Schaff, James C; Loew, Leslie M

    2011-10-01

    Because of its highly branched dendrite, the Purkinje neuron requires significant computational resources if coupled electrical and biochemical activity are to be simulated. To address this challenge, we developed a scheme for reducing the geometric complexity; while preserving the essential features of activity in both the soma and a remote dendritic spine. We merged our previously published biochemical model of calcium dynamics and lipid signaling in the Purkinje neuron, developed in the Virtual Cell modeling and simulation environment, with an electrophysiological model based on a Purkinje neuron model available in NEURON. A novel reduction method was applied to the Purkinje neuron geometry to obtain a model with fewer compartments that is tractable in Virtual Cell. Most of the dendritic tree was subject to reduction, but we retained the neuron's explicit electrical and geometric features along a specified path from spine to soma. Further, unlike previous simplification methods, the dendrites that branch off along the preserved explicit path are retained as reduced branches. We conserved axial resistivity and adjusted passive properties and active channel conductances for the reduction in surface area, and cytosolic calcium for the reduction in volume. Rallpacks are used to validate the reduction algorithm and show that it can be generalized to other complex neuronal geometries. For the Purkinje cell, we found that current injections at the soma were able to produce similar trains of action potentials and membrane potential propagation in the full and reduced models in NEURON; the reduced model produces identical spiking patterns in NEURON and Virtual Cell. Importantly, our reduced model can simulate communication between the soma and a distal spine; an alpha function applied at the spine to represent synaptic stimulation gave similar results in the full and reduced models for potential changes associated with both the spine and the soma. Finally, we combined

  17. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  18. Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man. Proceedings of a Scientific Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an organism has suffered a radiation insult, knowledge of the dose and localization of the exposure is of the greatest importance for the treatment of any radiation damage. Supplementary to the information obtained from physical dosimetry, data obtained by biochemical indicators can, on the basis of metabolic changes in the irradiated organism, help in making early diagnosis, in assessing the extent of the radiation injury, and making a prognosis. Biochemical tests under optimal conditions would not depend on the quality and distribution of the dose in the body and would also reflect the sensitivity of the individual organisms. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization convened a joint scientific meeting on Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man in Paris-Le Vésinet, France, from 22 to 26 June 1970. The main purpose of the meeting was to discuss recent problems in determining which biochemical and metabolic changes occurring in irradiated organisms could be used as indicators of radiation injury and its extent, and could thus be of help in planning the proper treatment of the injured persons. During the meeting the results obtained with various biochemical indicators, and experimental techniques and laboratory methods used in this field, were evaluated and compared. Both research workers and clinicians were invited to participate at the meeting. They discussed the possible value of several tests, used successfully in experimental animals, for clinical application; ways of standardizing suitable tests; and mutual collaboration between laboratories and clinics. The outcome of their discussions is summarized in the conclusions and recommendations which are included in these Proceedings together with the papers presented

  19. BIOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF BOERHAVIA ERECTA AND CHROMOLAENA ODORATA (L.) KING & ROBINSON

    OpenAIRE

    M. Suriyavathana et al.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical, biochemical and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Boerhavia erecta and Chromolaena odorata. Methods: The leaves of Boerhavia erecta and Chromolaena odorata were washed with tap water followed by distilled water. The cleaned leaves were shade dried and then made to fine powder by using homogenizer. About 1.0 gram of clean dried leaf was taken along with 10 ml ethanol and mashed well in a homogenizer and filtered,...

  20. Clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients in Hyderabad: Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Naila; Ali Shaikh, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To see the various clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients of Hyderabad Sindh. Methods: A total 60 suspected cases of adult celiac disease, both males and females were screened out from Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital and private clinics at Sadar Hyderabad Sind by non probability purposive sampling during a period from July 2011 to December 2012.Age ranged between 18 to 55 Years. A detailed history and clinical exam...

  1. IMPACT OF CURCUMIN ON NICOTINE-INDUCED LUNG CHANGE: HISTOPATHOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsan H. Karam; Anisa S. Mohamed; Mansour, Sahar M.; Heba I. Issa; Amany Abdel Ghaffar; Atef M. Mahmoud; Seham Abdel Dayem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nicotine, major toxic component of cigarette smoke, is considered to be the main risk factor in the development of pulmonary diseases Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological, biochemical and immunological changes in albino rats following intraperitoneal injection of nicotine. The possible protective effect of curcumin was also evaluated. Material and Methods: The study included three groups, the first served as control. The second...

  2. Hesperidin associated with continuous and interval swimming improved biochemical and oxidative biomarkers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, David Michel; Dourado, Grace Kelly Zanotti Simoes; Cesar, Thais Borges

    2013-01-01

    Background Citrus flavonoids, such as hesperidin, have shown therapeutic properties that improve hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and decrease blood serum lipids and inflammation. The current investigation studied the effects of hesperidin supplementation associated with continuous and interval swimming on the biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides), and oxidative stress markers (TBARS and DPPH) in rats. Methods The animals (n = 60) were randomly divided in six gr...

  3. Behavioral and biochemical effects of pharmacopuncture (ST 36 and ST 25) in obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, Mariana Chiste; Heck, Lilian Cardoso; Coelho, Janice Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been reported as a weight loss treatment for obese patients. The use of pharmacopuncture focusing on behavioral analyses has not yet been studied with the objective of treating obesity. Thus, this study aimed to assess the biochemical and behavioral effects of using pharmacopuncture techniques in obese Wistar rats. Methods The treatments consisted in applying pharmacopuncture at the Zusanli (ST 36) and Tianshu (ST 25) points. Results When treated with pharmacopunctu...

  4. Prenatal findings of patients diagnosed with Down syndrome: The value of ultrasound and biochemical screening

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Halis; Kalaycı, Hakan; Şahin Uysal, Nihal; parlakgümüş, Huriye ayşe; çok, tayfun; Tarım, Ebru; bilgin yanık, filiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association among ultrasound findings, biochemical markers, and Down syndromeMethod: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the files and electronic records of 70 patients who underwent invasive procedures between July 2006 and May 2013.Results: Forty-nine of the 70 patients had ultrasound findings (70%). Thirty-five patients had nuchal translucency (NT) measurements, 17 of whom had elevated NT, above the 95th percentile. Twenty-nine pa...

  5. Comparisons between two biochemical markers in evaluating periodontal disease severity: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Ongchai, Siriwan; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare two biochemical markers, which have been previously used to determine the degrees of alveolar bone destruction, in evaluating periodontal disease severity. Methods The WF6 epitope of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples collected from patients with various degrees of disease severity, including ten patients with gingivitis (50 gingivitis sites) and 33 pa...

  6. Erythropoietin in the General Population: Reference Ranges and Clinical, Biochemical and Genetic Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Grote Beverborg; Niek Verweij; Klip, IJsbrand T.; Haye H van der Wal; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Pim van der Harst; Peter van der Meer

    2015-01-01

    Background Although erythropoietin has been used for decades in the treatment of anemia, data regarding endogenous levels in the general population are scarce. Therefore, we determined erythropoietin reference ranges and its clinical, biochemical and genetic associations in the general population. Methods We used data from 6,777 subjects enrolled in the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained in the morning from all partic...

  7. NMR Studies on the Subacute Biochemical Effects of Aristolochic Acid on Rat Serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yu ZHANG; Hui Feng WU; Xiao Jing LI; Feng Kui PEI; Jia Zuan NI

    2005-01-01

    The subacute effect of aristolochic acid (AA) on rat serum was studied by NMR method.The biochemical effects induced by AA were characterized by an increase in the amounts of creatinine, trimethylamine N-oxide, acetoacetate, acetate and 3-D-hydroxybutyrate and lactate in serum from 1H NMR spectra. Principal component analysis was used for further comparing the similarities of 1H NMR spectral profiles of serum from rats treated with AA and model toxins.

  8. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: Systematic Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild; Simonsen, Anja Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Background The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia. Methods The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to F...

  9. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Steen Jensen; Steen Gregers Hasselbalch; Gunhild eWaldemar; Anja Hviid Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to Febru...

  10. Biochemical Aspects of Acclimatization of Man to High Altitude Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Srivastava

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the biochemical aspects of acclimatization of human body to high altitude with particular reference to the adaptive changes in Skeletal muscles, hepatic function, adrenal function and carbohydrate metabolism.

  11. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  12. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  13. Approaches to Chemical and Biochemical Information and Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    We outline models and approaches for error control required to prevent buildup of noise when ``gates'' and other ``network elements'' based on (bio)chemical reaction processes are utilized to realize stable, scalable networks for information and signal processing. We also survey challenges and possible future research. [4pt] [1] Control of Noise in Chemical and Biochemical Information Processing, V. Privman, Israel J. Chem. 51, 118-131 (2010).[0pt] [2] Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic, V. Privman, J. Halamek, M. A. Arugula, D. Melnikov, V. Bocharova and E. Katz, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 14103-14109 (2010).[0pt] [3] Towards Biosensing Strategies Based on Biochemical Logic Systems, E. Katz, V. Privman and J. Wang, in: Proc. Conf. ICQNM 2010 (IEEE Comp. Soc. Conf. Publ. Serv., Los Alamitos, California, 2010), pages 1-9.

  14. Decoupling of Growth from Production of Biochemicals and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songyuan

    tyrosine and mevalonate, was achieved through this type of growth limitation. Second, rationally designed genetic growth switches, based on CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) systems, have been developed. By switching off cell growth during production, the production of biochemicals and proteins, exemplified...

  15. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanopro...

  16. CLINICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH MELASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandravathi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of melasma has been found to be 40% in females and 20% in males in Southeast Asian population. Heredity, exposure to sunlight, cosmetics eliciting phototoxic mechanisms, various hormones, pregnancy, and oral contracepti ve pill usage are the factors that may influence the causation of melasma. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the clinico epidemiological and biochemical profile of patients with melasma. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study was done in 30 p atients with clinical diagnosis of mel a sma from June 2011 to June 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female patients above 18 years of age were included in the study. Patients with exogenous ochronosis and males were excluded from the study. Detailed clinical hi story was taken. Biochemical profile which included serum estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, leutinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, cortisol, adreno corticotrophic hormone (ACTH, T ri - iodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was done. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: For all the statistical analysis SPSS statistical software , version 16.0 for windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA was used. Chi - square test was used for statistical significance. In all instances , p ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: Melasma was found to be more common in 40 - 50 years age group (46%, with a positive family history in 53.33%. Summer exacerbation was found in 80%. Positive correlation with pregnancy was found in 33.3% and with oral contraceptive pills in 46.6%. 60% of patients belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Malar pattern was found to be most common (58.3%. Thyroid abnormalities were found in 50%. Serum estradiol was low in 3 patients and progesterone was l ow in 2 out of 30 patients. FSH was high in 2 patients. LH, ACTH and cortisol were normal in all patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V were more prone to

  17. Cherenkov imaging and biochemical sensing in vivo during radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongxiao

    While Cherenkov emission was discovered more than eighty years ago, the potential applications of imaging this during radiation therapy have just recently been explored. With approximately half of all cancer patients being treated by radiation at some point during their cancer management, there is a constant challenge to ensure optimal treatment efficiency is achieved with maximal tumor to normal tissue therapeutic ratio. To achieve this, the treatment process as well as biological information affecting the treatment should ideally be effective and directly derived from the delivery of radiation to the patient. The value of Cherenkov emission imaging was examined here, primarily for visualization of treatment monitoring and then secondarily for Cherenkov-excited luminescence for tissue biochemical sensing within tissue. Through synchronized gating to the short radiation pulses of a linear accelerator (200Hz & 3 micros pulses), and applying a gated intensified camera for imaging, the Cherenkov radiation can be captured near video frame rates (30 frame per sec) with dim ambient room lighting. This procedure, sometimes termed Cherenkoscopy, is readily visualized without affecting the normal process of external beam radiation therapy. With simulation, phantoms and clinical trial data, each application of Cherenkoscopy was examined: i) for treatment monitoring, ii) for patient position monitoring and motion tracking, and iii) for superficial dose imaging. The temporal dynamics of delivered radiation fields can easily be directly imaged on the patient's surface. Image registration and edge detection of Cherenkov images were used to verify patient positioning during treatment. Inter-fraction setup accuracy and intra-fraction patient motion was detectable to better than 1 mm accuracy. Cherenkov emission in tissue opens up a new field of biochemical sensing within the tissue environment, using luminescent agents which can be activated by this light. In the first study of

  18. HIGH-CONDUCTIVE NANOSTRUCTURES IN BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES: FLUORESCENCE ENHANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Chegel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical studies of quenching and enhancement of fluorescence by colloidal solutions of nanoparticles and arrays of nanostructures on solid substrates — nanochips. The literature data and the results of authors’ own studies on the possibility of fluorescence signal manipulation in the presence of gold and silver nanostructures were shown. Mathematical modeling and comparative investigation of the samples with high-conductive metal nanostructures as active elements for the regulation of fluorescence signal were also performed. Nanochips samples were fabricated by thermal annealing of highly conductive gold and silver island films. Using developed novel laser-based fluorometer FluorotestNano it was shown that fluorescence intensity of Rhodamine 6G dye can be enhanced up to 23 times near gold nanostructures by spacing the dye from the nanoparticle at the distance of 20 nm using SiO2 coating. Using high-conductive metal nanostructures to adjust the fluorescence signal opens promising new directions in biochemical studies, such as increasing the sensitivity of fluorescence methods, development of new biosensors, fluorescence microscopy techniques and medical diagnostics.

  19. Unveiling the hidden structure of complex stochastic biochemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleriani, Angelo; Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2014-02-01

    Complex Markov models are widely used and powerful predictive tools to analyze stochastic biochemical processes. However, when the network of states is unknown, it is necessary to extract information from the data to partially build the network and estimate the values of the rates. The short-time behavior of the first-passage time distributions between two states in linear chains has been shown recently to behave as a power of time with an exponent equal to the number of intermediate states. For a general Markov model we derive the complete Taylor expansion of the first-passage time distribution between two arbitrary states. By combining algebraic methods and graph theory approaches it is shown that the first term of the Taylor expansion is determined by the shortest path from the initial state to the final state. When this path is unique, we prove that the coefficient of the first term can be written in terms of the product of the transition rates along the path. It is argued that the application of our results to first-return times may be used to estimate the dependence of rates on external parameters in experimentally measured time distributions.

  20. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  1. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Hendy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls.Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests.Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.

  2. Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Asberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total tri-iodothyronine (TT3, total thyroxine (TT4, prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women. RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.

  3. Cortisol plays central role in biochemical changes during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinloye O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy is known to alter the feedback effect of cortisol on ACTH secretion and decrease the effectiveness of cortisol to inhibit an ACTH response to hypertension. Neither the mechanism nor the physiological significance of these changes in maternal plasma cortisol concentration is fully understood. This study is the first attempt to investigate the levels of serum cortisol during three stages of pregnancy and its associated physiological significance in Nigeria women. Aim: Serum cortisol in the three stages of pregnancy was measured and correlated with reproductive hormones and electrolyte levels. Methods: 200 volunteers consisted of 50 women in each of the three trimesters and 50 non-pregnant apparently healthy controls were recruited. Demographic data were obtained by questionnaire. Serum cortisol, progesterone and prolactin levels were measured by ELISA, chloride and bicarbonate by titration methods, Na+ and K+ by flame photometry and other analytes by conventional colorimetric methods. Results: While glucose and protein levels were significantly decreased, the total cholesterol concentrations increased progressively in pregnancy. Serum cortisol increased significantly in the first trimester reached a peak in the second and declined in the third trimester. Progesterone and prolactin levels were significantly higher in pregnancy in all stages of pregnancy. Serum cortisol correlates positively with chloride and potassium inversely with bicarbonate. Conclusion: Cortisol plays a central role in biochemical changes that occurs in pregnancy. It increase is an indicator of emotional stress and physiological challenges in pregnancy and also, possible risk signal. The concurrent increases in progesterone and prolactin levels are compensating mechanisms. It may therefore be of clinical relevance to monitor serum cortisol levels and some of the associated variables, especially in women experiencing threatened pregnancy.

  4. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical responses inherent to antioxidant systems as well morphological and anatomical properties of photomorphogenic, hormonal and developmental tomato mutants were investigated. Compared to the non-mutant Micro-Tom (MT, we observed that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was enhanced in the diageotropica (dgt and lutescent (l mutants, whilst the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were observed in high pigment 1 (hp1 and aurea (au mutants. The analyses of antioxidant enzymes revealed that all mutants exhibited reduced catalase (CAT activity when compared to MT. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX was enhanced in both sitiens (sit and notabilis (not mutants, whereas in not mutant there was an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Based on PAGE analysis, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR isoforms III, IV, V and VI were increased in l leaves, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoform III was reduced in leaves of sit, epi, Never ripe (Nr and green flesh (gf mutants. Microscopic analyses revealed that hp1 and au showed an increase in leaf intercellular spaces, whereas sit exhibited a decrease. The au and hp1 mutants also exhibited a decreased in the number of leaf trichomes. The characterization of these mutants is essential for their future use in plant development and ecophysiology studies, such as abiotic and biotic stresses on the oxidative metabolism.Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT, observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt e lutescent (l, enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1 e aurea (au. Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT quando comparado a MT. A

  5. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON NIGERIAN MONODORA TENUIFOLIA SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeanyanwu Raphael Chukwuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive constituents of the seeds of Monodora tenuifolia were analyzed to augment the available information on Monodora tenuifolia research. Blood glucose and lipid profile were investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of M. tenuifolia in rats. The composition (gkg-1 of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins and flavonoids were 13.3±0.1, 21.2×10-2±0.6, 1.3±0.1, 1.7±0.1 and 11.7±1.1 respectively. The proximate composition (gkg-1 of M. tenuifolia seed were crude fibre (262.3±1.2, crude protein (82.6±1.0, crude fat (349.9±1.9, ash (49.9±0.6, moisture (190.0±0.00 and carbohydrate (65.5±4.7. Analysis of the minerals content (gkg-1 yielded calcium (864.0±29.38, sodium (2752.0±140.35, iron (3.34±0.06, zinc (5.26±0.08, potassium (326.4±13.06, magnesium (342.9±13.71 and phosphorus (9.52±0.17, while vitamin analysis yielded vitamin A (10.05±0.17 iu/100 g, C (56.40±0.14 gkg-1 and E (11.71±0.87 iu /100 g, thiamine (0.11±0.01 gkg-1, niacin (0.46±0.32 gkg-1 and riboflavin (0.04±0.01 gkg-1. The results of amino acid analysis showed the total amino acid of M. tenuifolia seed was 71.78 of crude protein. The total essential amino acid with Histidine was calculated to be 29.24 of the crude protein. The antinutrient analysis of M. tenuifolia shows it contained total phenol (0.8±0.0 gkg-1, oxalates (4.09±1.17 gkg-1, phytates (0.012±0.42 gkg-1 and trypsin inhibitor (0.230±0.42 iu/g. The main fatty acids of the seed oil are linoleic acid (401.7 g kg-1, oleic acid (346.1 g kg-1 and palmitic acid (122.61 g kg-1. The LD50 of the flavonoid-rich fraction was found to be above 5000 mg kg-1 b.w. After the day 14 study, biochemical markers such as triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein increased significantly (p0.05 effect was observed on the blood glucose and lipid profile of wistar albino rats compared with the control. The result shows that M. tenuifolia seed is rich

  6. BIOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF BOERHAVIA ERECTA AND CHROMOLAENA ODORATA (L. KING & ROBINSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suriyavathana et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical, biochemical and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Boerhavia erecta and Chromolaena odorata. Methods: The leaves of Boerhavia erecta and Chromolaena odorata were washed with tap water followed by distilled water. The cleaned leaves were shade dried and then made to fine powder by using homogenizer. About 1.0 gram of clean dried leaf was taken along with 10 ml ethanol and mashed well in a homogenizer and filtered, then used for biochemical,phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity by using various standard methods.Results and Conclusions: Since, these plants possess many medicinal properties and the results showed that both the plant extracts possessed significant levels of minerals and vitamins. The presence of biochemical constituents and positive antimicrobial activity expertise its medicinal property. Natural products perform various functions, and many of them have interesting and useful biological activities. Boerhavia erecta and Chromolaena odorata are plants which are extensively used in folk medicine.

  7. Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses in different seasons in Surti buffaloes

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    Sandhya S. Chaudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of hot dry, hot humid and comfortable season on physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Ten lactating Surti buffaloes of similar physiological status were selected. Based on the temperature-humidity index (THI, their natural exposure to the environment was categorized as hot dry (THI1, hot humid (THI2 and moderate winter/comfort season (THI3. Blood/serum samples were collected and analyzed for physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters. The results were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results: With increase in THI, significant rise in physiological parameters such as respiration rate (RR, hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC, hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC, biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Na, K, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Mn, Cu and Zn, hormones such as cortisol and oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxide (LPO and total antioxidant status (TAS and significant decline in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3 was observed. Conclusion: It was concluded that THI is a sensitive indicator of heat stress and is impacted by ambient temperature more than the relative humidity in buffaloes. Higher THI is associated with significantly increased RR, total RBC count, Hb, hematocrit, MCHC, ALT, urea, sodium, creatinine, triiodothyronine, SOD, GPx, LPO and TAS and with significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3.

  8. Bioimpedance spectroscopy as technique of hematological and biochemical analysis of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Melnikov, A. A.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy may become a useful method for the express analysis and monitoring of blood parameters. The aim of this study was to identify biochemical and hematological parameters of blood that can be accurately predicted by means of bioimpedance technique. Hematological (red blood cell and white blood cell parameters) and biochemical (total proteins, albumins, fibrinogen, sodium, potassium, chloride ion concentrations in plasma) parameters were measured with a hematological analyzer and routine methods. Bioimpedance spectroscopy of the whole blood (1.5 ml) in frequency range 5-500 kHz (31 frequencies) was performed using BIA analyzer ABC-01 "Medass". Frequency relationships of resistance and reactance of the whole blood and the parameters of the Cole model were investigated. Close simple and multiple correlations of bioimpedance indices were observed only with erythrocyte parameters (Ht, Hb, RBC). Thus bioimpedance analysis of the whole blood can accurately predict red cell parameters but it is less effective for estimation of plasma biochemical and white cell parameters.

  9. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  10. Antivenom reversal of biochemical alterations induced by black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Heterometrus fastigiousus venom (HFV was employed as antigen to produce species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV in albino mice (NIH strain. To determine SAV efficacy, it was pre-incubated with 10 LD50 of HFV and then injected subcutaneously into mice. Subsequently, mortality was observed after 24 hours. Minimum effective dose (MED was 12.5 LD50 of HFV/mL of SAV. SAV effectiveness to reverse HFV-induced biochemical alterations in mice was analyzed by challenge method. Simultaneously, mice received subcutaneously 40% of 24-hour-LD50 of HFV and intravenously SAV. After four hours, changes in serum glucose, free amino acids, uric acids, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase enzyme level were determined. Treatment with species-specific SAV resulted in the reversal of HFV-induced biochemical alterations.

  11. [Odor Emission Characteristics from Biochemical Treatment Facilities of Kichen Waste in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yuan-gang; Lu, Zhi-qiang; Han, Meng; Shang, Xi-bin; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Xining, Ningbo and Beijing were closen as the representative cities about biochemical treatment of kichen waste. The treatment facilities of these cities were investigated and set as the sampling points. The main compositions and the material contents were analyzed by GC/MS, the odor concertration was obtained by the Triangle odor bag method. The results showed that oxygenated hydrocarbons including alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, ester were higher than others in the odor gases, however, the largest contribution to odor pollution were sulfocompounds and the 2nd materials were terpenes; According to the research of the three enterprises, ethyl alcohol, limonene, sulfuretted hydrogen, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate were likely to be considered as the typical odorants from the biochemical treatment facilities of kichen waste.

  12. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51–176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%–94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%–71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%–100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%–91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p 90%.

  13. Hematological markers and biochemical profiles in terms of gender and age of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, E M; Silva, C J O; Ritter, R A; Monteiro, M V B; Albuquerque, N I; Kahwage, P R; Monteiro, F O B; Costa, C T C; Rahal, S C; Silva Filho, E

    2015-01-01

    Complete blood counts and blood biochemical analyses are laboratory tests that allow the monitoring of physiological condition, nutrition, and health in free-living or captive wild animals. When interpreting these tests, it is essential to compare the results with reference ranges that are suitable for the species. Few studies have been conducted on the hematological and biochemical characteristics of Tayassu tajacu, particularly for animals raised in the Amazon biome. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the hematological and biochemical profiles of captive T. tajacu, and to establish reference intervals for these parameters. Complete blood counts and biochemical analyses were performed using manual methods and semi-automatic equipment, respectively. There were significant differences in relation to age in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, and mean cell volumes, in captive T. tajacu. No basophils were observed, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio was less than 1. Levels of total protein, urea, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly affected by age (P < 0.05). Gender did not affect any of the results. The hematological and biochemical parameters for this species were determined, and may be used as reference ranges for captive T. tajacu. PMID:26634461

  14. Rhythmic 24-hour variations of frequently used clinical biochemical parameters in healthy young males - The Bispebjerg study of diurnal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Gøtze, Jens Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of time of day on the circulating concentrations of 14 frequently used clinical biochemical parameters in the Bispebjerg study of diurnal variations. Materials and methods. Venous blood samples were obtained under controlled environmental, activities and food...

  15. Leishmania (Viannia panamensis expresses a nuclease with molecular and biochemical features similar to the Endonuclease G of higher eukaryotes*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Toro-Londoño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the molecular and biochemical features of the Endonuclease G of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis. Methods: The gene of the putative L. (V. panamensis Endonuclease G was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The recombinant protein was produced in a heterologous expression system and biochemical assays were run to determine its ion, temperature, and pH preferences. Results: The L. (V. panamensis rENDOG has biochemical features similar to those found in other trypanosomatids and higher eukaryotes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed a possible evolutionary relationship with metazoan ENDOG. Conclusions: L. (V. panamensis has a gene that codifies an ENDOG homologous to those of higher organisms. This enzyme can be produced in Escherichia coli and is able to degrade covalently closed circular double-stranded DNA. It has a magnesium preference, can be inhibited by potassium, and is able to function within a wide temperature and pH range.

  16. Leishmania (Viannia panamensis expresses a nuclease with molecular and biochemical features similar to the Endonuclease G of higher eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Toro-Londoño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the molecular and biochemical features of the Endonuclease G of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis.Methods: The gene of the putative L. (V. panamensis Endonuclease G was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The recombinant protein was produced in a heterologous expression system and biochemical assays were run to determine its ion, temperature, and pH preferences.Results: The L. (V. panamensis rENDOG has biochemical features similar to those found in other trypanosomatids and higher eukaryotes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed a possible evolutionary relationship with metazoan ENDOG.Conclusions: L. (V. panamensis has a gene that codifies an ENDOG homologous to those of higher organisms. This enzyme can be produced in Escherichia coli and is able to degrade covalently closed circular double-stranded DNA. It has a magnesium preference, can be inhibited by potassium, and is able to function within a wide temperature and pH range.

  17. Biochemical functional predictions for protein structures of unknown or uncertain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn L. Mills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential growth in the determination of protein sequences and structures via genome sequencing and structural genomics efforts, there is a growing need for reliable computational methods to determine the biochemical function of these proteins. This paper reviews the efforts to address the challenge of annotating the function at the molecular level of uncharacterized proteins. While sequence- and three-dimensional-structure-based methods for protein function prediction have been reviewed previously, the recent trends in local structure-based methods have received less attention. These local structure-based methods are the primary focus of this review. Computational methods have been developed to predict the residues important for catalysis and the local spatial arrangements of these residues can be used to identify protein function. In addition, the combination of different types of methods can help obtain more information and better predictions of function for proteins of unknown function. Global initiatives, including the Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI, COMputational BRidges to EXperiments (COMBREX, and the Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA, are evaluating and testing the different approaches to predicting the function of proteins of unknown function. These initiatives and global collaborations will increase the capability and reliability of methods to predict biochemical function computationally and will add substantial value to the current volume of structural genomics data by reducing the number of absent or inaccurate functional annotations.

  18. Association of Apo-E gene polymorphism with biochemical and lipid metabolism parameters in patients with diabetic nephropathy of Hui and Han populations in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茜

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the association of apolipoprotein (Apo) E gene polymorphism with difference in biochemical metabolism of diabetic nephropathy of Hui and Han populations. Methods ApoE genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP in diabetic patients with or without diabetic nephropathy (DN) and normal peoples in Hui and Han peoples, the related biochemical parameters were simultaneously detected. Results (1) Huis had 3 genotypes, i. e. E2/E3, E3/E3 and E3/E4, and their fre-

  19. Effect of Short-Term Maximal Exercise on Biochemical Markers of Muscle Damage, Total Antioxidant Status, and Homocysteine Levels in Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged physical exercise results in transient elevations of biochemical markers of muscular damage. This study examined the effect of short-term maximal exercise on these markers, homocysteine levels (Hcy), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in trained subjects. Methods Eighteen male football players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5-min before and 3-min after a 30-s Wingate test. Results The results indicated that plasma biochemical markers of muscle injur...

  20. Spatio-temporal variations in biochemical composition, condition index and percentage edibility of the clam, Paphia malabarica (Chemnitz) from estuarine regions of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagvenkar, S.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    of bivalves to withstand natural and anthropogenic stress3. Seasonal variations in biochemical composition, physiological condition and PE (meat content/yield), of organism occur in relation to energy metabolism necessary for growth and reproduction... and dry weight of meat. Dried meat samples were pulverized using mortar and pestle and analyzed for its biochemical composition and energy value (caloric value). Protein was estimated by the method of Lowery et al.,10 using Bovine Serum Albumin...

  1. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  2. Biochemical investigations on genetically modified oil crops

    OpenAIRE

    Mekawi, Enas

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a method of purification and characterization of Cry1Ab isolated from MON810 genetically modified maize. The second object was to study the effect of the genetic modification of MON810 and high-oleic sunflower on the oil composition. Therefore, the following investigations were performed: (1) Quantification of Cry1Ab toxin in different corn plant parts. (2) Development of a suitable method for purification of Cry1Ab from MON810. (3) Esta...

  3. Biochemical assays with radio-iodinated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radiochemical method for the measurement of nanogram amounts of ammonia applicable to studies of enzymatic or other processes releasing or utilizing ammonia was developed. The method is based on a modified Berthelot reaction between ammonia and an aqueous alkaline solution of phenol and sodium hypochloride to yield indophenol. The radioactive tracer used is 125I-o-iodophenol, prepared by iodination of phenol with 125I by the chloramine-T method. A chloroform/carbon tetrachloride mixture is used to extract unreacted 125I-o-iodophenol from the reaction mixture; the 125I-labelled product remains in the aqueous phase and is measured by scintillation counting. Non-protein nitrogenous substances and certain other compounds interfere with the reaction, which cannot thus be used to measure ammonia directly in biological fluids. The glass Conway microdiffusion cell may, however, be utilized to isolate small amounts of ammonia from such fluids for measurement. The fluid is placed in the centre well of the cell and cold water in the outer well. Warm saturated potassium carbonate solution is then added to the centre well to expel the ammonia gas which is absorbed by the water. Technical details of the method are given

  4. Criteria for the Evaluation and Selection of Radiation-Induced Metabolic Changes as Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sensitivity of the indicator should be high in terms of units of response per R exposed to; (3) the detectability of the biochemical response in relation to the time of exposure should, under ideal conditions, be maximal at a single time point during the post-irradiation period and this time point should not vary with the radiation dose; (4) the biochemical procedure for detecting the radiation response should be rapid, simple, and capable of execution in clinical laboratories not necessarily equipped with sophisticated apparatus; (5) the sample to be examined should be readily biopsied without endangering the recovery of the patient (the preferred method is the one which can be repeated several times, i.e. with which samples from the same patient can be obtained repeatedly with impunity); (6) the indicator selected should not suffer from interference by metabolic changes which are related to disease processes not related to the sequelae of exposure to ionizing radiations, e.g. malignancies, intercurrent infections, etc. Since many of the conceivable biochemical indicators depend upon contributions by various organs and thus possess little organ specificity and since other possible indicator systems represent indirect effects mediated by adrenal, pituitary, and other hormones, it seems realistic to assume that no single biochemical indicator will be satisfory in any one situation, but that, instead, multiple biochemical indicators will need to be resorted to in order to explore all possible aspects of radiation damage. Thus, indicators will be needed which are applicable at various dose levels and times after exposure. Furthermore, the ideal indicator system should be applicable after total- as well as partial-body irradiation, a special case of which would be a completely organ-specific indicator. (author)

  5. Study regarding magnetospirillum griphyswaldenses bacteria biochemical changes using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Spectroscopy using Fourier transform and Raman spectroscopy can be used to enlighten functional groups that belong to different biomolecules that are specific to cells (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids), thus obtaining valuable information regarding bacteria's biochemical composition. Since microorganisms react very promptly to the culture medium changes, the apparition of a stress agent produces a modification of the cellular enzymatic print in order to compensate for the effect of those factors, thus the bacteria self adapting to those changes. These methods can be used to highlight the metabolically modifications in cells which respond to stress factors. The biochemical modification are important in bioremediation processes like biosorption of metal contaminated waste water from metallurgical baths or even from irradiator pool, heavy water from nuclear power plant. The main targets are to analyze the biochemical modification appeared in presence or absence of two metals, Fe and Co. The presence of Fe is benefit for bacteria because she can absorb iron and deposit as magnetic inside the cell. The presence of Co determines changes in metabolism with the loss of many polar bindings but the growth was not inhibited even in concentration like 100 mM.

  6. Haemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Capra hircus at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossan Shaikat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A 6 month long study was undertaken to determine various hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Caprahircus in Bangladesh.Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from goats of different ages of 5 Upazilla of Chittagong. Atotal of 120goats (60 Black Bengal and 60 Jamnapari having > 6 months of age were included. The whole blood was analyzed forhematology, and plasma and serum samples for biochemical analysis.Results: The study found higher number of RBC (million/cumm and PCV% in the goats of age 48 months and above (18.23± 1.89 and 28 ± 3.2 respectively. Besides, total protein was found higher (78.9 ± 14.5g/L in the goats of 6-24 months of age.Significant increase (p<0.01 of the number of WBC (thousand/cumm, RBC (million/cumm, PCV% was observed in BlackBengal over Jamnapari goat. In contrast, WBC, lymphocytes, RBC, PCV, ALT, and ASTwere significantly (p<0.01 higher inBlack Bengal than Jamnapari goat; whereas, monocyte, TP, Albumin, and Urea levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher inJamnapari than Black Bengal goats.Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haemato-biochemical values of two local goat breeds.Present results stated some significant variation of parameters between two goats whereas some shows no significant variationat all.

  7. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  8. Recent Advances on the Use of Biochemical Extracts as Filaricidal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeh M. Al-Abd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic infection that causes a devastating public health and socioeconomic burden with an estimated infection of over 120 million individuals worldwide. The infection is caused by three closely related nematode parasites, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, which are transmitted to human through mosquitoes of Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes genera. The species have many ecological variants and are diversified in terms of their genetic fingerprint. The rapid spread of the disease and the genetic diversification cause the lymphatic filarial parasites to respond differently to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This in turn prompts the current challenge encountered in its management. Furthermore, most of the chemical medications used are characterized by adverse side effects. These complications urgently warrant intense prospecting on bio-chemicals that have potent efficacy against either the filarial worms or thier vector. In lieu of this, we presented a review on recent literature that reported the efficacy of filaricidal biochemicals and those employed as vector control agents. In addition, methods used for biochemical extraction, screening procedures, and structure of the bioactive compounds were also presented.

  9. Evaluation of biochemical alterations produced by combined exposure of fenvalerate and nitrate in Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalpreet Kaur Gill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of combined effect of fenvalerate and nitrate on biochemical parameters in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male buffalo calves were divided into four groups of four calves each. Group I receiving no treatment served as the control. Group II and III animals were orally administered with fenvalerate (1.0 mg/kg/day and sodium nitrate (20 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 21 consecutive days and were kept as positive control. Group IV animals were co-administered with fenvalerate and sodium nitrate at the above dose rates for 21 consecutive days. Biochemical parameters including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Glucose, Total protein, Albumin, Cholesterol, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Creatinine were determined on 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 day of treatment. Estimation of these parameters was also done on 7th day of post-treatment period. Results: Co-administration of fenvalerate and sodium nitrate produced significant increase in the plasma levels of AST, ALP, GGT, LDH, glucose, BUN, cholesterol and creatinine while significant decrease in the plasma levels of total proteins was observed. No significant alteration was observed in albumin levels. Extent of organ damage as evidenced by biochemical alterations was more pronounced in calves exposed to combination of fenvalerate and sodium nitrate as compared to their individual exposures. Conclusion: Fenvalerate and sodium nitrate co-administration potentiates the toxicological injury produced, in comparison to their individual exposure.

  10. Parameters Obtained by Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy Have Significant Correlation with Biochemical Factors Early After Liver Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansoul, H.A.; Axelsson, R.; Yamamoto, S.; Savicheva, I.; Aspelin, P.; Ericzon, B.G.; Gjertsen, H. [Div. of Transplantation Surgery and Div. of Radiology, Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Background: Early postoperative hepatobiliary scintigraphy after liver transplantation is performed worldwide, but data on its significance for graft function are currently limited. Purpose: To examine the correlation between the result of early postoperative hepatobiliary scintigraphy and pre- and postoperative biochemical parameters in liver transplantation (LTx) patients. Material and Methods: Six parameters of hepatobiliary scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc mebrofenin were statistically analyzed in 108 LTx patients: 1) half-life of the activity of elimination of mebrofenin from the blood; 2) total clearance of mebrofenin from the blood due to all possible routes; 3) half-life of the activity due to liver uptake; 4) clearance of mebrofenin from the blood due to liver uptake; 5) time to maximal uptake in the liver; and 6) the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) and biochemical data. Analysis between patients with preoperative normal liver function, familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), and end-stage liver disease (non-FAP) was also performed. Results: Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that total bilirubin postoperative day 3 correlated with all three scintigraphic parameters, and peak aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase correlated with HEF. The analysis between patients with FAP and non-FAP revealed no significant difference of scintigraphic data between the two groups. Conclusion: A significant correlation between early postoperative scintigraphic results and biochemical parameters was demonstrated.

  11. Biochemical and histological alterations in liver following sub chronic exposure of arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Mehta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Contamination of groundwater with arsenic is of global concern. The present work was aimed to evaluate the biochemical and histological changes in liver of female rats induced by sodium arsenite at doses naturally found in groundwater of Punjab. Method: Twenty four female rats were divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group I animals received distilled water and served as control; Group II-IV received arsenic at the dose of 10, 30 and 50 ppb (μg/L dissolved in distilled water ad libitum for 30 days. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and liver was collected for biochemical and histological evaluation. Results: Biochemical analysis showed an increase in the activity of hepatic marker enzymes including transferases, phosphatases and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Also, the levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 in treated animals when compared to control. A significant (P<0.05 dose dependent increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and arsenic concentration in liver tissue was observed. Histological examination showed the presence of pyknotic bodies (necrosis and sinusoidal dilation in hepatocytes of treated groups. Conclusion: Sub chronic exposure of arsenic at these doses induces hepatotoxicity leading to oxidative stress.

  12. SABRE: A Tool for Stochastic Analysis of Biochemical Reaction Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Didier, Frederic; Mateescu, Maria; Wolf, Verena

    2010-01-01

    The importance of stochasticity within biological systems has been shown repeatedly during the last years and has raised the need for efficient stochastic tools. We present SABRE, a tool for stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks. SABRE implements fast adaptive uniformization (FAU), a direct numerical approximation algorithm for computing transient solutions of biochemical reaction networks. Biochemical reactions networks represent biological systems studied at a molecular level and these reactions can be modeled as transitions of a Markov chain. SABRE accepts as input the formalism of guarded commands, which it interprets either as continuous-time or as discrete-time Markov chains. Besides operating in a stochastic mode, SABRE may also perform a deterministic analysis by directly computing a mean-field approximation of the system under study. We illustrate the different functionalities of SABRE by means of biological case studies.

  13. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  14. PULMONARY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKER AND NON-SMOKER MODERN DANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Agopyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Although the harmful effects of smoking on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems have been established for a long time, the effect on physiological and physical parameters in modern female dancers is not well documented. Objective: To determine differences in selected pulmonary functions, biochemical parameters, and body composition in female smoker and non-smoker modern dancers who are university or graduate students. Methods: A total of twenty-two female modern dancers (mean age of 24.6 ± 4.3 years, who were non-smokers (n = 11 and smokers (n = 11, voluntarily participated in the study. The smokers had been smoking 1 to 20 cigarettes per day for an average period of seven years. The pulmonary function test Mir Spirobank Spirometer, (Italy was applied; selected biochemical parameters were tested, and various anthropometric measurements (height, weight and seven skinfold thickness were performed. The results of body composition were evaluated using Jackson-Pollock equations. Intergroup comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Result: No significant differences were found between smoker and non-smoker dancers in terms of body composition (body fat, % body fat, lean body fat and selected biochemical parameters (p > 0.05. However, non-smokers had prediction values of forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1 and peak expiratory flow (PEF significantly better (p < 0.05. The effect of smoking on the performance of female modern dancers should be examined in a longitudinal study, with a higher number of participants. Conclusion: It was observed that smoking reduces lung pulmonary capacity at a certain rate, although the biochemical parameters and body composition of the female smoker and non-smoker dancers were similar.

  15. Hierarchical graphs for rule-based modeling of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rule-based modeling, graphs are used to represent molecules: a colored vertex represents a component of a molecule, a vertex attribute represents the internal state of a component, and an edge represents a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions. A rule that specifies addition (removal of an edge represents a class of association (dissociation reactions, and a rule that specifies a change of a vertex attribute represents a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises an executable model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Results For purposes of model annotation, we propose the use of hierarchical graphs to represent structural relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR complex. We also show that computational methods developed for regular graphs can be applied to hierarchical graphs. In particular, we describe a generalization of Nauty, a graph isomorphism and canonical labeling algorithm. The generalized version of the Nauty procedure, which we call HNauty, can be used to assign canonical labels to hierarchical graphs or more generally to graphs with multiple edge types. The difference between the Nauty and HNauty procedures is minor, but for completeness, we provide an explanation of the entire HNauty algorithm. Conclusions Hierarchical graphs provide more intuitive formal representations of proteins and other structured molecules with multiple functional components than do the regular graphs of current languages for

  16. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical we...

  17. Physiological and biochemical basis of salmon young ifshes migratory behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    The review presents data on structural changes, physiological and biochemical reactions occurring at salmon young fishes during smoltification. It is shown, that young salmon fishes located in fresh water, in the process of smoltification undergo a complex of structural, physiological and biochemical changes directed on preparation of the organism for living in the sea. These changes cause stress reaction which excites young fishes to migrate down the river towards the sea. Measures to improve reproduction of young salmon fishes at fish farms are offered.

  18. Comparison of Salivary Biochemical Composition between End Stage Renal Disease and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Bakhshi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Following the renal disease involvement, some variations may occur in the flow, pH and biochemical components of the saliva; therefore, saliva possibly would be a useful tool for diagnosis and monitoring of the renal disease through evaluation of the components. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biochemical composition of the saliva in patients undergone haemodialysis for the end-stage renal disease (ESRD in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 64 haemodialysis patients and 67 healthy individuals were selected and their salivary samples were obtained by spitting method. Salivary biochemical factors were determined by serum kits and auto-analyzer while the samples’ pH was determined by an automatic pH meter. Then, Creatinine, Ca, Mg, urea, α-amylase parameters as well as the salivary flow rate were measured. The saliva biochemical compositions were analyzed using Student t test. Results: The mean (± standard deviation of the salivary flow rate was statistically lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (0.34±0.22 ml/min vs. 0.57±0.29 ml/min: P<0.001. Salivary pH (7.87±0.72 vs. 6.99±0.4: P<0.001 and concentrations of urea (134.4±40.8 vs. 40.8±15.1 mg/dl: P<0.001; Cr (1.1±0.9 vs. 0.4±0.1 mg/dl: P<0.001 and α-amylase (1107.4±788.4 vs. 568.3±437.0 mg/dl: P<0.001 were statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy controls. Ca was significantly lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (2.8±2.8 vs. 3.6±2.0 mg/dl: P<0.05.. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding salivary Mg. The mean (± standard deviation age was statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy ones (63.2±15.4 years vs. 48.2±15.3 years: P<0.001. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding weight and gender. Conclusion: Due to the significant alternations of the salivary biochemical concentrations in ESRD patients; saliva can be used

  19. 农业院校基础生化实验方法的改进和探索--以“淀粉酶活力测定”实验为例%Improvement and Exploration of the Basic Biochemical Experiment Method in Agricultural College:Taking the"Amylase Activity Determination"Experiment as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易晓华

    2014-01-01

    作为农业院校为本科生开设的基础生化实验课的内容之一的“淀粉酶活力的测定”实验,存在操作步骤繁杂,耗时长,结果误差大,学生容易出错等问题,改进后,简化了实验操作,节约了时间,增加了实验的准确性,提高了学生的实验兴趣。并指出实验中应注意的事项,以确保实验的顺利进行。%The "Amylase Activity Determination" experiment is one of the contents of the basic biochemical experiment opened for undergraduates in agric rural university. In this experiment, there are some problems including multifarious operation procedure, time consuming, great error and students are easy to get wrong. After the improvement, the operation is simplified, time shortened, accuracy increased, and students' interest has improved. The matters needing attention in the experiment are pointed out in order to ensure the smooth operation of the experiment.

  20. Determination of Kinetic Parameters and Metal Ions in Urea-Urease System Based on the Biochemical Reaction Heat Induced Laser Beam Deflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new analytical method for the determination of urea-urease system based on biochemical reaction heat induced laser beam deflection is presented in this paper. With the method, the Michaelis constant (Km) of urease and apparent inhibition constant (Ki) of some metal ion inhibitors were measured respectively. This method was also used for the quantitative determination of metal ions with satisfactory result.

  1. Biochemical Sensors Using Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for detecting presence of biomolecules in a selected subset, or in each of several selected subsets, in a fluid. Each of an array of two or more carbon nanotubes ("CNTs") is connected at a first CNT end to one or more electronics devices, each of which senses a selected electrochemical signal that is generated when a target biomolecule in the selected subset becomes attached to a functionalized second end of the CNT, which is covalently bonded with a probe molecule. This approach indicates when target biomolecules in the selected subset are present and indicates presence or absence of target biomolecules in two or more selected subsets. Alternatively, presence of absence of an analyte can be detected.

  2. Spectral imaging for measuring biochemicals in plant material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.

    2004-01-01

    The demand for high quality fruits and other plant material is increasing. New consumer demands involve taste, ripeness, and health-promoting compounds. These criteria are often related to the presence, absence and spatial distribution patterns of specific biochemical compounds in the food. This the

  3. MATLAB-Based Teaching Modules in Biochemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilho; Comolli, Noelle K.; Kelly, William J.; Huang, Zuyi

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models play an important role in biochemical engineering. For example, the models developed in the field of systems biology have been used to identify drug targets to treat pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms. In addition, competitive binding models for chromatography processes have been developed to predict expanded…

  4. Biochemical aspects of pressure tolerance in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Michael A; Rivera, Patricia M; Castellini, Judith M

    2002-11-01

    Some marine mammals can dive to depths approaching 2000 m. At these hydrostatic pressures (200 atm), some fish species show alterations in enzyme structure and function that make them pressure-tolerant. Do marine mammals also possess biochemical adaptations to withstand such pressures? In theory, biochemical alterations might occur at the control of enzymatic pathways, by impacting cell membrane fluidity changes or at a higher level, such as cellular metabolism. Studies of marine mammal tissues show evidence of all of these changes, but the results are not consistent across species or diving depth. This review discusses whether the elevated body temperature of marine mammals imparts pressure tolerance at the biochemical level, whether there are cell membrane structural differences in marine mammals and whether whole, living cells from marine mammals alter their metabolism when pressure stressed. We conclude that temperature alone is probably not protective against pressure and that cell membrane composition data are not conclusive. Whole cell studies suggest that marine mammals either respond positively to pressure or are not impacted by pressure. However, the range of tissue types and enzyme systems that have been studied is extremely limited and needs to be expanded before more general conclusions about how these mammals tolerate elevated pressures on a biochemical level can be drawn.

  5. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids(VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones

  6. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used as...

  7. Saliva as research material: Biochemical, physicochemical and practical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, R.G.; Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whole saliva is a complex mixture of proteins and other molecules which originate from several sources. The biochemical and physicochemical properties of saliva contribute to the numerous functions of saliva in, e.g., speech, maintaining oral and general health, and food processing. Interest in sali

  8. 40 CFR 798.5195 - Mouse biochemical specific locus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mouse biochemical specific locus test. 798.5195 Section 798.5195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5195...

  9. Biochemical correlates in an animal model of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A valid animal model of depression was used to explore specific adrenergic receptor differences between rats exhibiting aberrant behavior and control groups. Preliminary experiments revealed a distinct upregulation of hippocampal beta-receptors (as compared to other brain regions) in those animals acquiring a response deficit as a result of exposure to inescapable footshock. Concurrent studies using standard receptor binding techniques showed no large changes in the density of alpha-adrenergic, serotonergic, or dopaminergic receptor densities. This led to the hypothesis that the hippocampal beta-receptor in responses deficient animals could be correlated with the behavioral changes seen after exposure to the aversive stimulus. Normalization of the behavior through the administration of antidepressants could be expected to reverse the biochemical changes if these are related to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. This study makes three important points: (1) there is a relevant biochemical change in the hippocampus of response deficient rats which occurs in parallel to a well-defined behavior, (2) the biochemical and behavioral changes are normalized by antidepressant treatments exhibiting both serotonergic and adrenergic mechanisms of action, and (3) the mode of action of antidepressants in this model is probably a combination of serotonergic and adrenergic influences modulating the hippocampal beta-receptor. These results are discussed in relation to anatomical and biochemical aspects of antidepressant action

  10. Biochemical Characterization of Prion Strains in Bank Voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prions exist as different strains exhibiting distinct disease phenotypes. Currently, the identification of prion strains is still based on biological strain typing in rodents. However, it has been shown that prion strains may be associated with distinct PrPSc biochemical types. Taking advantage of the availability of several prion strains adapted to a novel rodent model, the bank vole, we investigated if any prion strain was actually associated with distinctive PrPSc biochemical characteristics and if it was possible to univocally identify strains through PrPSc biochemical phenotypes. We selected six different vole-adapted strains (three human-derived and three animal-derived and analyzed PrPSc from individual voles by epitope mapping of protease resistant core of PrPSc (PrPres and by conformational stability and solubility assay. Overall, we discriminated five out of six prion strains, while two different scrapie strains showed identical PrPSc types. Our results suggest that the biochemical strain typing approach here proposed was highly discriminative, although by itself it did not allow us to identify all prion strains analyzed.

  11. Biochemical tests for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: urinary versus plasma determinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Plouin, P F; Duclos, J M; Menard, J; Comoy, E; Bohuon, C; Alexandre, J M

    1981-01-01

    Fifteen patients with hypertension due to phaeochromocytoma and 35 controls with essential hypertension were studied to assess the diagnostic value of urinary and plasma biochemical determinations in phaeochromocytoma. In every case of phaeochromocytoma the urinary concentration of vanillylmandelate, metanephrines, or adrenaline plus noradrenaline was diagnostic of the disease irrespective of whether the patient was normotensive or hypertensive at the time. Plasma determinations of adrenaline...

  12. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  13. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ► We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ► Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ► Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

  14. Tissue microarrays compared with whole sections and biochemical analyses. A subgroup analysis of DBCG 82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, H;

    2008-01-01

    cores and biochemical analyses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A central and a peripheral 1mm core and a whole section from each of 54 paraffin blocks from 27 breast cancers included in a one-institution cohort, and a single 1mm central TMA core, from each breast tumor from 1000 patients included in the DBCG82 b...... with by increasing the size and number of cores punched from each tumor. No consensus exists on the most optimal size, number, and position of TMA cores in the donor paraffin block and no information exist regarding agreement between TMA cores from two different paraffin blocks from the same tumor or between TMA...

  15. Tissue microarrays compared with whole sections and biochemical analyses. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.;

    2008-01-01

    cores and biochemical analyses. Patients and methods. A central and a peripheral 1mm core and a whole section from each of 54 paraffin blocks from 27 breast cancers included in a one-institution cohort, and a single 1 min central TMA core, from each breast tumor from 1000 patients included in the DBCG82...... with by increasing the size and number of cores punched from each tumor. No consensus exists on the most optimal size, number, and position of TMA cores in the donor paraffin block and no information exist regarding agreement between TMA cores from two different paraffin blocks from the same tumor or between TMA...

  16. Investigation of hematological and biochemical parameters in obese women in reproductive age

    OpenAIRE

    Kara IH et al.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between the body mass indices and hematological and biochemical parameters of reproductive women at the age of 18 to 49 years old.Method: This cross-sectional and descriptive study includes 124 consecutive reproductive women patients at the age between 18 and 49 and the mean age is 33.6±7.3, admitted to Düzce University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine Obesity and Check-up Outpatient Clinics between June 2...

  17. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for wild osprey nestlings (Pandion haliaetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna; Surguine, Katie; Handel, Ian; Bronsvoort, Mark; Beard, Philippa; Thornton, Susan M; Wesche, Petra; Hart, Mike; Anderson, David; Dennis, Roy

    2012-09-01

    A retrospective study of blood samples from 95 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings from Scotland and England, collected opportunistically over a 10-yr period, was performed to determine hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals. The age of the sampled nestlings was estimated to be between 4 and 8 wk. Ninety-five percent reference intervals were determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables using parametric and nonparametric methods as appropriate. No blood parasites were detected. This is the first published study providing baseline reference data for osprey nestlings, and it is hoped the data will be of use to wildlife veterinarians and biologists in assessing the health of this species.

  18. Conceptual study proposal for the integration and management of biochemical markers of environmental contamination use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia S. S. de Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture prioritizes the rational use of land and biota. For this, there is a need for understanding the interaction between the agriculture inputs and the ecosystems. However, there is a lack of easy access methods for verifying environmental contamination due to many of these products, such as pesticides and their mixtures. The application of alternative methods for monitoring degraded areas can generate economic advantages when compared to the implementation of protocols for analysis using high cost methods which demand a longer analysis time. Since environmental health can be accessed through studies using biomarkers, the approach presented here aims to discuss some aspects on the environmental risk monitoring with sentinel non-target organisms, focusing on biochemical parameters. Such parameters showed that the pesticide penetrated into the body and caused a response according to the dose or time of exposition. These parameters shall be used as biochemical biomarkers in programs for environmental monitoring because of the early identification of changes. The results obtained through its use shall be used to support policies related to environmental risks management.

  19. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as β-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  20. Evaluation of biochemical urinary stone composition and its relationship to tap water hardness in Qom province, central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi MK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Kazem Moslemi1, Hossein Saghafi2, Seyed Mohammad Amin Joorabchin31Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, 2Department of Nephrology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical stone composition in general population of Qom province, central Iran, and its relationship with high tap water hardness.Materials and methods: In a prospective study, from March 2008 to July 2011, biochemical analysis of urinary stones in patients living in Qom province for at least 5 years was performed. Stones were retrieved by spontaneous passage, endoscopic or open surgery, and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Demographic findings and the drinking water supply of patients were evaluated and compared with biochemical stone analysis.Results: Stone analysis was performed in 255 patients. The most dominant composition of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (73%, followed by uric acid (24%, ammonium urate (2%, and cystine (1%. The peak incidence of urinary stone was in patients in their forties. Overall male to female ratio was 4.93:1.Conclusion: The dominant stone composition in inhabitants of central Iran, where tap water hardness is high, was calcium oxalate stones. On the basis of this study, biochemical urinary stone composition of Qom does not differ from other regions of Iran with lower water hardness.Keywords: stone analysis, water hardness, urinary stones, stone composition

  1. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for specific pathogen free 6-week-old Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin ACooper; Luis EMoraes; James DMurray; Sean DOwens

    2014-01-01

    Background:Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals depend on many factors, including age. A review of the literature highlights the lack of reference intervals for 6-wk-old specific pathogen free (SPF) Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs. For translational research, 6-wk-old pigs represent an important animal model for both human juvenile colitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 given the similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal maturation process. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters in healthy 6-wk-old crossbred pigs. Blood samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy Hampshire-Yorkshire pigs. The pigs were 6 wks old, represented both sexes, and were housed in a SPF facility. Automated hematological and biochemical analysis were performed using an ADVIA 120 Hematology System and a Cobas 6000 C501 Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. Results:Reference intervals were calculated using both parametric and nonparametric methods. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum values were calculated. Conclusion:As pigs are used more frequently as medical models of human disease, having reference intervals for commonly measured hematological and biochemical parameters in 6-wk-old pigs will be useful. The reference intervals calculated in this study will aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of both naturally occurring and experimental y induced disease. In comparison to published reference intervals for older non SPF pigs, notable differences in leukocyte populations, and in levels of sodium, potassium, glucose, protein, and alkaline phosphatase were observed.

  2. Modeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palfreyman Niall M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs, which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Results Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Conclusion Narrator is a

  3. Analysis of clinical and biochemical spectrum of Wilson Disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumreena Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Wilson disease (WD is autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Wilson disease patients usually suffer from hepatic or neuropsychiatric complications. The symptoms appear between ages five to 35 but it can vary from two years to 72 years. Materials and Methods : Study was carried out from June 2008 to November 2010. This study included nine families with eleven cases of WD to determine clinical presentation, diagnostic findings (including laboratory results and liver histology. It included 11 patients who presented with hepatic manifestations and/or Neuropsychiatric manifestations and/or family history suggesting features of WD. Patients with hepatitis B and C and those with history of taking antipsychotic drugs were excluded from the study. Patient′s data was included in a well designed performa. Liver function test, serum ceruloplasmin, serum copper, 24 hour urinary copper, blood complete picture were analyzed. Quantitative data such as age, hemoglobin etc were expressed as mean with ± SD and quantitative variables such as sex, movement disorders, hepatic involvement etc were expressed as frequency and percentage. Results: There were five male and six female patients with evidence of various manifestations here (i hepatic in which they had only liver dysfunction (ii hepatic and neurological (iii neurological. The mean age of presentation was 8.7±3.92 years (range 4-19 years and 45% were male patients. Decreased serum ceruloplasmin, enhanced 24-h urinary copper excretion and signs of chronic liver damage were confirmed in all patients and Kayser-Fleischer rings (KF rings in 72% of patients. In severe WD patients, serum prothrombin activity was less than 50%, serum ceruloplasmin were low and serum copper levels were high than those in non-severe WD patients. High degree of suspicion leads to early treatment with good outcome. Conclusions: The WD is rare but important cause of chronic liver disease. Clinical and

  4. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical...

  6. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  7. Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Lima Pace Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

  8. The application of information theory to biochemical signaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre

    2012-08-01

    Cell signaling can be thought of fundamentally as an information transmission problem in which chemical messengers relay information about the external environment to the decision centers within a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of cellular signal transduction networks, molecular noise will inevitably limit the fidelity of any messages received and processed by a cell's signal transduction networks, leaving it with an imperfect impression of its environment. Fortunately, Shannon's information theory provides a mathematical framework independent of network complexity that can quantify the amount of information that can be transmitted despite biochemical noise. In particular, the channel capacity can be used to measure the maximum number of stimuli a cell can distinguish based upon the noisy responses of its signaling systems. Here, we provide a primer for quantitative biologists that covers fundamental concepts of information theory, highlights several key considerations when experimentally measuring channel capacity, and describes successful examples of the application of information theoretic analysis to biological signaling.

  9. Adult amphibian epidermal proteins: biochemical characterization and developmental appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, O R

    1975-08-01

    The keratin-like proteins (KLPs) from the epidermis of adult frogs of the species Xenopus laevis have been isolated and biochemically characterized by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, tryptic peptide mapping, amino-terminal end-group analysis and isoelectric focusing. One particular protein fraction of rather unusual amino acid composition found only in epidermal tissue was isolated in quantity by preparative gel electrophoresis and monospecific antibodies prepared against it. Using this anti-KLP antibody preparation it was possible to show that at least one kine of keratin-like protein characteristic of the adult epidermis first appears within the larval epidermis during metamorphosis. This is the first reported biochemical characterization of a tissue-specific protien from adult amphibian skin.

  10. Development of a biochemical switching device: mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    There are many examples of enzymes that share substrates or cofactors in a cyclic manner. Techniques have been developed that use cyclic enzyme systems to assay quantitatively small amounts of biochemical substances (cofactor, substrate), however, only a few studies of the control of these systems have been published. The author previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. A unique switching mechanism of cyclic enzyme systems (basic switching element) and the effects of excitatory stimuli on switching properties of the integrated biochemical switching system are demonstrated. PMID:2082931

  11. Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Ambipolar Frequency Multipliers for Biochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wangyang; Feng, Lingyan; Mayer, Dirk; Panaitov, Gregory; Kireev, Dmitry; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-13

    In this Letter, the ambipolar properties of an electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) have been explored to fabricate frequency-doubling biochemical sensor devices. By biasing the ambipolar GFETs in a common-source configuration, an input sinusoidal voltage at frequency f applied to the electrolyte gate can be rectified to a sinusoidal wave at frequency 2f at the drain electrode. The extraordinary high carrier mobility of graphene and the strong electrolyte gate coupling provide the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler an unprecedented unity gain, as well as a detection limit of ∼4 pM for 11-mer single strand DNA molecules in 1 mM PBS buffer solution. Combined with an improved drift characteristics and an enhanced low-frequency 1/f noise performance by sampling at doubled frequency, this good detection limit suggests the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler a highly promising biochemical sensing platform. PMID:26928906

  12. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. PMID:27479451

  13. The Metabolic Syndrome and Biochemical Recurrence following Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Post

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome refers to a set of conditions that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, particularly among African American men. This study aimed to estimate the association of metabolic syndrome with biochemical recurrence (BCR in a racially diverse population. Among 383 radical prostatectomy patients, 67 patients had documented biochemical recurrence. Hypertension was significantly, positively associated with the rate of BCR (hazard ratio (HR = 2.1; 95%  CI = 1.1, 3.8. There were distinct racial differences in the prevalence of individual metabolic syndrome components; however, the observed associations with BCR did not differ appreciably by race. We conclude that hypertension may contribute to a poorer prognosis in surgically treated prostate cancer patients. Our findings suggest that targeting components of the metabolic syndrome which are potentially modifiable through lifestyle interventions may be a viable strategy to reduce risk of BCR in prostate cancer.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  15. The free energy cost of accurate biochemical oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yuansheng; Ouyang, Qi; Tu, Yuhai

    2015-01-01

    Oscillation is an important cellular process that regulates timing of different vital life cycles. However, in the noisy cellular environment, oscillations can be highly inaccurate due to phase fluctuations. It remains poorly understood how biochemical circuits suppress phase fluctuations and what is the incurred thermodynamic cost. Here, we study four different types of biochemical oscillations representing three basic oscillation motifs shared by all known oscillatory systems. We find that the phase diffusion constant follows the same inverse dependence on the free energy dissipation per period for all systems studied. This relationship between the phase diffusion and energy dissipation is shown analytically in a model of noisy oscillation. Microscopically, we find that the oscillation is driven by multiple irreversible cycles that hydrolyze the fuel molecules such as ATP; the number of phase coherent periods is proportional to the free energy consumed per period. Experimental evidence in support of this un...

  16. Biochemical and antigenic properties of Streptococcus bovis isolated from pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F; DEVRIESE, L.A.; Ducatelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical and serological properties of 60 strains of Streptococcus bovis isolated from healthy pigeons and from pigeons that died from S. bovis septicemia were determined. On the basis of the hemolysis of bovine erythrocytes, the production of polysaccharides on saccharose-containing media, and the fermentation of mannitol, inulin, trehalose, and L-arabinose, the isolates were classified in five biotypes and two subbiotypes. Slide agglutination and microagglutination tests using monospecif...

  17. Morphologic and biochemical studies of canine mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    OpenAIRE

    Shull, R M; Helman, R. G.; Spellacy, E.; Constantopoulos, G.; Munger, R. J.; Neufeld, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the necropsy and biochemical findings on the first dog to die with alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency (mucopolysaccharidosis I, MPS I). Gross pathologic features, light- and electron-microscopic findings, and tissue enzyme, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and sphingolipid levels are compared with the human disease counterpart and the previously described feline model. Results lend further support for the similarities of the canine disease and human MPS I.

  18. Biochemical Analyses of Sorghum Varieties Reveal Differential Responses to Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuma C Ogbaga; Piotr Stepien; Dyson, Beth C.; Nicholas J W Rattray; Ellis, David I.; Royston Goodacre; Johnson, Giles N.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical responses of two sorghum cultivars of differing drought tolerance, Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant), to sustained drought. Plants were exposed to different degrees of drought and then maintained at that level for five days. Responses were examined in terms of metabolic changes and the expression of drought induced proteins - Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs). Generalised phenotypic changes were studied usi...

  19. Molecular and biochemical studies on bovine ephemeral fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Thabet; Emad W. Ghazy; Mohamed A. Nayel; Mohamed Abo-Elkhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF in cattle has been reported to be associated with a range of biochemical changes which are similar to those seen in milk fever. This study aimed to clarify the biochemical alterations that associate infection of cattle with BEF with special references to the mechanisms involved in the development of hypocalcemia. The study was conducted on 30 cases of cattle infected with BEF based on the characteristic clinical signs which were confirmed by isolation of virus and RT-PCR. Another 6 healthy cows were used in the study as control. The evaluated parameters included biochemical variables such as serum values of total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, glucose (Glu, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, inorganic phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Hormonal profile included parathyroid hormone (PTH, insulin (Ins, and cortisol (Cor. The results showed that BEF-infected animals demonstrated a significant decrease (P<0.05 in serum concentrations of TP, Glo, iCa, P, Na, K, BUN and ALP while the mean values of serum levels of Glu and Cl were significantly increased (P<0.05. The mean values of serum levels of PTH were significantly decreased (P<0.05 while serum concentrations of Ins and Cor showed a significant increase. It was concluded that the clinical signs of bovine ephemeral fever are related to the hypocalcemia resulting from suppression of parathyroid hormone which seems to be mediated by respiratory alkalosis caused by the disease. This explanation needs future studies to provide a direct link between measurement of blood indicators of acid-base status, blood biochemical parameters and urine analysis. However, this work can provide a good knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease that can lead to better management and proper treatment.

  20. Biochemical assays for the discovery of TDP1 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Christophe; Huang, Shar-yin N.; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Lea, Wendy A.; Mott, Bryan T.; Chergui, Adel; Naumova, Alena; Stephen, Andrew G.; Rosenthal, Andrew S.; Rai, Ganesha; Murai, Junko; Gao, Rui; Maloney, David J.; Jadhav, Ajit; Jorgensen, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Drug screening against novel targets is warranted to generate biochemical probes and new therapeutic drug leads. Tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterases 1 and 2 (TDP1 and TDP2) are two DNA repair enzymes that have yet to be successfully targeted. TDP1 repairs topoisomerase I-, alkylation-, and chain terminator-induced DNA damage, while TDP2 repairs topoisomerase II-induced DNA damage. Here we report the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Reposit...

  1. Virtual laboratories in (bio)chemical engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Lucília; Rocha, I.; Dourado, Fernando; Alves, M.M.; Ferreira, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) have been promoting the creation and adoption of new learning and teaching styles. Virtual laboratories, by overcoming some limitations of conventional hands-on experiments, have been adopted as a complement or in substitution of laboratory sessions. This paper describes the design and implementation of two virtual labs for biochemical engineering education intended for students at the BSc degree. One of the virtua...

  2. Biochemical Changes During Seed Germination of Sterculia urens Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Botcha SATYANARAYANA; Prattipati Subhashini DEVI; Atluru ARUNDATHI

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes biochemical changes taking place during seed germination of Sterculia urens. The levels of proteins, total amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and lipids were studied during various stages of seed germination (0-15 days). Total protein content was decreased in cotyledons during seed germination while free amino acid content increased to its maximum extent by 9th day of germination and reverse trend thereafter. The levels of reducing sugars and total ...

  3. Biological and biochemical properties in evaluation of forest soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Błońska Ewa; Lasota Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using biological and biochemical parameters in the evaluation of forest soil quality and changes caused by land use. The study attempted to determine a relationship between the enzymatic activity of soil, the number of earthworms and soil physico-chemical properties. The study was carried out in central Poland in adjoining Forest Districts (Przedbórz and Smardzewice). In soil samples taken from 12 research plots, basic physico-chem...

  4. Biochemical profile and outcome in normal and high risk subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayalaxmi, K. G.; Urooj, Asna

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the biochemical profile and outcome of pregnancy and study the adverse consequences if any, among normal and high risk pregnant women. The study group included 182 normal and 168 high risk cases attending to private and Government Hospitals in Bangalore. The high risk groups were: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), Adolescents and anemic cases. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced in PIH and GDM groups (5.56 nmol/m...

  5. BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN ZINC DEFICIENT SHEEP ASSOCIATED BY HYPERLACTATEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from diseased and clinically healthy Balady sheep of both sexes were collected and subjected for biochemical analysis of serum glucose, fructosamine, lactate, growth hormone, insulin, creatine phosphokinase, Lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase. The obtained results revealed a significant decrease in serum zinc and growth hormone were stated. In contrary, serum glucose and lactate, insulin, CPK, LDH and aldolase were significantly increased statically. While, fructosamine levels w...

  6. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise;

    2013-01-01

    healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL......- Cholesterol, Magnesium, Phosphate, Potassium, Protein, Sodium, Transferrin, Triglycerides and Urate). Samples were analyzed on a Roche-Modular-P/ISE-system. The NORIP reference material (NFKK Reference Serum X) was included in all the analytical runs. Reference values were recalculated according to the target...

  7. The role of configurational entropy in biochemical cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusuf, Sutjano; Loll, Patrick J; Axelsen, Paul H

    2002-04-10

    Cooperativity is a common biochemical phenomenon in which two or more otherwise independent processes are thermodynamically coupled. Because cooperative processes are usually attended by changes in molecular conformation, thermodynamic coupling is usually attributed to an enthalpy-driven mechanism. In the family of glycopeptide antibiotics that includes vancomycin, however, cooperative phenomena occur that cannot be explained by conformational change. In this communication, we demonstrate that cooperativity in these systems can arise solely from changes in vibrational activity. PMID:11929222

  8. Biochemical Markers for Differential Diagnosis of Stroke: A Biochemical Markers Study of S100B Protein, Neuron Spesific Enolase (NSE), Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP)

    OpenAIRE

    Evy Liswati; Andi Wijaya; Teguh A S Ranakusuma

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, which determine how to treat the patients, was performed by CT-Scan. CT-Scan is not always available in all Indonesian health care facility. Other alternative using biochemical markers needed to be studied. METHODS: In total of 44 stroke patients consist of 25 ischemic and 19 hemorrhagic strokes according to CTScan, participated in this study. S100B Protein, NSE, MBP and H-FABP concentration in the blood of each strok...

  9. Soft Computing of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Using an Improved T-S Fuzzy Neural Network☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei Qiao; Wei Li; Honggui Han

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to measure the online values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) due to the characteristics of nonlinear dynamics, large lag and uncertainty in wastewater treatment process. In this paper, based on the knowledge representation ability and learning capability, an improved T–S fuzzy neural network (TSFNN) is in-troduced to predict BOD values by the soft computing method. In this improved TSFNN, a K-means clustering is used to initialize the structure of TSFNN, including the number of fuzzy rules and parameters of membership function. For training TSFNN, a gradient descent method with the momentum item is used to adjust antecedent parameters and consequent parameters. This improved TSFNN is applied to predict the BOD values in effluent of the wastewater treatment process. The simulation results show that the TSFNN with K-means clustering algorithm can measure the BOD values accurately. The algorithm presents better approximation performance than some other methods.

  10. Importance of Biochemical Markers in Postmenopausal and Senile Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Evcik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the biochemical markers are widely used in order to evaluate the bone turnover. This study was planned to investigate the role of biochemical markers and Bone Mineral Density(BMD in postmenopausal (PMO and senile osteoporosis (SO patients. A total of 86 patients( 44 PMO, 42 SO, ages ranged between 39-79 were included in this study. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and osteocalcin levels were determined from blood samples. Urinary deoxypyridinoline(Dpd and creatinine(cr concentration were examined and the ratio of Dpd/cr was calculated. Also BMD of the patients were measured from L1-L4 and proximal femur and t score were determined. There was no statistical difference in ALP levels between two groups. Osteocalcine and Dpd/cr levels were statistically increased in PMO group(p<0.001. According to BMD t score which was measured from proximal femur was significantly higher in SO patients(p<0.05. Our results show that biochemical markers are useful for the assessment of high-turnover osteoporosis.

  11. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  12. Considerations on the biochemical composition of some freshwater zooplankton species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta RICCARDI

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The mean elemental (C, H, N and biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins of some abundant crustacean zooplankton species of Italian insubric lakes has been estimated by the analysis of samples collected at different seasons from various environments (Lake Maggiore, Lake Varese, Lake Comabbio, Lake Monate. From each sample an adequate number of specimens of each abundant species was sorted and analyzed by a CHN elemental analyzer. The percentage of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and the calorific content were calculated from the elemental composition according to Gnaiger & Bitterlich (1984. Inter- and intraspecific variability of biochemical composition was quite high, while elemental composition and calorific content were less variable. An estimate of the mean elemental and biochemical composition of each species was obtained by pooling the data. These mean values have been used to estimate the pools of elements and compounds in the crustacean zooplankton of Lake Comabbio to provide an example of the importance of a multiple approach in zooplankton studies.

  13. Design of a biochemical circuit motif for learning linear functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Minnich, Amanda; Lane, Terran; Stefanovic, Darko

    2014-12-01

    Learning and adaptive behaviour are fundamental biological processes. A key goal in the field of bioengineering is to develop biochemical circuit architectures with the ability to adapt to dynamic chemical environments. Here, we present a novel design for a biomolecular circuit capable of supervised learning of linear functions, using a model based on chemical reactions catalysed by DNAzymes. To achieve this, we propose a novel mechanism of maintaining and modifying internal state in biochemical systems, thereby advancing the state of the art in biomolecular circuit architecture. We use simulations to demonstrate that the circuit is capable of learning behaviour and assess its asymptotic learning performance, scalability and robustness to noise. Such circuits show great potential for building autonomous in vivo nanomedical devices. While such a biochemical system can tell us a great deal about the fundamentals of learning in living systems and may have broad applications in biomedicine (e.g. autonomous and adaptive drugs), it also offers some intriguing challenges and surprising behaviours from a machine learning perspective. PMID:25401175

  14. Biochemical Characterization of Hypothetical Proteins from Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Pil Choi

    Full Text Available The functional characterization of Open Reading Frames (ORFs from sequenced genomes remains a bottleneck in our effort to understand microbial biology. In particular, the functional characterization of proteins with only remote sequence homology to known proteins can be challenging, as there may be few clues to guide initial experiments. Affinity enrichment of proteins from cell lysates, and a global perspective of protein function as provided by COMBREX, affords an approach to this problem. We present here the biochemical analysis of six proteins from Helicobacter pylori ATCC 26695, a focus organism in COMBREX. Initial hypotheses were based upon affinity capture of proteins from total cellular lysate using derivatized nano-particles, and subsequent identification by mass spectrometry. Candidate genes encoding these proteins were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified and characterized biochemically and their biochemical parameters compared with the native ones. These proteins include a guanosine triphosphate (GTP cyclohydrolase (HP0959, an ATPase (HP1079, an adenosine deaminase (HP0267, a phosphodiesterase (HP1042, an aminopeptidase (HP1037, and new substrates were characterized for a peptidoglycan deacetylase (HP0310. Generally, characterized enzymes were active at acidic to neutral pH (4.0-7.5 with temperature optima ranging from 35 to 55°C, although some exhibited outstanding characteristics.

  15. Relationship between cellular response models and biochemical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most cellular response experiments, survival reflects the kinetics of a variety of damage and repair processes. Unfortunately, biochemical studies of molecular repair deal with mechanisms which cannot be readily correlated with these kinetic observations. The difference in these approaches sometimes leads to confusion over terms such as potentially-lethal and sublethal damage. These terms were introduced with operation definitions, derived from kinetic studies of cell survival, but some researchers have since attempted to associate them with specific biochemical mechanisms. Consequently, the terms are often used in totally different ways be different investigators. The use of carefully constructed models originating either out of assumptions based on mechanisms, or on kinetics, can be used to design experiments to eliminate some alternative kinetic schemes. In turn, some mechanisms may also be eliminated, resulting in a reduction in the number of mechanisms which must be investigated biochemically. One must take advantage of a wide range of specialized radiation procedures in order to accomplish this. Examples of the use of such specialized experimental designs, which have led to a more detailed understanding of the kinetics of both algal and mammalian cell responses, are discussed

  16. Moorella Strains for the Production of Biochemicals from Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    In the process of sugar fermentation, a significant portion of lignocellulosic biomass is left unused. An alternative is the gasification into syngas, a carbon-rich gas mixture. Syngas serves as energy and carbon source for acetogenic bacteria, which can then produce biochemicals. In the syngas f...... gene expression was constructed. These tools developed in my project will be applied to engineer bacterial cell factories for production of higher value biochemicals like acetone.......In the process of sugar fermentation, a significant portion of lignocellulosic biomass is left unused. An alternative is the gasification into syngas, a carbon-rich gas mixture. Syngas serves as energy and carbon source for acetogenic bacteria, which can then produce biochemicals. In the syngas...... fermentation process even the recalcitrant lignin portion can be fully converted into higher value compounds. Still the cost-effectiveness of this process requires better understanding of the metabolism and modification of the acetogenic strains. In my PhD project I am laying the basis for production of higher...

  17. ASSESMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PRAECITRULLUS FISTULOSUS TREATED WITH MUTAGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are well known to have certain primary and secondary metabolites collectively are known as biochemicals that plays an important role for human health as their medicinal properties. The aim of present study was to enhance and evaluate biochemical profile of Praecitrullus fistulosus by induced mutagenesis to cause genetic variations, plant leaves were treated with different chemical and physical mutagens. Colchicine and Ethidium bromide were used as chemical mutagens. While Ultraviolet (UV rays and X- rays were used as physical mutagens for the treatment of seeds. After the eleventh week of their growth, methanol extracts of dried leaves were prepared and further analyzed for the estimation of biochemicals. It was observed that total carbohydrates, total Proteins, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, reducing power, ascorbic Acid  and Chlorophyll a, were found significantly (p<0.05 higher in Colchicine 0.02% treated plants, while reducing sugars were significantly (p<0.05  increases in Colchicine 0.01% treated plants as compared to control plants. Total flavonoids, total flavonol, Chlorophyll b and Carotenoids were increases significantly (p<0.05 in plants treated with 0.05% Ethidium bromide while tannin content was increased significantly (p<0.05 in 0.10% Ethidium bromide treated plants as compared to the  control plants.

  18. Modelling biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays: a hybrid semi-parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Rui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a method for modelling dynamical biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays. Since the fundamental mechanisms leading to such delays are many times unknown, non conventional modelling approaches become necessary. Herein, a hybrid semi-parametric identification methodology is proposed in which discrete time series are incorporated into fundamental material balance models. This integration results in hybrid delay differential equations which can be applied to identify unknown cellular dynamics. Results The proposed hybrid modelling methodology was evaluated using two case studies. The first of these deals with dynamic modelling of transcriptional factor A in mammalian cells. The protein transport from the cytosol to the nucleus introduced a delay that was accounted for by discrete time series formulation. The second case study focused on a simple network with distributed time delays that demonstrated that the discrete time delay formalism has broad applicability to both discrete and distributed delay problems. Conclusions Significantly better prediction qualities of the novel hybrid model were obtained when compared to dynamical structures without time delays, being the more distinctive the more significant the underlying system delay is. The identification of the system delays by studies of different discrete modelling delays was enabled by the proposed structure. Further, it was shown that the hybrid discrete delay methodology is not limited to discrete delay systems. The proposed method is a powerful tool to identify time delays in ill-defined biochemical networks.

  19. Changes in functional properties as a measure of biochemical deterioration of stored soybean daddawa condiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tope Olukayode Popoola

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean daddawa is a popular condiment made by fermenting dehulled seeds of soybean (Glycine max; it is commonly used in soups in the soybean growing areas of Nigeria. Soybean daddawa prepared using three different processing methods (traditionally fermented seeds, seeds fermented with salt (NaCl and seeds fermented with starter cultures was evaluated for biochemical changes in ambient storage conditions. The fermented product was assessed for pH, titratable acid, peroxide, free fatty acids, antioxidant capacities as well as water and fat absorption capacities as indices of deterioration. pH of stored samples increased in the alkaline range, titratable acidity of samples also increased with storage. Peroxide values of samples increased significantly from 3.87 meq/kg on first day of storage to 30.73 meq/kg in two weeks on naturally fermented soy daddawa samples. Values obtained for FFA also increased with storage period, while, antioxidant capacity, water and fat absorption capacities decreased drastically with storage. Although, the values obtained for the parameters monitored differed with the methods of processing, the differences were not significant (p > 0.05 however; values obtained at the start of the experiment and after 14 days of storage differed significantly. Most of the biochemical changes in monitored functional properties of the samples became noticeable on the 4th and 6th day of storage. The results are discussed with reference to food safety and shelf--life of the product.

  20. Discovering Reliable Sources of Biochemical Thermodynamic Data to Aid Students' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Me´ndez, Eduardo; Cerda´, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Students of physical chemistry in biochemical disciplines need biochemical examples to capture the need, not always understood, of a difficult area in their studies. The use of thermodynamic data in the chemical reference state may lead to incorrect interpretations in the analysis of biochemical examples when the analysis does not include relevant…

  1. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General....

  2. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2060 Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1)...

  6. High serum folate is associated with reduced biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To analyze the association between serum levels of folate and risk of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy among men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH database. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of 135 subjects from the SEARCH database treated between 1991-2009 with available preoperative serum folate levels. Patients' characteristics at the time of the surgery were analyzed with ranksum and linear regression. Uni- and multivariable analyses of folate levels (log-transformed and time to biochemical recurrence were performed with Cox proportional hazards. Results The median preoperative folate level was 11.6ng/mL (reference = 1.5-20.0ng/mL. Folate levels were significantly lower among African-American men than Caucasians (P = 0.003. In univariable analysis, higher folate levels were associated with more recent year of surgery (P < 0.001 and lower preoperative PSA (P = 0.003. In univariable analysis, there was a trend towards lower risk of biochemical recurrence among men with high folate levels (HR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.37-1.03, P = 0.064. After adjustments for patients characteristics' and pre- and post-operative clinical and pathological findings, higher serum levels of folate were independently associated with lower risk for biochemical recurrence (HR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.20-0.89, P = 0.023. Conclusion In a cohort of men undergoing radical prostatectomy at several VAs across the country, higher serum folate levels were associated with lower PSA and lower risk for biochemical failure. While the source of the folate in the serum in this study is unknown (i.e. diet vs. supplement, these findings, if confirmed, suggest a potential role of folic acid supplementation or increased consumption of folate rich foods to reduce the risk of recurrence.

  7. Predictive value of routine hematological and biochemical parameters on 30-day fatality in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia R

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was planned to study the prognostic value of routine clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters, including platelet aggregation in patients of acute stroke, on fatality occurring during the first 30 days. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study 116 consecutive patients (77 males and 39 females of stroke (within 72 hours of onset were included. After clinical evaluation and neuroimaging, blood investigations, hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet count, platelet aggregation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, blood sugar, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, serum cholesterol, serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT, albumin, and globulin estimations were performed. The patients were followed up for a maximum period of 30 days from the onset of stroke, and patients who expired were grouped as ′expired′ and the rest as ′survivors′. Logistic regression analysis was carried out among the significant parameters to identify independent predictors of 30-day fatality. RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that among hematological parameters, high total leukocyte count and ESR, at admission, correlated significantly with an undesirable outcome during the initial 30 days. Among biochemical parameters, elevated urea, creatinine, serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT and globulin levels correlated significantly with death. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score along with biochemical parameters such as high serum creatinine, SGPT, ESR and total leukocyte count correlated with death. CONCLUSION: Impaired consciousness, high total leukocyte count, raised ESR, elevated creatinine and SGPT levels, estimated within 24 hours of hospitalization, are the most important indicators of 30-day mortality in patients with first-time ischemic stroke.

  8. Seasonal variation of hemato-biochemical parameters in indigenous pig: Zovawk of Mizoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mayengbam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the influence of season on erythrocyte picture, plasma enzyme and electrolyte profile of local pig of Mizoram at a different age. Materials and Methods: A volume of 2 ml of blood samples were collected from 72 Zovawk pigs of three different age groups viz. pre-weaning, grower and adult pigs reared in College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India, livestock farm during summer and winter in order to find out influence of season on erythrocyte picture, enzyme and electrolyte profile. The hematological parameters were estimated by using an automatic blood analyzer. The biochemical parameters were estimated by using diagnostic kits. Results: The grower pigs had lower hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH during summer, rainy and winter seasons (p<0.05 and lower MCH concentration (MCHC during summer season (p<0.05. Adult pigs had lower Hb with higher total erythrocyte count in rainy season. PCV and MCV of adult pigs decreased in summer (p<0.05. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase activity of both the grower and adult groups increased during summer and rainy seasons (p<0.05. Zovawk pigs had higher sodium (Na and lower potassium (K in rainy season (p<0.05. Pre-weaning piglets had higher Na, K, calcium (Ca, and magnesium (Mg in summer than in winter. Grower pigs had higher Na, K and Ca in summer (p<0.05. Pi of pre-weaning and grower groups was higher in winter. Adult pigs had lower alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca in summer and higher Pi and Mg in winter (p<0.05. Conclusion: Seasonal variation in some hemato-biochemical parameters of Zovawk pig were investigated. Influence of season on the hemato-biochemical profile was most evident during the grower stage, followed by adults and pre-weaning piglets.

  9. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Li, Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  10. Biochemical and molecular tools reveal two diverse Xanthomonas groups in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriko, J; Aritua, V; Mortensen, C N; Tushemereirwe, W K; Mulondo, A L; Kubiriba, J; Lund, O S

    2016-02-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) causing the banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease has been the main xanthomonad associated with bananas in East and Central Africa based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. However, biochemical methods cannot effectively distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads. In this study, gram-negative and yellow-pigmented mucoid bacteria were isolated from BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas collected from different parts of Uganda. Biolog, Xcm-specific (GspDm), Xanthomonas vasicola species-specific (NZ085) and Xanthomonas genus-specific (X1623) primers in PCR, and sequencing of ITS region were used to identify and characterize the isolates. Biolog tests revealed several isolates as xanthomonads. The GspDm and NZ085 primers accurately identified three isolates from diseased bananas as Xcm and these were pathogenic when re-inoculated into bananas. DNA from more isolates than those amplified by GspDm and NZ085 primers were amplified by the X1623 primers implying they are xanthomonads, these were however non-pathogenic on bananas. In the 16-23 ITS sequence based phylogeny, the pathogenic bacteria clustered together with the Xcm reference strain, while the non-pathogenic xanthomonads isolated from both BXW symptomatic and symptomless bananas clustered with group I xanthomonads. The findings reveal dynamic Xanthomonas populations in bananas, which can easily be misrepresented by only using phenotyping and biochemical tests. A combination of tools provides the most accurate identity and characterization of these plant associated bacteria. The interactions between the pathogenic and non-pathogenic xanthomonads in bananas may pave way to understanding effect of microbial interactions on BXW disease development and offer clues to biocontrol of Xcm.

  11. Irritable bowel syndrome subtypes differ in body awareness, psychological symptoms and biochemical stress markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elsa M Eriksson; Kristina I Andrén; Henry T Eriksson; Gōran K Kurlberg

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To elucidate the differences in somatic,psycho-logical and biochemical pattern between the subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome(IBS).METHODS:Eighty IBS patients,30 diarrhoea pre-dominant(D-IBS),16 constipation predominant(C-IBS)and 34 alternating IBS(A-IBS)underwent physi-otherapeutic examinations for dysfunctions in body movements and awareness and were compared to an apparently healthy control group(AHC).All groups answered questionnaires for gastrointestinal and psycho-logical symptoms.Biochemical variables were analysed in blood.RESULTS:The D-IBS group showed less body awareness,less psychological symptoms,a more normal sense of coherence and psychosocial rating as well as higher C-peptide values.C-IBS had a higher degree of body dysfunction and psychological symptoms,as well as the lowest sense of coherence compared to controls and D-IBS.They also demonstrated the most elevated prolactin levels.A-IBS had the lowest degree of body disturbance,deteriorated quality of life and affected biochemical pattern.All subtypes had higher pain scores compared to controls.In addition they all had significantly increased triglycerides and elevated morning cortisol levels,however,without statistical significance compared with the controls.CONCLUSION:IBS subtypes showed different profiles in body awareness,somatic and psychological symptoms and in biochemicaI variables.D-IBS differed compared to the other groups by Iowered body awareness,less psychological symptoms and a higher sense of coherence and elevated C-Deptide values.C-IBS and A-IBS subtypes suffered more from depression and anxiety,associated with a lower quality of life.These differences may be important and will be taken into account in our treatment of these patients.

  12. Molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma in CSR10 x Taraori basmati derived Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pummy Kumari, Uma Ahuja , Sunita Jain and R.K. Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma or fragrance of Basmati rice is associated with the presence and content of chemical compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrrolineand the trait is monogenic recessive. Several PCR-based co-dominant marker based on RG28 locus were developed, which can differentiate between fragrant and non-fragrant rice cultivars. For molecular and biochemical analysis of aroma, a mapping population comprising 208 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a diverse cross between CSR10 and Taraori Basmati through SSD method was used. RILs are among the best mapping populations, which provide a novel material for linkage mapping of genes/QTLs marker for various traits. Biochemical analysis of aroma was performed with the 1.7% KOH solution and molecular analysis of aroma was carried out with microsatellite markers present on chromosome 8 (BAD2, BADEX7-5, SCUSSR1 to determine the extent of association between trait, marker and chromosome 8. Among these markers, BAD2 amplified aroma specific alleles having 256 bp in 72 lines, BADEX7-5 with 95 bp in 74 lines and SCUSSR1 with 129 bp in 79 lines. Mentel test of significance detected by biochemical analysis of RILs (with 1.7 % KOH and molecular marker study revealed high degree (>90 % of association of aroma with the above mentioned markers, respectively. Some of the F10 lines amplified the heterozygous alleles for two sets of specific markers (BAD2 and SCUSSR-1 but did not show the presence of aroma as analyzed by chemical test. Aromatic and non-aromatic lines were almost common in three markers indicating association of markers with the trait and chromosome 8. The results revealed that these markers could be used for marker assisted selection and RIL population for mapping of aroma QTLs/genes.

  13. Scalable rule-based modelling of allosteric proteins and biochemical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien F Ollivier

    Full Text Available Much of the complexity of biochemical networks comes from the information-processing abilities of allosteric proteins, be they receptors, ion-channels, signalling molecules or transcription factors. An allosteric protein can be uniquely regulated by each combination of input molecules that it binds. This "regulatory complexity" causes a combinatorial increase in the number of parameters required to fit experimental data as the number of protein interactions increases. It therefore challenges the creation, updating, and re-use of biochemical models. Here, we propose a rule-based modelling framework that exploits the intrinsic modularity of protein structure to address regulatory complexity. Rather than treating proteins as "black boxes", we model their hierarchical structure and, as conformational changes, internal dynamics. By modelling the regulation of allosteric proteins through these conformational changes, we often decrease the number of parameters required to fit data, and so reduce over-fitting and improve the predictive power of a model. Our method is thermodynamically grounded, imposes detailed balance, and also includes molecular cross-talk and the background activity of enzymes. We use our Allosteric Network Compiler to examine how allostery can facilitate macromolecular assembly and how competitive ligands can change the observed cooperativity of an allosteric protein. We also develop a parsimonious model of G protein-coupled receptors that explains functional selectivity and can predict the rank order of potency of agonists acting through a receptor. Our methodology should provide a basis for scalable, modular and executable modelling of biochemical networks in systems and synthetic biology.

  14. Development of a system for characterizing biomass quality of lignocellulosic feedstocks for biochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick Thomas

    sugars, including non-structural carbohydrates (CN) (monosaccharides, starches, oligosaccharides), biochemically available carbohydrates (CB) (structural carbohydrates susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis) with an associated 1st-order availability rate constant (k B) and unavailable carbohydrates (CU) (hemicellulose and cellulose in close association with lignin). The model partitions the noncarbohydrate dry matter into extractives, lignin, and ash. Quality parameters were determined using a biomass quality assay that combined established wet-chemistry analyses techniques, including total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC), alcohol insoluble residue (AIR), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSCF), and Klason lignin. The next study evaluated multiple high-throughput (HTP) modifications to the original assay methods, including (i) using filter bags with batch sample processing, (ii) replacement of AIR with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) as a cell-wall isolation procedure, and (iii) elimination of the fermentation organism in the SSCF procedures used to determine biochemically available carbohydrates. The original and the HTP assay methods were compared using corn cobs, hybrid poplar, kenaf, and switchgrass. Biochemically available carbohydrates increased with the HTP methods in the corn cobs, hybrid poplar, and switchgrass, but remained the same in the kenaf. Total available carbohydrates increased and unavailable carbohydrates decreased with the HTP methods in the corn cobs and switchgrass and remained the same in the hybrid poplar and kenaf. There were no differences in total carbohydrates (CT) between the two methods. The final study evaluated the variability of biomass quality parameters in a set of corn stover samples, and developed calibration equations for determining parameter values using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Fifty-two corn stover samples harvested in Iowa and Wisconsin in 2005 and 2006 were analyzed using the HTP assay for

  15. Serum Anti-Hbs-Ag in Stable Hemodialysis Patients and its Relationship with Various Demographic and Biochemical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Baradaran, Azar; Ardalan, Mohammad-Reza; Nasri, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the relationship between various biochemical, nutritional and demographic factors with immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. Material and Methods: A retro-prospective study was carried out on 68 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis .Patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus with an intramuscular hepatitis B vaccination schedule, 40 micrograms at 0, 1, and 6 months. We also selected 32 age matched normal he...

  16. Biochemical Mechanism of the Eutrophication and Its Prevention--the Deep Treatment of Waste Water and Its Denitrification and Dephosphorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongshan; Li Songqiang

    2003-01-01

    Biochemical mechanism of forming the red tide is discussed in this paper. The existence of a large number of nitrates and phosphates in the eutrophic water is the prerequisite of explosive increase of algae and the forming of red tide. Reduction of eutrophication is an important approach to preventing the red tide. The method of deep treatment of the waste water and its denitrification and dephosphorization are introduced, and a new opinion on the red tide formation and fundamental prevention is put forward.

  17. Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves clinical and biochemical markers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião Mauro Bezerra Duarte; Joel Faintuch; José Tadeu Stefano; Maria Beatriz Sobral de Oliveira; Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo; Fabiola Rabelo; Denise Vanni; Monize Aydar Nogueira; Flair José Carrilho; Claudia Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of hypocaloric high-protein diet, a prospective clinical study was conducted in NAFLD patients. Research methods and procedures: Pre-versus post-interventional data were analyzed in 48 stable NAFLD patients (submitted to a hypocaloric high-protein diet during 75 days. Variables included anthropometrics (body mass index/ BMI and waist circumference/WC), whole-body and segmental bioimpedance analysis and biochemical tests. Diet compliance was assessed by inter...

  18. Community Based Assessment of Biochemical Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural and Tribal Area of Himalayan Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj; Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar Raina; Pradeep Bansal; Satya Bhushan; Vishav Chander

    2013-01-01

    Context. Evident change in nutrition and lifestyle among individuals of urban and rural areas raises suspicion for similar change in tribal area population of India. Aim. To study the biochemical risk factor for CVDs in rural and tribal population of Sub-Himalayan state of India. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional study in rural (low altitude) and tribal (high altitude) area of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology. Blood lipid profile using standard laboratory methods. Statistical Analysis....

  19. The effect of sodium valproate on the biochemical parameters of reproductive function in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay P.; Yeshwanth R; Bairy K

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on intratesticular testosterone and lactic dehydrogenase level in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were treated with sodium valproate and sacrificed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week, after the last exposure to sodium valproate. The testes were removed, weighed and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced...

  20. Investigation on Acute Biochemical Effects of Ce(NO3)3 on Liver and Kidney Tissues by MAS 1H NMR Spectroscopic-Based Metabonomic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High resolution magic angle spinning (MAS)-1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic-based metabonomic approach was applied to the investigation on the acute biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3. Male Wistar rats were liver and kidney tissues were analyzed using principal component analysis to extract toxicity information. The biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3 were characterized by the increase of triglycerides and lactate and the decrease of glycogen in rat liver tissue, together with an elevation of the triglyceride level and a depletion of glycerophosphocholine and betaine in kidney tissues. The target lesions of Ce(NO3)3 on liver and kidney were found by MAS NMR-based metabonomic method. This study demonstrates that the combination of MAS 1H NMR and pattern recognition analysis can be an effective method for studies of biochemical effects of rare earths.

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste activated sludge enhances anaerobic methane production through improving biochemical methane potential instead of hydrolysis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Chang; Xie, Guo-Jun; Zhou, Xu; Qian, Jin; Yang, Guojing; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yiqi; Wang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic sludge digestion is the main technology for sludge reduction and stabilization prior to sludge disposal. Nevertheless, methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often restricted by the poor biochemical methane potential and slow hydrolysis rate of WAS. This work systematically investigated the effect of PHA levels of WAS on anaerobic methane production, using both experimental and mathematical modeling approaches. Biochemical methane potential tests showed that methane production increased with increased PHA levels in WAS. Model-based analysis suggested that the PHA-based method enhanced methane production by improving biochemical methane potential of WAS, with the highest enhancement being around 40% (from 192 to 274 L CH4/kg VS added; VS: volatile solid) when the PHA levels increased from 21 to 143 mg/g VS. In contrast, the hydrolysis rate (approximately 0.10 d-1) was not significantly affected by the PHA levels. Economic analysis suggested that the PHA-based method could save $1.2/PE/y (PE: population equivalent) in a typical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The PHA-based method can be easily integrated into the current WWTP to enhance methane production, thereby providing a strong support to the on-going paradigm shift in wastewater management from pollutant removal to resource recovery.

  2. Polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste activated sludge enhances anaerobic methane production through improving biochemical methane potential instead of hydrolysis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Chang; Xie, Guo-Jun; Zhou, Xu; Qian, Jin; Yang, Guojing; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yiqi; Wang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic sludge digestion is the main technology for sludge reduction and stabilization prior to sludge disposal. Nevertheless, methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often restricted by the poor biochemical methane potential and slow hydrolysis rate of WAS. This work systematically investigated the effect of PHA levels of WAS on anaerobic methane production, using both experimental and mathematical modeling approaches. Biochemical methane potential tests showed that methane production increased with increased PHA levels in WAS. Model-based analysis suggested that the PHA-based method enhanced methane production by improving biochemical methane potential of WAS, with the highest enhancement being around 40% (from 192 to 274 L CH4/kg VS added; VS: volatile solid) when the PHA levels increased from 21 to 143 mg/g VS. In contrast, the hydrolysis rate (approximately 0.10 d‑1) was not significantly affected by the PHA levels. Economic analysis suggested that the PHA-based method could save $1.2/PE/y (PE: population equivalent) in a typical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The PHA-based method can be easily integrated into the current WWTP to enhance methane production, thereby providing a strong support to the on-going paradigm shift in wastewater management from pollutant removal to resource recovery.

  3. Biologically effective dose and definitive radiation treatment for localized prostate cancer. Treatment gaps do affect the risk of biochemical failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpaolo, P.; Barbieri, V. [CROB, Rionero in Vulture (Italy). Radiation Oncology Dept.; Genovesi, D. [' ' G. D' Annunzio Univ., Chieti (Italy). Radiation Oncology Dept.

    2014-08-15

    It is not clear if prolongation of definitive external radiation therapy for prostate cancer has an effect on biochemical failure. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the biologically effective dose (BED), and in particular the duration of radiotherapy, intended as overall treatment time, has an effect on biochemical failure rates and to develop a nomogram useful to predict the 6-year probability of biochemical failure. A total of 670 patients with T1-3 N0 prostate cancer were treated with external beam definitive radiotherapy, to a total dose of 72-79.2 Gy in 40-44 fractions. The computed BED values were treated with restricted cubic splines. Variables were checked for colinearity using Spearman's test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate freedom from biochemical relapse (FFBR) rates. The Cox regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors of biochemical relapse in the final most performing model and to create a nomogram. Concordance probability estimate and calibration methods were used to validate the nomogram. Neoadjuvant and concomitant androgen deprivation was administered to 475 patients (70 %). The median follow-up was 80 months (range 20-129 months). Overall, the 6-year FFBR rate was 88.3 %. BED values were associated with higher biochemical failure risk. Age, iPSA, risk category, and days of radiotherapy treatment were independent variables of biochemical failure. A prolongation of RT (lower BED values) is associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure. The nomogram may be helpful in decision making for the individual patient. (orig.) [German] Es ist nicht geklaert, ob die Verlaengerung einer definitiven Strahlentherapie bei der Behandlung von Prostatakarzinompatienten einen Effekt auf das biochemische Versagen hat. Die vorliegende Studie hat das Ziel zu evaluieren, ob biologisch die effektive Dosis und insbesondere die Gesamtdauer der Behandlung eine Wirkung auf das biochemisches Rezidiv haben koennte. Ferner

  4. The impact of race on biochemical outcome in patients receiving irradiation for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: African-Americans tend to present with a higher stage and grade prostate cancer than whites and hence previous studies have attempted to delineate the importance of race in outcome with radiotherapy. However, these studies have had limitations including insufficient number of African-American patients, lack of a similar quality of care or uniform treatment policy. In addition, race as a prognostic variable has not been analyzed in regards to PSA based outcome criteria. The current study was performed in order to determine the impact of race on survival and biochemical control in patients with prostate cancer treated at a single center using a standardized radiation protocol. Materials and Methods: Between 1988 and 1995, 455 patients with clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate received external beam irradiation for a median dose of 68 Gy using a four field technique. Of the 455 patients, 211 were African-American and 244 were white. Pretreatment PSA were: 0-4 ng/ml (51), 4-10 ng/ml (129), 10-20 ng/ml (117), > 20 ng/ml (136), unknown (22). Clinical stages were: T1 (108), T2 (238), T3 (99), not available (10). There was no significant difference in pretreatment characteristics (stage, grade and PSA) or radiation dose between the African-American and white group of patients. Median follow-up is 37.8 months. Biochemical failure was defined as two or more consecutive PSA values that are greater than the posttreatment nadir. Race, pretreatment PSA, grade, age, stage and dose were assessed with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis as prognostic factors for overall survival and biochemical disease free survival. Results: The 5 year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 79% and biochemical disease free survival (bNED) was 35% for the entire group of patients. There was no significant difference in 5 year OS (71% vs. 85%) (p=0.3) or bNED (26% vs. 40%) (p=0.26) for African-Americans in comparison to whites. Univariate analysis

  5. To Study the Clinical, Biochemical and Radiological Features of Acute Pancreatitis in HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Shahzad; Chaudhry, Naueen A.; Brown, Jordan D.; Aghaie, Sina; Rezai, Damoun; Khan, Areej; Tan, Paul De Leon; Berger, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis complicating HIV infection, even in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) era, remains a management challenge. We felt there is a need to discern patterns in the biochemical markers, radiological studies, co-infections, length of stay (LOS) in patients with HIV or AIDS AND pancreatitis. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from June, 2008 to August, 2010 on patients admitted with acute pancreatitis to our hospital. We extracted and compared the following parameters: biochemical markers, HBV markers (surface antigen, core antibody and surface antibody), HCV antibody, radiological studies, and length of stay (LOS). The Balthazar Grade score was used to assess radiological severity of disease. We stratified the cohort into comparison subsets according to CD4 count. Results Ninety-four admissions met the criteria for HIV or AIDS AND pancreatitis; 67 unique patients comprised the cohort. Median age was 48 years (range, 23 to 60 years). Thirty seven (55%) were male, 30 (45%), female. Two third (n = 51) (76%) were African American. Known risk factors included a history of pancreatitis, 17 (25%); cholecystitis, 13 (19%); alcohol abuse, 25 (37%); Intravenous drug abuse, 18 (27%). Only 36 (38%) admissions were on HAART regimen. Biochemical features on admission were: WBC, 6,100/mm3 (900 - 25,700); amylase, 152 U/L (30 - 1,344); lipase, 702.5 U/L (30 - 5,766), triglyceride, 65 mg/dL (57 - 400); glucose, 94 mg/dL (60 - 1,670); lactate, 2.3 mmol/L (1.09 - 5.49); AST, 61.5 U/L (9 - 1,950); LDH, 762 U/L (394 - 5,500); bicarbonate 19.5 mEq/L (3.3 - 82.7). Interestingly, 62% patients had normal pancreas on CT scan on admission. Of 67 individuals, hepatitis profile was available in 43, 21 (49%) were positive for HCV, 11 (26%) had markers for HBV. Four of 11 patients (36) with CD4 200. P = 0.03 via t-test comparison. One patient with CD4 < 50 died due to acute pancreatitis. Conclusion Pancreatitis remains a major cause of morbidity in HIV

  6. Profile of mood states and stress-related biochemical indices in long-term yoga practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown the short-term or intermediate-term practice of yoga to be useful for ameliorating several mental disorders and psychosomatic disorders. However, little is known about the long-term influences of yoga on the mental state or stress-related biochemical indices. If yoga training has a stress-reduction effect and also improves an individual's mental states for a long time, long-term yoga practitioners may have a better mental state and lower stress-related biochemical indices in comparison to non-experienced participants. This study simultaneously examined the differences in mental states and urinary stress-related biochemical indices between long-term yoga practitioners and non-experienced participants. Methods The participants were 38 healthy females with more than 2 years of experience with yoga (long-term yoga group and 37 age-matched healthy females who had not participated in yoga (control group. Their mental states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The level of cortisol, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and biopyrrin in urine were used as stress-related biochemical indices. Results The average self-rated mental disturbance, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and fatigue scores of the long-term yoga group were lower than those of the control group. There was a trend toward a higher vigor score in the long-term yoga group than that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the scores for depression and confusion in the POMS between the two groups. The urine 8-OHdG concentration showed a trend toward to being lower in the long-term yoga group in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences in the levels of urine biopyrrin or cortisol. Conclusions The present findings suggest that long-term yoga training can reduce the scores related to mental health indicators such as self-rated anxiety, anger, and fatigue.

  7. Application of quantitative autoradiography to the measurement of biochemical processes in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative autoradiography makes it possible to measure the concentrations of isotopes in tissues of animals labeled in vivo. In a few cases, the administration of a judiciously selected labeled chemical compound and a properly designed procedure has made it possible to use this capability to measure the rate of a chemical process in animals in vivo. Emission tomography, and particularly positron emission tomography, provides a means to extend this capability to man and to assay the rates of biochemical processes in human tissues in vivo. It does not, however, obviate the need to adhere to established principles of chemical and enzyme kinetics and tracer theory. Generally, all such methods, whether to be used in man with positron emission tomography or in animals with autoradiography, must first be developed by research in animals with autoradiography, because it is only in animals that the measurements needed to validate the basic assumptions of the methods can be tested and evaluated

  8. BIOCHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION OF TORTEZIN, A NOVEL IMMUNOSTIMULATOR FROM THE TORTOISE BLOOD CELLS

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    NIGORA TAGAYALIEVA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The biochemical characterization of the substances presented in the new haemo and immuno stimulating preparation Tortezin from the blood cells of the Central Asian tortoise. Materials and Methods: Tortezin substances manufactured in 20062010 were examined by electrophoresis, spectroscopy and RPHPLC. Results: In UV spectra of Tortezin aqueous solution the pronounced maximum was at 218±1.2 nm and mild spike at 280±3.2 nm; in fluorescence emission spectra upon excitation with wavelength at 280 nm peak emission maximum was 460 ± 38 nm and at 295 nm was 455±21 nm. The RPHPLC profile and SDS 10% PAGE showed the presence of repetitive typical peaks in different samples. Conclusion: The different methods are to be recommended for standardization of Tortezin

  9. Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Modifications of Protein-Based Films and Coatings: An Extensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Joël; Wyrobnik, Tom; Prinz, Tobias; Schmid, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Protein-based films and coatings are an interesting alternative to traditional petroleum-based materials. However, their mechanical and barrier properties need to be enhanced in order to match those of the latter. Physical, chemical, and biochemical methods can be used for this purpose. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the effects of various treatments on whey, soy, and wheat gluten protein-based films and coatings. These three protein sources have been chosen since they are among the most abundantly used and are well described in the literature. Similar behavior might be expected for other protein sources. Most of the modifications are still not fully understood at a fundamental level, but all the methods discussed change the properties of the proteins and resulting products. Mastering these modifications is an important step towards the industrial implementation of protein-based films. PMID:27563881

  10. Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Modifications of Protein-Based Films and Coatings: An Extensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Joël; Wyrobnik, Tom; Prinz, Tobias; Schmid, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Protein-based films and coatings are an interesting alternative to traditional petroleum-based materials. However, their mechanical and barrier properties need to be enhanced in order to match those of the latter. Physical, chemical, and biochemical methods can be used for this purpose. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the effects of various treatments on whey, soy, and wheat gluten protein-based films and coatings. These three protein sources have been chosen since they are among the most abundantly used and are well described in the literature. Similar behavior might be expected for other protein sources. Most of the modifications are still not fully understood at a fundamental level, but all the methods discussed change the properties of the proteins and resulting products. Mastering these modifications is an important step towards the industrial implementation of protein-based films. PMID:27563881

  11. Parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to cells employing nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli V; Griffin, Guy D; Guillorn, Michael A; Merkulov, Vladimir L; Simpson, Michael L

    2015-03-31

    Systems and methods are described for parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to whole cells employing carbon nanostructures including nanofibers and nanotubes. A method includes providing a first material on at least a first portion of a first surface of a first tip of a first elongated carbon nanostructure; providing a second material on at least a second portion of a second surface of a second tip of a second elongated carbon nanostructure, the second elongated carbon nanostructure coupled to, and substantially parallel to, the first elongated carbon nanostructure; and penetrating a boundary of a biological sample with at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first tip and the second tip.

  12. Ultrastructural and Biochemical Evaluation of the Effect of Endosulfan on Mice Liver

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    Yildiz Caglar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of endosulfan on mice liver as ultrastructural together with biochemical data, and also by light microscopy to evaluate. Materials and Methods: 12 male albino mice weighing between 26-30g were used. Mice were divided into two equal groups. For group receiving endosulfan, endosulfan (13 mg/kg/day, body weight dissolved in nut oil was administered orally to mice via intragastric-during 10 days. The control group received only nut oil. At the end of the 10th day, all the mice were sacrificed with cervical dislocation. Tissue samples were taken for histological examination and biochemical analysis (SOD; superoxide dismutase, GSH; glutathione peroxidase, CAT; catalase, G6PD; glucose-6-phosphate dehidrogenase, MDA; malondialdehyde. Results: Disruption of inner membrane of mitochondria, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, the presence of large lipid droplets and vacuolar structures were observed in some hepatocytes. Prominent vacuolization was seen in light microscopic observation. There was an increment in activities of G6PD, SOD, GSH and MDA. However, there was a decrease in CAT activity. Conclusion: It may be considered that the adverse effect of endosulfan on mice liver may be due to direct toxic effect of endosulfan and induction of oxidative stress. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 274-284

  13. Vitamin D deficiency and biochemical variations among urban Saudi adolescent girls according to season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimani, Riad A.; Mohammed, Ashry G.; Alfadda, Assim A.; Alshehri, Suliman N.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Hanley, David A.; Khan, Aliya A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine seasonal variations in the vitamin D status of Saudi adolescent girls in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and its effect in biochemical and clinical characteristics. Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 2000 Saudi females aged 12-18 years from different schools in Riyadh, KSA participated and submitted a generalized questionnaire with clinical information. Fasting blood samples were obtained in 1618 subjects for the winter season (December to February) and only 499 subjects returned to submit fasting blood samples for the summer season (June-August). Circulating serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and other biomarkers of bone remodeling were measured during both seasons. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D metabolic manifestations suggestive of osteomalacia was 2.1% (N=33 out of 1548). Conclusion: Seasonal variations in the vitamin D status of Saudi adolescent females significantly modifies biochemical parameters as response to vitamin D status change. In the meantime, heightened public health awareness should be given to populations at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency. PMID:27570857

  14. The effects of heat exposure on the membranous structure of rat's intestinalepithelium and the biochemical indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Biao Zhu; Ji Hong Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the effects of heat exposure and swimming on membranous structure of the small intestinalepithelium and the biochemical indexes.METHODS The distribution of the intra-membranous particles (IMPs) in enteric epithelium of SD rats andthe number of IMPs were analyzed with freeze-etching technique and TxB2, PGFIa, PRL, CORT and totalSA (TSA) were measured with the techniques of biochemistry and radio-immunity.RESULTS Heat exposure markedly affected the distributive pattern of IMPs in intestinal epithelium andmade the numbers of IMPs on the PF and EF faces of cell membrane and nuclear membrane decreased.Swimming exacerbated the above changes. And in the meantime heat exposure resulted in the massivereleasing of the body-hurting substance as TxB2 and reducing of the body-protecting substance as PGFIa.TSA increased obviously. These changes recovered partly after heat exposure, but the number of IMPs onboth PF and EF faces and certain biochemical indexes were still not restored to the levels as in the controlgroup.CONCLUSION Heat exposure and swimming can make the cellular catabolism accelerated and anabolismreduced, then bring about the numbers of IMPs of intestinal epithelium membrane and nuclear membranedecreased, and the distribution was abnormal. TxB2, PGFIa, PRL, CORT and TSA were changedabnormally during heat exposure. And above indexes showed no notable evidence of recovery after stoppingheat exposure 4 hours-24 hours; the delayed injury was obviously presented.

  15. Evaluation of nutritional and biochemical parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats following antihypertensive treatment

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    Joanna Suliburska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One side effect of antihypertensive drugs is their impact on nutritional status and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional and biochemical parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats following treatment with antihypertensive drugs. Material and methods. The experiment was performed on 50 male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, which were assigned to fi ve groups: control (C, with perindopril (PR, with metoprolol (MT, with indapamide (ID, and with amlodipine (AM. All rats were provided ad libitum standard diet (with or without drugs and distilled water. After 45 days, the animals were weighed and killed. Liver, kidney, heart, spleen, pancreas, and blood samples were collected. Concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin were assayed in serum. Morphology parameters, such as white blood cell, red blood cell, hematocrit, and lymphocyte counts were measured in the blood. Blood pressure was measured using a tail-cuff plethysmograph. Results. The results obtained indicate that the hypotensive drugs under investigation had no effect on the selected nutritional parameters. Perindopril signifi cantly decreased the relative mass of the heart and amlodipine markedly decreased the relative mass of the pancreas. A markedly higher concentration of glucose in the group with indapamid, and a signifi cantly lower concentration of triglycerides in the group with metoprolol, were observed. Indapamide and amlodipine markedly increased the value of red blood cells and hematocrit in the blood of SHR. Conclusions. Long-term therapy with antihypertension drugs may infl uence tissue mass and biochemical and morphological status in the body.

  16. Repeated dose oral toxicity of inorganic mercury in wistar rats: biochemical and morphological alterations

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    M. D. Jegoda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to find out the possible toxic effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 at the histological, biochemical, and haematological levels in the wistar rats for 28 days. Materials and Methods: The biochemical and hematological alteration were estimated in four groups of rat (each group contain ten animals, which were treated with 0 (control, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg body weight of HgCl2 through oral gavage. At the end of study all rats were sacrificed and subjected for histopathology. Result: A significantly (P < 0.05 higher level of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, gamma Glutamyle Transferase, and creatinine were recorded in treatment groups, while the level of alkaline phosphtase (ALP was significantly decreased as compared to the control group. The toxic effect on hematoclogical parameter was characterized by significant decrease in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes count, and total leukocyte count. Gross morphological changes include congestion, severe haemorrhage, necrosis, degenerative changes in kidneys, depletion of lymphocyte in spleen, decrease in concentration of mature spermatocyte, and edema in testis. It was notable that kidney was the most affected organ. Conclusion: Mercuric chloride (HgCl caused dose-dependent toxic effects on blood parameters and kidney. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 563-567

  17. Evaluation of the effects of Islamic fasting on the biochemical markers of health.

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    Akbar Ali Babaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the ninth month of the lunar Islamic calendar, during which Muslims are obliged to perform specific rites and rituals. Fasting is considered the most important ritual during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting variably influences the health of individuals, which could be attributed to the changes in the concentrations of certain biochemical markers. This study aimed to elucidate the health effects of fasting through evaluating the impact of this Islamic duty on blood biochemistry. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 40 male volunteers employed at North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.Data collection and phlebotomy were performed before fast breaking(Iftar on the first and last day of Ramadan. Fasting duration was 11 hours per day. Serum biochemical factors, including blood glucose, uric acid, albumin, low-density lipoprotein(LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride(TG, were measured in all the participants at the beginning and end of Ramadan. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using paired-samples T-test to compare the mean variables. Results: Mean age of the participants in this study was 39.11±8.602 years. After one month of fasting, a significant reduction was observed in the mean levels of blood glucose, uric acid, TG, and LDL(P

  18. Liver iron estimation in β-thalassaemia: Comparison of MRI biochemical assay and histological grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIMS: The aims of the study were to compare the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical assay and histological grading in estimating liver iron content, and to evaluate the value of liver to muscle signal intensity ratio (L/M ratio) on spin-echo T1-weighted images in this role. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine homozygous β -thalassaemics had their L/M ratio measured on MRI, followed by ultrasound-guided liver biopsies with histological grading of iron storage and biochemical quantification of liver iron concentration (LIC-b) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: A significant difference in L/M ratios between the four grades of iron storage on histology was observed (P 15 mg/g. A L/M ratio of > 0.8 predicts a histological iron storage grading of 0 or 1 with a 100% sensitivity and 74% specificity. CONCLUSION: L/M ratio on MRI is of value as a non-invasive alternative to repeated liver biopsies for estimating liver iron content at clinically important thresholds. Chan, Y.L. et al. (2001)

  19. Effect of Root Kudzu on Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Abas Rashidi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes, characterized by high blood glucose levels, is a serious chronic disease and antioxidant play an important role in the pathophysiology, complications, and management of the disease. Kudzu root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a long history of use for the treatment of headaches, cough, edema and extracts are a rich source of isoflavones and antioxidants property. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the kudzu root on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=32 including: Control, diabetic, diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg kudzu root extract, and diabetic rats treated with 50mg/kg kudzu root extract. Diabetes was induced by STZ intraperitoneally administration (50 mg/kg and kudzu root extract was gavaged at the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg for five weeks. Blood biochemical factors and insulin serum levels were also assessed. Results: The results show that in STZ induced diabetic rats, the serum levels of FBS, total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG increased whiles the levels of HDL and Insulin were decreased. Moreover in diabetic kudzu treatment groups, the serum levels of of FBS, total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride(TG decreased (P≤0.001 whiles the serum level of HDL and Insulin were increased. Conclusion: In addition the antioxidant effects, Kudzu root extract produced a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  20. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

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    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  1. Effect of methanol extract ofSynsepalum dulciifcum pulp on some biochemical parameters in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nkwocha Chinelo; Njoku Obioma Uzoma

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract ofSynsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage) with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group), 100 mg/kg (Group 2), 200 mg/kg (Group 3) and 500 mg/kg (Group 4) body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, the 100 mg/kg doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced serum levels of bilirubin, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and glucose after 14 d compared with those after 28 d. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the malondialdehyde and serum protein concentration in Group 4 while glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group 1 and Group 4 after 14 d compared with 28 d. The high density lipoprotein significantly increased (P<0.05) in Group 3. Conclusions: The fruit has no negative effect on some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

  2. Histological and biochemical alterations in early-stage lobar ischemia-reperfusion in rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Ali Arab; Farhang Sasani; Mohammad Hossein Rafiee; Ahmad Fatemi; Abbas Javaheri

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the structural and biochemical changes in the early stage of reperfusion in the rat livers exposed to lobar ischemia-reperfusion (IR).METHODS: The median and left lobes of the liver were subjected to 60 min ischemia followed by 5, 10,30, 45, 60 and 120 min reperfusion. Blood samples were taken at different time intervals to test enzyme activities and biochemical alterations induced by reperfusion. At the end of each reperfusion period, the animals were killed by euthanasia and tissue samples were taken for histological examination and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Cell vacuolation, bleb formation and focal hepatitis were the most important changes occur during ischemia. While some changes including bleb formation were removed during reperfusion, other alterations including portal hepatitis, inflammation and the induction of apoptosis were seen during this stage. The occurrence of apoptosis, as demonstrated by apoptot i c cel l s and bodies , was the mos t important histological change during reperfusion. The severity of apoptosis was dependent on the time of reperfusion, and by increasing the time of reperfusion,the numbers of apoptotic bodies was significantly enhanced. The amounts of lactate dehydrogenase,alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase,creatinine and urea were significantly increased in serum obtained from animals exposed to hepatic IR.

  3. Influence of Fasciola Hepatica on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Vascular and Biliary System of Sheep Liver

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    A Hodžić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional capacity of the liver based on the activity of specific enzymes and bilirubin in serum and also to investigate the influence of mechanical and toxic effects of Fasciola hepatica on the structures of the blood vessels and biliary tract in the sheep liver.Methods: Blood samples and liver of 63 indigenous sheep of Pramenka breed, slaughtered in the period from March to December 2009 were used. Based on parasitological findings in the liver, all animals were divided into two groups: control (n=34 and infected group (n=29. For investigation and description of pathological changes in sheep liver, naturally infected with F. hepatica, corrosion cast technique was used.Results: Biochemical analysis of tested parameters showed a significant elevation (P≤0.05 of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBIL and direct bilirubin (DBIL in infected sheep group comparing with the control group. No significant differences were observed for activity of aspartate aminotranferase (AST between groups. Vascular and biliary systems of the liver were found to be affected.Conclusion: Results of biochemical analysis are consistent with pathological findings and measuring of tested parameters could be used in early diagnosis of sheep fasciolosis and to test the effectiveness of anthelmintic therapy. Corrosion cast technique is very useful for investigation of pathological changes and neoangiogenesis of vascular and biliary system in sheep liver, caused by mechanical and toxic effects of F. hepatica.

  4. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results: The results showed marked normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect

  5. HPLC-MS/MS investigation of biochemical markers for the disclosure of erythropoietin abuse in sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appolonova, S. A.; Dikunets, M. A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The polypeptide hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is a forbidden doping drug, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The hypothesis about the influence of EPO on the asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-dimethylargininedime-thylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-NO-synthase system was verified. Changes in this system can serve as indirect biochemical markers of the presence of the forbidden EPO drug in the organism. In the test group, the concentrations of biochemical markers varied from 10 to 40 μg/ml for ADMA and symmetrical DMA (SDMA) and from 0.5 to 10 μg/ml for arginine and citrulline. A single intravenous administration of r-HuEPO (Epocrin, 2000 ME/day) for two volunteers reliably increased ADMA, SDMA, arginine, and citrulline concentrations to 40-270 μg/ml, 40-240μg/ml, 10-60 μg/ml, and 12-140 μg/ml, respectively, with respect to the reference values. The simultaneous increase in arginine, methylarginines, and citrulline contents could be an indirect marker of EPO abuse. The method is recommended for fast screening analysis.

  6. Observed Changes in Some Biochemical Parameters After Magnetic Field Exposure to 1,5 Tesla

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    Turan Akdağ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In daily life, individuals are exposed to electromagnetic contamination at different levels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a radiodiagnostic imaging technique using non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation. Considering possible adverse effects of magnetic fields may occur at long time, complications are difficult to determined earlier. Therefore, the effects of MRI on some biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after MRI.Material and Method: In the present study, applying for MRI and with no systemic disorders, total 40 volunteers between the ages of 25-45 were enrolled. Blood samples were investigated before and after MRI, and subjects were exposed to magnetic field of 1.5 T for 30 min. Blood samples were soon centrifuged and studied in terms of the levels of serum Ca, Fe, Fe binding, triglyceride, cholesterol, TT3, TT4, free T3, free T4, TSH, ferritin, insulin, lipase, HDL, LDL and glucose. Results: In the study, levels of Ca, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, TT3, Fe, Fe binding, lipase, TSH and insulin after MRI were found to be lower than those before the procedure. This changs was observed to be statistically significant(P<0.05, and the difference related to levels of LDL, glukoz, ferritin, Free T3, Free T and TT4 were found to be statistically insignificant. Discussion: It was concluded that some biochemical parameters ocur after MRI, and further studies are needed to evaluate longterm consequences and biological effects and whether the changes are temporary.

  7. Synthesizing Configurable Biochemical Implementation of Linear Systems from Their Transfer Function Specifications.

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    Tai-Yin Chiu

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow.

  8. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D2EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  9. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy; Hossam Ali Gadalla; Fatma Mostafa Abd El-Hamied

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (C. gariepinus) experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L) for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results:neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect.

  10. Microbial Succession And Biochemical Aspects Of Mandai Fermentation At Low Salt Concentration.

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    Hasrul Satria Nur

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandai isfermented food that traditionally made from the flesh of jack fruit (Arthocarphus champeden Spreg.. Usually mandai ismade as high salt concentration. However, the objective of this research is to study the succession and biochemicalaspects of microbials during fermentation at low salt concentration (10% w/v for 14 days. During the period offermentation microbial cell numbers and biochemical aspects were observed at the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th day. Total cellnumber of bacteria and yeast were measured by pour plate method. The measurement was also conducted on fleshbefore incubation. The biochemical aspect observation included the contents of reducing sugar, N-total, salt, and pH.The research results indicated that the pattern of microbial succession occurred the fermentation. Yeast cells grewdominantly (2.8 x 109 CFU/g on the 5th day fermentation but bacteria were dominant at the end (1.1 x 107 CFU/g. Thehighest decrease of reducing sugar and N-total contents were 0.240% at the 14th day and 0.159% at the 5th day,respectively. However, salt concentration was relatively stable and pH was varied within the range of 3.71-6.12 for thewhole period fermentation.

  11. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

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    Essam A. Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1 and the other fifteen (Group 2 were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1. The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis. Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1 became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs.

  12. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Steen Jensen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers in patients with MCI or dementia. Results: A total of eight studies were identified (n= 447 patients evaluating exercise regimes with variable duration (single session - 3 sessions pr week for 26 weeks and intensity (light resistance training – high intensity aerobic exercise. Various biomarkers were measured before and after intervention. Seven of the eight studies found a significant effect on their selected biomarkers with a positive effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiadrosterone and insulin in the intervention groups compared with controls.Conclusion: Although few studies suggest a beneficial effect on selected biomarkers, we need more knowledge of the biochemical effect of physical exercise in dementia or MCI.

  13. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P diversity, after the first fermentation and in mature sourdoughs. Regardless of the type of ingredient used, OTU belonging to the genus Lactobacillus represented more than 95% of the total Firmicutes in mature sourdoughs. Some metabolic capacities of microbial community of the mature sourdoughs were linked to the additional ingredient. Based on culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated in all the sourdoughs. However, the sourdoughs showed different strains of these two species. Other lactic acid bacterium species were associated to baker's yeast, grape must and macerated pears. The different microbial composition was correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives). PMID:27554152

  14. Recent Progress of Thioester Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction The availability of site-specifically modified peptides is of vitalimportance for biochemical and biophysical studies. Biological methods, such as expression using bacteria, are useful. They are, however, not always applicable to the synthesis of peptides with sitespecific modifications. Chemical methods can be viable alternatives to those biological approaches.

  15. Biochemical Models for S-Rnase-Based Self-Incompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Hua; Allison Fields; Teh-hui Kao

    2008-01-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically determined self/non-self-recognition process employed by many flowering plant species to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrosses.For the Plantaginaceae,Rosa-ceae and Solanaceae,it is now known that S-RNase and S-Iocu F-box(two multiple allelic genes at the S-locus)determine the female and male specificity,respectively,during SI interactions.However,how allelic products of these two genes interact inside pollen tubes to result in specific growth inhibition of self-pollen tubes remains to be investigated.Here,we review all the previously proposed biochemical models and discuss whether their predictions are consistent with all SI phenomena,including competitive jnteraction where SI breaks down in pollen that carries two different pollen 5-alleles.We also discuss these models in Iight of the recent findings of compartmentalization of S-RNases in both incompatible and compatible pollen tubes.Lastly,we summarize the results from our recent biochemical studies of PiSLF(Petunia inflata SLF)and S-RNase.and present a new model for the biochemical mechanism of SI in the Solanaceae.The tenet of this model is that a PiSLF preferentially interacts with its non-self S-RNases in the cytoplasm of a pollen tube to result in the assembly of an E3-like complex,which then mediates ubiquitination and degradation of non-self S-RNases through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway.This model can explain all SI phenomena and,at the same time,has raised new questions for further study.

  16. Hematologic and Biochemical Biologic Variation in Laboratory Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumel, Catherine; Monzali, Céline; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier V; Hourqueig, Louise; Braun, Jean-Pierre D; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie H

    2016-01-01

    The biologic variation associated with a clinical pathology result is important to consider before reference intervals (RI) are used. Most available RI are population-based RI, in which the analytical variability, interindividual variability, and intraindividual variability are confounded. In addition, when the intraindividual variability is considerably less than the interindividual variability, a population-based RI is insufficiently sensitive to detect changes in a subject over time. Here we determined the biologic variation and reference change value (RCV) of hematologic and biochemical variables in laboratory cats. Blood specimens from 14 (7 females and 7 males) overnight-fasted laboratory cats sampled 7 times (days 1, 2, 7, 14, 31, 42, and 100) were analyzed regarding hematology and biochemistry variables. For each variable, analytical, intraindividual, and interindividual coefficients of variation were estimated prior to calculation of the index of individuality and the RCV. RBC variables (count, Hgb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and RBC distribution width) and 5 biochemical analytes (cholesterol, creatinine, triglycerides, ALP, and calcium) exhibited marked individuality, therefore indicating that subject-based reference intervals or RCV would be preferable when monitoring these variables in laboratory cats. Population-based RI were shown to be adequate for glucose and sodium, and both types of population and individual RI were similarly efficient for albumin, total protein, urea, ALT, AST, creatine kinase, chloride, carbon dioxide, iron, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, and potassium and reticulocyte, WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and platelet counts. The RCV determined in the present study provide a valuable tool for monitoring hematologic and biochemical variables in healthy laboratory cats. PMID:27657703

  17. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepelev Leonid L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology

  18. Biochemical screening for inherited metabolic disorders in the mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, H E; Goodman, R; Schram, J; Diamond, E; Daneel, A

    1981-11-01

    A biochemical screening programme for the detection of inherited metabolic disease was carried out on urine and blood samples from inmates of the Alexandra Institute for the mentally retarded, Cape Town. Of the 1087 patients screened, positive results for phenylketonuria were obtained in 3, for cystinuria in 2 and for Hartnup disease in 1. The overall frequency of metabolic disorders was 0,6%. It is evident that genetic metabolic disease as detected by current screening procedures makes only a small contribution to the overall burden of mental retardation. PMID:6795726

  19. Biochemical and electrophysiological characteristics of mammalian GABA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enna, S J; Gallagher, J P

    1983-01-01

    The concept that GABA is a neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS is supported by both electrophysiological and biochemical data. Whereas the electrophysiological studies are essential for demonstrating a specific functional response to GABA, the biochemical approach is useful for characterizing the molecular properties of this site. As a result of these studies the concept of the GABA receptor has progressed from a simple model of a single recognition site associated with a chloride channel to a more complex structure having a variety of interacting components. Thus, both electrophysiological and biochemical data support the existence of at least two pharmacologically distinct types of GABA receptors, based on the sensitivity to bicuculline. Also, anatomically, there appear to be two different types of receptors, those located postsynaptically on the soma or dendrites of a neighboring cell and those found presynaptically on GABAergic and other neurotransmitter terminals. From biochemical studies it appears that the GABA receptor may be composed of at least three distinct interacting components. One of these, the recognition site, may exist in two conformations, with one preferring agonists and the other having a higher affinity for antagonists. Ion channels may be considered a second component, with some of these regulating the passage of chloride ion, whereas others may be associated with calcium transport. The third major element of GABA receptors appears to be a benzodiazepine recognition site, although only a certain population of GABA receptors may be endowed with this property. In addition to these, the GABA receptor complex appears to contain substances that modulate the recognition site by influencing the availability of higher affinity binding proteins. It would appear therefore that changes affecting any one of these constituents can influence the characteristics of the others. While increasing the complexity of the system, this arrangement makes for a

  20. Biochemical, Physiological and Morphological Responses of Sugar Beet to Salinization

    OpenAIRE

    Eisa, Sayed S.; Ali, Safwat H.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of sugar beet grown on sandy soil under three levels of NaCl salinity in irrigation water, i.e. control, 3000 & 6000 ppm was studied in pot experiment. Results showed that root fresh weight linearly decreased by increasing NaCl salinity levels up to 6000 ppm, but sucrose percentage in root was significantly increased. On the other hand, increasing NaCl levels resulted in significant increase of Na content in both of shoot and root Meanwhi...

  1. Serological and biochemical identification of hybrid Ia antigens

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Ia specificities 22 and 23 were found to be determinants on hybrid Ia molecules by serological and biochemical studies. Lipopolysaccharide- stimulated splenic lymphocytes from (B10 X B10.D2)F1 expressed Ia.22 although both the parents were negative. Similarly [D2.GD X B10.A(5R)]F1 cells expressed Ia.23, whereas D2.GD and B10.A(5R) lacked it. Ia.22 can be generated by gene complementation of Ak-Ek, Ab-Ed, Ab- Ek, As-Ed, and As-Ek, whereas Ia.23 can be generated by Ad-Ed, Ad-Ek, and Ad-Ep. Othe...

  2. An efficient algorithm for computing fixed length attractors based on bounded model checking in synchronous Boolean networks with biochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Yang, G W; Zheng, D S; Guo, W S; Hung, W N N

    2015-01-01

    Genetic regulatory networks are the key to understanding biochemical systems. One condition of the genetic regulatory network under different living environments can be modeled as a synchronous Boolean network. The attractors of these Boolean networks will help biologists to identify determinant and stable factors. Existing methods identify attractors based on a random initial state or the entire state simultaneously. They cannot identify the fixed length attractors directly. The complexity of including time increases exponentially with respect to the attractor number and length of attractors. This study used the bounded model checking to quickly locate fixed length attractors. Based on the SAT solver, we propose a new algorithm for efficiently computing the fixed length attractors, which is more suitable for large Boolean networks and numerous attractors' networks. After comparison using the tool BooleNet, empirical experiments involving biochemical systems demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our approach.

  3. Brain delivery of intranasal in situ gel of nanoparticulated polymeric carriers containing antidepressant drug: behavioral and biochemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Garg, Tarun; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar; Prakash, Atish; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed for brain delivery of Tramadol HCl (centrally acting synthetic opioid) following intranasal administration for treatment of depression. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation method followed by the addition of developed NPs with in the Pluronic and HPMC-based mucoadhesive thermo-reversible gel. Developed formulation optimized based on the various parameters such as particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release study. Depression induction was done by forced swim test and evaluated by various behavioral and biochemical parameters. Furthermore, results showed significantly increased in locomotors activity, body weight as compared to control group. It also showed alteration in biochemical parameters such glutathione level and catalase levels significantly increased other than lipid peroxidation and nitrite level was found to be decreased after intranasal administration of formulation. Thus, intranasal TRM HCl NP-loaded in situ gel was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of depression.

  4. Diagnosing and quantification of acute alcohol intoxication. Comparison of dual-energy CT with biochemical analysis. Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, H. [Frankfurt Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Abbas Raschidi, B.; Keese, D.; Kromen, W.; Bauer, R.W.; Vogl, T.J. [Frankfurt Univ. Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Namgaladze, D. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To quantify the correlation between fat content of an acute alcohol intoxication and the difference of computer tomography attenuation value in dual-energy CT in comparison to biochemical triglyceride analysis and to evaluate qualitatively the value of DECT in the diagnosis of fatty liver caused by ethanol-dosage in rats. Materials and Methods: DECT at 140 kV and 80 kV was performed on 20 rats before and two days after the administration of 3 ml of 50 % ethanol. The CT attenuation value in the livers at 140 kV, 80 kV and the differences between them in Hounsfield units ({Delta}H) were collected. Parts of the liver (100 mg) were measured in biochemical triglyceride analysis as the reference standard. A blood sample was also taken to measure specific liver enzymes. Results: Linear correlation between biochemical triglyceride analysis and CT density of {Delta}H was found (r = 0.949). 140 kV attenuation data were between 44 HU and 61.3 HU, 80 kV attenuation data were between 58.4 HU and 64.7 HU, and {Delta}H data were between 3.4 HU and 14.4 HU (p {<=} 0.037). The biochemical triglyceride analysis data were between 7.1 mg/g and 41.1 mg/g. The hepatic enzymes serum aspartate (ASAT) aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were elevated in all rats. ASAT correlated directly with {Delta}HU (r = -0.86). Conclusion: DECT provides a non-invasive method to determine and evaluate hepatic fat content after acute alcohol intoxication. It provides the possibility to detect and quantify the hepatic fat content of liver graft. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Topical Tetracycline Gel with Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Hba1c and Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Clinico- Biochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haerian-Ardakani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate the Effect of topical tetracycline gel application with non surgical periodontal therapy on HbA1c and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 30 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received scaling and root planning, whereas the second group received scaling and root planning with topically applied tetracycline gel. Clinical factors such as GI, PI, PPD and biochemical factors such as HbA1c and lipid profile were assessed in beginning of study and 3 months later. Results: Comparing the clinical factors between the two groups revealed that periodontal pocket depth significantly reduced in tetracycline-received group. Regarding the biochemical factors, triglyceride levels decreased significantly in tetracycline-received group. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in regard with other clinical and biochemical factors. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that clinical and biochemical parameters have been improved after non surgical periodontal treatment in both groups. Although it seems that application of topical tetracycline gel combined with non-surgical periodontal therapy is effective in improvement of some clinical and biochemical factors like PPD and TG, it doesn’t offer any superiority in regard with other factors compared to mere non surgical periodontal therapy.

  6. Effect of Maillard reaction on biochemical properties of peanut 7S globulin (Ara h 1) and its interaction with a human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, M.; Fiedorowicz, E.; Kostyra, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Kostyra, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Maillard reaction (MR, glycation) on biochemical and biological properties of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1. Methods Three different time/temperature conditions of treatment were applied (37, 60, and 145 °C). The extent of MR wa

  7. Discriminating between rival biochemical network models: three approaches to optimal experiment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Elias

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of molecular systems biology hinges on the ability to use computational models to design predictive experiments, and ultimately unravel underlying biological mechanisms. A problem commonly encountered in the computational modelling of biological networks is that alternative, structurally different models of similar complexity fit a set of experimental data equally well. In this case, more than one molecular mechanism can explain available data. In order to rule out the incorrect mechanisms, one needs to invalidate incorrect models. At this point, new experiments maximizing the difference between the measured values of alternative models should be proposed and conducted. Such experiments should be optimally designed to produce data that are most likely to invalidate incorrect model structures. Results In this paper we develop methodologies for the optimal design of experiments with the aim of discriminating between different mathematical models of the same biological system. The first approach determines the 'best' initial condition that maximizes the L2 (energy distance between the outputs of the rival models. In the second approach, we maximize the L2-distance of the outputs by designing the optimal external stimulus (input profile of unit L2-norm. Our third method uses optimized structural changes (corresponding, for example, to parameter value changes reflecting gene knock-outs to achieve the same goal. The numerical implementation of each method is considered in an example, signal processing in starving Dictyostelium amœbæ. Conclusions Model-based design of experiments improves both the reliability and the efficiency of biochemical network model discrimination. This opens the way to model invalidation, which can be used to perfect our understanding of biochemical networks. Our general problem formulation together with the three proposed experiment design methods give the practitioner new tools for a systems

  8. CORD SERUM FERRITIN AS BIOCHEMICAL MARKER IN IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is by far the most frequent type of anemia seen in pregnancy, accounting for 90% or more of all cases. Iron deficiency anemia has adverse consequences on infant development. Therefore maternal anemia should be prevented and treated. Serum ferritin is the single best non-invasive test and is a very useful and reliable index of iron stores especially during pregnancy, with low levels indicating iron deficiency. While infants born to anemic mother are themselves not anemic, they do not suffer from low iron stores. The main aim of the study is to establish cord serum ferritin as a biochemical marker in iron deficiency anemia. The specific objectives of this study is to estimate cord and maternal serum ferritin in the last trimester of pregnancy and to correlate it with hematological parameters. Cord serum ferritin levels were normal in the patients under study, even when the maternal serum ferritin levels were decreased. The mean level of cord serum ferritin was 134.06ng/ml and maternal serum ferritin was 41.65ng/ml and was statistically significant. The hematological parameters like hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and MCHC were also decreased in the patients with low serum ferritin and were found to be statistically significant. Hence estimation of cord serum ferritin can be used as a biochemical marker to assess iron deficiency in the early stages itself and thereby neurodevelopmental complications in children can be prevented.

  9. Metabolic and biochemical changes caused by gamma irradiation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications involving radioisotopes and radiations reveal a great promise particularly for the welfare of the society. However, in the event of a nuclear accident, the direct and indirect effect of radionuclide and radiation transfers in soil-plant-air environment are envisaged on almost all the components of the food chain. It also assumes significance as we often overlook the fact that radiations, emitted by any radioisotope although cannot be seen or felt, interacts with matter and could alter its biochemical, biophysical and biological characteristics. The interaction of ionizing radiation with human body and consequent biological effects are well characterized and quantified using data derived from the radiation workers and/or the nuclear accidents around the world. However, radiation impact on agriculture viz a viz economic productivity are not well understood and available data is scanty, scattered and inconclusive. At the plant level the effects could be visualized at morphological, biochemical, physiological and/or biophysical levels, where the magnitude of the effected change depends heavily on the exposure dose, soil, farm management and other environmental variables. This review attempts to collate and critically analyze the available researches on how the ionizing radiation might interact with crops at the whole plant or tissue or cell level to affect economic yield under various edaphic variables where not only the productivity but also the quality of the agri-produce may become vulnerable. (author)

  10. Impact of flow velocity on biochemical processes - a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, A.; Roubinet, D.; Aquilina, L.; Bour, O.; Davy, P.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding and predicting hydraulic and chemical properties of natural environments are current crucial challenges. It requires considering hydraulic, chemical and biological processes and evaluating how hydrodynamic properties impact on biochemical reactions. In this context, an original laboratory experiment to study the impact of flow velocity on biochemical reactions along a one-dimensional flow streamline has been developed. Based on the example of nitrate reduction, nitrate-rich water passes through plastic tubes at several flow velocities (from 6.2 to 35 mm min-1), while nitrate concentration at the tube outlet is monitored for more than 500 h. This experimental setup allows assessing the biologically controlled reaction between a mobile electron acceptor (nitrate) and an electron donor (carbon) coming from an immobile phase (tube) that produces carbon during its degradation by microorganisms. It results in observing a dynamic of the nitrate transformation associated with biofilm development which is flow-velocity dependent. It is proposed that the main behaviors of the reaction rates are related to phases of biofilm development through a simple analytical model including assimilation. Experiment results and their interpretation demonstrate a significant impact of flow velocity on reaction performance and stability and highlight the relevance of dynamic experiments over static experiments for understanding biogeochemical processes.

  11. Coarse-graining stochastic biochemical networks: adiabaticity and fast simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.

  12. Transient amplification limits noise suppression in biochemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John; Lindemann, Anika; McCoy, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    Cell physiology is orchestrated, on a molecular level, through complex networks of biochemical reactions. The propagation of random fluctuations through these networks can significantly impact cell behavior, raising challenging questions about how network design shapes the cell's ability to suppress or exploit these fluctuations. Here, drawing on insights from statistical physics, fluid dynamics, and systems biology, we explore how transient amplification phenomena arising from network connectivity naturally limit a biochemical system's ability to suppress small fluctuations around steady-state behaviors. We find that even a simple system consisting of two variables linked by a single interaction is capable of amplifying small fluctuations orders of magnitude beyond the levels predicted by linear stability theory. We also find that adding additional interactions can promote further amplification, even when these interactions implement classic design strategies known to suppress fluctuations. These results establish that transient amplification is an essential factor determining baseline noise levels in stable intracellular networks. Significantly, our analysis is not bound to specific systems or interaction mechanisms: we find that noise amplification is an emergent phenomenon found near steady states in any network containing sufficiently strong interactions, regardless of its form or function.

  13. Hepatic histological alterations and biochemical changes induced by sildenafil overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Bashir Mahmoud; Almansour, Mansour Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Sildenafil is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and is helping millions of men around the world to achieve and maintain a long lasting erection. Fifty healthy male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the present study and exposed daily to sildenafil (0, 1, 3, 6, 9 mg/kg) for 5 days per week for 7 weeks to investigate the biochemical changes and alterations in the hepatic tissues induced by this drug overdosing. In comparison with respective control rabbits, sildenafil overdoses elevated significantly (p-value<0.05, ANOVA test) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone and total protein, while creatinine and urea were lowered with no significant alteration was observed in uric acid and luteinizing hormone concentration. Also sildenafil provoked hepatocytes nuclear alterations, necrosis, hydropic degeneration, bile duct hyperplasia, Kupffer cells hyperplasia, inflammatory cells infiltration, hepatic vessels congestion and evident partial depletion of glycogen content. The results show that subchronic exposure to sildenafil overdoses exhibits significant biochemical and alterations in the hepatic tissues that might affect the functions of the liver and other vital organs. PMID:26639481

  14. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  15. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  16. Biochemical analysis of the crude extract of Momordica charantia (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Ume Kalsoom; Owais, Farah; Ahmad, Manzoor; Rizwani, Ghazala H

    2014-11-01

    Momordica charantia (L.) commonly referred as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. The study was conducted to find out the biochemical aspects of crude extract of whole fruit of M. charantia including seeds which includes blood test (Hemoglobin, RBC, Total leukocyte count, platelets count, HbA1C (Glycocylated heamoglobin Type A1C)), Lipid profile test and electrolyte balance. Hemoglobin (7.1±0.14), platelets count (827 ×109±1.95), Cholesterol level (111±2), HDL (high density lipoproteins) (20±1.22) at 10mg shows marked increase in values as compared to control. While 25 mg dose shows insignificant result. Electrolyte balance are found significant at 10mg and 25mg except bicarbonates (Na(+¬)=143±1.87, K-=3.45±0.35, Cl(-) =108±1.48). Another important property of M. charantia is the elevation of platelet counts, heamoglobin and specifically high-density lipoproteins (HDL). It also controls cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL at low dosage (10mg). Further studies can be conducted to find out which phytochemical components acts on specific biochemical activity. PMID:26045386

  17. Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bel, Golan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce specific complex structures from a large set of similar biochemical building blocks, many biochemical systems require high sensitivity to small molecular differences. The first and most common mqdel used to explain this high specificity is kinetic proofreading, which has been extended to a variety of systems from detection of DNA mismatch to cell signaling processes. While the specification properties of the kinetic proofreading model are well known and were studied in various contexts, very little is known about its temporal behavior. In this work, we study the dynamical properties of discrete stochastic two-branch kinetic proofreading schemes. Using the Laplace transform of the corresponding chemical master equation, we obtain an analytical solution for the completion time distribution. In particular we provide expressions for the specificity and the mean and the variance of the process completion times. We also show that, for a wide range of parameters a process distinguishing between two different products can be reduced to a much simpler three point process. Our results allow for the systematic study of the interplay between specificity and completion times as well as testing the validity of the kinetic proofreading model in biological systems.

  18. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) at a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Clinical and laboratory profile and outcome of children less than 15 years of age attending the Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of the Aga Khan University, Karachi with the diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis according to International League against Rheumatism were studied. These children were classified into different types of JIA; their clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to therapy and outcome was evaluated. Results: Sixty eight patients satisfying the criteria of International League against Rheumatism (ILAR) for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis were enrolled during the study period of four consecutive years, their age ranged from 9 months to 15 years. Mean age at onset was 6.45 +- 4.03 years while mean age at diagnosis was 7.60 +- 3.93 years. Polyarticular was the most predominant subtype with 37 (54%) patients, out of these, 9 (24%) were rheumatoid factor positive. An almost equal gender predisposition was observed. Fever and arthritis were the most common presenting symptoms, with only 2 patients presenting with uveitis. Conclusion: The clinico-biochemical characteristics of JIA at the study centre showed a pattern distinct with early onset of disease, high frequency of polyarticular type and a higher rheumatoid factor (QRA) and ANA positivity in girls. (author)

  19. Influence of lignin on biochemical methane potential of biomass for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, J M; Sommer, S G; Møller, H B;

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of biomass is of great importance in assessing biodegradability as well as predicting biogas yield for biogas production. Since the current BMP determination methods are costly and time-consuming, innovative techniques for predicting BMP are needed. The objective...... of this study was to examine the influence of fibrous fractions of biomass on BMP to develop an economical and easy-to-use predicting model of BMP, and hence the biodegradability of organic materials for biogas production. The model was developed either for energy crops or for animal manures, or as a...... combined model for these two biomass groups. Validation of the combined model was carried out using datasets from the literature. This study showed that lignin was not degraded during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, lignin concentration in organic materials was the strongest predictor of BMP for all the...

  20. Biochemical and Immunological Studies on Eight Pollen Types from South Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 65 pollen types were identified from two years atmospheric pollen survey in the environmental conditions of South Assam. Out of them, eight pollen types viz., Acacia auriculiformis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cassia alata, Cleome gynandra, Cocos nucifera, Imperata cylindrica, Ricinus communis and Trewia nudiflora, were selected for biochemical studies on the basis of their dominance in the study sites. Among the sample extract tested, Ricinus communis was found to contain the highest amount of soluble protein, free amino acid and total carbohydrate, per gram of dry weight followed by Imperata cylindrica and Cassia alata. Maximum numbers of protein polypeptide bands were detected in the sample extract of Cassia alata by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method followed by Acacia auriculiformis, Imperata cylindrica and Cocos nucifera. IgE binding protein fractions were maximum in Cassia alata and minimum in Trewia nudiflora.

  1. Influence of headspace pressure on methane production in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, David; Montes, Jesús A; Rico, José Luis; Rico, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The biochemical methane potential test is the most commonly applied method to determine methane production from organic wastes. One of the parameters measured is the volume of biogas produced which can be determined manometrically by keeping the volume constant and measuring increases in pressure. In the present study, the effect of pressure accumulation in the headspace of the reactors has been studied. Triplicate batch trials employing cocoa shell, waste coffee grounds and dairy manure as substrates have been performed under two headspace pressure conditions. The results obtained in the study showed that headspace overpressures higher than 600mbar affected methane production for waste coffee grounds. On the contrary, headspace overpressures within a range of 600-1000mbar did not affect methane production for cocoa shell and dairy manure. With the analyses performed in the present work it has not been possible to determine the reasons for the lower methane yield value obtained for the waste coffee grounds under high headspace pressures.

  2. Determining the functional significance of mismatch repair gene missense variants using biochemical and cellular assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinen, Christopher D; Juel Rasmussen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    provided an important experimental tool for studying the functional consequences of VUS. However, beyond this repair assay, a number of other experimental methods have been developed that allow us to test the effect of a VUS on discrete biochemical steps or other aspects of MMR function. Here, we describe......ABSTRACT: With the discovery that the hereditary cancer susceptibility disease Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by deleterious germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes nearly 20 years ago, genetic testing can now be used to diagnose this disorder in patients. A definitive diagnosis of...... LS can direct how clinicians manage the disease as well as prevent future cancers for the patient and their families. A challenge emerges, however, when a germline missense variant is identified in a MMR gene in a suspected LS patient. The significance of a single amino acid change in these large...

  3. Biochemical Alterations in Semen of Varicocele Patients: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a mechanism underlying different kinds of infertility in human males. However, different results can be observed in relation to the method used for its evaluation. Varicocele patients show a number of biochemical abnormalities, including an altered distribution of coenzyme Q between seminal plasma and sperm cells and also an apparent defect in the utilization of antioxidants. Moreover, an influence of systemic hormones on seminal antioxidant system was observed too. Finally, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidativestress indexes and the possible usefulness of some medical therapies, like coenzyme Q supplementation, are discussed. In conclusion, published data show a role of oxidative stress in varicocele-related male infertility, but at present we do not know the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena.

  4. Study of Some Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Fry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Rauoof CHALKOO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to investigate of some hematological and biochemical factors of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fry in Kashmir. About 50 pools of blood samples from diseased fry were collected within 30 months from November 2008 till March 2011 from three hatchery farms. In addition 30 pools of blood samples as control group were collected randomly from same farms. Each blood samples were examined for whole blood examination and blood enzymes measurement. It consist of total leukocytes (WBC and erythrocytes counts (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb content, hematocrits (PCV, leukocytes differential count and blood indices such as MCV, MCH and MCHC. Also blood serums were analysed for total protein (TP and blood enzymes. All the calculations were made using the SPSS© and t-test statistical method. In hematological findings nine parameters were revealed significant differences (P

  5. THE STUDY OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bularda Morozan Mihai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of some biochemical parameters obtained in the laboratory of “Elena Beldiman” Emergency Hospital Barlad, and in the”Dr. Stoian –Dr. Ungureanu”Private Medical Practice on 10 patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma during 2005-2011. Numerous researches over serum proteins with the help of various methods ( refractometry have shown the presence of some changes in protein fractions of blood serum. These changes express the change of the normal ratio between these fractions, that means disorders in colloidal structure of blood. The results of the electrophoresis analysis, also in accordance with those from the scholarly literature, show that the changes in the condition of the blood serum are due to the increase in the globulins fractions which is linked to the growth of the immunological processes, the antibodies synthesis being especially closely linked to gammaglobulinic fraction

  6. Biochemical characterisation of lipase from a new strain of Bacillus sp. ITP-001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murillo P. Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are characterised mainly by catalytic versatility and application in different industrial segments. The aim of this study was to biochemically characterise a lipase from a new strain of Bacillus sp. ITP-001. The isoelectric point and molecular mass were 3.12 and 54 kDa, respectively. The optima lipase activity was 276 U g-1 at pH 7.0 and a temperature of 80 ºC, showing greater stability at pH 5.0 and 37 ºC. Enzymatic activity was stimulated by various ions and pyridine, and inhibited by Cu+ and ethanol. The values of Km and v max were 105.26 mmol and 0.116 mmol min-1 g-1, respectively determined by the Eadie-Scatchard method.

  7. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips using Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combin......Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves...... the biochemical application and consider that the biochip architecture is given. We model the architecture using a topology graph. We are interested in synthesizing an implementation, consisting of binding and scheduling of the biochemical operations onto the components of the architecture, such that the resource...

  8. Modeling of some biochemical mechanisms of development of manganese hypermicroelementosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Goncharenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the mechanisms of action of sub-toxic dose (LD50 of the manganese chloride on cell metabolism in rats’ organs and tissues under model conditions. A model of assessment of integral response of an organism to exogenous manganese at exposure levels close to the threshold that was realized as the repeated impact of sub-toxic doses. White Wistar rats aged 3 months were injected intramuscularly with MnCl2 with the metal concentration of 50 mg/kg for 8 days. Effect of exogenous manganese load on the content of macro- and microelements, such as Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Pb, was studied in liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, muscles and bones of experimental animals the use of C-115-M1 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Study of enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation products in serum and liver homogenates of experimental animals was conducted on a spectrophotometer Spekord UV/VIS. Hemolysis of red blood cells was determined by the Yacher method. Sorption capacity of the erythrocytes glycocalyx to alcian blue was determined by the Artsishevsky method. A study of the influence of Mn-load on the functional activity of energy metabolism was performed on a model system of rat liver mitochondria by the polarography. Intake of MnCl2 in a dose of LD50 generates weight loss of the rats by 44%, hemoglobin level decrease by 25%, and reduction of the transaminases activity by 40%. That indicates serious disorders in ions homeostasis and metabolic processes. MnCl2 load leads to a significant increase in the content of manganese in all tissues tested: the largest amount was found in the spleen (600% increase, liver (300% and muscles (240% as compared with the initial state. Apparently, these organs are depots of manganese. It was established that the introduction of MnCl2 in a dose of LD50 causes a redistribution of elements in the body, resulting in a significant reduction in the concentration of magnesium ions in heart, bones

  9. Restless legs syndrome in patients on chronic hemodialysis in a Brazilian city: frequency, biochemical findings and comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffredo Filho Gilberto S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of restless legs syndrome (RLS in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF in Petrópolis, Brazil, and investigate associations between the syndrome and: demographic characteristics, biochemical variables and comorbidities. METHOD: A cross-sectional study in which we interviewed 176 patients on dialytic therapy based on criteria elaborated by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and compared data of patients with and without RLS. RESULTS: The frequency was 14.8 %. There were no significant differences between the two groups in demographic and biochemical variables investigated (iron, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone, hemoglobin, calcium, phosphate. We found no association between RLS and the most common comorbidities, except for chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN (OR = 3.84, p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: In the studied population RLS is a common disorder, and is not associated with the investigated biochemical abnormalities. A higher frequency of RLS in subjects with CGN is a finding that needs further investigation.

  10. Morpho-Physiological and Biochemical Criteria of Acantha-moeba spp. Isolated from the Egyptian Aquatic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp., have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compro­mised individuals. In this study, morpho-physiological and biochemical characterization of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from the Egyptian aquatic environment were surveyed.Methods: some Acanthamoeba species were cultivated on non-nutrient agar. Isolated strains of Acantha­moeba were identification based on the morphology of trophic and cyst forms in addition to temperature and osmo-tolerance assays. Biochemical characterization of the isolated amoeba strains was performed using quantitative assay as well as qualitative determination of proteolytic activity in zymograph analysis.Results: Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba species were isolated from all of the examined water sources. Colorimetric assays showed protease activity in the heat-tolerant isolates of Acanthamoeba. All pathogenic isolates of Acanthamoeba exhibited higher protease activity than did the non-patho­genic ones. The zymographic protease assays showed various banding patterns for different strains of Acanthamoeba.Conclusio: The incidence and prevalence of the pathogenic Acanthamoeba species in the aquatic environment using parasitological and biochemical diagnostic tools will provide baseline data against which the risk factors associated with waterborne transmission can be identified.

  11. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis – is cytological grading significant? A correlation of grades with clinical, biochemical, ltrasonographic and radionuclide parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Radharaman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic, radionuclide and cytomorphological observations in Lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT, to define the cytological grading criteria on smears and correlation of grades with above parameters. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 76 patients attending the Fine needle aspiration cytology clinic of a tertiary care institute in North India. The various parameters like patients' clinical presentation, thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies, hormonal profiles, radionuclide thyroid scan and thyroid ultrasound were studied. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid gland and grading of thyroiditis was done on smears. The grades were correlated with above parameters and the correlation indices were evaluated statistically. Results Most of the patients were females (70, 92.11% who presented with a diffuse goiter (68, 89.47%. Hypothyroid features (56, 73.68% and elevated TSH (75, 98.68% were common, but radioiodide uptake was low or normal in majority of patients. Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody was elevated in 46/70 (65.71% patients. Cytomorphology in fine needle aspirates was diagnostic of lymphocytic thyroiditis in 75 (98.68% patients. Most of them had grade I/II disease by cytology. No correlation was observed between grades of cytomorphology and clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and radionuclide parameters. Conclusion Despite the availability of several tests for diagnosis of LT, FNAC remains the gold standard. The grades of thyroiditis at cytology however do not correlate with clinical, biochemical, radionuclide and ultrasonographic parameters.

  12. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; Dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents. PMID:26555850

  13. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Carla Cristiane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents.

  14. Effect of foot and mouth disease vaccination on seminal and biochemical profiles of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Perumal; K Khate; C Rajkhowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination on seminal and biochemical profiles of semen of mithun at pre and post vaccinated stage. Methods: The breeding bulls were maintained at Semen Collection Centre, National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland. A total of 160 ejaculates were collected from eight mithun bulls twice a week at about 4 weeks in pre vaccinated stage and 12 weeks post vaccinated stage to know the effect of vaccine stress on seminal and biochemical profiles of mithun semen. The vaccine was given at the end of 4th week of experimental period and semen was collected and evaluated upto the 16th weeks of experimental period. Results: It revealed that FMD vaccination affected the sperm functional and biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) upto 10th weeks of vaccination. But the animal recovered slowly in both physical health and spermiogram.Conclusions:The adverse effect of vaccination on seminal parameters suggest that the semen collection and preservation should be suspended till 10th weeks of vaccination to get normal fertility of sperm to avoid the failure of conception from artificial insemination using such semen in this precious species.

  15. Decoupling MSW settlement into mechanical and biochemical processes--modelling and validation on large-scale setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourc, J-P; Staub, M J; Conte, M

    2010-01-01

    Forecasting settlements of non-hazardous waste is essential to ensure the integrity and durability of landfill covers over time. Over a short time span, the survey of settlements may also contribute to the investigation of the biodegradation processes. This paper addresses secondary settlements of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), a heterogeneous and time-evolving material. An analysis of available experimental data from different pilots and the literature was conducted to quantify the influence of biodegradation on MSW secondary settlements. After making assumptions about the various features of the waste and their constitutive relationships, a one-dimensional biomechanical model to predict the secondary settlement has been developed. The determination of the total secondary settlement was obtained by the addition of two separate parts, the mechanical settlement, due to creep, and the biochemical settlement, due to the degradation of the organic matter. The latter has been evaluated based on the observed biogas production. Using the data from different recent large-scale experiments that provide a monitoring of biogas production, a method for predicting the biochemically-induced settlements is proposed and validated on these tests. The relative contributions of mechanical and biochemical settlements are also calculated and discussed as a function of waste pre-treatment and operation conditions (biological pre-treatment, shredding, leachate injection). Finally, settlement may be considered as a relevant indicator for the state of biodegradation. PMID:20381332

  16. Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles Modulates the Biochemicals Associated with Pain, Inflammation, and Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Ling Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP. However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D or five dosages (5D into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents. PMID:26555850

  18. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for plasma-free metanephrines in the biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma in adults is not ideal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of the study was to define the analytical and diagnostic performance of the Labor Diagnostica Nord (LDN) 2-Met plasma ELISA assay for fractionated plasma metanephrines in the biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma. Methods: The stated manufacturer\\'s performance characteristics were assessed. Clinical utility was evaluated against liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) using bias, sensitivity and specificity outcomes. Samples (n=73) were collected from patients in whom phaeochromocytoma had been excluded (n=60) based on low probability of disease, repeat negative testing for urinary fractionated catecholamines and metanephrines, lack of radiological and histological evidence of a tumour and from a group (n=13) in whom the tumour had been histologically confirmed. Blood collected into k(2)EDTA tubes was processed within 30 min. Separated plasma was aliquoted (x2) and frozen at -40 degrees C prior to analyses. One aliquot was analysed for plasma metanephrines using the LDN 2-Met ELISA and the other by LC-MS\\/MS. Results: The mean bias of -32% for normetanephrine (ELISA) when compared to the reference method (LC-MS\\/MS) makes under-diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma likely. The sensitivity of the assay (100%) was equal to the reference method, but specificity (88.3%) lower than the reference method (95%), making it less than optimum for the biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma. Conclusions: Plasma-free metanephrines as measured by Labor Diagnostica Nord (LDN) 2-Met ELISA do not display test characteristics that would support their introduction or continuation as part of a screening protocol for the biochemical detection of phaeochromocytoma unless the calibration problem identified is corrected and other more accurate and analytically specific methods remain unavailable.

  19. Biochemical Mechanisms Controlling Terminal Electron Transfer in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, R.; Liermann, L. J.; Brantley, S. L.; Tien, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of Geobacter sulfurreducens to use a variety of metals as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) for cellular respiration makes it attractive for use in bioremediation and implies its importance to mineral cycling in the environment. This study is aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanisms that allow Geobacter sulfurreducens to use soluble and insoluble iron and manganese forms as TEAs for cellular respiration and is the first of its kind to address the kinetics of manganese use as a TEA by G. sulfurreducens. First, G. sulfurreducens was conditioned to grow on various soluble and insoluble iron and manganese forms. G. sulfurreducens demonstrated enhanced growth rates when cultured using soluble TEAs compared with insoluble TEAs. However, the lower growth rate on insoluble iron compared with soluble iron was observed concomitantly with a 1-2 log lower cell density in stationary phase in insoluble iron cultures and a lower growth yield per electron donor used in log growth phase. Furthermore, the growth yield per electron was similar with both soluble and insoluble iron. These results suggest that the net amount of energy available for biomass production achieved from reducing insoluble iron is lower than with soluble iron, which may be due to a different biochemical mechanism catalyzing the electron transfer to TEA dependent upon the solubility of the TEA. One scenario consistent with this notion is that protein(s) in the outer membrane of G. sulfurreducens that transfers electrons to insoluble TEAs does so in a manner that uncouples electron flow from the proton pump in the cellular membrane, similar to what we have observed with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Both the growth rate and growth yield of G. sulfurreducens on insoluble manganese were higher than on insoluble iron, indicating that there is a difference in the flow of electrons to the TEA in these two situations. While the different redox potentials of these elements may affect these values

  20. Risk of prostate cancer and its correlation with different biochemical parameters in non diabetic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been hypothesized that men with long term diabetes have a lower risk of prostate cancer then non-diabetic men. Whether diabetes influences level of biomarkers such as prostate specific antigen (PSA, which is involved in the detection of prostate cancer is, unknown. In view of the aforementioned controversial literature, it was decided to evaluate this relation-ship in non-diabetic men. We evaluated the correlation between fasting glucose, prostate specific antigen and different biochemical lipid profile parameters with serum uric acid and serum creatinine in non-diabetic male between age group 40-61 years. Methods: Association between fasting serum glucose , different lipid parameters, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and prostate specific antigen in 83 non-diabetic males aged 40 to 61years were studied retrospectively. Glucose and lipid parameters and serum creatinine, serum uric acid were measured on fully automated analyser using standard reagent kits. Serum prostate specific antigen was measured by TOSOH-AIA-360, immunoassay method. Results: Correlations between different biochemical parameters were determined. Prostate specific antigen were negatively correlated with HDL (r= -0.22, p= 0.03 in age group 40-61 years. At the same fasting blood sugar were correlated positively(r= 0.34, p= 0.02 with prostate specific antigen in age group 51-60 years , but not in age group 40-50 years. Conclusion: We concluded that serum HDL (high density lipoprotein was negatively associated and FBS (fasting blood sugar was positively associated with risk of prostate cancer. We also suggest that in men of this age group a low HDL level should not be ignored while assessing prostate cancer risk especially if accompanied with an elevated FBS level even in the upper normal range. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 476-481

  1. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Digital Microfluidic Biochips with Operation Execution Time Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul

    2015-01-01

    approaches have been proposed for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. Researchers have assumed......Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets. Several...

  2. Signal detection, modularity and the correlation between extrinsic and intrinsic noise in biochemical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanase-Nicola, Sorin; Warren, Patrick B.; Wolde, Pieter Rein ten

    2005-01-01

    Understanding cell function requires an accurate description of how noise is transmitted through biochemical networks. We present an analytical result for the power spectrum of the output signal of a biochemical network that takes into account the correlations between the noise in the input signal (the extrinsic noise) and the noise in the reactions that constitute the network (the intrinsic noise). These correlations arise from the fact that the reactions by which biochemical signals are det...

  3. Application of a biochemical and clinical model to predict individual survival in patients with end-stage liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo Vilar Gomez; Luis Calzadilla Bertot; Bienvenido Gra Oramas; Enrique Arus Soler; Raimundo Llanio Navarro; Javier Diaz Elias; Oscar Villa Jiménez; Maria del Rosario Abreu Vazquez

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the capability of a biochemical and clinical model,BioCliM,in predicting the survival of cirrhotic patients.METHODS:We prospectively evaluated the survival of 172 cirrhotic patients.The model was constructed using clinical (ascites,encephalopathy and variceal bleeding) and biochemical (serum creatinine and serum total bilirubin) variables that were selected from a Cox proportional hazards model.It was applied to estimate 12-,52- and 104-wk survival.The model's calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was computed at 104 wk in a validation dataset.Finally,the model's validity was tested among an independent set of 85 patients who were stratified into 2 risk groups (low risk ≤8 and high risk>8).RESULTS:In the validation cohort,all measures of fit,discrimination and calibration were improved when the biochemical and clinical model was used.The proposed model had better predictive values (c-statistic:0.90,0.91,0.91) than the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Child-Pugh (CP) scores for 12-,52- and 104-wk mortality,respectively.In addition,the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) statistic revealed that the biochemical and clinical model (H-L,4.69) is better calibrated than MELD (H-L,17.06) and CP (H-L,14.23).There were no significant differences between the observed and expected survival curves in the stratified risk groups (low risk,P=0.61;high risk,P=0.77).CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that the proposed model is able to accurately predict survival in cirrhotic patients.

  4. Co-occurring gland angularity in localized subgraphs: predicting biochemical recurrence in intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lee

    Full Text Available Quantitative histomorphometry (QH refers to the application of advanced computational image analysis to reproducibly describe disease appearance on digitized histopathology images. QH thus could serve as an important complementary tool for pathologists in interrogating and interpreting cancer morphology and malignancy. In the US, annually, over 60,000 prostate cancer patients undergo radical prostatectomy treatment. Around 10,000 of these men experience biochemical recurrence within 5 years of surgery, a marker for local or distant disease recurrence. The ability to predict the risk of biochemical recurrence soon after surgery could allow for adjuvant therapies to be prescribed as necessary to improve long term treatment outcomes. The underlying hypothesis with our approach, co-occurring gland angularity (CGA, is that in benign or less aggressive prostate cancer, gland orientations within local neighborhoods are similar to each other but are more chaotically arranged in aggressive disease. By modeling the extent of the disorder, we can differentiate surgically removed prostate tissue sections from (a benign and malignant regions and (b more and less aggressive prostate cancer. For a cohort of 40 intermediate-risk (mostly Gleason sum 7 surgically cured prostate cancer patients where half suffered biochemical recurrence, the CGA features were able to predict biochemical recurrence with 73% accuracy. Additionally, for 80 regions of interest chosen from the 40 studies, corresponding to both normal and cancerous cases, the CGA features yielded a 99% accuracy. CGAs were shown to be statistically signicantly ([Formula: see text] better at predicting BCR compared to state-of-the-art QH methods and postoperative prostate cancer nomograms.

  5. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  6. Biochemical Investigation Is no Substitute for Clinical Examination!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn LA Rogers

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Toxic shock syndrome has been shown previously to be associated with hyperamylasaemia. However, serum amylase levels do not usually exceed three times upper limit of normal in these cases. Case report We report a case of a young girl of 17 years who presented with upper abdominal pain, severe shock and raised serum amylase level of 3,898 U/L, giving an impression of severe acute pancreatitis. It was only after finding a tampon in her vagina, and subsequently growing Staphylococcus aureus in her blood cultures, did the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome become apparent. She recovered fully with supportive treatment and appropriate antibiotics. Conclusions Toxic shock syndrome with such a high level of serum amylase has not been previously reported. This case exemplifies the importance of repeated clinical evaluation of patients in this era of multiple investigations, and not simply relying on biochemical values for diagnosis.

  7. Morphological, kinetic, membrane biochemical and genetic aspects of intestinal enteroplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; M Tom Clandinin; Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    The process of intestinal adaptation ("enteroplasticity") is complex and multifaceted. Although a number of trophic nutrients and non-nutritive factors have been identified in animal studies, successful, reproducible clinical trials in humans are awaited. Understanding mechanisms underlying this adaptive process may direct research toward strategies that maximize intestinal function and impart a true clinical benefit to patients with short bowel syndrome, or to persons in whom nutrient absorption needs to be maximized. In this review, we consider the morphological, kinetic and membrane biochemical aspects of enteroplasticity, focus on the importance of nutritional factors, provide an overview of the many hormones that may alter the adaptive process, and consider some of the possible molecular profiles. While most of the data is derived from rodent studies, wherever possible, the results of human studies of intestinal enteroplasticity are provided.

  8. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  9. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous.

  10. Biochemical switching device: how to turn on (off) the switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M; Sakai, T; Hayashi, K

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. This characteristic is, however, a disadvantage for practical use of a switching device; we need to improve the system in order for the switching time to optionally be changed. We shall present here how to turn on (off) the switch independently of the modes of two inputs. By introducing pulse perturbation, we could optionally set up the switching time of a cyclic enzyme system (biochemical switching device). PMID:2720139

  11. Prediction of the preeclampsia: a view of biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sühha Bostancı

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a diverse, multiorgan group of related disease processes that occurs in up to 5%-8% of pregnancies after 20 weeks’ gestation and it is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Many molecular mechanisms are contributed to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Although it is unknown whether the mechanisms act independently or have synergistic effects. This review describes review of primary papers investigating blood based biomarker such as PAP-A, Inhibin A, sFlt1, and PP13 in general and first trimester biochemical markers and combinations of them specifically for preeclampsia.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i4.699

  12. [Cardiorenal syndrome: the role of new biochemical markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernuccio, Federica; Grutta, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Filippo; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome is a pathophysiological heart and kidney disorder, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ induces a damage in the other. It's a syndrome more and more often encountered in clinical practice and this implies the need to recognize the syndrome through biochemical markers with a good sensitivity and specificity, since its earliest stages in order to optimize therapy. In addition to widely validated biomarkers, such as BNP, pro BNP, creatinine, GFR and cystatin C, other promising molecules are available, like NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, KIM-1 (kidney injury molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic peptide), Netrin-1, interleuchin 18 and NAG (N-acetyl-β-glucosa-minidase). The role of these emerging biomarkers is still not completely clarified: hence the need of new clinical trials. PMID:23258238

  13. Biochemical Markers for Osteoarthritis: Is There any Promising Candidate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Aydın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common degenerative joint disease. OA affects millions of individuals each year and becoming the most important cause of pain in geriatric population. Progressive destruction of articular cartilage is one of the prominent features of the disease. The diagnosis of OA is generally based on clinical and radiographical findings, which are insufficient to determine early-stage OA and predict disease course. There is a need for biomarkers that help clinicians early diagnose, assess disease activity, predict prognosis and monitor response to therapy. There are a growing number of publications regarding candidate markers in this field. The aim of this paper was to review recent studies on biochemical markers that reflect cartilage, synovial and bone turnover and their clinical use in patients with OA.

  14. Biochemical changes in rats regenerating liver under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white female rats were hezato ectomized before irradiation to create conditions comparable with clinical. Rats front abdomen area was irradiated with 14 Gy. It was shown that changes by all indices took place in regenerating and weakly regenerating (irradiated) liver in 2, 4 and 15 days following hepatectomy. The process of irradiation accelerates lipid peroxide oxidation, decreases acid phosphatase activity in gredter degree than in regenerating liver and doesn't influence glucose-6-phosphatase activity in comparison with non-irradiated hepatectomized animals. The studied biochemical indices can be used in formation of test bit to diagnose local radiation injuries of various organs or to characterize modification action. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  15. Gadagi Magani Tea Is Detrimental Affects Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar A.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gadagi Magani tae is a herbal tea composed of many different herbs roots extracts shrubs and leaves prepared locally in form of tea consumed by many labourers youths tailors tricyclists and high way drivers in order to get extraordinary strength to endure hardship and overcome heavy duty within short period of time. The following biochemical parameters were routinely determined among consumers serum level of Aspartate aminotransaminases AST Alanine aminotransferase ALT activities were pragmatically higher than that of control increase in serum creatinine level lower sera urea and glucose levels and the sera levels of lipoproteins were also lower compared to controls. Hence Gadagi affects negatively the liver enzymes blood sugar level serum urea creatinine and carbonate positively as it lowers lipid profile.

  16. Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, H G; Rasco, B A

    2000-01-01

    Considerable amounts of fish processing byproducts are discarded each year. By developing enzyme technologies for protein recovery and modification, production of a broad spectrum of food ingredients and industrial products may be possible. Hydrolyzed vegetable and milk proteins are widely used food ingredients. There are few hydrolyzed fish protein foods with the exception of East Asian condiments and sauces. This review describes various manufacturing techniques for fish protein hydrolysates using acid, base, endogenous enzymes, and added bacterial or digestive proteases. The chemical and biochemical characteristics of hydrolyzed fish proteins are discussed. In addition, functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates are described, including solubility, water-holding capacity, emulsification, and foam-forming ability. Possible applications of fish protein hydrolysates in food systems are provided, and comparison with other food protein hydrolysates where pertinent. PMID:10674201

  17. Biochemical fundamentals of rational radurization technology of cooled meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the last few years to explore the possibility of prolonging the storage life of meat in a cooled state. These experiments have shown that a clearly promising approach is to use relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (300-600 Krad). Irradiation of meat and fowl with such doses strongly reduced microbial contamination while increasing 3- to 5-fold the storage life of the products at low above-zero C temperatures. An important consideration is that the organoleptic and nutritive properties remain largely unchanged. The present communication reports the main results of biochemical studies necessary before an irradiation scheme for semifinished meat products can be developed. (E.T.)

  18. Integration of biochemical sensors into wearable biomaterial platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sidhartha; Walper, Scott A.; Cargill, Allison A.; Ozual, Abigail; Daniele, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    With rapidly inflating healthcare costs, a limited supply of physicians and an alarming surge in lifestyle diseases, radical changes must be made to improve preventative medicine and ensure a sustainable healthcare system. A compelling solution is to equip the population with wearable health monitors to continuously record representative and actionable physiological data. Herein, we present a preliminary design and evaluation of a biochemical sensor node enabled by a substrate comprised of a nanocellulose thin-film that conforms to the skin and carries a printed sensor element. The nanocellulose layer ensures conformal and biocompatible contact with the skin, while a printed layer provides a high surface-area electrode. While the recognition/transduction element can be exchanged for many different sensing motifs, we utilize the general structure of an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  19. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...

  20. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J. [UMDI-Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  1. Biochemical profile and outcome in normal and high risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, K G; Urooj, Asna

    2009-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the biochemical profile and outcome of pregnancy and study the adverse consequences if any, among normal and high risk pregnant women. The study group included 182 normal and 168 high risk cases attending to private and Government Hospitals in Bangalore. The high risk groups were: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), Adolescents and anemic cases. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced in PIH and GDM groups (5.56 nmol/ml and 3.98 nmol/ml) MDA values as compared to other groups. Vitamin E levels were significantly (plow birth weight were observed more in PIH group. The study revealed occurrence of oxidative stress and adverse outcome among high risk pregnancy groups. PMID:23105848

  2. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YU-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones including ethylene,gibberellin,and brassinolide have been reported to be involved in this process.Here we first identified by proteomic analysis a cotton cytosolic APX1 (GhAPX1) that was specifically accumulated during cotton fiber elongation.GhAPX1 expression was up-regulated in response to cellular H2O2 and ethylene,and it was involved in modulating the stead-state level of H2O2.

  3. Study of biochemical examination among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical findings were compared in 1003 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤1900 m from the hypocenter and 1003 age- and sex-matched A-bomb survivors exposed at ≥3,000 m. Mean and abnormal values for lung function, such as total protein, GOT and GPT, did not differ in two groups of both men and women. However, mean values of both total cholesterol and neutral fat were significantly higher in the ≤1900m group than in the ≥3000 m group, irrespective of sex. Similarly, the ≤1900 m group had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal values for these items than the ≥3000 m group. (N.K.)

  4. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous. PMID:27276935

  5. BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN ZINC DEFICIENT SHEEP ASSOCIATED BY HYPERLACTATEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from diseased and clinically healthy Balady sheep of both sexes were collected and subjected for biochemical analysis of serum glucose, fructosamine, lactate, growth hormone, insulin, creatine phosphokinase, Lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase. The obtained results revealed a significant decrease in serum zinc and growth hormone were stated. In contrary, serum glucose and lactate, insulin, CPK, LDH and aldolase were significantly increased statically. While, fructosamine levels were non-significantly increased. From these results can conclude that, in zinc deficient sheep the carbohydrate metabolism is directed toward the anaerobic one accompanied by hyperlactemia which induce muscle cramp and damages leading to increased CPK, LDH and aldolase which appear clinically as enlargement of knee joint, lameness and staggering gait. In addition, growth retardation and wool loss are the main clinical signs of reduction in growth hormone.

  6. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.

    2010-07-27

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wensvoort

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes during fasting or the withholding of feed for 5 day were studied in serum of camelids (dromedary camel, llama and ruminants (sheep, steers. Camels maintained low levels of 13-hydroxybutyrate (BHB and high levels of glucose but showed some increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and urea when fasting. Sheep and steers showed a rise in serum BHB and much higher increases of NEFA than camels and llamas. Sheep showed decreased serum glucose. The llama showed some increase in BHB but NEFA was lower than the other three species. The results indicate that camelids have a unique ability to control lipolytic and gluconeogenic activity to prevent or postpone the state of ketosis. Understanding and manipulation of these metabolic mechanisms in cattle and sheep could have great benefit to the livestock industry.

  8. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator–prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  9. The biochemical basis for thermoregulation in heat-producing flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekawa, Yui; Seymour, Roger S; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoregulation (homeothermy) in animals involves a complex mechanism involving thermal receptors throughout the body and integration in the hypothalamus that controls shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The flowers of some ancient families of seed plants show a similar degree of physiological thermoregulation, but by a different mechanism. Here, we show that respiratory control in homeothermic spadices of skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) is achieved by rate-determining biochemical reactions in which the overall thermodynamic activation energy exhibits a negative value. Moreover, NADPH production, catalyzed by mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase in a chemically endothermic reaction, plays a role in the pre-equilibrium reaction. We propose that a law of chemical equilibrium known as Le Châtelier's principle governs the homeothermic control in skunk cabbage. PMID:27095582

  10. A biochemical and genetic study of Leishmania donovani pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Will; Isea, Raúl; Rodriguez, Evelyn; Ramirez, Jose Luis

    2008-11-15

    Here we present a biochemical and molecular biology study of the enzyme pyruvate kinase (PYK) from the parasitic protozoa Leishmania donovani. The PYK gene was cloned, mutagenised and over expressed and its kinetic parameters determined. Like in other kinetoplastids, L. donovani PYK is allosterically stimulated by the effector fructose 2,6 biphosphate and not by fructose 1,6 biphosphate. When the putative effector binding site of L. donovani PYK was mutagenised, we obtained two mutants with extreme kinetic behavior: Lys453Leu, which retained a sigmoidal kinetics and was little affected by the effector; and His480Gln, which deployed a hyperbolic kinetics that was not changed by the addition of the effector. Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies revealed that the mutations not only altered the effector binding site of L. donovani PYK but also changed the folding of its domain C. PMID:18725273

  11. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehere, P.; Robinson, H.; Han, Q.; Lemkul, J. A.; Vavricka, C. J.; Bevan, D. R.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  12. Tyrosine Aminotransferase: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Mehere; Q Han; J Lemkul; C Vavricka; H Robinson; D Bevan; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  13. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  14. POTENTIALITIES AND RISKS OF BIOCHEMICAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VIA INTERNET

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    M.C. Gomes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet is more and more present in worldwide education. There are innumerable projects thatstimulate its usage for aiding the teaching-learning process. This new trend modies the reality of thewhole school. However, many copies of identical information are found in several sites: graphs, gures,texts, links and even errors. The aim of this work is to analyse the biochemical issues photosynthesisand cellular respiration available in web pages, taking into account contents quality, trustworthinessand eectiveness. Firstly, 6th secondary level students were inquired by a questionnaire on their use ofinternet resources. More than 80 percent of them were regular users. The result conrms the alreadyknown potential of internet in education. Fourteen sites were analysed regarding to contents, presenceof bibliographical references, authorship, titles of responsibles and adequacy to the target public. Inrelation to contents, presence of conceptual errors, illustrations and other stimulant elements wereanalysed. None of the sites presented biblioghraphic references; less than half divulged responsiblenames and their graduation. The great majority do not mention intended public target. In general,the sites did not contained grave conceptual errors, except for two that mention estoma insteadestroma, cilica/acilica phosphorylation (for cyclic and acyclic, grama (for grana and place oxygenas essential for anaerobic respiration. However, one of these sites was the only one that mentionedenzymes and regulation steps of cellular respiration. Half of the sites presented identical texts andgures. None used livened up resources. The majority showed contents as virtual versions of printedbooks. Illustrations did not present necessary legends. None of the analysed sites, thus, was consideredexcellent. Trustworthiness is also questionable as much of the contents arte clearly copies of otherpages, recurrent even on the errors. Our data strengthen the need for

  15. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

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    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1 control (CK, without N added, (2 low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1, (3 medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1 year(-1, and (4 high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1 year(-1. Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+, NO3(-, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease and phosphorus (acid phosphatase and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities. Results suggest that (1 this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2 the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  16. Physical and Biochemical Characteristics of Sharhabiel Reservoir Water, NW Jordan

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    Nazem M. El-Radaideh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jordan relies heavily on rainwater stored in reservoirs because it has extremely limited alternative water resources. These reservoirs are essential for drinking water and irrigation, so monitoring their water quality is extremely important. Variations in physical and biochemical conditions were investigated at Sharhabiel Reservoir (Jordan. Water quality monitoring of Sharhabiel Dam, from January to December 2013 indicates that the dam is subject to agricultural runoff. It also revealed that mineral dissolution, sediment load, rainfall evaporation and pumping, are the major contributors to variations in water quality. The water chemistry of the impounded Sharnabiel Reservoir showed that Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3 , and Cl are the principal ions, reflecting the dominance of calcareous weathering, with some contribution of silicates. The pH values showed an irregular pattern with highest values observed in the spring months. Total dissolved solids (TDS, Ca, Mg, and HCO3 are primarily related to leaching and evaporation, with elevated levels that occurred in the winter months. In contrast, seasonal patterns in Na, K, Cl, and NH4–N contents showed decreased values in wet months. Peaks in NO3 –N observed in winter are strongly associated with agricultural runoff. Changes in chlorophyll-a level were coincided with low ratio of TN to TP. BOD5 and COD peaks in spring corresponding with high algal growth. No significant changes in most of physical and biochemical parameters with depth, probably due to shallow depth, high annual sedimentation rate and heavy pumping rate in dry months. No available recorded data for long-term monitoring of Sharhabiel reservoir water to emphasize the self-purification capacity of dam.

  17. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  18. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehere, Prajwalini; Han, Qian; Lemkul, Justin A; Vavricka, Christopher J; Robinson, Howard; Bevan, David R; Li, Jianyong

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using α-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  19. Biochemical Hypermedia: Glucose as a Central Molecule in Metabolism

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    J.K. Sugai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The technologies of information, together with education resources, have been pointed out as a solution to the improvement of teaching approach, but they still claim for programs to fulfill the demands of didactic materials. So, a biochemical software was developed aiming to contribute for the better understanding of the glycolysis. It was prepared with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. The introduction screen shows a teacher in a theater presenting glucose as a central molecule in the metabolism of animals, plants and many microorganisms. She invites for a better knowledge of glucose through a view of its discovery and its metabolism. A step by step animation process shows the interaction of glucose in aerobic conditions with the enzymes of the glycolytic pathways and its products. An explanation text of each enzyme catalytic process is provided by links. A static pathway is always available through a link. The fates of pyruvate yielding lactic acid and ethanol under anaerobic conditions are shown as well. The overall reactions of gluconeogenesis and the functional significance of this pathway are presented. The experimental treatment involved the presentation of this hypermedia for Nutrition undergraduate students (UFSC as a tool for better comprehension of the theme. The students revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in glycolysis. This suggests that there is a significant added value in employing the software as an instructional effort to enhance student’s abilities to understand biochemical pathways.

  20. Micronutrient influence in Nannochloropsis sp. growth and biochemical profile

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    Catarina Rosado Correia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a heterogeneous group, which includes various and distinct taxa. However, few genera are actively used in aquaculture, due to the lack of specific requirements, like adequate size, shape and non-toxic. Nannochloropsis sp. is one of the main microalgae used in aquaculture, due to its nutritional profile and for being a fast-growing microalgae. Despite its characteristics, large-scale culture of Nannochloropsis sp. is in constant improvement, in order to accomplish the best productivity, combined with an adequate biochemical profile. In an attempt to achieve this, an experimental set-up was tested with microalgae grown in four different culture media: (1 NutriBloom [NB] (commercial medium used at Necton’s facilities, (2 NutriBloom without cobalt [NB w/Co], (3 Simplex [S] (no addition of iron or any micronutrient and (4 Sea Mineral Solution [SMS]. Nannochloropsis’s contents of protein, carbohydrates, total lipid and PUFA’s were controlled at logarithmic and stationary phases of growth, using classical techniques, as mentioned in Lowry (1951, Dubois (1956, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Lepage & Roy (1986. Higher productivity, dry weight and number of cells were achieved when cultured in NB and NB w/Co. In the logarithmic phase, NB w/Co presented the higher protein content, SMS showed the higher percentage of lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS. In the stationary phase, S medium showed higher lipid percentage; nevertheless, NB medium presented the higher content of protein and PUFAs. In both phases, NB medium had the higher sugar content. Differences between micronutrient concentrations explain the verified variations in the microalgae’s biochemical profile, particularly iron, copper, cobalt and molybdenium variations.

  1. Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG

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    Lamosa Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/min.mg-1. Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.

  2. Expression of Neurotransmitter Transporters for Structural and Biochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Yael; Danieli, Tsafi; Kanner, Baruch I.; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters play essential roles in the process of neurotransmission. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters mediate storage inside secretory vesicles in a process that involves the exchange of lumenal H+ for cytoplasmic transmitter. Retrieval of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft catalyzed by sodium-coupled transporters is critical for the termination of the synaptic actions of the released neurotransmitter. Our current understanding of the mechanism of these transporters is based on functional and biochemical characterization but is lacking high-resolution structural information. Very few structures of membrane transport systems from mammalian origin have been solved to atomic resolution, mainly because of the difficulty in obtaining large amounts of purified protein. Development of high yield heterologous expression systems suitable for mammalian neurotransmitter transporters is essential to enable the production of purified protein for structural studies. Such a system makes possible also the production of mutants that can be used in biochemical and biophysical studies. We describe here a screen for the expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in cell-free and baculovirus expression systems and discuss the expression of VMAT2 in other systems as well (bacterial, yeast and mammalian cell lines). After screening and optimization, we achieved high yield (2–2.5 mg/liter) expression of functional VMAT2 in insect cells. The system was also used for the expression of three additional plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters. All were functional and expressed to high levels. Our results demonstrate the advantages of the baculovirus expression system for the expression of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters in a functional state. PMID:20566324

  3. Biochemical alterations induced in Hediste diversicolor under seawater acidification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Pires, Adília; Moreira, Anthony; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-06-01

    Seawater pH is among the environmental factors controlling the performance of marine organisms, especially in calcifying marine invertebrates. However, changes in non-calcifying organisms (including polychaetes) may also occur due to pH decrease. Polychaetes are often the most abundant group of organisms in estuarine systems, representing an important ecological and economic resource. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of seawater acidification in the polychaete Hediste diversicolor, a species commonly used as bioindicator. For this, organisms were exposed to different pH levels (7.9, 7.6 and 7.3) during 28 days and several biochemical markers were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that pH decrease negatively affected osmotic regulation and polychaetes metabolism, with individuals under low pH (7.6 and 7.3) presenting higher carbonic anhydrase activity, lower energy reserves (protein and glycogen content) and higher metabolic rate (measured as Electron transport system activity). The increase on CA activity was associated to organisms osmoregulation capacity while the increase on ETS and decrease on energy reserves was associated to the polychaetes capacity to develop defense mechanisms (e.g. antioxidant defenses). In fact, despite having observed higher lipid peroxidation at pH 7.6, in polychaetes at the lowest tested pH (7.3) LPO levels were similar to values recorded in individuals under control pH (7.9). Such findings may result from higher antioxidant enzyme activity at the lowest tested pH, which prevented organisms from higher oxidative stress levels. Overall, our study demonstrated how polychaetes may respond to near-future ocean acidification conditions, exhibiting the capacity to develop biochemical strategies which will prevent organisms from lethal injuries. Such defense strategies will contribute for polychaetes populations maintenance and survival under predicted seawater acidification scenarios. PMID:27088614

  4. Biochemical profile of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis and its nutritional attributes

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    K.K. Asha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are highly esteemed sea food and considered a delicacy throughout the world. Yet this resource is not optimally utilised in several parts of the world. The aim of this study is to highlight its nutritional importance. Biochemical composition and nutritional attributes of oyster meat are discussed. Proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles and mineral content were determined in oysters (Crassostrea madrasensis. Moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents in the oyster were 82.64%, 9.41%, 3.25% 3.2% and 1.01%, respectively and it was rich in macro-minerals and trace elements especially selenium. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA were highest of the total lipids among which eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and linoleic acid were the prominent fatty acids. The n-3/n-6 index was high indicating a predominance of n-3 fatty acids in the species. Total amino acid content was 99.33 g/100 g crude protein, of which, essential amino acid lysine was the most abundant. Valine had the lowest essential amino acid score (EAAS (0.17 while threonine had the highest EAAS of 3.62. Chemical score was 17% and the lowest limiting amino acid was valine. Protein efficiency ratio, essential amino acid index and biological value of oyster were 3.92, 120.2 and 174.0, respectively which indicates that the protein is of superior quality. Data on biochemical composition, nutritional attributes and quality indices of C. madrasensis protein may prove important for future policies regarding exploitation of this species and for inducing favourable changes in consumer preferences.

  5. Alteration of biochemical parameters after supplementation of multivitamins and minerals of sprayers on grape gardens of Western Maharashtra (India

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    Jyotsna A. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the horticulture sector, the land used for cash crop like grapes is increasing particularly in Maharashtra state. There is an increasing use of the pesticides in an attempt to increase the yield and reduce the post harvest losses. The environmental pollution and poisoning due to wide use of pesticide during grape cultivation may be much more important factors to disturb the socio economical status of uneducated farm worker in rural areas. Aim and Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the pesticide exposure of the population associated with grape cultivation with respect to biochemical effects, oxidative stress, antioxidants status and protecting them from such effects by supplementing vitamins A to Z. Material and Methods: For this study 30 subjects with occupational pesticides exposure i.e. sprayers of grape gardens having age in the range of 20 to 45 years from Tasgaon taluka, Sangli district, (Western Maharashtra India were taken and all these study group subject,500 mg vitamin A to Z tablet / day for fifteen days were supplemented. The blood was collected by venipuncture from all these subjects for biochemical parameters assay before and after fifteen days of vitamins A to Z supplementation and all biochemical parameters were estimated by using standard methods. Results: Fifteen days vitamin A to Z and multi minerals supplementation to sprayers of grape gardens, we observed significant increase in serum Acetyl Cholinesterase (P<0.001, 2.32%, and decreased Aspartate Transaminase (P<0.05, 8.36%, Alanine Transaminase (P<0.05, 14.16%, serum Lipid Peroxide (P<0.001, 24.39%, Glutathione S-Transferase (P<0.01, 29.84% and increased RBC-Superoxide Dismutase (P<0.05, 11.55%, RBC-Catalase (P<0.001, 25.7%, serum zinc (P<0.01, 3.74%, copper (P<0.001, 4.13%, blood lead (P<0.01, 3.33% as compared to before vitamin A to Z and multi minerals supplementation and other biochemical parameters such as serum C-Reactive Proteins, Total Proteins

  6. 血液生化检验的临床调查研究%Blood Biochemical Examination of Clinical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of clinical blood biochemical tests and their results accuracy.MethodsColect the hospital clinical laboratory in the near future keep biochemical blood test data of 80 patients. Analysis of the emergence of al patients in the whole process of the blood colected, for the blood biochemical test, the influence of test analysis explore the influencing factors on the accuracy of the blood test.Results When sampling before patients taking drugs, improper sampling method, for the amount of colection after anticoagulation is not correct, preservation conditions and inspection time is not scientific, the stand or fal of instrument work are important factors influencing the accuracy of the blood biochemical tests.Conclusion For patients with blood biochemical examination must be in strict accordance with the blood test, the relevant provisions of the can obtain accurate blood test results.%目的:探究临床血液生化检验的影响因素及其结果准确性。方法收集我院检验科近期保存的80份患者生化验血资料。分析所有患者采集血液的全程出现的情况对血液生化检验的影响,结合检验分析探讨对血液检验的准确性的影响因素。结果采集前患者服用药物、采集时采集方法不当,采集后抗凝使用不正确、保存条件和送检时间不科学、仪器工作的好坏都是影响血液生化检验准确性的重要因素。结论对患者进行血液生化检验时必须严格按照血液检验的相关规定,才能获得准确的血液检验结果。

  7. High dose-rate brachytherapy boost for intermediate risk prostate cancer: Long-term outcomes of two different treatment schedules and early biochemical predictors of success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To report long-term cancer control rates following high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for intermediate risk prostate cancer and explore early biochemical predictors of success. Material and methods: Results of two sequential phase II trials are updated and compared: (1) Single 15 Gy HDR-boost followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) 37.5 Gy/15fractions, (2) Two HDR fractions of 10 Gy followed by EBRT 45 Gy/25fractions. Patients were followed prospectively for clinical and biochemical outcomes. Nadir PSA (nPSA) and PSA at 3-years were analyzed as continuous variables, and ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal cutoff values. Kaplan–Meier bDFS curves were generated and the log-rank test used to compare different groups Results: 183 patients were accrued; 123 to the single fraction trial and 60 to the standard fractionation trial, with a median follow-up of 74 months and 99 months, respectively. The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival was 97.4% and 92.7%, respectively (p = 0.995). Median nPSA was 0.08 ng/ml. Failure to achieve a nPSA <0.4 ng/ml was associated with a significantly higher rate of biochemical relapse (5-year bDFS: 100% vs. 72%; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: HDR boost with single fraction 15 Gy provides durable long-term biochemical disease-free survival. PSA nadir <0.4 ng/ml is associated with very low risk of biochemical failure

  8. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6–79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of ≥2 were considered “sensitive” (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered “nonsensitive” (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70–82%) of the “nonsensitive” patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43–62%) of the “sensitive” patients (log–rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; “nonsensitive” 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74–86%) vs. “sensitive” BFFR was 68% (CI 58–76%; log–rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop ≥Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further study and, if validated

  9. Comparative biochemical analysis of recombinant reverse transcriptase enzymes of HIV-1 subtype B and subtype C

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    Moisi Daniella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 subtype C infections account for over half of global HIV infections, yet the vast focus of HIV-1 research has been on subtype B viruses which represent less than 12% of the global pandemic. Since HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT is a major target of antiviral therapy, and since differential drug resistance pathways have been observed among different HIV subtypes, it is important to study and compare the enzymatic activities of HIV-1 RT derived from each of subtypes B and C as well as to determine the susceptibilities of these enzymes to various RT inhibitors in biochemical assays. Methods Recombinant subtype B and C HIV-1 RTs in heterodimeric form were purified from Escherichia coli and enzyme activities were compared in cell-free assays. The efficiency of (- ssDNA synthesis was measured using gel-based assays with HIV-1 PBS RNA template and tRNA3Lys as primer. Processivity was assayed under single-cycle conditions using both homopolymeric and heteropolymeric RNA templates. Intrinsic RNase H activity was compared using 5'-end labeled RNA template annealed to 3'-end recessed DNA primer in a time course study in the presence and absence of a heparin trap. A mis-incorporation assay was used to assess the fidelity of the two RT enzymes. Drug susceptibility assays were performed both in cell-free assays using recombinant enzymes and in cell culture phenotyping assays. Results The comparative biochemical analyses of recombinant subtype B and subtype C HIV-1 reverse transcriptase indicate that the two enzymes are very similar biochemically in efficiency of tRNA-primed (- ssDNA synthesis, processivity, fidelity and RNase H activity, and that both enzymes show similar susceptibilities to commonly used NRTIs and NNRTIs. Cell culture phenotyping assays confirmed these results. Conclusions Overall enzyme activity and drug susceptibility of HIV-1 subtype C RT are comparable to those of subtype B RT. The use of RT inhibitors (RTIs

  10. Haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the middle belt of Ghana.

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    David K Dosoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reference values are very important in clinical management of patients, screening participants for enrollment into clinical trials and for monitoring the onset of adverse events during these trials. The aim of this was to establish gender-specific haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the central part of Ghana. METHODS: A total of 691 adults between 18 and 59 years resident in the Kintampo North Municipality and South District in the central part of Ghana were randomly selected using the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System and enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. Out of these, 625 adults made up of 316 males and 309 females were assessed by a clinician to be healthy. Median values and nonparametric 95% reference values for 16 haematology and 22 biochemistry parameters were determined for this population based on the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute guidelines. Values established in this study were compared with the Caucasian values being used currently by our laboratory as reference values and also with data from other African and western countries. RESULTS: REFERENCE VALUES ESTABLISHED INCLUDE: haemoglobin 113-164 g/L for males and 88-144 g/L for females; total white blood cell count 3.4-9.2 × 10(9/L; platelet count 88-352 × 10(9/L for males and 89-403 × 10(9/L for females; alanine aminotransferase 8-54 U/L for males and 6-51 U/L for females; creatinine 56-119 µmol/L for males and 53-106 µmol/L for females. Using the haematological reference values based on the package inserts would have screened out up to 53% of potential trial participants and up to 25% of the population using the biochemical parameters. CONCLUSION: We have established a panel of locally relevant reference parameters for commonly used haematological and biochemical tests. This is important as it will help in the interpretation of laboratory results both for clinical management of patients and

  11. Changes in biochemical parameters on the first day after kidney transplantation: risk factors for nosocomial infection?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yi; REN Liang; ZHANG Yong; LIU Hang; CAO Bin; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2010-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infection in early post-transplantation period is a tough problem for kidney transplantation. Few reports have explored the relations between biochemical parameters and nosocomial infection in kidney transplantation. This retrospective study was carried out to describe the characteristics of nosocomial infection in the very early period of kidney transplantation and to determine the risk factors in biochemical parameters and their alterations. Methods Patients who underwent their first kidney transplantation from January 2001 to March 2009 in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital were recruited and the nosocomial infectious episodes were collected for this study. Gender, age, donor type, delayed graft function (DGF) and biochemical parameters such as serum uric acid, lipids files and albumin on day 0 (before transplantation) and day 1 (24 hours after transplantation) and their changes were analyzed with Logistic regression models for nosocomial infection. Results A total of 405 patients (315 men and 90 women) were involved in this study. There were 80 patients experiencing 113 infection episodes and 105 strains of microorganism were indentified. In univariate analysis, there were significant differences in DGF, albumin on day 0, lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) on day 1, change in low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, day 1-day 0) and change in uric acid (day 1-day 0) between nosocomial infection patients and noninfectious patients (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, change in uric acid (day 1-day 0) (Off 5.139, 95% Cl 1.176-22.465, P<0.05), change in LDL-C (day 1-day 0) {OR4.179, 95% Cl 1.375-12.703, P<0.05) and DGF (Of? 14.409, 95% Cl 1.603-129.522, P<0.05) were identified as independent risk factors for nosocomial infection in kidney transplantation. Conclusions Most nosocomial infections in early postoperative period of kidney transplantation are bacterial, especially with Gram-negative bacteria. The most common infection sites are respiratory tract

  12. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

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    Vesprini, Danny [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jacks, Lindsay; Lockwood, Gina [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network), Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rosewall, Tara; Bayley, Andrew; Chung, Peter; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Nichol, Alan; Skala, Marketa; Warde, Padraig [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bristow, Robert G., E-mail: robert.bristow@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6-79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of {>=}2 were considered 'sensitive' (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered 'nonsensitive' (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70-82%) of the 'nonsensitive' patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43-62%) of the 'sensitive' patients (log-rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; 'nonsensitive' 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74-86%) vs. 'sensitive' BFFR was 68% (CI 58-76%; log-rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop {>=}Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further

  13. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

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    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  14. Hybrid Differential Evolution for Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Biochemical Systems

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    ZHAO Chao; XU Qiaoling; LIN Siming; LI Xuelai

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the optimal model parameters for biochemical systems is a time consuming iterative process.In this study,a novel hybrid differential evolution(DE)algorithm based on the differential evolution technique and a local search strategy is developed for solving kinetic parameter estimation problems.By combining the merits of DE with Gauss-Newton method,the proposed hybrid approach employs a DE algorithm for identifying promising regions of the solution space followed by use of Gauss-Newton method to determine the optimum in the identified regions.Some well-known benchmark estimation problems are utilized to test the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed algorithm compared to other methods in literature.The comparison indicates that the present hybrid algorithm outperforms other estimation techniques in terms of the global searching ability and the convergence speed.Additionally,the estimation of kinetic model parameters for a feed batch fermentor is carried out to test the applicability of the proposed algorithm.The result suggests that the method can be used to estimate suitable values of model parameters for a complex mathematical model.

  15. Gleason score as predictor of clinicopathologic findings and biochemical (PSA progression following radical prostatectomy

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    Marbele S. Guimaraes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is evidence showing that Gleason grading of prostatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most powerful predictors of biological behavior and one of the most influential factors used to determine treatment for prostate cancer. The aim of the current study was to compare the Gleason score for needle biopsy to the Gleason score for the correspondent surgical specimen, find any possible difference in the biochemical (PSA progression following surgery in upgraded cases, correlate Gleason score in the specimens to several clinicopathologic variables, and compare outcomes between patients with low-grade vs. high-grade Gleason and Gleason scores 3+4 vs. 4+3. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 200 consecutive patients submitted to radical prostatectomy. Biochemical progression was defined as PSA > 0.2 ng/mL. Time to PSA progression was studied using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit analysis. RESULTS: In 47.1% of the cases, there was an exact correlation and 40.6% of cases were underestimated in the biopsies. Half of the tumors graded Gleason 6 at biopsy were Gleason score 7 at surgery. These upgraded tumors had outcomes similar to tumors with Gleason score 7 in both biopsy and surgery. There was a positive correlation of high-grade Gleason score in the surgical specimens to higher preoperative PSA, more extensive tumors, positive margins and more advanced pathologic staging. Tumors with a Gleason score > 7 have lower PSA progression-free survival vs. Gleason scores < 7. In this series, there was no significant difference when comparing Gleason scores of 3+4 vs. 4+3. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the importance of Gleason grading for nomograms, which are used by clinicians to counsel individual patients and help them make important decisions regarding their disease.

  16. Clinical usefulness of biochemical markers of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Hiroshi Sakugawa; Fukunori Kinjo; Atsushi Saito; Tomofumi Nakayoshi; Kasen Kobashigawa; Tsuyoshi Yamashiro; Tatsuji Maeshiro; Satoru Miyagi; Joji Shiroma; Akiyo Toyama; Tomokuni Nakayoshi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and progresses to the end stage of liver disease. Biochemical markers of liver fibrosis are strongly associated with the degree of histological liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease.However, data are few on the usefulness of markers in NAFLD patients. The aim of this study was to identify better noninvasive predictors of hepatic fibrosis, with special focus on markers of liver fibrosis, type Ⅵ collagen 7S domain and hyaluronic acid.METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients with histologically proven NAFLD were studied.RESULTS: The histological stage of NAFLD correlated with several clinical and biochemical variables, the extent of hepatic fibrosis and the markers of liver fibrosis were relatively strong associated. The best cutoff values to detect NASH were assessed by using receiver operating characteristic analysis: type Ⅵ collagen 7S domain ≥5.0 ng/mL, hyaluronic acid ≥43 ng/mL. Both markers had a high positive predictive value: type Ⅵ collagen 7S domain, 86% and hyaluronic acid,92%. Diagnostic accuracies of these markers were evaluated to detect severe fibrosis. Both markers showed high negative predictive values: type Ⅵ collagen 7S domain (≥5.0 ng/mL),84% and hyaluronic acid (≥50 ng/mL), 78%, and were significantly and independently associated with the presence of NASH or severe fibrosis by logistic regression analysis.CONCLUSION: Both markers of liver fibrosis are useful in discriminating NASH from fatty liver alone or patients with severe fibrosis from patients with non-severe fibrosis.

  17. Correlation between serum adiponectin and clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Sunita J Ramanand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder. PCOS women are at a high risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS. Adiponectin is positively related to insulin sensitivity. It has a preventive role in atherogenesis and MS. The present work was conducted to study the correlation between serum adiponectin levels and clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective study in 49 newly diagnosed (as per Rotterdam criteria Indian PCOS women was conducted. PCOS women were clinically examined and investigated for biochemical parameters. Results : The mean serum adiponectin was 12 ± 9.4 μg/mL (range 0.47-45. Hypoadiponectinemia (serum adiponectin <4 μg/mL was present in 22% patients. Age and adiponectin correlated significantly and inversely (r = −0.42, P = 0.027. Overweight/obese patients had lower mean adiponectin levels than normal weight (11.62 ± 9.5 vs 13.58 ± 9.5, P = 0.56. It was significantly lower in patients with acanthosis nigricans (AN as compared with those without AN (8.4 ± 5.9 vs 15 ± 11, P = 0.038. Hirsute patients showed lower mean adiponectin levels than nonhirsute (10 ± 7.3 vs 13 ± 10, P = 0.57. A positive, insignificant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin and cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, thyroid stimulating hormone, levels. A negative insignificant correlation existed between serum adiponectin and luteinizing hormone (LH, LH: FSH ratio, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia is present in one-fifth of women with PCOS. Adiponectin levels decrease as age advances. Low levels of adiponectin possibly contributes to the development of dermal manifestation (AN of insulin resistance.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleurotus ferulae on biochemical and histological function in hypercholesterolemic rats

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    Nuhu Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pleurotus ferulae is an edible mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Irrespective of the medicinal importance or therapeutic potentials of P. ferulae, there have not been studies on anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of dietary P. ferulae fruiting bodies on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status in hypercholesterolemic rats. Methods: Six weeks old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Then biochemical and histological examinations were performed. Results: Feeding of a diet containing 5% P. ferulae fruiting bodies to hypercholesterolemic rat reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, total lipid, phospholipids, and LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 30.02, 49.31, 71.15, 30.23, 21.93, and 65.31%, respectively. Mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that P. ferulae significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein, while increased the α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests that 5% P. ferulae diet supplement provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  19. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

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    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  20. Effect of α-Ketoglutarate on Cyanide-induced Biochemical Alterations in Rat Brain and Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biochemical changes in rat brain and liver following acute exposure to a lethal dose of cyanide, and its response to treatment of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) in the absence or presence of sodium thiosulfate (STS). Methods Female rats were administered 2.0 LD50 potassium cyanide (KCN; oral) in the absence or presence of pre-treatment (-10 min), simultaneous treatment (0 min) or post-treatment (+2-3 min) of α-KG (2.0 g/kg, oral) and/or STS (1.0 g/kg,intraperitoneal, -15 min, 0 min or + 2-3 min). At the time of onset of signs and symptoms of KCN toxicity (2-4 min) and at the time of death (5-15 min), various parameters particularly akin to oxidative stress viz. Cytochrome oxidase (CYTOX),superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in brain, and CYTOX, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), GSH and GSSG in liver homogenate were measured. Results At both time intervals brain CYTOX, SOD, GPx, and GSH significantly reduced (percent inhibition compared to control) to 24%, 56%, 77%, and 65%, and 44%, 46%, 78%, and 57%, respectively. At the corresponding time points liver CYTOX and GSH reduced to 74% and 63%, and 44% and 68%, respectively. The levels of GSSG in the brain and liver, and hepatic ALP and SDH were unchanged. Pre-treatment and simultaneous treatment of α-KG alone or with STS conferred significant protection on above variables. Post-treatment was effective in restoring the changes in liver but failed to normalize the changes in the brain. Conclusions Oral treatment with α-KG alone or in combination with STS has protective effects on cyanide-induced biochemical alterations in rat brain and liver.

  1. Effects of resveratrol and methylprednisolone on biochemical, neurobehavioral and histopathological recovery after experimental spinal cord injury

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    Ozkan ATES; Suleyman CAYLI; Eyup ALTINOZ; Iclal CURSES; Neslihan YUCEL; Ayhan KOCAK; Saim YOLOGLU; Yusuf TURKOZ

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol in an experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) model in rats. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 g were randomized into six groups. Weight-drop trauma was performed for SCI. Group 1 underwent laminectomy alone. Group 2 underwent laminectomy followed by SCI. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 underwent laminectomy followed by SCI and received resveratrol (100 mg/kg), methylprednisolone (MP) (30 mg/kg), resveratrol (100 mg/kg) plus MP (30 mg/kg), and ethanol (2%), respectively. The rats were divided into two subgroups for biochemical analysis (killed at 24 h after surgery) and for neurobehavioral and histopathological evaluation (killed at 6 weeks after surgery). Posttraumatic neurological recovery after surgery was recorded weekly. Results: Groups 3 and 5 revealed significantly lower malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, xanthine oxidase, and higher glutathione levels than group 4 (P<0.05). Neurological recovery rates were significantly better in groups 3 and 5 than group 4 (P<0.05). When spinal trauma size ratios were compared, there was no significant difference between treatment groups. Conclusion: Resveratrol treatment revealed better biochemical recovery in the acute stage of trauma than MP treatment. Although resveratrol and combined treatment revealed better neurobehavioral recovery than MP treatment; resveratrol, MP, and combined treatment modalities improved histopathological recovery at the same level in the final stage of the experiment. Future studies involving different doses of resveratrol and different doses combinations with MP could promise better results as each drug has a different anti-oxidative mechanism of action.

  2. Diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in white leghorn birds (Gallus domesticus

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    Jain Teenu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Objective: To evaluate diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in White Leghorn birds. Materials and Methods : Six-week-old birds were equally divided into three groups of six birds each. Group I served as control and received vehicle orally. The birds of Group II and III were orally administered with a single low (2 mg/kg and high dose (20 mg/kg of diclofenac sodium, respectively, and were observed for 7 days. The acute toxicity was assessed by observing the clinical signs and symptoms, mortality, alterations in blood biochemistry, and necropsy findings. Results : The birds of Group II showed only mild symptoms of diarrhea. In Group III, 50% of birds died in between 24 and 36 h post-treatment showing the symptoms of segregatory behavior, lethargy, terminal anorexia, and severe bloody diarrhea. The birds of Group II and the surviving birds of Group III showed a significantly (P< 0.05 increased plasma uric acid, creatinine and plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase (PGPT, and decreased total protein and albumin at 12 and 24 h post-treatment which returned to the normal levels at 36 h post-treatment. The dead birds of the high-dose group also showed similar pattern of biochemical changes at 12 and 24 h post-treatment and revealed extensive visceral gout with characteristic histopathological lesions in liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine on post-mortem. Conclusion : The results indicate that diclofenac sodium has hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and visceral gout inducing potentials in White Leghorn birds, especially at higher dose.

  3. Liver iron estimation in {beta}-thalassaemia: Comparison of MRI biochemical assay and histological grading

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    Chan, Y.L.; Li, C.K.; Lam, C.W.K.; Yu, S.C.H.; Chik, K.W.; To, K.F.; Yeung, D.K.W.; Howard, R.; Yuen, P.M.P

    2001-11-01

    AIMS: The aims of the study were to compare the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical assay and histological grading in estimating liver iron content, and to evaluate the value of liver to muscle signal intensity ratio (L/M ratio) on spin-echo T1-weighted images in this role. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine homozygous {beta} -thalassaemics had their L/M ratio measured on MRI, followed by ultrasound-guided liver biopsies with histological grading of iron storage and biochemical quantification of liver iron concentration (LIC-b) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: A significant difference in L/M ratios between the four grades of iron storage on histology was observed (P < 0.001). The coefficient of correlation was -0.67 between L/M ratio and LIC-b ranging from 2 to 21.6 mg/g dry weight. Specific values of L/M ratio reliably reflected liver iron content at clinically important levels. A L/M ratio of < 0.6 has 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the prediction of grade 3 or 4 iron storage histologically and 81% sensitivity and 81% specificity in predicting LIC-b > 15 mg/g. A L/M ratio of > 0.8 predicts a histological iron storage grading of 0 or 1 with a 100% sensitivity and 74% specificity. CONCLUSION: L/M ratio on MRI is of value as a non-invasive alternative to repeated liver biopsies for estimating liver iron content at clinically important thresholds. Chan, Y.L. et al. (2001)

  4. Biochemical basis of permethrin resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania

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    Oxborough Richard M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of resistance to different classes of insecticides is a potential threat to malaria control. With the increasing coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania, the continued monitoring of resistance in vector populations is crucial. It may facilitate the development of novel strategies to prevent or minimize the spread of resistance. In this study, metabolic-based mechanisms conferring permethrin (pyrethroid resistance were investigated in Anopheles arabiensis of Lower Moshi, Kilimanjaro region of north-eastern Tanzania. Methods WHO susceptibility test kits were used to detect resistance to permethrin in An. arabiensis. The levels and mechanisms of permethrin resistance were determined using CDC bottle bioassays and microplate (biochemical assays. In bottle bioassays, piperonyl butoxide (PBO and s,s,s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF were used as synergists to inhibit mixed function oxidases and non-specific esterases respectively. Biochemical assays were carried out in individual mosquitoes to detect any increase in the activity of enzymes typically involved in insecticide metabolism (mixed function oxidases, α- and β-esterases. Results Anopheles arabiensis from the study area was found to be partially resistant to permethrin, giving only 87% mortality in WHO test kits. Resistance ratios at KT50 and KT95 were 4.0 and 4.3 respectively. The permethrin resistance was partially synergized by DEF and by PBO when these were mixed with permethrin in bottle bioassays and was fully synergized when DEF and PBO were used together. The levels of oxidase and β-esterase activity were significantly higher in An. arabiensis from Lower Moshi than in the laboratory susceptible strain. There was no difference in α-esterase activity between the two strains. Conclusion Elevated levels of mixed function oxidases and β-esterases play a role in detoxification of permethrin in the resistant An. arabiensis population

  5. Effects of limited access dressing in chronic wounds: A biochemical and histological study

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    Thittamaranahalli Muguregowda Honnegowda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative pressure wound therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment modality for the management and healing of chronic ulcers. Though numerous clinical studies are available, there is a lack of biochemical and histological studies evaluating the healing of chronic wounds. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total 60 patients were divided into two groups: Limited access dressing (LAD group (n = 30 and conventional dressing group (n = 30. Various biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, total protein and antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and oxidative biomarker malondialdhyde (MDA are measured in the granulation tissue. Histologically amount of inflammatory infiltrate, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition are studied to assess wound healing. Results: Patients treated with LAD have shown significant increase in the mean (±standard deviation hydroxyproline (77.3 ± 30.1 vs. 32.3 ± 16.18; P = 0.026, total protein (13.89 ± 9.0 vs. 8.9 ± 4.59; P = 0.004, GSH (7.4 ± 1.91 vs. 5.1 ± 1.28; P = 0.039, GPx (122.3 ± 59.3 vs. 88.7 ± 34.11; P = 0.030, CAT (1.80 ± 1.14 vs. 0.9 ± 0.71; P = 0.002 and decrease in MDA (13.4 ± 5.5 vs. 8.6 ± 3.8; P = 0.004. Histological study showed comparatively fewer inflammatory cells, increased and well organised collagen bundles, and more angiogenesis in the LAD group when compared with that with conventional dressing after 10 days of treatment. Conclusion: In the present study, we have found beneficial effect of newer intermittent negative pressure therapy in combination with moist environment (LAD on chronic wound healing by increasing collagen deposition and angiogenesis; and reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory infiltrate.

  6. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  7. Morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa L. (cultivar MR219) to ion beam irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Pick Kiong LING; Ying Chian UNG; Sobri HUSSEIN; Abdul Rahim HARUN; Atsushi TANAKA; Hase YOSHIHIRO

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. Methods: In this study, the dry seeds of O. sativa were irradiated at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Gy, fol owed by in-vitro germination under control ed conditions. Morphological and biochemical studies were conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of O. sativa towards ion beam irradiation. Results: The study demonstrated that low doses (10 Gy) of ion beam have a stimulating effect on the height, root length, and fresh weight of the plantlets but not on the number of leaves. Meanwhile, doses higher than 10 Gy caused reductions in all the morphological parameters studied as compared to the control samples. The highest total soluble protein content [(2.11±0.47) mg/g FW] was observed in plantlets irradiated at 20 Gy. All irradiated plantlets were found to have 0.85%to 58.32%higher specific activity of peroxidase as compared to the control samples. The present study also revealed that low doses of ion beam (10 and 20 Gy) had negligible effect on the total chlorophyl content of O. sativa plantlets while 40 Gy had a stimulating effect on the chlorophyll content. Plantlets irradiated between 40 to 120 Gy were shown to be 0.38%to 9.98%higher in total soluble nitrogen content which, however, was not significantly different from the control samples. Conclusions:Carbon ion beam irradiation administered at low to moderate doses of 10 to 40 Gy may induce O. sativa mutants with superior characteristics.

  8. Fauna-associated Changes in Chemical and Biochemical Properties of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. TRIPATHI; B. M. SHARMA

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the impacts of abundance of woodlice, termites, and mites on some functional aspects of soil in order to elucidate the specific role of soil fauna in improving soil fertility in desert. Methods Fauna-rich sites were selected as experimental sites and adjacent areas were taken as control. Soil samples were collected from both sites. Soil respiration was measured at both sites. The soil samples were sent to laboratory, their chemical and biochemical properties were analyzed.Results Woodlice showed 25% decrease in organic carbon and organic matter as compared to control site. Whereas termites and mites showed 58% and 16% decrease in organic carbon and organic matter. In contrast, available nitrogen (nitrate and ammonical both) and phosphorus exhibited 2-fold and 1.2-fold increase, respectively. Soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity at the sites rich in woodlice, termites and mites produced 2.5-, 3.5- and 2-fold increases, respectively as compared to their control values. Fauna-associated increase in these biological parameters clearly reflected fauna-induced microbial activity in soil. Maximum decrease in organic carbon and increase in nitrate-nitrogen and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were produced by termites and minimum by mites reflecting termite as an efficient soil improver in desert environment. Conclusion The soil fauna-associated changes in chemical (organic carbon, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus) and biochemical (soil respiration, dehydrogenase activity) properties of soil improve soil health and help in conservation of desert pedoecosystem.

  9. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nectaroscordum Tripedale on Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Paydar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The therapeutic effects of traditional medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for many diseases have been proved. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of oral administration of different doses of hydroalcoholic extract of Nectaroscordum tripedale on biochemical factors. Method: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups of 8 animals as follows control group (recieved distilled water, control +50 mg/kg Nectaroscordum tripedale, diabetic control group (recieved distilled water, treatment group 1 (recieved 50mg/kg Nectaroscordum tripedale, treatment group 2 (recieved 100 mg/kg Nectaroscordum tripedales. The animals recieved Nectaroscordum tripedales extract by gavage for 21 days. Diabetes was induced by a single injection streptozotocin in rat (50 mg/kg b.w., ip. Before and 3 days after injection, 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment, the fasting glucose level and weight was measured. At the end of 21 days, blood samples collected from the heart puncture, after animals anesthetized with ether. The blood samples were analysed for lipid profile (total cholesterol, TG, HDL-c, LDL-c. Results: The results showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of Nectaroscordum tripedale could increase the average weight and decrease glucose in this period and also reduce cholesterol levels, triglyceride, and LDL-c dose dependent reduction at the end of 21 days (P <0/05. The hydroalcoholic extract of Nectaroscordum tripedale showed an overall beneficial effect on serum lipid profiles and biochemical factors. Conclusion: Nectaroscordum tripedale may act as an antidiabetic agent by increasing either the pancreatic secretion of insulin from the pancreas or its release from bound insulin and increasing insulin and improving pancreatic function. Moreover, the antioxidant properties may reduce the hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase.

  10. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  11. /sup 123m/Te-labeled biochemicals and method of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for preparing a /sup 123m/Te-labeled organic compound of the formula R-/sup 123m/Te-CH2-R', R being alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl or substituted aryl and R' being a steroidal side chain, alkyl amino acid or amino acid group, said process comprising the steps of: (A) reaching a /sup 123m/Te-symmetric diorgano ditelluride, R2/sup 123m/Te2, R being alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl or substituted aryl, with a hydride reducing agent and a source of alkali metal ions to form an alkali metal organo telluride M-/sup 123m/Te-R; (B) reacting said alkali metal organo telluride with a primary halogenated organic compound R/sub a/'-X, R/sub a/' being a 17 alkyl steroid group having 1-4 carbon atoms in said alkyl group, an alkyl amino acid group, or a group hydrolyzable to an alkyl amino acid group

  12. NONSELECTIVE BIOCHEMICAL METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF FUNGAL MASS AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN ESTUARINE DETRITAL MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assay of lipid and cell wall components can readily provide differentiation in reciprocal mixtures of bacteria and fungal monocultures. To test natural microbial assemblies, small plastic sheets were exposed in a subtropical estuary. The sheets were then transferred to a laborato...

  13. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 identified as autoantigens by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Muncrief, T;

    2000-01-01

    gel and their contents were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) or nanoelectrospray ionization time-of-flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) after in-gel digestion with trypsin. A database search identified the proteins as the C1 and C2 heterogeneous nuclear...

  14. Optimization of Biochemical Screening Methods for Volatile and Unstable Sesquiterpenoids Using HS-SPME-GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Trine Bundgaard Andersen; Federico Cozzi; Henrik Toft Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    HS-SPME-GC-MS has been suggested as a fast and robust analytical platform for the product characterization of sesquiterpene synthases. The choice of fiber and injection temperature can have a significant effect on the observed product profile, due to the chemical rearrangements that can occur on the fiber material. Here we present a systematic study on the effects of fiber choice and injection port temperature on the observed sesquiterpenoid profile of four sesquiterpene synthases expressed i...

  15. BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA-ENTERICA SEROVAR BERTA, AND COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR TYPING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. E.; Brown, D. J.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau;

    1992-01-01

    Strains of Salmonella enterica serovar berta (S. berta) from Denmark and seven other countries have been characterized with the aim of developing a rational typing strategy in connection with outbreak investigations, Biotyping divided the strains into H2S-positive (90 %) and H2S-negative (10 %) b...... with restriction enzyme analysis of plasmids seemed to be the most rational typing strategy for S. berta. The results indicated that S. berta strains regardless of geographical source or host are possibly clonal in nature....... %) biovars. Six percent of the strains were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Eighty-eight percent of the strains carried plasmids and 52 different plasmid profiles were recognized. Six of the common plasmid sizes in these profiles were shown by restriction enzyme analyses to contain more than...... one plasmid species. More than 90 % of the strains had the same ribotype with the restriction enzymes Sma I and EcoR I and the same whole cell protein profile. Outer membrane protein profiles and isoenzyme profiles were identical in all S. berta analysed. Plasmid profiling in combination...

  16. A view on chemical and biochemical engineering: Where are they going?

    OpenAIRE

    Veljković Vlada B.

    2002-01-01

    A short history of chemical and biochemical engineering is presented, both industrial and educational aspects being considered. The most important trend in the future development of bio/chemical engineering - biological engineering - is pointed out. The current state and near future of biotechnology are described.

  17. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes submitted to flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding is common in lowlands and areas with high rainfall or excessive irrigation. One major effect of this stress is the deprivation of O2 in the root zone, which affects several biochemical and morphophysiological plants processes. This study aimed to elucidate biochemical and physiological char...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2082 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment...