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Sample records for biochemical mechanisms ensure

  1. Different biochemical mechanisms ensure network-wide balancing of reducing equivalents in microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe

    2009-04-01

    To sustain growth, the catabolic formation of the redox equivalent NADPH must be balanced with the anabolic demand. The mechanisms that ensure such network-wide balancing, however, are presently not understood. Based on 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, metabolite concentrations, and cofactor specificities for all relevant central metabolic enzymes, we have quantified catabolic NADPH production in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Paracoccus versutus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Zymomonas mobilis. For six species, the estimated NADPH production from glucose catabolism exceeded the requirements for biomass synthesis. Exceptions were P. fluorescens, with balanced rates, and E. coli, with insufficient catabolic production, in which about one-third of the NADPH is supplied via the membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB. P. versutus and B. subtilis were the only species that appear to rely on transhydrogenases for balancing NADPH overproduction during growth on glucose. In the other four species, the main but not exclusive redox-balancing mechanism appears to be the dual cofactor specificities of several catabolic enzymes and/or the existence of isoenzymes with distinct cofactor specificities, in particular glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. An unexpected key finding for all species, except E. coli and B. subtilis, was the lack of cofactor specificity in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, which contrasts with the textbook view of the pentose phosphate pathway dehydrogenases as being NADP+ dependent.

  2. Biochemical mechanisms underlying atherogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.P.V.L.N. Srinivasa Rao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis remains one of the major causes of death and premature disability in developed countries. Though atherosclerosis was formerly considered a bland lipid storage disease, substantial advances in basic and experimental sciences have illuminated the role of endothelium, inflammation and immune mechanisms in its pathogenesis. Current concept of atherosclerosis is that of a dynamic and progressive disease arising from in- jury to endothelium, also known as endothelial dysfunction and an inflammatory response to that injury. The lesions of atherosclerosis occur principally in large and medium sized arteries. Atherosclerosis affects various regions of the circulation preferentially and can lead to ischemia of heart, brain or extremities resulting in in- farction.This produces distinct clinical manifestations depending on the vessel involved. Several predisposing factors to cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, infections act as triggers to the devel- opment of atherosclerosis by causing endothelial dysfunction and/or promoting inflammatory response. The evolution of pathogenetic mechanisms has passed through various directions such as oxidative stress, inflam- mation and immune responses. It is now known that all these are not acting independently but are interrelated and getting unified in the current concept of atherogenesis. The following discussion aims at providing an in- sight into these developments which can help in a better comprehension of the disease and management of its clinical complications

  3. Investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of industrial enterprises

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    Kozyk Vasyl V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of formation of the investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of industrial enterprises. It identifies the essence, composition, goals and means of functioning of this mechanism. It establishes sequence of the process of functioning of the investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of economic subjects. It marks out such particular types of this mechanism: mechanism of renovation of fixed assets of an enterprise, mechanism of formation of channels and network of sales of enterprise products, mechanism of expansion of production capacity of the enterprise on manufacture of traditional types of products, mechanism of introduction of new progressive production processes, mechanism of development and production of innovation products, and mechanism of reduction of the level of risk of investment activity of the enterprise. The article conducts modelling of the process of development and realisation of investment solutions on introduction of progressive technologies of manufacture of products at the enterprise. It offers a method of selection of the most competitive variant of technology of manufacture of products depending on the level of quality and also specific current capital outlays for their manufacture.

  4. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Aarthi R; Loudon, Jenifer A; Bennett, Phillip R

    2004-12-01

    Parturition involves the synchronization of myometrial activity and structural changes of the cervix, leading to regular co-ordinated uterine contractions and cervical dilatation and effacement. The biochemical events involved in parturition resemble an inflammatory reaction, with growing evidence pointing to a crucial role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in labour. There is accumulating evidence that there are common mediators involved in the regulation of 'labour-associated proteins', and that, in each case, an increase or decrease in gene expression mediates changes in their concentration. It is possible, therefore, that targeting these common mediators may represent newer strategies for the prevention of preterm labour. Our aim is to review the mechanical and biochemical mechanisms that may be involved in the processes of term and preterm labour. Specifically, we will consider the regulation of some of the 'labour-associated proteins', chemotactic cytokines, prostaglandins and enzymes of the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway and the oxytocin receptor.

  5. Combination of biochemical and mechanical cues for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-05-04

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

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    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  7. Mechanical and biochemical mapping of human auricular cartilage for reliable assessment of tissue-engineered constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeskern, Luc; Pleumeekers, Mieke M; Pawson, Duncan J; Koevoet, Wendy L M; Lehtoviita, Iina; Soyka, Michael B; Röösli, Christof; Holzmann, David; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Müller, Ralph; Stok, Kathryn S

    2015-07-16

    It is key for successful auricular (AUR) cartilage tissue-engineering (TE) to ensure that the engineered cartilage mimics the mechanics of the native tissue. This study provides a spatial map of the mechanical and biochemical properties of human auricular cartilage, thus establishing a benchmark for the evaluation of functional competency in AUR cartilage TE. Stress-relaxation indentation (instantaneous modulus, Ein; maximum stress, σmax; equilibrium modulus, Eeq; relaxation half-life time, t1/2; thickness, h) and biochemical parameters (content of DNA; sulfated-glycosaminoglycan, sGAG; hydroxyproline, HYP; elastin, ELN) of fresh human AUR cartilage were evaluated. Samples were categorized into age groups and according to their harvesting region in the human auricle (for AUR cartilage only). AUR cartilage displayed significantly lower Ein, σmax, Eeq, sGAG content; and significantly higher t1/2, and DNA content than NAS cartilage. Large amounts of ELN were measured in AUR cartilage (>15% ELN content per sample wet mass). No effect of gender was observed for either auricular or nasoseptal samples. For auricular samples, significant differences between age groups for h, sGAG and HYP, and significant regional variations for Ein, σmax, Eeq, t1/2, h, DNA and sGAG were measured. However, only low correlations between mechanical and biochemical parameters were seen (Rbiochemical map of human auricular cartilage. Regional variations in mechanical and biochemical properties were demonstrated in the auricle. This finding highlights the importance of focusing future research on efforts to produce cartilage grafts with spatially tunable mechanics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of drug resistance in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, H

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of our understanding of resistance mechanisms of three major classes of antifungal drugs for systemic use, amphotericin B (AMPH), flucytosine (5-FC) and several azole antifungals, in particular fluconazole (FLCZ), at the molecular and cellular levels. Although the number of reports of AMPH- or 5-FC-resistant fungal species and strains is limited, several mechanisms of resistance have been described. AMPH-resistant Candida have a marked decrease in ergosterol content compared with AMPH-susceptible control isolates. A lesion in the UMP-pyrophosphorylase is the most frequent determinant of 5-FC resistance in C. albicans. Recently resistance of C. albicans to azoles has become an increasing problem. Extensive biochemical studies have highlighted a significant diversity in mechanisms conferring resistance to FLCZ and other azoles, which include alterations in sterol biosynthesis, target site, uptake and efflux. Among them, the most important mechanism clinically is reduced access of the drug to the intracellular P450 14 DM target, probably because of the action of a multidrug resistance efflux pump, and overproduction of that target. However, other possible resistance mechanisms for azoles remain to be identified.

  9. Biochemical and mechanical characterization of Nereis worm jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomell, Christopher C.

    The ultimate goal of biomimetics is to elucidate the design principles governing performance in biological materials and apply them to engineering systems. Successful transfer of these principles will require a thorough understanding of the complex interplay between molecular composition, organization and mechanical properties of the material. This dissertation describes the mechanical and biochemical characterization of jaws from the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Nereid jaws possess remarkable mechanical properties considering their predominantly organic composition. Hardness and stiffness are comparable to human dentin. However, in stark contrast to dentin, in Nereis these properties are achieved without mineralization. The role of metal ions in jaw sclerotization is addressed. In the pristine state, Zn ions are concentrated at the tip and toothed-edge of the jaw and are critical for hardness and modulus; both properties are reduced by ˜70% following Zn removal by treatment with EDTA. Furthermore, metal content in the jaw can be manipulated by soaking Zn-depleted samples in metal solutions; the comparative effects of treatment with alternative transition metals under both dry and hydrated conditions are described. The molecular composition of the jaw is also addressed. Protein comprises ˜90% of the jaw mass; amino acid analysis indicates that histidine is increased in the hardened, Zn-rich tip. The major protein component in Nereid jaw extracts is purified and characterized by partial peptide mapping and isolation of a partial clone from a jaw pulp cDNA library. Nvjp-1 is a 38 kDa glycine- histidine-rich protein and is believed to be the principle structural protein in the hardened jaw tip. The effects of selected environmental factors on Nvjp-1 structure and assembly are described. Transition from low to high pH is accompanied by changes in secondary structure and a significant molecular elongation. Furthermore, exposure to transition metals, notably Zn and

  10. Biochemical mechanisms of signaling: perspectives in plants under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra

    2015-04-01

    Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security.

  11. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Sharma; Verma Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there.

  12. THE MECHANISM OF THE EFFICIENCY ENSURE INTERACTION OF AIR TRANSPORT SERVICES

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    O. S. Borysenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the mechanism of co-operation of the airline with the subjects of external environment is substantiated and it is defined that exactly on the basis of corporate relations at combination of three managing subjects and determination of their unique economic interests the process of intercommunication on providing of effectiveness of air transport service is provided.

  13. Modeling of some biochemical mechanisms of development of manganese hypermicroelementosis

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    O. V. Goncharenko

    2013-04-01

    , muscles, liver and spleen. It was accompanied by increasing calcium content in liver, heart, muscle, kidneys and bones as well as by disorders of Ca/Mg ratios. MnCl2causes significant redistribution of the microelements in the rats’ organs. It is characterized by a decrease of copper, zinc and nickel contents in almost all studied tissues. The most antagonistic effect of manganese manifested in relation to nickel and copper in heart and spleen. A reduction of zinc content was most pronounced in spleen, while its contents in bones and kidneys almost don’t change. The study of the impact of manganese on biochemical parameters of membranes proved for the first time the malfunction of erythrocytes’ membranes. It results in increasing sorption capacity of the red blood cells glycocalyx to alcian blue. Using the erythrocyte model we established that manganese cations cause a significant increase in sorption capacity of the red blood cells (53.4 ± 1.8% and their osmotic fragility, as evidenced by an increase of spontaneous hemolysis to 42%. The other evidence is the change of surface properties (glycocalyx, which indicated by an increase in the sialic acid content by 60% as compared with the control. The obtained data of the model study of the dynamics of the sorption capacity of erythrocytes glycocalyx to alcian blue, osmotic resistance of erythrocytes, activation of lipid peroxidation and increased level of sialic acid may be a signal that the primary mechanism of manganese intoxication is a damage of cell (plasma membranes. The data obtained on a mitochondrial model suggests that MnCl2, acting as an antagonist of magnesium, has the ability to disturb respiration and oxidative phosphorylation that inhibits the energy metabolism of a cell. Mitochondrial oxidation of malate+glutamate was affected by MnCl2 in narrow range concentrations 3–4.5 mM that cause disengagement (3 mM and complete inhibition (4.5 mM. The effectiveness of manganese intoxicated rats treatment

  14. A nonequilibrium diffusion and capture mechanism ensures tip-localization of regulating proteins on dynamic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Diffusive motion of regulatory enzymes on biopolymers with eventual capture at a reaction site is a common feature in cell biology. Using a lattice gas model we study the impact of diffusion and capture for a microtubule polymerase and a depolymerase. Our results show that the capture mechanism localizes the proteins and creates large-scale spatial correlations. We develop an analytic approximation that globally accounts for relevant correlations and yields results that are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Our results show that diffusion and capture operates most efficiently at cellular enzyme concentrations which points to in vivo relevance.

  15. Enzymology of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases: reaction mechanisms, inhibition and biochemical roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter J; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2014-02-15

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a large family of non-heme iron (II) dependent enzymes. CCDs catalyse the selective oxidative cleavage of carotenoids to produce apocarotenoids. Apocarotenoid derived molecules form important signalling molecules in plants in the form of abscisic acid and strigolactone and in mammals in the form of retinal. Very little is known biochemically about the CCDs and only a handful of CCDs have been biochemically characterised. Mechanistically, debate surrounds whether CCDs utilise a mono or dioxygenase mechanism. Here, we review the biochemical roles of CCDs, discuss the mechanisms by which CCD cleavage is proposed to occur, and discuss recent reports of selective CCD enzyme inhibitors.

  16. Mechanisms and Tools to Ensure the Economic Security of the Regions of Ukraine in the Process of Decentralization

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    Biluk Rostislav R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiation of the applied mechanisms and tools for systemic ensuring the economic security of the regions of Ukraine in the process of decentralized reorganization of the executive powers. It has been revealed that in Ukraine a considerable number of projects of laws have been developed, legislation acts and policy documents have been passed, declarative provisions for the decentralization of powers as well as for reforming the local governance have been presented. It has been confirmed that the decentralization of powers in Ukraine is a necessary step, given the European integration course of the both foreign policy and the internal economic development of the State. However, it has been determined that an administrative-territorial reform may not only positively affect the economic security of region, but can lead to some negative results as well. It has been found that such planning of both the economic development of region and ensuring its security, on the one hand, has its risks, and on the other hand, generates new opportunities and prospects. A complex mechanism for ensuring economic security of the region, including institutional, organizational and economic constituents, has been proposed.

  17. Stem Cell-Specific Mechanisms Ensure Genomic Fidelity within HSCs and upon Aging of HSCs

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    Bettina M. Moehrle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether aged hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs have impaired DNA damage repair is controversial. Using a combination of DNA mutation indicator assays, we observe a 2- to 3-fold increase in the number of DNA mutations in the hematopoietic system upon aging. Young and aged hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs do not show an increase in mutation upon irradiation-induced DNA damage repair, and young and aged HSPCs respond very similarly to DNA damage with respect to cell-cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. Both young and aged HSPCs show impaired activation of the DNA-damage-induced G1-S checkpoint. Induction of chronic DNA double-strand breaks by zinc-finger nucleases suggests that HSPCs undergo apoptosis rather than faulty repair. These data reveal a protective mechanism in both the young and aged hematopoietic system against accumulation of mutations in response to DNA damage.

  18. Engineering interpenetrating network hydrogels as biomimetic cell niche with independently tunable biochemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels have been widely used as artificial cell niche to mimic extracellular matrix with tunable properties. However, changing biochemical cues in hydrogels developed-to-date would often induce simultaneous changes in mechanical properties, which do not support mechanistic studies on stem cell-niche interactions. Here we report the development of a PEG-based interpenetrating network (IPN), which is composed of two polymer networks that can independently and simultaneously crosslink to form hydrogels in a cell-friendly manner. The resulting IPN hydrogel allows independently tunable biochemical and mechanical properties, as well as stable and more homogeneous presentation of biochemical ligands in 3D than currently available methods. We demonstrate the potential of our IPN platform for elucidating stem cell-niche interactions by modulating osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. The versatility of such IPN hydrogels is further demonstrated using three distinct and widely used polymers to form the mechanical network while keeping the biochemical network constant.

  19. Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms of Desiccation Tolerance in Bryophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryophytes, because they descend from the earliest branching events in the phylogeny of land plants, hold an important position in our investigations into the mechanisms by which plants respond to dehydration and by what paths such mechanisms have evolved. This is true regardless of what aspect of p...

  20. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF AUTOLYTIC PROCESSES OF MUSCULAR TISSUE OF FISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conducted researches allowed to establish that intensive disintegration of a muscular glycogen leads to sharp decrease in size рН muscular tissue in the sour party that in turn affects a chemical composition and physic-colloidal structure of proteins therefore: resistance of meat of fish to action of putrefactive microorganisms increases; solubility of muscle proteins, level of their hydration which is water connecting abilities decreases; there is a swelling of collagen of connecting fabric; activity of the cathepsin (an optimum рН 5,3 causing hydrolysis of proteins at later stages of an autolysis increases; the bicarbonate system of muscular tissue with release of carbon dioxide collapses; predecessors of taste and aroma of meat are formed; process of oxidation of lipids becomes more active. As a result of accumulation dairy, phosphoric and other acids in meat of fish concentration of hydrogen ions of that decrease рН is result increases. Sharply shown sour environment and availability of inorganic phosphorus is considered the reason of disintegration of an actin-myosin complex on actin and a myosin which begins after 8 hours of storage, i.e. there comes the period of relaxation of muscle fibers and the period of permission of an numbness, and then the last stage of maturing of meat – deep autolysis. Thus, on the basis of classical ideas of biochemical changes of meat of land animals and summarizing the obtained data on posthumous changes in muscular tissue of fishes, it is possible to draw a conclusion that they have similar nature of regularity in comparison with muscular tissue of land animals, but their main difference is higher speed of course of autolytic transformations. It in turn leads to faster change of FTS of meat of fishes who are the defining indicators when developing assortment groups of products taking into account stages of an autolysis in meat.

  1. Potential Biochemical Mechanisms of Lung Injury in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Wu, Jinzi; Jin, Zhen; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that the lung is one of the target organs for microangiopathy in patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes is associated with physiological and structural abnormalities in the diabetic lung concurrent with attenuated lung function. Despite intensive investigations in recent years, the pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic lung injury remain largely elusive. In this review, we summarize currently postulated mechanisms of diabetic lung injury. We mainly focus on the pathogenesis of diabetic lung injury that implicates key pathways, including oxidative stress, non-enzymatic protein glycosylation, polyol pathway, NF-κB pathway, and protein kinase c pathway. We also highlight that while numerous studies have mainly focused on tissue or cell damage in the lung, studies focusing on mitochondrial dysfunction in the diabetic lung have remained sketchy. Hence, further understanding of mitochondrial mechanisms of diabetic lung injury should provide invaluable insights into future therapeutic approaches for diabetic lung injury.

  2. Biochemical mechanisms for metaflumizone resistance in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiangrui; Sun, Xingxing; Su, Jianya

    2014-07-01

    The metaflumizone, which belongs to the class of voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers, was registered to control Spodoptera exigua on vegetables in China in 2009. The present study revealed S. exigua has developed high resistance to this novel chemistry insecticide shortly after 2-3 years application in Guangdong Province of China. The metabolic mechanisms for metaflumizone resistance in this insect were analysed. The inhibitor of esterases greatly potentiates the toxicity of this chemical against the field resistant populations. The synergism ratio is 5.7 and 3.4-fold for S. exigua collected from Huizhou, Guangdong Province in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The activity of esterases in field populations (HZ12) is also significantly greater than that in the susceptible strain, and further significantly increased by challenge with metaflumizone for 3 generations. However, the inhibitor of P450s or GSTs only has slight synergism on metaflumizone toxicity against resistant populations, and there are no obvious differences in activities of P450s or GSTs between resistant populations and the susceptible strain. These results suggest that esterases might take pivotal role in conferring metabolic resistance to metaflumizone in the field populations of S. exigua, and P450s or GSTs are not involved in this resistance. Moreover, flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) are discovered to involve in metaflumizone resistance in the field populations of S. exigua. The FMO inhibitor, methimazole, potentiates metaflumizone toxicity in resistant larva of this species substantially. The synergism ratios for methimazole in resistant populations HZ11 and HZ12 were 3.1 and 1.9, respectively. Enzymatic assays also revealed higher FMO activities in resistant populations than in the susceptible strain, and successive selection with metaflumizone further increased the FMO activity in the field resistant population, but not significantly. The higher FMO activities in the older larval

  3. Optical tweezers and multiphoton microscopies integrated photonic tool for mechanical and biochemical cell processes studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Faustino, W. M.; Fontes, A.; Fernandes, H. P.; Barjas-Castro, M. d. L.; Metze, K.; Giorgio, S.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2007-09-01

    The research in biomedical photonics is clearly evolving in the direction of the understanding of biological processes at the cell level. The spatial resolution to accomplish this task practically requires photonics tools. However, an integration of different photonic tools and a multimodal and functional approach will be necessary to access the mechanical and biochemical cell processes. This way we can observe mechanicaly triggered biochemical events or biochemicaly triggered mechanical events, or even observe simultaneously mechanical and biochemical events triggered by other means, e.g. electricaly. One great advantage of the photonic tools is its easiness for integration. Therefore, we developed such integrated tool by incorporating single and double Optical Tweezers with Confocal Single and Multiphoton Microscopies. This system can perform 2-photon excited fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation microscopies together with optical manipulations. It also can acquire Fluorescence and SHG spectra of specific spots. Force, elasticity and viscosity measurements of stretched membranes can be followed by real time confocal microscopies. Also opticaly trapped living protozoas, such as leishmania amazonensis. Integration with CARS microscopy is under way. We will show several examples of the use of such integrated instrument and its potential to observe mechanical and biochemical processes at cell level.

  4. A potential biochemical mechanism underlying the influence of sterol deprivation stress on Caenorhabditis elegans longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the biochemical mechanism for sterol-mediated alteration in aging in Caenorhabditis elegans, we established sterol depletion conditions by treating worms with azacoprostane, which reduced mean lifespan of adult C. elegans by 35%. Proteomic analyses of egg proteins from treated and un...

  5. The structure of sulfated polysaccharides ensures a carbohydrate-based mechanism for species recognition during sea urchin fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of barriers to inter-specific hybridization is a crucial step in the fertilization of free spawning marine invertebrates. In sea urchins, molecular recognition between sperm and egg ensures species recognition. Here we review the sulfated polysaccharide-based mechanism of sperm-egg recognition in this model organism. The jelly surrounding sea urchin eggs is not a simple accessory structure; it is molecularly complex and intimately involved in gamete recognition. It contains sulfated polysaccharides, sialoglycans and peptides. The sulfated polysaccharides have unique structures, composed of repetitive units of alpha-L-fucose or alpha-L-galactose, which differ among species in the sulfation pattern and/or the position of the glycosidic linkage. The egg jelly sulfated polysaccharides show species-specificity in inducing the sperm acrosome reaction, which is regulated by the structure of the saccharide chain and its sulfation pattern. Other components of the egg jelly do not possess acrosome reaction inducing activity, but sialoglycans act in synergy with the sulfated polysaccharide, potentiating its activity. The system we describe establishes a new view of cell-cell interaction in the sea urchin model system. Here, structural changes in egg jelly polysaccharides modulate cell-cell recognition and species-specificity leading to exocytosis of the acrosome. Therefore, sulfated polysaccharides, in addition to their known functions as growth factors, coagulation factors and selectin binding partners, also function in fertilization. The differentiation of these molecules may play a role in sea urchin speciation.

  6. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md Mahabub; Roychowdhury, Rajib; Fujita, Masayuki

    2013-05-03

    High temperature (HT) stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. HT-induced gene expression and metabolite synthesis also substantially improve tolerance. The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being adopted for developing HT tolerance in plants. This article reviews the recent findings on responses, adaptation, and tolerance to HT at the cellular, organellar, and whole plant levels and describes various approaches being taken to enhance thermotolerance in plants.

  7. The mechanism of selecting priority options and sequence of solutions to ensure the safety of towing caravan navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazhnyy A. I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers navigational safety movement of the towed object and tugboat. Some methods of alternatives choice of decision-maker persons (DMP to manage the safety of towing a caravan have been presented. Examples of navigation safety conditions, their operational relationship, critical and emergency character with respect to the predetermined position of the band have been given; the sequence of forming actions of the algorithm based on an assessment of possible losses for the sustainability of the towing operation has been proposed. The aim is to research and develop a sequence of logical conclusions for forming some mechanism to take corrective action when navigating the composition of the output of the towing caravan of navigation stable security situation for its return to the original settings of sustainable movement. To assess the risks of navigation functions the risk analysis method has been used, with further selection of management synthesized for towing process, taking into account the possible reaction of the "human element". For estimations well-known in the probability theory and mathematical statistics methods have been used. An iterative mathematical model of the tow caravan considering the posterior distribution of parameters caravan phase coordinates for the given cases has been built. The possibility of resource losses when choosing the optimal alternative has been investigated. It has been established that while selecting and adopting a single decision under risk, including alternatives to the losses, one can always find such an alternative which is able to ensure the management of the caravan navigational safety decreasing the probability of large losses. When operating the navigation state of towing caravan one should choose the optimal alternative that minimizes the possibility of the maximum cost, and then based on it to choose (with incomplete awareness of decision-makers optimal sequence of controls which in turn

  8. Biochemical and immunological mechanisms by which sickle cell trait protects against malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell trait (HbAS) is the best-characterized genetic polymorphism known to protect against falciparum malaria. Although the protective effect of HbAS against malaria is well known, the mechanism(s) of protection remain unclear. A number of biochemical and immune-mediated mechanisms have been proposed, and it is likely that multiple complex mechanisms are responsible for the observed protection. Increased evidence for an immune component of protection as well as novel mechanisms, such as enhanced tolerance to disease mediated by HO-1 and reduced parasitic growth due to translocation of host micro-RNA into the parasite, have recently been described. A better understanding of relevant mechanisms will provide valuable insight into the host-parasite relationship, including the role of the host immune system in protection against malaria. PMID:24025776

  9. The effect of tissue-engineered cartilage biomechanical and biochemical properties on its post-implantation mechanical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, C.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today's tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Focus has been on engineering cartilage with enhanced mechanical stiffness by reproducing native biochemical compositions. More recently, depth dependency of the biochemical content an

  10. Biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field population of Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthusamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance has been known to be prevalent in several insect species including mosquito. It has become a major problem in vector control programme due to pesticide resistance through detoxification enzymes. The present study investigated the toxicity of Ae. aegypti to organophosphates and pyrethroid insecticide and biochemical mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in larval population. Larval bioassay revealed an LC50 value of 0.734 ppm for dichlorvos and 1.140 ppm for λ-cyhalothrin exposure. Biochemical assay revealed increased activity of AChE (0.3 µmole/mg protein and GST in dichlorvos (1-1.5 µmole/mg protein treatment and esterase activity in λ-cyhalothrin treated compared to control activity. These studies suggest that AChE and GST is associated with organophosphate and esterase associated with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti.

  11. Cross-resistance of bisultap resistant strain of Nilaparvata lugens and its biochemical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shanfeng; Zhang, Runjie

    2011-02-01

    The resistant (R) strain of the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) selected for bisultap resistance displayed 7.7-fold resistance to bisultap and also had cross-resistance to nereistoxin (monosultap, thiocyclam, and cartap), chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and malathion but no cross-resistance to buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil. To find out the biochemical mechanism of resistance to bisultap, biochemical assay was done. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) activity in R strain was 2.71-fold that in susceptible strain (S strain), in which the changed activity for general esterase (EST) was 1.91 and for glutathione S-transferases only 1.32. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could significantly inhibit P450 activity (percentage of inhibition [PI]: 37.31%) in the R strain, with ESTs PI = 16.04% by triphenyl phosphate (TPP). The results also demonstrated that diethyl maleate had no synergism with bisultap. However, PBO displayed significant synergism in three different strains, and the synergism increased with resistance (S strain 1.42, Lab strain, 2.24 and R strain, 3.23). TPP also showed synergism for three strains, especially in R strain (synergistic ratio = 2.47). An in vitro biochemical study and in vivo synergistic study indicated that P450 might be play important role in the biochemical mechanism of bisultap resistance and that esterase might be the important factor of bisultap resistance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity play important role in bisultap resistance. We suggest that buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil could be used in resistance management programs for N. lugens via alternation and rotation with bisultap.

  12. Anti-crisis Regulation, Banking Supervision and Monetary Policy in the Mechanism of Ensuring Financial Stability of the Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Dovgan Zhanna N.

    2013-01-01

    The article develops a scheme of correlations of subjects of anti-crisis regulation and tools of support of financial stability of the banking system of Ukraine (FSBS). It analyses instruments of influence of the bodies of state regulation on financial stability of the banking system of Ukraine. It develops proposals with respect to improvement of the banking supervision in the context of ensuring FSBS of Ukraine. It studies interdependence between the type of the mode of national regulatory ...

  13. Biochemical mechanism of Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester (CAPE) selective toxicity towards melanoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kudugunti, Shashi K.; Vad, Nikhil M.; Whiteside, Amanda J.; Naik, Bhakti U.; Yusuf, Mohd. A.; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S.; Moridani, Majid Y.

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the in-vitro biochemical mechanism of caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) toxicity and eight hydroxycinnamic/caffeic acid derivatives in-vitro, using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular target in human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. Enzymatic reaction models using tyrosinase/O2 and HRP/H2O2 were used to delineate the role of one- and two-electron oxidation. Ascorbic acid (AA), NADH and GSH depletion were used as markers of quinone formation and oxidative stress ...

  14. Biochemical, mechanical, and spectroscopic analyses of genetically engineered flax fibers producing bioplastic (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Skórkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Maczka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The interest in biofibers has grown in recent years due to their expanding range of applications in fields as diverse as biomedical science and the automotive industry. Their low production costs, biodegradability, physical properties, and perceived eco-friendliness allow for their extensive use as composite components, a role in which they could replace petroleum-based synthetic polymers. We performed biochemical, mechanical, and structural analyses of flax stems and fibers derived from field-grown transgenic flax enriched with PHB (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate). The analyses of the plant stems revealed an increase in the cellulose content and a decrease in the lignin and pectin contents relative to the control plants. However, the contents of the fibers' major components (cellulose, lignin, pectin) remain unchanged. An FT-IR study confirmed the results of the biochemical analyses of the flax fibers. However, the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibers differed from that in the control, and a significant increase in the number of hydrogen bonds was detected. The mechanical properties of the transgenic flax stems were significantly improved, reflecting the cellulose content increase. However, the mechanical properties of the fibers did not change in comparison with the control, with the exception of the fibers from transgenic line M13. The generated transgenic flax plants, which produce both components of the flax/PHB composites (i.e., fibers and thermoplastic matrix in the same plant organ) are a source of an attractive and ecologically safe material for industry and medicine.

  15. CHOLINERGIC NEURONS OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN MEDIATE BIOCHEMICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING SLEEP HOMEOSTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchuk, Anna V.; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; McCarley, Robert W.; Basheer, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    The tight coordination of biochemical and electrophysiological mechanisms underlies the homeostatic sleep pressure (HSP) produced by sleep deprivation (SD). We have reported that during SD the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), extracellular nitric oxide (NO), adenosine [AD]ex, lactate [Lac]ex and pyruvate [Pyr]ex increase in the basal forebrain (BF). However, it is not clear whether all of them contribute to HSP leading to increased electroencephalogram (EEG) delta activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) recovery sleep (RS) following SD. Previously, we showed that NREM delta increase evident during RS depends on the presence of BF cholinergic (ChBF) neurons. Here, we investigated the role of ChBF cells in coordination of biochemical and EEG changes seen during SD and RS in the rat. Increases in low theta power (5–7Hz), but not high theta (7–9Hz), during SD correlated with the increase in NREM delta power during RS, and with the changes in nitrate/nitrite [NOx]ex and [AD]ex. Lesions of ChBF cells using IgG 192-saporin prevented increases in [NOx]ex, [AD]ex and low theta activity, during SD, but did not prevent increases in [Lac]ex and [Pyr]ex. Infusion of NO donor DETA NONOate into the saporin-treated BF failed to increase NREM RS and delta power, suggesting ChBF cells are important for mediating NO homeostatic effects. Finally, SD-induced iNOS was mostly expressed in ChBF cells, and the intensity of iNOS induction correlated with the increase in low theta activity. Together, our data indicate ChBF cells are important in regulating the biochemical and EEG mechanisms that contribute to HSP. PMID:25369989

  16. Investigation of the Biochemical Mechanism for Cell-Substrate Mechanical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Vincent Anthony

    Advancements in stem cell biology and materials science have enabled the development of new treatments for tissue repair. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), which are highly proliferative and can be induced to differentiate along several mesenchymal cell lineages, offer the possibility for pulpal regeneration and treatment of injured dentition. Polybutadiene (PB) may be used as a substrate for these cells. This elastomer can be spun casted into films of different thicknesses with different moduli. DPSCs grown on PB films, which are relatively hard (less than 1500 A thick), biomineralize depositing crystalline calcium phosphate without a requirement for the typical induction factor, dexamethasone (Dex). The moduli of cells track with the moduli of the surface suggesting that mechanics controls mineralization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the major effect of Dex on biomineralization is the result of its ability to alter cell mechanics or its ability to induce osteogenesis/odontogenesis. DPSCs sense substrate mechanics through the focal adhesions, whose function is in part regulated by the Ras homolog gene (Rho) and its downstream effectors Rho associated kinases (ROCKs). ROCKs control actin filament polymerization and interactions with myosin light chain. Because cells sense substrate mechanics through focal adhesion proteins whose function is regulated by ROCKs, the impact of a ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, was monitored. Blocking this pathway with Y-27632 suppressed the ability of DPSCs to sense the PB substrate. The cell modulus, plasma membrane stiffness, and cytosol stiffness were all lowered and biomineralization was suppressed in all cultures independent of substrate modulus or the presence of Dex. In other words, the inability of DPSCs to sense mechanical cues suppressed their ability to promote mineralization. On the other hand the expression of osteogenic/odontogenic markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) was enhanced, perhaps due to Y

  17. Mechanical, biochemical and morphometric alterations in the femur of mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Wilson Romero; Bertran, Celso Aparecido; Matsumura, Cintia Yuri; Santo-Neto, Humberto; Camilli, José Angelo

    2011-02-01

    The bone tissue abnormalities observed in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are frequently attributed to muscle weakness. In this condition, bones receive fewer mechanical stimuli, compromising the process of bone modeling. In the present study we hypothesize that other factors inherent to the disease might be associated with bone tissue impairment, irrespective of the presence of muscle impairment. Mdx mice lack dystrophin and present cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration that become more intense in the third week of life. As observed in humans with muscular dystrophy, bone tissue abnormalities were found in mdx mice during more intense muscle degeneration due to age. Under these circumstances, muscle deficit is probably one of the factors promoting these changes. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the changes that occur in the femur of mdx mice at 21 days of age when muscle damage is still not significant. The mechanical (structural and material) and biochemical properties and morphometric characteristics of the femur of mdx and control animals were evaluated. The results demonstrated a lower strength, stiffness and energy absorption capacity in mdx femurs. Higher values for structural (load and stiffness) and material (stress, elastic modulus and toughness) properties were observed in the control group. Mdx femurs were shorter and were characterized by a smaller cortical area and thickness and a smaller area of epiphyseal trabecular bone. The hydroxyproline content was similar in the two groups, but there was a significant difference in the Ca/P ratios. Thermogravimetry showed a higher mineral matrix content in cortical bone of control animals. In conclusion, femurs of mdx mice presented impaired mechanical and biochemical properties as well as changes in collagen organization in the extracellular matrix. Thus, mdx mice developed femoral osteopenia even in the absence of significant muscle fiber degeneration. This weakness of the mdx femur is

  18. Antiviral Mechanism and biochemical basis of the human APOBEC3 family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eImahashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The human APOBEC3 (A3 family (A, B, C, DE, F, G, and H comprises host defense factors that potently inhibit the replication of diverse retroviruses, retrotransposons, and the other viral pathogens. HIV-1 has a counterstrategy that includes expressing the Vif protein to abrogate A3 antiviral function. Without Vif, A3 proteins, particularly APOBEC3G (A3G and APOBEC3F (A3F, inhibit HIV-1 replication by blocking reverse transcription and/or integration and hypermutating nascent viral cDNA. The molecular mechanisms of this antiviral activity have been primarily attributed to two biochemical characteristics common to A3 proteins: catalyzing cytidine deamination in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA and a nucleic acid-binding capability that is specific to ssDNA or ssRNA. Recent advances suggest that unique property of A3G dimer/oligomer formations, is also important for the modification of antiviral activity. In this review article we summarize how A3 proteins, particularly A3G, inhibit viral replication based on the biochemical and structural characteristics of the A3G protein.

  19. Design of acoustic wave biochemical sensors using micro-electro-mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jane E.; Przybycien, Todd M.; Hauan, Steinar

    2007-03-01

    Acoustic wave biochemical sensors work by detecting the frequency shifts resulting from the binding of target molecules to a functionalized resonator. Resonator types currently in use or under development include macroscopic quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) as well as a number of different integrated Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) structures. Due to an increased resonator surface area to mass ratio, we believe that membrane-based MEMS systems are particularly promising with regard to sensitivity. Prototypes have been developed [S. Hauan et al., U.S. Patent Application (filed 6 Nov. 2003)] and preliminary calculations [M. J. Bartkovsky et al., paper 385e presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting, Nov. 2003; J. E. Valentine et al., paper 197h presented at the AICHE Annual Meeting, Nov. 2003] indicate significant improvements over other methods, both macroscopic and MEMS based. In this article we describe our work on a MEMS-based acoustic wave biochemical sensor using a membrane resonator. We demonstrate the effects of spatial distributions of mass on the membrane on sensitivity and show how to use this spatial sensitivity to detect multiple targets simultaneously. To do so we derive a function approximating the membrane response surface to spatial mass loadings under the applicable range of conditions. We verify the agreement using finite element methods, and present our initial sensitivity calculations demonstrating the advantages of variable mass loadings.

  20. Achieving a golden mean: mechanisms by which coronaviruses ensure synthesis of the correct stoichiometric ratios of viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Ewan P; Rakauskaite, Rasa; Taylor, Deborah R; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2010-05-01

    In retroviruses and the double-stranded RNA totiviruses, the efficiency of programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting is critical for ensuring the proper ratios of upstream-encoded capsid proteins to downstream-encoded replicase enzymes. The genomic organizations of many other frameshifting viruses, including the coronaviruses, are very different, in that their upstream open reading frames encode nonstructural proteins, the frameshift-dependent downstream open reading frames encode enzymes involved in transcription and replication, and their structural proteins are encoded by subgenomic mRNAs. The biological significance of frameshifting efficiency and how the relative ratios of proteins encoded by the upstream and downstream open reading frames affect virus propagation has not been explored before. Here, three different strategies were employed to test the hypothesis that the -1 PRF signals of coronaviruses have evolved to produce the correct ratios of upstream- to downstream-encoded proteins. Specifically, infectious clones of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus harboring mutations that lower frameshift efficiency decreased infectivity by >4 orders of magnitude. Second, a series of frameshift-promoting mRNA pseudoknot mutants was employed to demonstrate that the frameshift signals of the SARS-associated coronavirus and mouse hepatitis virus have evolved to promote optimal frameshift efficiencies. Finally, we show that a previously described frameshift attenuator element does not actually affect frameshifting per se but rather serves to limit the fraction of ribosomes available for frameshifting. The findings of these analyses all support a "golden mean" model in which viruses use both programmed ribosomal frameshifting and translational attenuation to control the relative ratios of their encoded proteins.

  1. Interspecies comparison of the mechanical properties and biochemical composition of byssal threads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Zeineb; Genard, Bertrand; Ibrahim, Neilly; Carrington, Emily; Babarro, José M F; Lok, Aynur; Flores, Augusto A V; Pellerin, Christian; Tremblay, Réjean; Marcotte, Isabelle

    2017-03-15

    Several bivalve species produce byssus threads to provide attachment to substrates, with mechanical properties highly variable among species. Here, we examined the distal section of byssal threads produced by a range of bivalve species (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus californianus, Pinna nobilis, Perna perna, Xenostrobus securis, Brachidontes solisianus and Isognomon bicolor) collected from different nearshore environments. Morphological and mechanical properties were measured, and biochemical analyses were performed. Multivariate redundancy analyses on mechanical properties revealed that byssal threads of M. californianus, M. galloprovincialis and P. nobilis have very distinct mechanical behaviours compared with the remaining species. Extensibility, strength and force were the main variables separating these species groups, which were highest for M. californianus and lowest for P. nobilis Furthermore, the analysis of the amino acid composition revealed that I. bicolor and P. nobilis threads are significantly different from the other species, suggesting a different underlying structural strategy. Determination of metal contents showed that the individual concentration of inorganic elements varies, but that the dominant elements are conserved between species. Altogether, this bivalve species comparison suggests some molecular bases for the biomechanical characteristics of byssal fibres that may reflect phylogenetic limitations.

  2. The biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of promutagenic aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, E.D.; Verdier, M.M.; Plewa, M.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Using specific monooxygenase and oxidase inhibitors in a plant cell/microbe coincubation assay, the biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of two aromatic amines were compared. The biological endpoints included mutation induction, inhibition of mutagenicity, viability of the plant cells (activating system), and viability of the microbial cells. The activation of m-phenylenediamine by TX1 cells was mediated by enzyme systems that were inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, potassium cyanide, methimazole, (+)-catechin or acetaminophen. The inhibition by metyrapone was attended by toxicity in the plant cells. These data implicate a TX1 cell peroxidase and a FAD-dependent monoxygenase in the plant activation of m-phenylenediamine. The TX1 cell activation of 2-aminofluorene was inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, 7,8-benzoflavone, acetaminophen or (+)-catechin.

  3. DMPD: The oxidation of lipoproteins by monocytes-macrophages. Biochemical andbiological mechanisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available logical mechanisms. Chisolm GM 3rd, Hazen SL, Fox PL, Cathcart MK. J Biol Chem. 1999 Sep 10;274(37):25959-62...onocytes-macrophages. Biochemical andbiological mechanisms. Authors Chisolm GM 3rd, Hazen SL, Fox PL, Cathcart

  4. Biochemical Mechanism of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-di; FENG Xia; LIN Qing-sheng; CHEN Huan-yu; LI Zhen-yu; YIN Fei; LIANG Pei; GAO Xi-wu

    2014-01-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole exhibits good efifcacy and plays an important role in controlling the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus. However, resistance to chlorantraniliprole has been observed recently in some ifeld populations. At present study, diamondback moths with resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistant ratio (RR) was 82.18) for biochemical assays were selected. The assays were performed to determine potential resistance mechanisms. The results showed that the selected resistant moths (GDLZ-R) and susceptible moth could be synergized by known metabolic inhibitors such as piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl-maleate (DEM) at different levels (1.68-5.50-fold and 2.20-2.89-fold, respectively), and DEM showed the maximum synergism in both strains. In enzymes assays, a high level of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in the resistant moth, in contrast, moths that are susceptible to the insecticide had only 1/3 the GST activity of the resistant moths. The analysis of short-term exposure of chlorantraniliprole on biochemical response in the resistant strain also showed that GST activity was signiifcantly elevated after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of chlorantraniliprole (about 1/3 LC50, 12 mg L-1) 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results show that there is a strong correlation between the enzyme activity and resistance, and GST is likely the main detoxiifcation mechanism responsible for resistance to chlorantraniliprole in P. xylostella L., cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) and carboxy-lesterase (CarE) are involved in to some extent.

  5. The biochemical mechanism of auxin biosynthesis by an arabidopsis YUCCA flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinhua; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Chen, Qingguo; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Ojha, Sunil; DuBois, Jennifer; Ballou, David; Zhao, Yunde

    2013-01-18

    Auxin regulates every aspect of plant growth and development. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that YUCCA (YUC) flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) catalyze a rate-limiting step in auxin biosynthesis and that YUCs are essential for many developmental processes. We proposed that YUCs convert indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) to indole-3-acetate (IAA). However, the exact biochemical mechanism of YUCs has remained elusive. Here we present the biochemical characterization of recombinant Arabidopsis YUC6. Expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli, YUC6 contains FAD as a cofactor, which has peaks at 448 nm and 376 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. We show that YUC6 uses NADPH and oxygen to convert IPA to IAA. The first step of the YUC6-catalyzed reaction is the reduction of the FAD cofactor to FADH(-) by NADPH. Subsequently, FADH(-) reacts with oxygen to form a flavin-C4a-(hydro)peroxy intermediate, which we show has a maximum absorbance at 381 nm in its UV-visible spectrum. The final chemical step is the reaction of the C4a-intermediate with IPA to produce IAA. Although the sequences of the YUC enzymes are related to those of the mammalian FMOs, which oxygenate nucleophilic substrates, YUC6 oxygenates an electrophilic substrate (IPA). Nevertheless, both classes of enzymes form quasi-stable C4a-(hydro)peroxyl FAD intermediates. The YUC6 intermediate has a half-life of ∼20 s whereas that of some FMOs is >30 min. This work reveals the catalytic mechanism of the first known plant flavin monooxygenase and provides a foundation for further investigating how YUC activities are regulated in plants.

  6. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Christopher B; Groves, Angela M; Jaggernauth, Smita U; Laskin, Debra L; Gow, Andrew J

    2017-08-01

    Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd) develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a computational model. Alterations in lung function in aging and Sftpd -/- mice have been inferred from fitting simple mechanical models to respiratory impedance data (Zrs), however interpretation has been confounded by the simultaneous presence of multiple coexisting pathophysiologic processes. In contrast to the inverse modeling approach, this study uses simulation from experimental measurements to recapitulate how aging and inflammation alter Zrs. Histologic and mechanical measurements were made in C57BL6/J mice and congenic Sftpd-/- mice at 8, 27 and 80 weeks of age (n = 8/group). An anatomic computational model based on published airway morphometry was developed and Zrs was simulated between 0.5 and 20 Hz. End expiratory pressure dependent changes in airway caliber and recruitment were estimated from mechanical measurements. Tissue elements were simulated using the constant phase model of viscoelasticity. Baseline elastance distribution was estimated in 8-week-old wild type mice, and stochastically varied for each condition based on experimentally measured alteration in elastic fiber composition, alveolar geometry and surfactant composition. Weighing reduction in model error against increasing model complexity allowed for identification of essential features underlying mechanical pathology and their contribution to Zrs. Using a maximum likelihood approach, alteration in lung recruitment and diminished elastic fiber density were shown predictive of mechanical alteration at

  7. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Massa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a computational model. Alterations in lung function in aging and Sftpd -/- mice have been inferred from fitting simple mechanical models to respiratory impedance data (Zrs, however interpretation has been confounded by the simultaneous presence of multiple coexisting pathophysiologic processes. In contrast to the inverse modeling approach, this study uses simulation from experimental measurements to recapitulate how aging and inflammation alter Zrs. Histologic and mechanical measurements were made in C57BL6/J mice and congenic Sftpd-/- mice at 8, 27 and 80 weeks of age (n = 8/group. An anatomic computational model based on published airway morphometry was developed and Zrs was simulated between 0.5 and 20 Hz. End expiratory pressure dependent changes in airway caliber and recruitment were estimated from mechanical measurements. Tissue elements were simulated using the constant phase model of viscoelasticity. Baseline elastance distribution was estimated in 8-week-old wild type mice, and stochastically varied for each condition based on experimentally measured alteration in elastic fiber composition, alveolar geometry and surfactant composition. Weighing reduction in model error against increasing model complexity allowed for identification of essential features underlying mechanical pathology and their contribution to Zrs. Using a maximum likelihood approach, alteration in lung recruitment and diminished elastic fiber density were shown predictive of mechanical

  8. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF MIXED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AND LOW POSITIVE TEMPERATURE ON ANIMALS’ ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovchenko O.L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, biochemical mechanisms of mixed effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR and cold on the body are not adequately studied, so this problem is urgent for modern medicine. Purpose of study. Establishing pathognomonic criteria and biochemical mechanisms of adverse effect of EMR on the organism of laboratory animals in conditions of cold stress. Materials and methods. The laboratory subacute experiment was carried out on mature white male rats of WAG line, weighing 190-220 g for 1 month. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals in each group. The first group was subjected to the isolated action of electromagnetic radiation (frequency 70 kHz, tension 600 V/m at a comfortable air temperature of 25 ± 2 ° C. The second group was subjected to the mixed action of EMR and low temperature 4 ± 2°C. The third group served as a control with regard to the first group, and the fourth group - with regard to the second, at air temperature of 25 ± 2°C. Expositions were carried out 5 times a week (for 4:00 every day. To identify changes in biochemical parameters studied during the experiments, blood sampling was performed at the stages of 5, 15, 30 days and urine sampling – at the stages of 15, 30 days in dynamics. Blood serum was used as biomaterial. It was determined the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, conjugated diene, content of SH-groups, superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, triglycerides, atherogenic index was determined, the level of urea, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, content of chlorides, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, glucose, and catalase activity. Renal function was studied by the content of creatinine, cholinesterase, urea, uric acid, chlorides, potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and glucose in urine. Results and discussion. The findings showed that the isolated action of EMR only led to a

  9. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms regulating Acanthamoeba castellanii adherence to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Arredondo, K J; Flores-Villavicencio, L L; Serrano-Luna, J J; Shibayama, M; Sabanero-López, M

    2014-04-01

    Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of infections such as amoebic keratitis (AK), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and cutaneous lesions. The mechanisms involved in the establishment of infection are unknown. However, it is accepted that the initial phase of pathogenesis involves adherence to the host tissue. In this work, we analysed surface molecules with an affinity for epithelial and neuronal cells from the trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. We also investigated the cellular mechanisms that govern the process of trophozoite adhesion to the host cells. We first used confocal and epifluorescence microscopy to examine the distribution of the A. castellanii actin cytoskeleton during interaction with the host cells. The use of drugs, as cytochalasin B (CB) and latrunculin B (LB), revealed the participation of cytoskeletal filaments in the adhesion process. In addition, to identify the proteins and glycoproteins on the surface of A. castellanii, the trophozoites were labelled with biotin and biotinylated lectins. The results revealed bands of surface proteins, some of which were glycoproteins with mannose and N-acetylglucosamine residues. Interaction assays of biotinylated amoebae proteins with epithelial and neuronal cells showed that some surface proteins had affinity for both cell types. The results of this study provide insight into the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of the Acanthamoeba infection process.

  10. Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms of Plant-Microbe-Metal Interactions: Relevance for Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena; Zhang, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Plants and microbes coexist or compete for survival and their cohesive interactions play a vital role in adapting to metalliferous environments, and can thus be explored to improve microbe-assisted phytoremediation. Plant root exudates are useful nutrient and energy sources for soil microorganisms, with whom they establish intricate communication systems. Some beneficial bacteria and fungi, acting as plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs), may alleviate metal phytotoxicity and stimulate plant growth indirectly via the induction of defense mechanisms against phytopathogens, and/or directly through the solubilization of mineral nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, iron, etc.), production of plant growth promoting substances (e.g., phytohormones), and secretion of specific enzymes (e.g., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase). PGPM can also change metal bioavailability in soil through various mechanisms such as acidification, precipitation, chelation, complexation, and redox reactions. This review presents the recent advances and applications made hitherto in understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of plant–microbe interactions and their role in the major processes involved in phytoremediation, such as heavy metal detoxification, mobilization, immobilization, transformation, transport, and distribution. PMID:27446148

  11. Modulation of Cell Sialoglycophenotype: A Stylish Mechanism Adopted by Trypanosoma cruzi to Ensure Its Persistence in the Infected Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; da Fonseca, Leonardo M.; da Silva, Vanessa A.; da Costa, Kelli M.; Morrot, Alexandre; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Previato, Jose O.; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease exhibits multiple mechanisms to guarantee its establishment and persistence in the infected host. It has been well demonstrated that T. cruzi is not able to synthesize sialic acids (Sia). To acquire the monosaccharide, the parasite makes use of a multifunctional enzyme called trans-sialidase (Tc-TS). Since this enzyme has no analogous in the vertebrate host, it has been used as a target in drug therapy development. Tc-TS preferentially catalyzes the transfer of Sia from the host glycoconjugates to the terminal β-galactopyranosyl residues of mucin-like molecules present on the parasite’s cell surface. Alternatively, the enzyme can sialylate/re-sialylate glycoconjugates expressed on the surface of host cells. Since its discovery, several studies have shown that T. cruzi employs the Tc-TS activity to modulate the host cell sialoglycophenotype, thus favoring its perpetuation in the infected vertebrate. In this review, we summarize the dynamic of host/parasite sialoglycophenotype modulation, highlighting its role in the subversion of host immune response in order to promote the establishment of persistent chronic infection. PMID:27242722

  12. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Mechanism of DNA Recognition by Arabidopsis ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Song

    Full Text Available Gaseous hormone ethylene regulates numerous stress responses and developmental adaptations in plants by controlling gene expression via transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3 and EIN3-Like1 (EIL1. However, our knowledge regarding to the accurate definition of DNA-binding domains (DBDs within EIN3 and also the mechanism of specific DNA recognition by EIN3 is limited. Here, we identify EIN3 82-352 and 174-306 as the optimal and core DBDs, respectively. Results from systematic biochemical analyses reveal that both the number of EIN3-binding sites (EBSs and the spacing length between two EBSs affect the binding affinity of EIN3; accordingly, a new DNA probe which has higher affinity with EIN3 than ERF1 is also designed. Furthermore, we show that palindromic repeat sequences in ERF1 promoter are not necessary for EIN3 binding. Finally, we provide, to our knowledge, the first crystal structure of EIN3 core DBD, which contains amino acid residues essential for DNA binding and signaling. Collectively, these data suggest the detailed mechanism of DNA recognition by EIN3 and provide an in-depth view at molecular level for the transcriptional regulation mediated by EIN3.

  13. A systems biology approach identifies the biochemical mechanisms regulating monoterpenoid essential oil composition in peppermint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto; Turner, Glenn W; Lee, James M; Croteau, Rodney B; Lange, B Markus

    2008-02-26

    The integration of mathematical modeling and experimental testing is emerging as a powerful approach for improving our understanding of the regulation of metabolic pathways. In this study, we report on the development of a kinetic mathematical model that accurately simulates the developmental patterns of monoterpenoid essential oil accumulation in peppermint (Mentha x piperita). This model was then used to evaluate the biochemical processes underlying experimentally determined changes in the monoterpene pathway under low ambient-light intensities, which led to an accumulation of the branchpoint intermediate (+)-pulegone and the side product (+)-menthofuran. Our simulations indicated that the environmentally regulated changes in monoterpene profiles could only be explained when, in addition to effects on biosynthetic enzyme activities, as yet unidentified inhibitory effects of (+)-menthofuran on the branchpoint enzyme pulegone reductase (PR) were assumed. Subsequent in vitro analyses with recombinant protein confirmed that (+)-menthofuran acts as a weak competitive inhibitor of PR (K(i) = 300 muM). To evaluate whether the intracellular concentration of (+)-menthofuran was high enough for PR inhibition in vivo, we isolated essential oil-synthesizing secretory cells from peppermint leaves and subjected them to steam distillations. When peppermint plants were grown under low-light conditions, (+)-menthofuran was selectively retained in secretory cells and accumulated to very high levels (up to 20 mM), whereas under regular growth conditions, (+)-menthofuran levels remained very low (<400 muM). These results illustrate the utility of iterative cycles of mathematical modeling and experimental testing to elucidate the mechanisms controlling flux through metabolic pathways.

  14. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical adaptative mechanisms in the ornamental Myrtus communis L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Álvarez, Sara; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús; Hernández, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Physiological and biochemical changes in Myrtus communis L. plants after being subjected to different solutions of NaCl (44, and 88 mM) for up to 30 days (Phase I) and after recovery from the salinity period (Phase II) were studied. Myrtle plants showed salinity tolerance by displaying a series of adaptative mechanisms to cope with salt-stress, including controlled ion homeostasis, the increase in root/shoot ratio, the reduction of water potentials and stomatal conductance to limit water loss. In addition, they displayed different strategies to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including limiting toxic ion accumulation in leaves, increase in chlorophyll content, and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, leaf anatomy and increases in catalase activity. Anatomical modifications in leaves, including a decrease in spongy parenchyma and increased intercellular spaces, allow CO2 diffusion in a situation of reduced stomatal aperture. In spite of all these changes, salinity produced oxidative stress in myrtle plants as monitored by increases in oxidative stress parameter values. The post-recovery period is perceived as a new stress situation, as observed through effects on plant growth and alterations in non-photochemical quenching parameters and lipid peroxidation values.

  15. Skin aging and oxidative stress: Equol's anti-aging effects via biochemical and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lephart, Edwin D

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen in biology is essential for life. It comes at a cost during normal cellular function, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative metabolism. Human skin exposed to solar ultra-violet radiation (UVR) dramatically increases ROS production/oxidative stress. It is important to understand the characteristics of human skin and how chronological (intrinsic) aging and photo-aging (extrinsic aging) occur via the impact of ROS production by cascade signaling pathways. The goal is to oppose or neutralize ROS insults to maintain good dermal health. Botanicals, as active ingredients, represent one of the largest categories used in dermatology and cosmeceuticals to combat skin aging. An emerging botanical is equol, a polyphenolic/isoflavonoid molecule found in plants and food products and via gastrointestinal metabolism from precursor compounds. Introductory sections cover oxygen, free radicals (ROS), oxidative stress, antioxidants, human skin aging, cellular/molecular ROS events in skin, steroid enzymes/receptors/hormonal actions and genetic factors in aging skin. The main focus of this review covers the characteristics of equol (phytoestrogenic, antioxidant and enhancement of extracellular matrix properties) to reduce skin aging along with its anti-aging skin influences via reducing oxidative stress cascade events by a variety of biochemical/molecular actions and mechanisms to enhance human dermal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A systems biology approach identifies the biochemical mechanisms regulating monoterpenoid essential oil composition in peppermint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto; Turner, Glenn W.; Lee, James M.; Croteau, Rodney B.; Lange, B. Markus

    2008-01-01

    The integration of mathematical modeling and experimental testing is emerging as a powerful approach for improving our understanding of the regulation of metabolic pathways. In this study, we report on the development of a kinetic mathematical model that accurately simulates the developmental patterns of monoterpenoid essential oil accumulation in peppermint (Mentha × piperita). This model was then used to evaluate the biochemical processes underlying experimentally determined changes in the monoterpene pathway under low ambient-light intensities, which led to an accumulation of the branchpoint intermediate (+)-pulegone and the side product (+)-menthofuran. Our simulations indicated that the environmentally regulated changes in monoterpene profiles could only be explained when, in addition to effects on biosynthetic enzyme activities, as yet unidentified inhibitory effects of (+)-menthofuran on the branchpoint enzyme pulegone reductase (PR) were assumed. Subsequent in vitro analyses with recombinant protein confirmed that (+)-menthofuran acts as a weak competitive inhibitor of PR (Ki = 300 μM). To evaluate whether the intracellular concentration of (+)-menthofuran was high enough for PR inhibition in vivo, we isolated essential oil-synthesizing secretory cells from peppermint leaves and subjected them to steam distillations. When peppermint plants were grown under low-light conditions, (+)-menthofuran was selectively retained in secretory cells and accumulated to very high levels (up to 20 mM), whereas under regular growth conditions, (+)-menthofuran levels remained very low (<400 μM). These results illustrate the utility of iterative cycles of mathematical modeling and experimental testing to elucidate the mechanisms controlling flux through metabolic pathways. PMID:18287058

  17. Development of enhanced radioprotectors - Biochemical and molecular genetical approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jung A [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To identify radio-protective agent candidate among medicinal plants and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the candidate material by using modern biochemical and molecular biological methods, we screened radio-protective activity among 48 medicinal plants. Seven samples showed above 20% protective activities against oxidative cell damage: Euryale ferox, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Eucomia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Nelumbo nucifera. We also screened for oxidative stress sensitizing activity among other 51 medicinal plants. Among those samples, 11 samples showed good sensitizing effect; Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Cridium officinale. We also reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. 165 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  18. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Vasdev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  19. Architectural and biochemical expressions of mustard gas keratopathy: preclinical indicators and pathogenic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNutt

    Full Text Available A subset of victims of ocular sulfur mustard (SM exposure develops an irreversible, idiotypic keratitis with associated secondary pathologies, collectively referred to as mustard gas keratopathy (MGK. MGK involves a progressive corneal degeneration resulting in chronic ocular discomfort and impaired vision for which clinical interventions have typically had poor outcomes. Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae similar to that observed in human casualties. However, a better understanding of the temporal changes that occur during the biphasic SM injury is crucial to mechanistic understanding and therapeutic development. Here we evaluate the histopathologic, biochemical and ultrastructural expressions of pathogenesis of the chronic SM injury over eight weeks. We confirm that MGK onset exhibits a biphasic trajectory involving corneal surface regeneration over the first two weeks, followed by the rapid development and progressive degeneration of corneal structure. Preclinical markers of corneal dysfunction were identified, including destabilization of the basal corneal epithelium, basement membrane zone abnormalities and stromal deformation. Clinical sequelae of MGK appeared abruptly three weeks after exposure, and included profound anterior edema, recurring corneal erosions, basement membrane disorganization, basal cell necrosis and stromal degeneration. Unlike resolved corneas, MGK corneas exhibited frustrated corneal wound repair, with significantly elevated histopathology scores. Increased lacrimation, disruption of the basement membrane and accumulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in the aqueous humor provide several mechanisms for corneal degeneration. These data suggest that the chronic injury is fundamentally distinct from the acute lesion, involving injury mechanisms that operate on different time scales and in different corneal tissues. Corneal edema

  20. Inheritance, Realized Heritability, and Biochemical Mechanisms of Malathion Resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Feng, Zi-Jiao; Li, Ting; Lu, Xue-Ping; Zhao, Jia-Jia; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-02-01

    To better characterize the resistance development and therefore establish effective pest management strategies, this study was undertaken to investigate the inheritance mode and biochemical mechanisms of malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), which is one of the most notorious pests in the world. After 22 generations of selection with malathion, the malathion-resistant (MR) strain of B. dorsalis developed a 34-fold resistance compared with a laboratory susceptible strain [malathion-susceptible (MS)]. Bioassay results showed that there was no significant difference between the LD50 values of malathion against the progenies from both reciprocal crosses (F(1)-SR and F(1)-RS). The degree of dominance values (D) was calculated as 0.39 and 0.32 for F(1)-RS and F(1)-SR, respectively. The logarithm dosage-probit mortality lines of the F(2) generation and progeny from the backcross showed no clear plateaus of mortality across a range of doses. In addition, Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences between the mortality data and the theoretical expectations. The realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.16 in the laboratory-selected resistant strain of B. dorsalis. Enzymatic activities identified significant changes of carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450 (general oxidases), and glutathione S-transferases in MR compared with the MS strain of B. dorsalis. Taken together, this study revealed for the first time that malathion resistance in B. dorsalis follows an autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic mode of inheritance and is closely associated with significantly elevated activities of three major detoxification enzymes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Short-chain carboxylic acids, a new class of teratogens: studies of potential biochemical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, M.E.; Rawlings, S.J.; Brown, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Certain short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCA) appear to share a common teratogenic potential, although the structural requirements for activity remain obscure. By using a whole rat embryo culture model system, several biochemical processes have been examined, either as potential initial sites of teratogenic action or as early steps in the pathway to malformation. Valproate, methoxyacetate, and butyrate were the prototype SCCA examined. Measurement of (/sup 14/C)glucose utilization and lactate production confirmed that energy production by the early organogenesis embryo is predominantly from glycolysis. While the positive control agent, iodoacetate, caused a significant inhibition of lactate production, none of the SCCA affected this process or glucose utilization at teratogenic concentrations. Pinocytosis by the visceral yolk sac (VYS) was measured by the uptake of (/sup 125/I)polyvinylpyrrolidone. This process ultimately supplies the embryo with amino-acids and is essential for normal development. SCCA induce morphological abnormalities of the VYS in embryo culture. Pinocytosis was slightly reduced by valproate, but not the other SCCA. However, comparison with the action of an antiserum, for which inhibition of pinocytosis is the initial teratogenic insult, suggests that this is not the mechanism for valproate. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into embryo or yolk sac was not affected after 3 hr of SCCA exposure, but there was a marked effect of the positive control, hydroxyurea. This suggests that DNA synthesis is not directly influenced by SCCA. It can be concluded that SCCA do not exert their teratogenic effects by actions on glycolysis; maintenance of cellular acetyl CoA; pinocytosis or DNA synthesis. These observations contrast with preliminary results which suggest significant effects of SCCA on embryonic and yolk sac lipid metabolic pathways.

  2. Short-chain carboxylic acids, a new class of teratogens: studies of potential biochemical mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, M E; Rawlings, S J; Brown, N A

    1986-01-01

    Certain short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCA) appear to share a common teratogenic potential, although the structural requirements for activity remain obscure. By using a whole rat embryo culture model system, several biochemical processes have been examined, either as potential initial sites of teratogenic action or as early steps in the pathway to malformation. Valproate, methoxyacetate, and butyrate were the prototype SCCA examined. Measurement of [14C]glucose utilization and lactate production confirmed that energy production by the early organogenesis embryo is predominantly from glycolysis. While the positive control agent, iodoacetate, caused a significant inhibition of lactate production, none of the SCCA affected this process or glucose utilization at teratogenic concentrations. Valproate did not influence embryonic acetyl CoA levels, in marked contrast to the reported response of adult liver, the other major target of valproate toxicity. Pinocytosis by the visceral yolk sac (VYS) was measured by the uptake of [125I]polyvinylpyrrolidone. This process ultimately supplies the embryo with amino-acids and is essential for normal development. SCCA induce morphological abnormalities of the VYS in embryo culture. Pinocytosis was slightly reduced by valporate, but not the other SCCA. However, comparison with the action of an antiserum, for which inhibition of pinocytosis is the initial teratogenic insult, suggests that this is not the mechanism for valproate. Incorporation of [3H]thymidine into embryo or yolk sac was not affected after 3 hr of SCCA exposure, but there was a marked effect of the positive control, hydroxyurea. This suggests that DNA synthesis is not directly influenced by SCCA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3830097

  3. The effect of tissue-engineered cartilage biomechanical and biochemical properties on its post-implantation mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgoftar, Mehdi; Wilson, Wouter; Ito, Keita; van Donkelaar, Corrinus C

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today's tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Focus has been on engineering cartilage with enhanced mechanical stiffness by reproducing native biochemical compositions. More recently, depth dependency of the biochemical content and the collagen network architecture has gained interest. However, it is unknown whether the mechanical performance of TE cartilage would benefit more from higher content of biochemical compositions or from achieving an appropriate collagen organization. Furthermore, the relative synthesis rate of collagen and proteoglycans during the TE process may affect implant performance. Such insights would assist tissue engineers to focus on those aspects that are most important. The aim of the present study is therefore to elucidate the relative importance of implant ground substance stiffness, collagen content, and collagen architecture of the implant, as well as the synthesis rate of the biochemical constituents for the post-implantation mechanical behavior of the implant. We approach this by computing the post-implantation mechanical conditions using a composition-based fibril-reinforced poro-viscoelastic swelling model of the medial tibia plateau. Results show that adverse implant composition and ultrastructure may lead to post-implantation excessive mechanical loads, with collagen orientation being the most critical variable. In addition, we predict that a faster synthesis rate of proteoglycans compared to that of collagen during TE culture may result in excessive loads on collagen fibers post-implantation. This indicates that even with similar final contents, constructs may behave differently depending on their development. Considering these aspects may help to engineer TE cartilage implants with improved survival rates.

  4. Biochemical Mechanism of the Eutrophication and Its Prevention--the Deep Treatment of Waste Water and Its Denitrification and Dephosphorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongshan; Li Songqiang

    2003-01-01

    Biochemical mechanism of forming the red tide is discussed in this paper. The existence of a large number of nitrates and phosphates in the eutrophic water is the prerequisite of explosive increase of algae and the forming of red tide. Reduction of eutrophication is an important approach to preventing the red tide. The method of deep treatment of the waste water and its denitrification and dephosphorization are introduced, and a new opinion on the red tide formation and fundamental prevention is put forward.

  5. Gray box modeling of MSW degradation: Revealing its dominant (bio)chemical mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Turnhout, A.G.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to describe organic degradation within immobile water regions of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills which is best described by the term “gray box” model. We use a simplified set of dominant (bio)chemical and physical reactions and realistic environmental condi

  6. Biochemical Analysis Reveals the Multifactorial Mechanism of Histone H3 Clipping by Chicken Liver Histone H3 Protease

    KAUST Repository

    Chauhan, Sakshi

    2016-09-02

    Proteolytic clipping of histone H3 has been identified in many organisms. Despite several studies, the mechanism of clipping, the substrate specificity, and the significance of this poorly understood epigenetic mechanism are not clear. We have previously reported histone H3 specific proteolytic clipping and a protein inhibitor in chicken liver. However, the sites of clipping are still not known very well. In this study, we attempt to identify clipping sites in histone H3 and to determine the mechanism of inhibition by stefin B protein, a cysteine protease inhibitor. By employing site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro biochemical assays, we have identified three distinct clipping sites in recombinant human histone H3 and its variants (H3.1, H3.3, and H3t). However, post-translationally modified histones isolated from chicken liver and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type cells showed different clipping patterns. Clipping of histone H3 N-terminal tail at three sites occurs in a sequential manner. We have further observed that clipping sites are regulated by the structure of the N-terminal tail as well as the globular domain of histone H3. We also have identified the QVVAG region of stefin B protein to be very crucial for inhibition of the protease activity. Altogether, our comprehensive biochemical studies have revealed three distinct clipping sites in histone H3 and their regulation by the structure of histone H3, histone modifications marks, and stefin B.

  7. Metabolic correction: a functional biochemical mechanism against disease--Part 1: concept and historical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Michael J; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Duconge, Jorge; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Jiménez-Ramírez, Francisco J; Cintrón, Kenneth; Rodríguez-Gómez, Jose R; Rosario, Glorivee; Ricart, Carlos; Santiago-Cornier, Juan A; Zaragoza-Urdaz, Rafael; Vázquez, Alex; Hickey, Steve; Jabbar-Berdiel, Miguel; Riordan, Neil; Ichim, Thomas; Santiago, Oscar; Alvarado, Gilberto; Vora, Pramod

    2015-03-01

    Human physiology depends on countless biochemical reactions, numerous of which are co-dependent and interrelated. The speed and level of completion of reactions usually depend on the availability of precursors and enzymes. The enzymatic activity depends on the bioavailability of micronutrient cofactors such as vitamins and minerals. In order to achieve a healthy physiological state, the organism requires that biochemical reactions occur at a controlled rate. To achieve this state it is required that metabolic reactions reach what can be considered an optimal metabolic equilibrium. A combination of genetic makeup, dietary patterns, trauma, disease, toxins, medications, and environmental stressors can elevate the demand for the nutrients needed to reach this optimal metabolic equilibrium. In this, part 1, the general concept of metabolic correction is presented with an elaboration explaining how this concept is increasing in importance as we become aware of the presence of genetic variants that affect enzymatic reactions causing metabolic disturbances that themselves favor or promote the disease state. In addition, part 1 reviews how prominent scientists have contributed in fundamental ways to our understanding of the importance of micronutrients in health and disease and in the development of the metabolic correction concept.

  8. Ensuring access to psychotropic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-04

    Sep 4, 2007 ... Options for sourcing of quality drugs are outlined with practical examples. An argument is ... that of ensuring a regular, adequate supply of appropriate, safe, .... points in the chain means that there have been more failures.

  9. Biochemical mechanism of action of a diketopiperazine inactivator of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einholm, Anja P; Pedersen, Katrine E; Wind, Troels

    2003-01-01

    . Serpins inhibit their target proteases by the P(1) residue of their reactive centre loop (RCL) forming an ester bond with the active-site serine residue of the protease, followed by insertion of the RCL into the serpin's large central beta-sheet A. In the present study, we show that the RCL of XR5118......-called latent form of PAI-1. Alanine substitution of several individual residues decreased the susceptibility of PAI-1 to XR5118. The localization of these residues in the three-dimensional structure of PAI-1 suggested that the XR5118-induced inactivating conformational change requires mobility of alpha-helix F......, situated above beta-sheet A, and is in agreement with the hypothesis that XR5118 binds laterally to beta-sheet A. These results improve our understanding of the unique conformational flexibility of serpins and the biochemical basis for using PAI-1 as a therapeutic target. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Aug-1...

  10. Structural and biochemical mechanism responsible for the stay-green phenotype in common wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Peigao; REN Zhenglong; WU Xianhua; ZHANG Huaiyu; ZHANG Huaiqiong; FENG Juan

    2006-01-01

    In order to increase the supply of assimilated carbon to grain, a new stay-green wheat cultivar, Chuannong17 (CN17), with delayed leaf senescence, carrying wheat-rye 1RS.1BL translocated chromosome was developed. CN17 exhibited distinct differences in net photosynthetic rate (Pn),chlorophyll (ChI) content, malondialdehyde (MDA)content, activity of both superoxide dismutase (SOD)and catalase (CAT) during the grain filling stage, and flag leaf senescence compared with the control. The new cultivar maintained longer and higher photosynthetic competence compared with the control, and this aspect correlated with the difference in chloroplast development. Moreover, the stay-green phenotype of CN17 was also observed under natural growth conditions. Consequently, the coordination of the physiological, biochemical, and structural aspects in the stay-green cultivar produced higher seed weights and per-plant yield compared with the control cultivar.

  11. Dynamic modelling and analysis of biochemical networks: mechanism-based models and model-based experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Natal A W

    2006-12-01

    Systems biology applies quantitative, mechanistic modelling to study genetic networks, signal transduction pathways and metabolic networks. Mathematical models of biochemical networks can look very different. An important reason is that the purpose and application of a model are essential for the selection of the best mathematical framework. Fundamental aspects of selecting an appropriate modelling framework and a strategy for model building are discussed. Concepts and methods from system and control theory provide a sound basis for the further development of improved and dedicated computational tools for systems biology. Identification of the network components and rate constants that are most critical to the output behaviour of the system is one of the major problems raised in systems biology. Current approaches and methods of parameter sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation are reviewed. It is shown how these methods can be applied in the design of model-based experiments which iteratively yield models that are decreasingly wrong and increasingly gain predictive power.

  12. Curcumin Stimulates Biochemical Mechanisms of Apis Mellifera Resistance and Extends the Apian Life-Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachecka Aneta J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of curcumin-supplemented feeding on worker lifespan, Nosema resistance, key enzyme activities, metabolic compound concentrations and percentage of the global DNA methylation. Two worker groups (Apis mellifera were set up: 1 control group; workers were fed ad libitum with sucrose syrup; 2 workers were fed with the syrup with the addition of curcumin. Dead workers were removed every two days and the Nosema spp. infection levels were assessed. Hemolymph was taken from living workers for biochemical analyses. The global DNA methylation level was analysed using DNA from worker heads and thoraces. The bees that consumed curcumin lived longer and were less infested with Nosema spp. The curcumin-treated workers had higher concentrations of proteins, non-enzymatic biomarkers (triglycerides, glucose, cholesterol, Mg2+ and Ca2+, uric acid and creatinine, as well as elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD , GPx, CAT , GST , neutral proteases, protease inhibitors, enzymatic biomarkers (AST , ALT , ALP . The concentrations of albumin and urea, and the activities of acidic and alkaline proteases were higher in the control group. Curcumin decreased global DNA methylation levels especially in older bees in which the natural, age-related level increase was observed. Most of the parameters increased over the apian youth and adulthood, and decreased in older bees. The decrease was markedly delayed in the bees fed with curcumin. Curcumin appeared to be an unexpectedly effective natural bio-stimulator, improving apian health and vitality. This multifactorial effect is caused by the activation of many biochemical processes involved in the formation of apian resistance.

  13. Biochemical Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential of the Pseudohalide Thiocyanate in Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Joshua D.; Day, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Thiocyanate (SCN−) is an ubiquitous molecule in mammalian biology, reaching up to mM concentrations in extracellular fluids. Two-electron oxidation of SCN− by H2O2 produces hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), a potent antimicrobial species. This reaction is catalyzed by chordate peroxidases (e.g., myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase), occurring in human secretory mucosa, including the oral cavity, airway and alimentary tract, and regulates resident and transient flora as part of innate immunity. Increasing SCN− levels limits the concentrations of a family of 2-electron oxidants (H2O2, hypohalous acids and haloamines) in favor of HOSCN formation, altering the oxidative impact on host tissue by substitution of repairable thiol and selenol oxidations instead of biomolecule degradation. This fine-tuning of inflammatory oxidation paradoxically associates with maintained host defense and decreased host injury during infections, due in part to phylogenetic differences in the thioredoxin reductase system between mammals and their pathogens. These differences could be exploited by pharmacologic use of SCN−. Recent preclinical studies have identified antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of SCN− in pulmonary and cardiovascular animal models, with implications for treatment of infectious lung disease and atherogenesis. Further research is merited to expand on these findings and identify other diseases where SCN− may be of use. High oral bioavailability and an increased knowledge of the biochemical effects of SCN− on a subset of pro-inflammatory reactions suggest clinical utility. PMID:25564094

  14. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    Forest protection projects with the aim to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation while ensuring social co-benefits (REDD+) are introduced at a fast pace and extensive scale across the global South as an instrument to mitigate climate change. Besides the intended positive outc...

  15. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  16. Ensuring Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  17. Ensuring Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  18. An overview of three promising mechanical, optical, and biochemical engineering approaches to improve selective photothermolysis of refractory port wine stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Choi, Bernard; Broekgaarden, Mans; Yang, Owen; Yang, Bruce; Ghasri, Pedram; Chen, Jennifer K; Bezemer, Rick; Nelson, J Stuart; van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Kelly, Kristen M; Heger, Michal

    2012-02-01

    During the last three decades, several laser systems, ancillary technologies, and treatment modalities have been developed for the treatment of port wine stains (PWSs). However, approximately half of the PWS patient population responds suboptimally to laser treatment. Consequently, novel treatment modalities and therapeutic techniques/strategies are required to improve PWS treatment efficacy. This overview therefore focuses on three distinct experimental approaches for the optimization of PWS laser treatment. The approaches are addressed from the perspective of mechanical engineering (the use of local hypobaric pressure to induce vasodilation in the laser-irradiated dermal microcirculation), optical engineering (laser-speckle imaging of post-treatment flow in laser-treated PWS skin), and biochemical engineering (light- and heat-activatable liposomal drug delivery systems to enhance the extent of post-irradiation vascular occlusion).

  19. Biochemical mechanisms in drug-induced liver injury: Certainties and doubts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignazio Grattagliano; Leonilde Bonfrate; Catia V Diogo; Helen H Wang; David QH Wang; Piero Portincasa

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a significant and still unresolved clinical problem. Limitations to knowledge about the mechanisms of toxicity render incomplete the detection of hepatotoxic potential during preclinical development. Several xenobiotics are lipophilic substances and their transformation into hydrophilic compounds by the cytochrome P-450 system results in production of toxic metabolites. Aging, preexisting liver disease, enzyme induction or inhibition, genetic variances, local O_2 supply and, above all, the intrinsic molecular properties of the drug may affect this process. Necrotic death follows antioxidant consumption and oxidation of intracellular proteins, which determine increased permeability of mitochondrial membranes, loss of potential, decreased ATP synthesis, inhibition of Ca~(2+)-dependent ATPase, reduced capability to sequester Ca~(2+) within mitochondria, and membrane bleb formation. Conversely, activation of nucleases and energetic participation of mitochondria are the main intracellular mechanisms that lead to apoptosis. Non-parenchymal hepatic cells are inducers of hepatocellular injury and targets for damage. Activation of the immune system promotes idiosyncratic reactions that result in hepatic necrosis or cholestasis, in which different HLA genotypes might play a major role. This review focuses on current knowledge of the mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury and recent advances on newly discovered mechanisms of liver damage. Future perspectives including new frontiers for research are discussed.

  20. Biochemical analysis of the response in rat bone marrow cell cultures to mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, T; Peel, S A; Gladstone, J R; Davies, J E

    1997-01-01

    Bone marrow cells obtained from rat femora were subjected to primary culture with 15% fetal bovine serum in the presence of 10(-8) M dexamethasone, and following trypsin treatment 5 days later were seeded on Petriperm dishes which have a flexible bottom. After a 2-day subculture, a cyclic stress consisting of a 1 s stretch (0.3% strain. 0.5 Hz) and a 1 s relaxation for 30 min every day was started. Culture tissue was removed on day 2 of the subculture (immediately prior to start of stimulation), and then on days 5 and 8 (3 and 6 days after the start of stimulation, respectively), at which times dry weight, DNA, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bone Gla protein (BGP, osteocalcin) were measured. Both the dry weight and DNA showed a significant increase in the stimulated group by day 8, while the ALP activity showed a significant increase by day 5. The BGP began to increase in the stimulated group on day 5 in contrast to the control group in which it only increased on day 8. These results support the contention that mechanical stimulation promotes the differentiation of osteogenic cells and enhances bone formation. Since in this experimental model the acceleration of bone formation by mechanical stimulation can be reproduced in vitro, it is extremely useful for investigating the mechanisms underlying mechanical stimulation.

  1. BBB on chip: microfluidic platform to mechanically and biochemically modulate blood-brain barrier function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, L.M.; Wolbers, F.; de Wagenaar, B.; ter Braak, Paulus Martinus; Weksler, B.B.; Romero, A.; Couraud, P.O.; Vermes, I.; van der Meer, Andries Dirk; van den Berg, Albert

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a unique feature of the human body, preserving brain homeostasis and preventing toxic substances to enter the brain. However, in various neurodegenerative diseases, the function of the BBB is disturbed. Mechanisms of the breakdown of the BBB are incompletely

  2. BBB on chip: microfluidic platform to mechanically and biochemically modulate blood-brain barrier function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, L.M.; Wolbers, F.; Wagenaar, de B.; Braak, ter P.M.; Weksler, B.B.; Romero, A.; Couraud, P.O.; Vermes, I.; Meer, van der A.D.; Berg, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a unique feature of the human body, preserving brain homeostasis and preventing toxic substances to enter the brain. However, in various neurodegenerative diseases, the function of the BBB is disturbed. Mechanisms of the breakdown of the BBB are incompletely understo

  3. Ensuring Economic Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Though China's economy is breathing a sigh of relief after several nervous months,it is still not time to sit back and relax.Much needs to be done to ensure the sustainability of growth momentum.Guo Tianvong,Director of the Research Center of the China Banking Industry of the Central University of Finance and Economics,discussed this issue in an article recently published in the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow……

  4. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rachel E.; Waterworth, Wanda M.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E.; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M.; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. PMID:27811004

  5. Structure-function relationships in soft tissue mechanics: Examining how the micro-scale architecture of biochemical constituents effects health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David Sheldon

    Countless debilitating pathologies exhibit symptoms that result from altered mechanical behavior of soft tissue. Therefore, it is of clinical and economic importance to mechanically evaluate soft tissues and attribute degenerative changes to alterations in structural constituents. The studies presented here focus on the annulus fibrosus and the sclera. Failure in these tissues is common and catastrophic. The annulus fibrosus may fail, resulting in herniation and nerve impingement, or the disc may degenerate over time, resulting in reduced mobility and pain. Similarly, the sclera may degenerate over time with intraocular pressure spurring creep behavior that distends the eye beyond its ideal shape. This causes myopic vision and puts patients at risk of macular degeneration and retinal detachment. These two tissues share a common structural role as the outer wall of a pressure vessel. Also, they are made of strikingly similar constituents, primarily consisting of water, type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and elastin. The microstructure of these tissues, however, is very different. The annulus fibrosus is representative of an anisotropic tissue. Its well-organized fibril structure was analyzed via polarization modulated second harmonic microscopy in order to characterize fibril architecture. Structurally relevant biochemical constituents were quantified with biochemical assays. Morphologically healthy annulus tended to have a more highly organized microstructure and tended to absorb more strain energy when subject to a tensile load cycle. Given the strong correlation between fibril organization and select mechanical properties, predictive models will likely benefit from a characterization of fibril continuity and orientation coherence. The sclera is representative of an isotropic tissue. Its less-organized fibril structure has evolved to sustain biaxial plane stress. In the sclera, collagen content and associated crosslinks were primary determinants of stiffness

  6. Cross-resistance and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to indoxacarb in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Li, Dongyang; Wan, Hu; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    Indoxacarb belongs to a class of insecticides known as oxadiazines and is the first commercialized pyrazoline-type voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker. A moderate level of resistance to indoxacarb has evolved in field populations of Plutella xylostella from Central China. In the present study, cross-resistance, resistance stability and metabolic mechanisms of indoxacarb resistance were investigated in this moth species. A P. xylostella strain with a high level of resistance to indoxacarb was obtained through continuous selection in the laboratory. The strain showed cross-resistance to metaflumizone, beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr, but no resistance to cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, abamectin, chlorfluazuron, spinosad and diafenthiuron compared with the susceptible strain. Synergism tests revealed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) (synergistic ratio, SR=7.8) and diethyl maleate (DEF) (SR=3.5) had considerable synergistic effects on indoxacarb toxicity in the resistant strain (F58). Enzyme activity data showed there was an approximate 5.8-fold different in glutathione S-transferase (GST) and a 6.8-fold different in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase between the resistant strain (F58) and susceptible strain, suggesting that the increased activity of these two enzymes is likely the main detoxification mechanism responsible for the species' resistance to indoxacarb. These results will be helpful for insecticide resistance management strategies to delay the development of indoxacarb resistance in fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: review of mechanisms and biochemical biomarkers as assessed by the microdialysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdle B

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Björn Gerdle,1,2 Bijar Ghafouri,1,3 Malin Ernberg,4 Britt Larsson1,21Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden; 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Dental Medicine, Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenAbstract: Chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions are multifaceted, and approximately 20% of the adult population lives with severe chronic pain, with a higher prevalence in women and in lower income groups. Chronic pain is influenced by and interacts with physical, emotional, psychological, and social factors, and a biopsychosocial framework is increasingly applied in clinical practice. However, there is still a lack of assessment procedures based on the activated neurobiological pain mechanisms (ie, the biological part of the biopsychosocial model of pain, which may be a necessary step for further optimizing outcomes after treatments for patients with chronic pain. It has been suggested that chronic pain conditions are mainly driven by alterations in the central nervous system with little or no peripheral stimuli or nociception. In contrast, other authors argue that such central alterations are driven by peripheral alterations and nociceptive input. Microdialysis is an in vivo method for studying local tissue alterations and allows for sampling of substances in the interstitium of the muscle, where nociceptor free nerve endings are found close to the muscle fibers. The extracellular matrix plays a key role in physiologic functions of cells, including the primary afferent nociceptor. The present review mainly concerns the results of microdialysis studies and how they can contribute to the understanding of activated peripheral nociceptive and pain

  8. Hypoglycemic effects and biochemical mechanisms of oat products on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui-Ling; Cai, Feng-Li; Dong, Ji-Lin; Hu, Xin-Zhong

    2011-08-24

    Oat products are abundant in β-glucan, which could lower the glycemic index of products or foods. A low glycemic index is beneficial in the control of postprandial glycemia. The study examined the hypoglycemic effects of oat products that had the same percentage of oat β-glucan and were added into the diet fed to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice for 6 weeks, and potential mechanisms are discussed here. Oat products significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein (p 0.05). Oat products increased glycogen, hormone, and nuclear receptor levels (p oat products had hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemic effects of oat products might be regulating glucose and fat metabolisms, stimulating hormone secretion, activating the nuclear receptor, and protecting organ function.

  9. Growth capacity and biochemical mechanisms involved in rhizobia tolerance to salinity and water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhamdi, Rakia; Nouairi, Issam; ben Hammouda, Thouraya; Mhamdi, Ridha; Mhadhbi, Haythem

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate abiotic stress tolerance of rhizobial strains belonging to Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, and Rhizobium genera, as well as to investigate specie specific stress response mechanisms. Effect of NaCl and PEG on growth capacity, protein, lipid peroxydation (MDA), membrane fatty acid composition and antioxidant enzymes were investigated. Growth capacity and viability of overall rhizobia strains decreased proportionally to the increase of NaCl and PEG levels in the medium. Sinorhizobium strains appeared the most tolerant, where 4H41strain was able to grow at 800 mM NaCl and 40% PEG. On the other hand, growth of R. gallicum and M. mediterraneum was inhibited by 200 mM NaCl. The content of MDA was unchanged in Sinorhizobium strains under both stresses. For Mesorhizobium, only PEG treatment increased the content of MDA. Amount of the C19:0 cyclo fatty-acid was increased in both Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium tolerant strains. NaCl stress increased Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of overall species; especially the most tolerant strain 4H41. Both treatments increased catalase (CAT) activity in 4H41, TII7, and 835 strains. Obtained results suggest that major response of tolerant Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium strains to NaCl and PEG stresses is a preferential accumulation of the C19:0 cyclo fatty acid within bacterial membrane as mechanism to reduce fluidity and maintain integrity. Cell integrity and functioning is also assured by maintaining and/or increasing activity of SOD and CAT antioxidant enzymes for tolerant strains to omit structural and functional damages related to reactive oxygen species overproduced under stressful conditions.

  10. Insight Into the Radical Mechanism of Phycocyanobilin-Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase (Pcya) Revealed By X-Ray Crystallography And Biochemical Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, S.-L.; Rockwell, N.; Lagarias, J.C.; Fisher, A.J.; /Inst. Plant Microb. Biol., Taipei /UC, Davis

    2007-07-13

    The X-ray crystal structure of the substrate-free form of phycocyanobilin (PCB)-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA; EC 1.3.7.5) from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC7120 has been solved at 2.5 angstrom resolution. A comparative analysis of this structure with those recently reported for substrate-bound and substrate-free forms of PcyA from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Hagiwara et al. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 27-32; Hagiwara et al. (2006) FEBS Lett. 580, 3823-3828) provides a compelling picture of substrate-induced changes in the PcyA enzyme and the chemical basis of PcyA's catalytic activity. On the basis of these structures and the biochemical analysis of site-directed mutants of Nostoc PcyA, including mutants reported in recent studies (Tu et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 3127-3136) as well as mutants described in this study, a revised mechanism for the PcyA-mediated four-electron reduction of biliverdin IX{alpha} to 3E/3Z-phycocyanobilin via enzyme-bound bilin radical intermediates is proposed. The mechanistic insight of these studies, along with homology modeling, have provided new insight into the catalytic mechanisms of other members of the ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase family that are widespread in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms.

  11. THERMO-MECHANICAL PULPING AS A PRETREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS FOR BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP, an existing and well known technology in the pulp and paper industry, is proposed as a potential pretreatment pathway of agriculture biomass for monomeric sugar production in preparation for further fermentation into alcohol species. Three agricultural biomass types, corn stover, wheat straw, and sweet sorghum bagasse, were pretreated in a TMP unit under two temperature conditions, 160 ºC and 170 ºC, and hydrolyzed using cellulase at 5, 10, and 20 FPU/g OD biomass. Wheat straw biomass was further pretreated at different conditions including: i soaking with acetic acid, ii longer steaming residence time (15 and 30 min, and iii refined at lower disk gap (0.0508 and 0.1524 mm. Preliminary results showed that carbohydrate conversion increased from 25% to 40% when the TMP temperature was increased from 160 to 170 ºC. Carbohydrate conversion was relatively similar for the three biomasses under the same pretreatment conditions and enzyme loading. Acetic acid soaking and refining at a reduce disk gap increases carbohydrate conversion. Further studies within this technological field to identify optimum process and TMP conditions for pretreatment are suggested.

  12. Chemical and biochemical mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective roles of dietary organopolysulfides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restituto eTocmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Foods that are rich in organosulfides are highly regarded for their broad range of functions in disease prevention and health promotion since ancient time yet modern scientific study, particularly clinical studies could not agree with traditional wisdom. One of the complexities is due to the labile nature of organosulfides, which are often transformed to different structures depending on the processing conditions. The recent evidence of polysulfides as H2S donor may open up a new avenue for establishing structure and health promotion activity relationship. To put this development into perspective, we carried out a review on the recent development on the chemistry and biochemistry of organopolysulfides with emphasis on their cardioprotective property. Firstly, we briefly surveyed the foods that are rich in polysulfides and their structural diversity. This is followed by in-depth discussion on the chemical transformations of polysulfides under various processing conditions. We further reviewed the potential action mechanisms of polysulfides in cardioprotection through a hydrogen sulfide releasing activity; b radical scavenging activity; and c activity in enzyme inhibition and intervention of gene regulation pathways. Based on the literature trend, we can conclude that the emerging concept of organopolysulfides as naturally-occurring H2S donors is intriguing and warrants further research to establish the structure and activity relationship of the organopolysulfides as H2S donors.

  13. Mechanism of SN2 disulfide bond cleavage by phosphorus nucleophiles. Implications for biochemical disulfide reducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Olga; Thorpe, Colin; Bach, Robert D

    2007-10-26

    The B3LYP variant of DFT has been used to study the mechanism of S-S bond scission in dimethyl disulfide by a phosphorus nucleophile, trimethylphospine (TMP). The reaction is highly endothermic in the gas phase and requires significant external stabilization of the charged products. DFT calculations (B3LYP) were performed with explicit (water molecules added) and implicit solvent corrections (COSMO model). The transition structures for this SN2 displacement reaction in a number of model systems have been located and fully characterized. The reaction barriers calculated with different approaches for different systems are quite close (around 11 kcal/mol). Remarkably, the calculations suggest that the reaction is almost barrierless with respect to the preorganized reaction complex and that most of the activation energy is required to rearrange the disulfide and TMP to its most effective orientation for the SMe group transfer way. Different reactivities of different phosphorus nucleophiles were suggested to be the result of steric effects, as manifested largely by varying amounts of hindrance to solvation of the initial product phosphonium ion. These data indicate that the gas-phase addition of a phosphine to the disulfide moiety will most likely form a phosphonium cation-thiolate anion salt, in the presence of four or more water molecules, that provide sufficient H-bonding stabilization to allow displacement of the thiolate anion, a normal uncomplicated SN2 transition state is to be expected.

  14. Biochemical Mechanisms for Geographical Adaptations to Novel Toxin Exposures in Butterflyfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Maldonado

    Full Text Available Some species of butterflyfish have had preyed upon corals for millions of years, yet the mechanism of butterflyfish specialized coral feeding strategy remains poorly understood. Certain butterflyfish have the ability to feed on allelochemically rich soft corals, e.g. Sinularia maxima. Cytochrome P450 (CYP is the predominant enzyme system responsible for the detoxification of dietary allelochemicals. CYP2-like and CYP3A-like content have been associated with butterflyfish that preferentially consumes allelochemically rich soft corals. To investigate the role of butterflyfish CYP2 and CYP3A enzymes in dietary preference, we conducted oral feeding experiments using homogenates of S. maxima and a toxin isolated from the coral in four species of butterflyfish with different feeding strategies. After oral exposure to the S. maxima toxin 5-episinulaptolide (5ESL, which is not normally encountered in the Hawaiian butterflyfish diet, an endemic specialist, Chaetodon multicinctus experienced 100% mortality compared to a generalist, Chaetodon auriga, which had significantly more (3-6 fold higher CYP3A-like basal content and catalytic activity. The specialist, Chaetodon unimaculatus, which preferentially feed on S. maxima in Guam, but not in Hawaii, had 100% survival, a significant induction of 8-12 fold CYP3A-like content, and an increased ability (2-fold to metabolize 5ESL over other species. Computer modeling data of CYP3A4 with 5ESL were consistent with microsomal transformation of 5ESL to a C15-16 epoxide from livers of C. unimaculatus. Epoxide formation correlated with CYP3A-like content, catalytic activity, induction, and NADPH-dependent metabolism of 5ESL. These results suggest a potentially important role for the CYP3A family in butterflyfish-coral diet selection through allelochemical detoxification.

  15. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms preventing Cd-toxicity in the hyperaccumulator Atriplex halimus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnoua, Mohammed; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Barcia-Piedras, José María; Pérez-Romero, Jesús Alberto; Lotmani, Brahim; Redondo-Gómez, Susana

    2016-09-01

    The xero-halophyte Atriplex halimus L., recently described as Cd-hyperaccumulator, was examined to determine Cd toxicity threshold and the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1350 μM on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigment concentrations and antioxidative enzyme activities of A. halimus. Cadmium, calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and zinc concentrations were also analyzed. Plants of A. halimus were not able to survive at 1350 μM Cd and the upper tolerance limit was recorded at 650 μM Cd; although chlorosis was observed from 200 μM Cd. Cadmium accumulation increased with increase in Cd supply, reaching maxima of 0.77 and 4.65 mg g(-1) dry weight in shoots and roots, respectively, at 650 μM Cd. Dry mass, shoot length, specific leaf area, relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, pigments contents and chlorophyll fluorescence were significantly reduced by increasing Cd concentration. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC1.11.1.6) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPx; EC1.11.1.7) were significantly induced by Cd. Exposures to Cd caused also a significant decrease in P contents in roots, Mg and Mn contents in shoots and Fe and K contents in roots and shoots and had no effect on Ca, Na and Zn contents. The tolerance of A. halimus to Cd stress might be related with its capacity to avoid the translocation of great amounts of Cd in its aboveground tissues and higher activities of enzymatic antioxidants in the leaf.

  16. Protein Tyrosine Nitration: Biochemical Mechanisms and Structural Basis of its Functional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The nitration of protein tyrosine residues to 3-nitrotyrosine represents an oxidative postranslational modification that unveils the disruption of nitric oxide (•NO) signaling and metabolism towards pro-oxidant processes. Indeed, excess levels of reactive oxygen species in the presence of •NO or •NO-derived metabolites lead to the formation of nitrating species such as peroxynitrite. Thus, protein 3-nitrotyrosine has been established as a biomarker of cell, tissue and systemic “nitroxidative stress”. Moreover, tyrosine nitration modifies key properties of the amino acid (i.e. phenol group pKa, redox potential, hydrophobicity and volume). Thus, the incorporation of a nitro group (−NO2) to protein tyrosines can lead to profound structural and functional changes, some of which contribute to altered cell and tissue homeostasis. In this Account, I describe our current efforts to define 1) biologically-relevant mechanisms of protein tyrosine nitration and 2) how this modification can cause changes in protein structure and function at the molecular level. First, the relevance of protein tyrosine nitration via free radical-mediated reactions (in both peroxynitrite-dependent or independent pathways) involving the intermediacy of tyrosyl radical (Tyr•) will be underscored. This feature of the nitration process becomes critical as Tyr• can take variable fates, including the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Fast kinetic techniques, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies, bioanalytical methods and kinetic simulations have altogether assisted to characterize and fingerprint the reactions of tyrosine with peroxynitrite and one-electron oxidants and its further evolution to 3-nitrotyrosine. Recent findings show that nitration of tyrosines in proteins associated to biomembranes is linked to the lipid peroxidation process via a connecting reaction that involves the one-electron oxidation of tyrosine by lipid peroxyl radicals (LOO•). Second

  17. Protein tyrosine nitration: biochemical mechanisms and structural basis of functional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Rafael

    2013-02-19

    In proteins, the nitration of tyrosine residues to 3-nitro-tyrosine represents an oxidative post-translational modification that disrupts nitric oxide ((•)NO) signaling and skews metabolism towards pro-oxidant processes. Indeed, excess levels of reactive oxygen species in the presence of (•)NO or (•)NO-derived metabolites lead to the formation of nitrating species such as peroxynitrite. Thus, protein 3-nitrotyrosine has been established as a biomarker of cell, tissue, and systemic "nitroxidative stress". Moreover, tyrosine nitration modifies key properties of the amino acid: phenol group pK(a), redox potential, hydrophobicity, and volume. Thus, the incorporation of a nitro group (-NO(2)) into protein tyrosines can lead to profound structural and functional changes, some of which contribute to altered cell and tissue homeostasis. In this Account, I describe our current efforts to define (1) biologically-relevant mechanisms of protein tyrosine nitration and (2) how this modification can cause changes in protein structure and function at the molecular level. First, I underscore the relevance of protein tyrosine nitration via free-radical-mediated reactions (in both peroxynitrite-dependent and -independent pathways) involving a tyrosyl radical intermediate (Tyr(•)). This feature of the nitration process is critical because Tyr(•) can follow various fates, including the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Fast kinetic techniques, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies, bioanalytical methods, and kinetic simulations have all assisted in characterizing and fingerprinting the reactions of tyrosine with peroxynitrite and one-electron oxidants and its further evolution to 3-nitrotyrosine. Recent findings show that nitration of tyrosines in proteins associated with biomembranes is linked to the lipid peroxidation process via a connecting reaction that involves the one-electron oxidation of tyrosine by lipid peroxyl radicals (LOO(•)). Second, immunochemical and

  18. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    : The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool...... abstained, 1 no). Twenty-two participants agreed that cultural equivalency of PROM should be assessed and suitable methods used (7 abstained, 2 no). Special interest group participants identified challenges with cross-cultural adaptation including resources required, and suggested patient involvement...... for improving translation and adaptation. CONCLUSION: Future work will include consensus exercises on what methods are required to ensure PROM are appropriate for people with low literacy and different cultures....

  19. Histological and biochemical analysis of mechanical and thermal bioeffects in boiling histotripsy lesions induced by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yak-Nam; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Bailey, Michael; Hwang, Joo Ha; Khokhlova, Vera

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that shockwave heating and millisecond boiling in high-intensity focused ultrasound fields can result in mechanical fractionation or emulsification of tissue, termed boiling histotripsy. Visual observations of the change in color and contents indicated that the degree of thermal damage in the emulsified lesions can be controlled by varying the parameters of the exposure. The goal of this work was to examine thermal and mechanical effects in boiling histotripsy lesions using histologic and biochemical analysis. The lesions were induced in ex vivo bovine heart and liver using a 2-MHz single-element transducer operating at duty factors of 0.005-0.01, pulse durations of 5-500 ms and in situ shock amplitude of 73 MPa. Mechanical and thermal damage to tissue was evaluated histologically using conventional staining techniques (hematoxylin and eosin, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase). Thermal effects were quantified by measuring denaturation of salt soluble proteins in the treated region. According to histologic analysis, the lesions that visually appeared as a liquid contained no cellular structures larger than a cell nucleus and had a sharp border of one to two cells. Both histologic and protein analysis showed that lesions obtained with short pulses (thermal damage. Increasing the pulse duration resulted in an increase in thermal damage. However, both protein analysis and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase staining showed less denaturation than visually observed as whitening of tissue. The number of high-intensity focused ultrasound pulses delivered per exposure did not change the lesion shape or the degree of thermal denaturation, whereas the size of the lesion showed a saturating behavior suggesting optimal exposure duration. This study confirmed that boiling histotripsy offers an effective, predictable way to non-invasively fractionate tissue into sub-cellular fragments with or without inducing thermal damage.

  20. The effect of running, strength, and vibration strength training on the mechanical, morphological, and biochemical properties of the Achilles tendon in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Schjerling, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2007-01-01

    on the mechanical, morphological, and biochemical properties of the Achilles tendon. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: nonactive age-matched control (AMC; n = 20), voluntary wheel running (RT; n = 20), vibration strength-trained (LVST; n = 12), high-vibration strength...

  1. Effect of proline on biochemical and molecular mechanisms in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) exposed to UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Tabay, Dilruba; Esringu, Aslıhan; Icoglu Aksakal, Feyza; Esim, Nevzat

    2017-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of proline (Pro) in relieving UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress in lettuce. Lettuce seedlings were exposed to 3.3 W m(-2) UV-B radiation for 12 h after pre-treatment sprayed with 20 mM Pro. The data for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), endogenous Pro level, the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD)], total phenolic concentration, antioxidant capacity, expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) and proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) genes, phytohormone levels such as abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA), soluble sugars and organic acids were recorded. It was found that Pro alleviated the oxidative damage in the seedlings of lettuce as demonstrated by lower lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content, increasing the endogenous Pro level, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, total phenolic concentration and the antioxidant capacity. Additionally, it was revealed that exogenous application of Pro enhanced the levels of GA, IAA, the concentrations of soluble sugars and organic acids and expressions of PAL, γ-TMT and ProDH genes as compared to the control. The results obtained in this study suggest that pre-treatment with exogenous Pro provides important contributions to the increase in the UV-B tolerance of lettuce by regulating the biochemical mechanisms of UV-B response.

  2. Recombinant Deg/HtrA proteases from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 differ in substrate specificity, biochemical characteristics and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesgen, Pitter F.; Miranda, Helder; Lam, XuanTam; Perthold, Manuela; Schuhmann, Holger; Adamska, Iwona; Funk, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria require efficient protein-quality-control mechanisms to survive under dynamic, often stressful, environmental conditions. It was reported that three serine proteases, HtrA (high temperature requirement A), HhoA (HtrA homologue A) and HhoB (HtrA homologue B), are important for survival of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under high light and temperature stresses and might have redundant physiological functions. In the present paper, we show that all three proteases can degrade unfolded model substrates, but differ with respect to cleavage sites, temperature and pH optima. For recombinant HhoA, and to a lesser extent for HtrA, we observed an interesting shift in the pH optimum from slightly acidic to alkaline in the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. All three proteases formed different homo-oligomeric complexes with and without substrate, implying mechanistic differences in comparison with each other and with the well-studied Escherichia coli orthologues DegP (degradation of periplasmic proteins P) and DegS. Deletion of the PDZ domain decreased, but did not abolish, the proteolytic activity of all three proteases, and prevented substrate-induced formation of complexes higher than trimers by HtrA and HhoA. In summary, biochemical characterization of HtrA, HhoA and HhoB lays the foundation for a better understanding of their overlapping, but not completely redundant, stress-resistance functions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PMID:21332448

  3. Ensuring food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Valentinovich Patsiorkovskiy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the questions of further development of agricultural and food policy in the Russian Federation. The subject of in-depth consideration is the problem related to ensuring food safety. A critical review and analysis of major regulations in the field of food safety is made, including in the implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. The necessity of the expansion of measures to improve the statistics of food poisoning is grounded. The basic reasons for the spread of management practices of production and sale of food products that pose a threat to human life are revealed. The factors of unhindered penetration of local markets in the cities and the surrounding countrysides with counterfeiting, smuggling and production of global junk food manufacturers and consumer goods are defined. A systematic view is put on the problems of food production in the private farms, ways to limit direct access to the market of food and food raw materials, which production was not controlled and who have not passed state registration, are suggested. One of these problems is creation of independent industrial structures that link production and sales of small-scale sector goods.

  4. Biochemical Characterization of Protein Quality Control Mechanisms during Disease Progression in the C22 Mouse Model of CMT1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita G. Chittoor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A is a hereditary demyelinating neuropathy linked with duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 gene. Transgenic C22 mice, a model of CMT1A, display many features of the human disease, including slowed nerve conduction velocity and demyelination of peripheral nerves. How overproduction of PMP22 leads to compromised myelin and axonal pathology is not fully understood, but likely involves subcellular alterations in protein homoeostatic mechanisms within affected Schwann cells. The subcellular response to abnormally localized PMP22 includes the recruitment of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS, autophagosomes and heat-shock proteins (HSPs. Here we assessed biochemical markers of these protein homoeostatic pathways in nerves from PMP22-overexpressing neuropathic mice between the ages of 2 and 12 months to ascertain their potential contribution to disease progression. In nerves of 3-week-old mice, using endoglycosidases and Western blotting, we found altered processing of the exogenous human PMP22, an abnormality that becomes more prevalent with age. Along with the ongoing accrual of misfolded PMP22, the activity of the proteasome becomes compromised and proteins required for autophagy induction and lysosome biogenesis are up-regulated. Moreover, cytosolic chaperones are consistently elevated in nerves from neuropathic mice, with the most prominent change in HSP70. The gradual alterations in protein homoeostatic response are accompanied by Schwann cell de-differentiation and macrophage infiltration. Together, these results show that while subcellular protein quality control mechanisms respond appropriately to the presence of the overproduced PMP22, with aging they are unable to prevent the accrual of misfolded proteins.

  5. Biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content MSW landfill: Preliminary findings from a large-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Liang-Tong; Xu, Hui; Chen, Yun-Min; Lü, Fan; Lan, Ji-Wu; Shao, Li-Min; Lin, Wei-An; He, Pin-Jing

    2017-05-01

    A large-scale bioreactor experiment lasting for 2years was presented in this paper to investigate the biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content (HFWC) MSW. The experimental cell was 5m in length, 5m in width and 7.5m in depth, filled with unprocessed HFWC-MSWs of 91.3 tons. In the experiment, a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa was applied on waste surface, mature leachate refilling and warm leachate recirculation were performed to improve the degradation process. In this paper, the measurements of leachate quantity, leachate level, leachate biochemistry, gas composition, waste temperature, earth pressure and waste settlement were presented, and the following observations were made: (1) 26.8m(3) leachate collected from the 91.3 tons HFWC-MSW within the first two months, being 96% of the total amount collected in one year. (2) The leachate level was 88% of the waste thickness after waste filling in a close system, and reached to over 100% after a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa. (3) The self-weight effective stress of waste was observed to be close to zero under the condition of high leachate mound. Leachate drawdown led to a gain of self-weight effective stress. (4) A rapid development of waste settlement took place within the first two months, with compression strains of 0.38-0.47, being over 95% of the strain recorded in one year. The compression strain tended to increase linearly with an increase of leachate draining rate during that two months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The physiological and biochemical mechanism of nitrate-nitrogen removal by water hyacinth from agriculture eutrophic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wenwei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large amount of agriculturl wastewater containing high level nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 --N is produced from modern intensive agricultural production management due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and livestock scale farming. The hydroponic experiment of water hyacinth was conducted for analyzing the content of NO3 --N, soluble sugar content, N-transported the amino acid content and growth change in water hyacinth to explore its purification ability to remove NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater and physiological and biochemical mechanism of this plant to remove NO3 --N. The results showed that the water hyacinth could effectively utilize the NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater. Compared with the control, the contents of NO3 -change to NO3 --N in the root, leaf petiole and leaf blade of water hyacinth after treatment in the wastewater for a week was significantly higher than that in the control plants treated with tap water, and also the biomass of water hyacinth increased significantly, indicating that the accumulation of biomass due to the rapid growth of water hyacinth could transfer some amount of NO3 --N.13C-NMR analysis confirmed that water hyacinth would convert the part nitrogen absorbed from agriculture eutrophic wastewater to ammonia nitrogen, which increased the content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid, decreased the content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose and the content of N-storaged asparagine and glutamine, lead to enhance the synthesis of plant amino acids and promote the growth of plants. These results indicate that the nitrate in agriculture eutrophic wastewater can be utilized by water hyacinth as nitrogen nutrition, and can promote plant growth by using soluble sugar and amide to synthesis amino acids and protein.

  7. Biochemical mechanism underlying hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis/hepatomegaly induced by acute schisandrin B treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Pan, Si-Yuan; Xie, Ming; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2017-01-13

    It has been demonstrated that acute oral administration of schisandrin B (Sch B), an active dibenzocyclooctadiene isolated from Schisandrae Fructus (a commonly used traditional Chinese herb), increased serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels and hepatic mass in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanism underlying the Sch B-induced hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis and hepatomegaly. Male ICR mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0.25-2 g/kg). Sch B-induced changes in serum levels of biomarkers, such as TG, total cholesterol (TC), apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB 48), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and hepatic growth factor (HGF), as well as hepatic lipids and mass, epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and adipocyte size, and histological changes of the liver and EAT were examined over a period of 12-120 h after Sch B treatment. Serum and hepatic TG levels were increased by 1.0-4.3 fold and 40-158% at 12-72 h and 12-96 h, respectively, after Sch B administration. Sch B treatment elevated serum ApoB 48 level (up to 12%), a marker of exogenous TG, but not VLDL, as compared with the vehicle treatment. Treatment with Sch B caused a time-/dose-dependent reduction in EAT index (up to 39%) and adipocyte size (up to 67%) and elevation in serum NEFA level (up to 55%). Sch B treatment induced hepatic steatosis in a time-/dose-dependent manner, as indicated by increases in total vacuole area (up to 3.2 fold vs. the vehicle control) and lipid positive staining area (up to 17.5 × 10(3) μm(2)) in liver tissue. Hepatic index and serum HGF levels were increased by 18-60% and 42-71% at 12-120 h and 24-72 h post-Sch B dosing, respectively. In addition, ultrastructural changes, such as increase in size and disruption of cristae, in hepatic mitochondria were observed in Sch B-treated mice. Our findings suggest that exogenous sources of TG and the breakdown of fat storage in the body contribute to Sch B

  8. Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemical engineering as a scientific discipline is becoming accepted in England and is drawing many young men and women to its ranks. This article focuses on how engineering came to embrace the biological sciences. (Author/SA)

  9. New imaging methods for non-invasive assessment of mechanical, structural and biochemical properties of Human Achilles tendon: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fouré

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of tendon play a fundamental role to passively transmit forces from muscle to bone, withstand sudden stretches and act as a mechanical buffer allowing the muscle to work more efficiently. The use of non-invasive imaging methods for the assessment of human tendon’s mechanical, structural and biochemical properties in vivo is relatively young in sports medicine, clinical practice and basic science. Non-invasive assessment of the tendon properties may enhance the diagnosis of tendon injury and the characterization of recovery treatments. While ultrasonographic imaging is the most popular tool to assess the tendon’s structural and, indirectly, mechanical properties, ultrasonographic elastography and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF MRI have recently emerged as potentially powerful techniques to explore tendon tissues. This paper highlights some methodological cautions associated with conventional ultrasonography and perspectives for in vivo human Achilles tendon assessment using ultrasonographic elastography and UHF MRI.

  10. Perspectives of Security Ensuring within the Framework of Barcelona Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Kirabaev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona process was aimed to become an important mechanism in the realization of ideas of peace, stability and security ensuring in the Mediterranean Sea region. Cooperation in the sphere of security ensuring means openness of the regional states, social and economic reforms, human rights protection. The article deals with the problem of security ensuring by nonmilitary means.

  11. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of allelopathy mediated by the allelochemical extracts of Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) H. Walter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Nazif; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Safdar, Naila; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-10-01

    In allelopathy, one plant suppresses the growth and development of other plant/plants by negatively affecting a variety of physiological and biochemical reactions. We checked the effects of methanolic extracts (allelochemical extracts) of Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) H. Walter on antioxidant enzyme activities such as peroxidases (PODs), super oxide dismutases (SODs) and catalase (CAT) and on total protein contents (TPC), cellular injury (CI), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the germinating seeds of Brassica napus L. (dicot) and Triticum aestivum L. (monocot). Both the crude methanolic extract root (CMER) and crude methanolic extract aerial (CMEA) of P. latbenia at 10000 ppm significantly reduced the POD activity in both the test seeds. The activity of SODs was significantly decreased by both CMER and CMEA in B. napus germinating seeds. A linear increase in the activity of CAT, CI, and MDA contents was found in both the test seeds with the increasing concentrations of CMEA and CMER, while TPC of the germinating seeds was found decreased. It is inferred that both the CMEA and CMER inhibited/delayed the seed germination, reduced the seedling growth by affecting a variety of biochemical and physiological attributes, and also caused cellular membrane injury in the germinating seeds of both the monocot and dicot seeds. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris and Runner (P. coccineus Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl; one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−, osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars, and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl− transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus.

  13. Salinity-Induced Variation in Biochemical Markers Provides Insight into the Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Common (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Runner (P. coccineus) Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Morosan, Mihaela; López-Gresa, María del Pilar; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of biochemical markers is important for the understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance to salinity of Phaseolus beans. We have evaluated several growth parameters in young plants of three Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars subjected to four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl); one cultivar of P. coccineus, a closely related species reported as more salt tolerant than common bean, was included as external reference. Biochemical parameters evaluated in leaves of young plants included the concentrations of ions (Na+, K+, and Cl−), osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, and total soluble sugars), and individual soluble carbohydrates. Considerable differences were found among cultivars, salinity levels, and in their interaction for most traits. In general, the linear component of the salinity factor for the growth parameters and biochemical markers was the most important. Large differences in the salinity response were found, with P. vulgaris cultivars “The Prince” and “Maxidor” being, respectively, the most susceptible and tolerant ones. Our results support that salt stress tolerance in beans is mostly based on restriction of Na+ (and, to a lesser extent, also of Cl−) transport to shoots, and on the accumulation of myo-inositol for osmotic adjustment. These responses to stress during vegetative growth appear to be more efficient in the tolerant P. vulgaris cultivar “Maxidor”. Proline accumulation is a reliable marker of the level of salt stress affecting Phaseolus plants, but does not seem to be directly related to stress tolerance mechanisms. These results provide useful information on the responses to salinity of Phaseolus. PMID:27657045

  14. Combined effects of surface morphology and mechanical straining magnitudes on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells without using biochemical reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Shi Woo; Park, So Hee; Shin, Ji Won; Mun, ChiWoong; Kim, Su-Hyang; Kim, Dong Hwa; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies examining the control of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into desired cell types have used a variety of biochemical reagents such as growth factors despite possible side effects. Recently, the roles of biomimetic microphysical environments have drawn much attention in this field. We studied MSC differentiation and changes in gene expression in relation to osteoblast-like cell and smooth muscle-like cell type resulting from various microphysical environments, including differing magnitudes of tensile strain and substrate geometries for 8 days. In addition, we also investigated the residual effects of those selected microphysical environment factors on the differentiation by ceasing those factors for 3 days. The results of this study showed the effects of the strain magnitudes and surface geometries. However, the genes which are related to the same cell type showed different responses depending on the changes in strain magnitude and surface geometry. Also, different responses were observed three days after the straining was stopped. These data confirm that controlling microenvironments so that they mimic those in vivo contributes to the differentiation of MSCs into specific cell types. And duration of straining engagement was also found to play important roles along with surface geometry.

  15. Combined Effects of Surface Morphology and Mechanical Straining Magnitudes on the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells without Using Biochemical Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Jang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies examining the control of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation into desired cell types have used a variety of biochemical reagents such as growth factors despite possible side effects. Recently, the roles of biomimetic microphysical environments have drawn much attention in this field. We studied MSC differentiation and changes in gene expression in relation to osteoblast-like cell and smooth muscle-like cell type resulting from various microphysical environments, including differing magnitudes of tensile strain and substrate geometries for 8 days. In addition, we also investigated the residual effects of those selected microphysical environment factors on the differentiation by ceasing those factors for 3 days. The results of this study showed the effects of the strain magnitudes and surface geometries. However, the genes which are related to the same cell type showed different responses depending on the changes in strain magnitude and surface geometry. Also, different responses were observed three days after the straining was stopped. These data confirm that controlling microenvironments so that they mimic those in vivo contributes to the differentiation of MSCs into specific cell types. And duration of straining engagement was also found to play important roles along with surface geometry.

  16. Ensuring Quality Nursing Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your healthcare provider about your medications, symptoms, and health problems. May 2013 Ensuring Quality Nursing Home Care Expert information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults After you’ve placed your family member in a facility KEEP VISITING! Seeing family ...

  17. Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management.

  18. What is the impact of inflammation on the critical interplay between mechanical signaling and biochemical changes in tendon matrix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Bayer, Monika L; Eliasson, Pernilla

    2013-01-01

    activate proteolytic pathways in tendon, mechanical loading can protect against matrix degradation. Acute tendon injury displays an early inflammatory response that seems to be lowered when mechanical loading is applied during regeneration of tendon. Chronically overloaded tendons (tendinopathy) do neither......Mechanical loading can influence tendon collagen homeostasis in animal models, while the dynamics of the human adult tendon core tissue are more debatable. Currently available data indicate that human tendon adaptation to loading may happen primarily in the outer tendon region. A role...... of inflammation in this peritendinous adaptation is supported by a rise in inflammatory mediators in the peritendinous area after physiological mechanical loading in humans. This plays a role in the exercise-induced rise in tendon blood flow and peritendinous collagen synthesis. Although inflammatory activity can...

  19. [Molecular mechanisms of protein biosynthesis initiation--biochemical and biomedical implications of a new model of translation enhanced by the RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Adam; Nauman, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Translation initiation is a key rate-limiting step in cellular protein synthesis. A cap-dependent initiation is the most effective mechanism of the translation. However, some physiological (mitosis) and pathological (oxidative stress) processes may switch the classic mechanism to an alternative one that is regulated by an mRNA element such as IRES, uORF, IRE, CPE, DICE, AURE or CITE. A recently discovered mechanism of RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE)-dependent translation initiation, may change the view of oxygen-regulated translation and give a new insight into unexplained biochemical processes. Hypoxia is one of the better-known factors that may trigger an alternative mechanism of the translation initiation. Temporal events of oxygen deficiency within tissues and organs may activate processes such as angiogenesis, myogenesis, regeneration, wound healing, and may promote an adaptive response in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, growth of solid tumors may be accompanied by cyclic hypoxia, allowing for synthesis of proteins required for further progression of cancer cells. This paper provides a review of current knowledge on translational control in the context of alternative models of translation initiation.

  20. The evolution of the role of ABA in the regulation of water-use efficiency: From biochemical mechanisms to stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Boaz; Moshelion, Menachem

    2016-10-01

    Abscisic acid is found in a wide variety of organisms. In the plant kingdom, ABA's role in mediating responses to abiotic stress has been conserved and enhanced throughout evolution. The emergence of plants to terrestrial environments required the development of mechanisms to cope with ongoing and severe abiotic stress such as drought and rapid changes in humidity and temperature. The common understanding is that terrestrial plants evolved strategies ranging from desiccation-tolerance mechanisms (mosses) to drought tolerance (CAM plants), to better exploit different ecological niches. In between these divergent water regulation strategies, ABA plays a significant role in managing plants' adaptation to new environments by optimizing water-use efficiency (WUE) under particular environmental conditions. ABA plays some very different roles in the regulation of WUE. ABA's role in the regulation of guard cells and transpiration has yielded a wide variety of WUE-regulation mechanisms, ranging from no sensitivity (ferns) to low sensitivity (anisohydric behavior) to hypersensitivity to ABA (isohydric behavior and putatively CAM plants). ABA also plays a role in the regulation of non-stomatal, biochemical mechanisms of WUE regulation. In angiosperms, this includes the control of osmotic adjustment and morphological changes, including changes in leaf size, stomatal density, stomatal size and root development. Under severe stress, ABA also appears to initiate leaf senescence via transcriptional regulation, to directly inhibit photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CRISIS FOCUS Ensuring Economic Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Though China’s economy is breathing a sigh of relief after several nervous months,it is still not time to sit back and relax.Much needs to be done to ensure the sustainability of growth momentum.Guo Tianyong,Director of the Research Center of the China Banking Industry of the Central University of Finance and Economics,discussed this issue in an article recently published in the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow:

  2. Ensuring cleanliness in operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkowska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    High cleanliness of a hospital environment is necessary to ensure safe working conditions for the medical staff, a correct process of hospitalization and to protect hospital visitors, an aspect rarely mentioned. A supply of air cleaned in highly-effective air filters to hospital wards with air conditioning systems and exhaust of infected air will help in maintaining the required standards of cleanliness. This article presents information on recommended classes of air and surface cleanliness, with special focus on operating theatres and suites.

  3. Effects of L-Carnitine Theraphy On Methabolic and Biochemical Changes Caused By Propofol Infusion in Rabbits Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Yılbaş

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increased lipid mass in the body secondary to long term and high doses of propofol infusion may cause carnitine deficiency. In this study; we aimed to investigate the effects of carnitine, given for treatment purposes and have not been analyzed before, during high doses of propofol infusion in rabbits. Materials and Methods: Following ethical committee approval; 2500-3500 grams weight, 3-4 months-old, healthy, male, white 20 New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. The rabbits were premedicated with xsilazine and atropine. After the preparation period including tracheostomy, monitorization, catheterization of the ear arteries and veins and urinary vesical; basal blood samples for biochemical and metabolic parameters included in the study were taken and rabbits were divided into 4 groups, 5 rabbits in each,randomly (Group P, Group PC, Group S, Group SC. For sedation 20 mg/kg/h propofol infusion was given to Group P, 20 mg/kg/h propofol and 100 mg/kg L-carnitine infusions were given simultaneously to Group PC, sevoflurane for sedation was given to Group S, sevoflurane and L-carnitine infusion were given simultaneously to Group SC. Their sedation levels were evaluated every 30 minutes and their vital signs were reported every 15 minutes. Every 2 hours arterial blood gases analysis and every 12 hours electrolytes and metabolic parameters were repeated. Euthanasia with high doses (60 mg/kg of ketamin is performed for rabbits that were alive at the end of 24 hours. Results: All groups were similar in weight, vital parameters, all parameters searched in arterial blood gases, life time, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, serum electrolytes, creatine kinase and renal function tests (p>0.05. However; amylase levels before death or euthanasia were lower in Group PC compared to other groups;myoglobin and CK-MB levels in Group P were higher compared to other groups; cholesterol levels at 12th hour, before death or euthanasia were higher

  4. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible, the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF and piperonyl butoxide (PBO produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively. In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE and mixed function oxidase (MFO in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies.

  5. Thiamethoxam Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica L.: Current Status, Resistance Selection, Cross-Resistance Potential and Possible Biochemical Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Iqbal, Javaid; Naeem-Ullah, Unsar

    2015-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important ectoparasite with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides used for their control. Thiamethoxam, a neonicotinoid, is a relatively new insecticide and effectively used against house flies with a few reports of resistance around the globe. To understand the status of resistance to thiamethoxam, eight adult house fly strains were evaluated under laboratory conditions. In addition, to assess the risks of resistance development, cross-resistance potential and possible biochemical mechanisms, a field strain of house flies was selected with thiamethoxam in the laboratory. The results revealed that the field strains showed varying level of resistance to thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RR) at LC50 ranged from 7.66-20.13 folds. Continuous selection of the field strain (Thia-SEL) for five generations increased the RR from initial 7.66 fold to 33.59 fold. However, resistance declined significantly when the Thia-SEL strain reared for the next five generations without exposure to thiamethoxam. Compared to the laboratory susceptible reference strain (Lab-susceptible), the Thia-SEL strain showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid. Synergism tests revealed that S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) produced synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the Thia-SEL strain (2.94 and 5.00 fold, respectively). In addition, biochemical analyses revealed that the activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in the Thia-SEL strain were significantly higher than the Lab-susceptible strain. It seems that metabolic detoxification by CarE and MFO was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the Thia-SEL strain of house flies. The results could be helpful in the future to develop an improved control strategy against house flies.

  6. Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes the biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology programs of the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada). Provides descriptions of graduate courses, along with a sample of current research activities. Includes a discussion of the programs' mechanisms for technology transfer. (TW)

  7. Basic Biochemical Mechanisms of Polyphenols%多酚的基本生物化学作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海智; 孙玉敬; 刘东红; 叶兴乾

    2011-01-01

    植物多酚是一类广泛存在于植物体内的物质,有许多有助于人类健康的效果。但是,多数的多酚和生物系统间的分子相互作用机制还尚不清楚。本文综述了几项目前已经确定的潜在作用机制,包括:①非特异性作用,如抗氧化作用与生物膜的作用;②特异性机制,如与酶,转录因子,受体的作用等;此外还介绍了其他的一些机制:如抑制甘油三酯消化吸收,促进肠道有益细菌生长等。对多酚和细胞成分作用产生的生物学影响的更好理解有助于发展预防和治疗人类疾病的营养学和药理学手段。%Plant polyphenols, which are widely present in plants, have many functions beneficial to human health. However, the actual molecular interactions mechanism of polyphenols with biological systems remains mostly unclear. This paper reviews on some mechanisms that have been identified, includes: ①non specific mechanism, such as antioxidation action and interactions with membranes; ②specific mechanism, such as interactions with enzymes,transcription factors and receptors. Besides, this paper introduces some others mechanisms, such as inhibiting the digestion and absorption of triglyceride; playing as a promoting factors of growth and proliferation for beneficial gut bacteria beneficial gut bacterias growth. The better knowledge on biological effects of polyphenols interactions with cell components will contribute to develop nutritional and pharmacological strategies oriented to prevent and cure human diseases.

  8. Effects of aging procedures on the molecular, biochemical, morphological, and mechanical properties of vacuum-formed retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Ha, Hye-Ryun; Lim, Ho-Nam; Choi, Samjin

    2015-11-01

    The influence of intraoral exposure procedures on the physical characteristics of thermoplastic vacuum-formed retainers (VFRs) is still unclear. The effects of thermoforming and intraoral use on the molecular, chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties of thermoplastic VFRs were investigated. VFRs with a 0.8-mm-thick thermoplastic PETG sheet acquired from 48 patients were investigated with two aging procedures, including vacuum forming and intraoral exposure, for 2-week and 6-month. Eight evaluating sites for thermoplastic VFRs were assessed with seven analytical techniques. LM, SEM, and AFM microscopic findings showed that the surface characteristics increased with increasing in vivo exposure time (a four-fold increase) and varied depending on the sites evaluated (an occlusal surface). Raman and EDX spectroscopic findings showed that aging procedures led to a significant change in the molecular composition of VFRs, leading to a decrease in the composition rate of carbon (C) and the presence of silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Compressive strength and tensile tests showed that aging procedures led to a significant increase (PThermoforming led to a smoother surface and no crystallization of PETG sheets. Intraoral exposure accelerated changes in surface morphology, tensile strength, and elastic modulus of VFRs. This change was site-specific and enhanced with an increase in intraoral exposure time. Therefore, thermoforming and in vivo oral exposure procedures led to the molecular, morphological, and mechanical properties of thermoplastic VFRs.

  9. Potential Contribution of Antioxidant Mechanism in the Defensive Effect of Lycopene Against Partial Sciatic Nerve Ligation Induced Behavioral, Biochemical and Histopathological Modification in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R; Tyagi, N

    2016-12-01

    Neuropathic pain is a severe and unbearable condition which arises due to activation of peripheral nociceptors after tissue damage, neuropathic pain is caused from anomalous physiology of central or peripheral nervous system and it may not be related to the ongoing tissue damage or inflammation. Involvement of oxidative damage has been reported in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lycopene to quench the free radicals produced as a result of the increased oxidative stress in neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was induced in wistar rats by partial sciatic nerve ligation. The effect was evaluated by assessing various behavioral parameters (thermal hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase) as well as histopathological parameters in sciatic nerve. During the experiment group of 8 rats each was administered drugs once daily intraperitonealy (I.P.) and naïve groups, sham group and sciatic nerve ligated group were treated with vehicle for the duration of 14 days. Partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) significantly caused thermal hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia and oxidative damage compared to normal and sham groups. Daily administration of lycopene (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg) and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) considerably reversed hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia and attenuated oxidative stress when compared to control group. There was significant histological improvement in the in the architecture of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. The results indicated that free radical generation mechanism might be involved in PSNL induced behavior, biochemical and histopathological changes in wistar rats.

  10. Structural, Biochemical, and Computational Studies Reveal the Mechanism of Selective Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 Inhibition by Cytotoxic Duocarmycin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Maximilian F; Harteis, Sabrina; Blank, Iris D; Pestel, Galina; Tietze, Lutz F; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Schneider, Sabine; Sieber, Stephan A

    2015-11-09

    Analogues of the natural product duocarmycin bearing an indole moiety were shown to bind aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in addition to DNA, while derivatives without the indole solely addressed the ALDH1A1 protein. The molecular mechanism of selective ALDH1A1 inhibition by duocarmycin analogues was unraveled through cocrystallization, mutational studies, and molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of the complex shows the compound embedded in a hydrophobic pocket, where it is stabilized by several crucial π-stacking and van der Waals interactions. This binding mode positions the cyclopropyl electrophile for nucleophilic attack by the noncatalytic residue Cys302, thereby resulting in covalent attachment, steric occlusion of the active site, and inhibition of catalysis. The selectivity of duocarmycin analogues for ALDH1A1 is unique, since only minor alterations in the sequence of closely related protein isoforms restrict compound accessibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Structural and biochemical characterization of MCAT from photosynthetic microorganism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 reveal its stepwise catalytic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinghui; Feng, Yanbin; Wang, Yayue; Li, Xia; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2015-02-13

    Malonyl-coenzyme A: acyl-carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) catalyzes the transfer of malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the holo-acyl carrier protein (Holo-ACP), yielding malonyl-ACP. The overall reaction has been extensively studied in heterotrophic microorganisms, while its mechanism in photosynthetic autotrophs as well as the stepwise reaction information remains unclear. Here the 2.42 Å crystal structure of MCAT from photosynthetic microorganism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is presented. It demonstrates that Arg113, Ser88 and His188 constitute catalytic triad. The second step involved ACP-MCAT-malonyl intermediate is speed-limited instead of the malonyl-CoA-MCAT intermediate in the first step. Therefore His87, Arg113 and Ser88 render different contributions for the two intermediates. Additionally, S88T mutant initializes the reaction by H87 deprotonating S88T which is different from the wild type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.

  13. Biochemical mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens: over-expression of cytochrome P450 CYP6AY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhiping; Wen, Yucong; Yang, Baojun; Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Shuhua; Liu, Zewen; Han, Zhaojun

    2013-11-01

    Imidacloprid is a key insecticide extensively used for control of Nilaparvata lugens, and its resistance had been reported both in the laboratory selected strains and field populations. A target site mutation Y151S in two nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and enhanced oxidative detoxification have been identified in the laboratory resistant strain, contributing importantly to imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens. To date, however, imidacloprid resistance in field population is primarily attributable to enhanced oxidative detoxification by over-expressed P450 monooxygenases. A resistant strain (Res), originally collected from a field population and continuously selected in laboratory with imidacloprid for more than 40 generations, had 180.8-fold resistance to imidacloprid, compared to a susceptible strain (Sus). Expression of different putative P450 genes at mRNA levels was detected and compared between Res and Sus strains, and six genes were found expressed significantly higher in Res strain than in Sus strain. CYP6AY1 was found to be the most different expressed P450 gene and its mRNA level in Res strain was 17.9 times of that in Sus strain. By expressing in E. coli cells, CYP6AY1 was found to metabolize imidacloprid efficiently with initial velocity calculated of 0.851 ± 0.073 pmol/min/pmol P450. When CYP6AY1 mRNA levels in Res strain was reduced by RNA interference, imidacloprid susceptibility was recovered. In four field populations with different resistance levels, high levels of CYP6AY1 transcript were also found. In vitro and in vivo studies provided evidences that the over-expression of CYP6AY1 was one of the key factors contributing to imidacloprid resistance in the laboratory selected strain Res, which might also be the important mechanism for imidacloprid resistance in field populations, when the target site mutation was not prevalent at present.

  14. High seeding density of human chondrocytes in agarose produces tissue-engineered cartilage approaching native mechanical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigan, Alexander D; Roach, Brendan L; Nims, Robert J; Tan, Andrea R; Albro, Michael B; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, James L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-06-14

    Animal cells have served as highly controllable model systems for furthering cartilage tissue engineering practices in pursuit of treating osteoarthritis. Although successful strategies for animal cells must ultimately be adapted to human cells to be clinically relevant, human chondrocytes are rarely employed in such studies. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of culture techniques established for juvenile bovine and adult canine chondrocytes to human chondrocytes obtained from fresh or expired osteochondral allografts. Human chondrocytes were expanded and encapsulated in 2% agarose scaffolds measuring ∅3-4mm×2.3mm, with cell seeding densities ranging from 15 to 90×10(6)cells/mL. Subsets of constructs were subjected to transient or sustained TGF-β treatment, or provided channels to enhance nutrient transport. Human cartilaginous constructs physically resembled native human cartilage, and reached compressive Young's moduli of up to ~250kPa (corresponding to the low end of ranges reported for native knee cartilage), dynamic moduli of ~950kPa (0.01Hz), and contained 5.7% wet weight (%/ww) of glycosaminoglycans (≥ native levels) and 1.5%/ww collagen. We found that the initial seeding density had pronounced effects on tissue outcomes, with high cell seeding densities significantly increasing nearly all measured properties. Transient TGF-β treatment was ineffective for adult human cells, and tissue construct properties plateaued or declined beyond 28 days of culture. Finally, nutrient channels improved construct mechanical properties, presumably due to enhanced rates of mass transport. These results demonstrate that our previously established culture system can be successfully translated to human chondrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Biochemical mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect of the K(ATP) channels opener flocalin (medicinal form) in ischemia-reperfusion of myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutyns'kyĭ, R B; Kotsiuruba, A V; Rovenets', R A; Strutyns'ka, N A; Iagupols'kyĭ, Iu L; Sagach, V F; Moĭbenko, O O

    2013-01-01

    In experiments on the anaesthetized dogs with modeling of experimental ischemia (90 min) and reperfusion (180 min) of myocardium it was investigated changes of biochemical processes in arterial blood at intragastric introduction of medicinal form (tablets) of flocalin (the fluorine-containing opener of ATP-sensitive potassium channels) in a dose 2,2 mg/kg. The data analysis allowed to define a few possible mechanisms of cardioprotective action offlocalin, which prevented the opening of a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and inhibition of apoptosis induced by it. They consist, from one side, in activating of the constitutive de novo biosynthesis of nitric oxide by cNOS, from other side, in suppression of inducible nitric oxide de novo synthesis by iNOS in such way to prevent the formation of toxic peroxynitrite by co-operation of surplus nitric oxide with superoxide anion, thereby limits the generation of toxic active forms of nitrogen (*NO2) and oxygen (*OH). The first effect of flocalin takes place due to limitation the degradation of L-arginine by arginase which keeps substrat for cNOS, second--due to the inhibition of superoxide generation, in particular, by xanthine oxidase (marker uric acid), lipoxigenase (marker LTC4) and cyclooxygenase (marker TxB2). Because LTC4 have coronaroconstrictory, arrhythmogenic and chemoattractory properties in the conditions of myocardial ischemia, inhibition of its production both with superoxide generation (markers H2O2 and diene conjugates) may be the another mechanisms of flocalin's cardioprotection. Powerful antiischemic action of flocalin (marker nitrite anion) as the mechanisms of cardioprotection is possible as well as inhibition of ATP and GTP degradation (marker hypoxanthine+xanthine+inosine levels in the blood) and, possibly, stimulation ofhaem degradation by haem oxygenase (markers total bilirubin and Fe in the blood). Diminishing content of free arachidonic acid in arterial blood can testify

  16. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRAJEET GHODKE; K MUNIYAPPA

    2016-12-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) protein complex plays pivotal roles in double-strandbreak (DSB) repair, replication stress and telomere length maintenance. Another protein linked to DSB repair is Sae2,which regulates MRX persistence at DSBs. However, very little is known about its role in DNA replication stress andrepair. Here, we reveal a crucial role for Sae2 in DNA replication stress. We show that different mutant alleles of SAE2cause hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, and when combined with Δmre11 or nuclease-defective mre11 mutantalleles, the double mutants are considerably more sensitive suggesting that the sae2 mutations synergize with mre11mutations. Biochemical studies demonstrate that Sae2 exists as a dimer in solution, associates preferentially withsingle-stranded and branched DNA structures, exhibits structure-specific endonuclease activity and cleaves thesesubstrates from the 5′ end. Furthermore, we show that the nuclease activity is indeed intrinsic to Sae2. Interestingly,sae2G270D protein possesses DNA-binding activity, but lacks detectable nuclease activity. Altogether, our data suggesta direct role for Sae2 nuclease activity in processing of the DNA structures that arise during replication and DNAdamage and provide insights into the mechanism underlying Mre11-Sae2-mediated abrogation of replication stress-relateddefects in S. cerevisiae.

  17. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: biochemical mechanisms and gene therapy%Leber遗传性视神经病的生化机制和基因治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑娟; 田国红; 张晓君

    2012-01-01

    Leber遗传性视神经病(LHON)是由于线粒体基因突变导致的母系遗传性致盲性疾病,青少年多见.LHON发病的生化机制有呼吸链复合酶I功能障碍、活性氧生成增多及细胞凋亡学说等.对LHON理想的治疗措施是基因治疗.目前基因治疗采用异位表达、转染缺陷基因及抗氧化基因等方法.但临床上基因治疗LHON的开展及远期疗效尚需更多的研究证据.%Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy ( LHON),a common blinding disease,is a maternally inherited degeneration of the optic nerve caused by point mutations of mitochondrial DNA.Complex I dysfunction,reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction,and cell apoptosis are the hypothesis of biochemical mechanism in LHON.Gene therapy is the ideal treatment for the disease.So far,the gene therapies used include allotropic expressing,transfecting with wild gene,and transfecting with antioxidant gene and so on.However,further investigation has to be done before clinical trials.

  18. A Biochemical Double Slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominis, Iannis

    2011-03-01

    Radical-ion-pair reactions, fundamental in photosynthesis and at the basis of the avian magnetic compass mechanism, have been recently shown to offer a rich playground for applying methods and concepts from quantum measurement/quantum information science. We will demonstrate that radical-ion-pair reactions are almost the exact analog of the optical double slit experiment, i.e. Nature has already engineered biochemical reactions performing the act of quantum interference. We will further elaborate on the non-trivial quantum effects pertaining in these reactions and the recent debate on their fundamental theoretical description that these effects have sparked.

  19. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  20. A Discussion on the Safeguard Mechanism for Ensuring the Effectiveness of Patriotism Education in Contemporary China%当代中国爱国主义教育实效性的保障机制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡中华

    2011-01-01

    高度重视并积极进行爱国主义教育,是世界各国普遍采取的通行做法。作为具有丰富历史资源和悠久爱国传统的当代中国,如何在新的形势下科学有效加强爱国主义教育,是一个十分重要且相当复杂的系统工作,其中,建立健全爱国主义教育的保障机制则是一个十分重要的子系统,也是爱国主义教育能否取得实效性和长久性的重要保证。这些保障机制包括:领导保障机制、人才队伍保障机制、投入保障机制、动力推进机制、考核评估机制和信息反馈机制%It is a universal practice among countries in the world to attach great importance to and actively promote patriotism education to citizens.To contemporary China,a country with rich historical resources and time-honored patriotic traditions,strengthening patriotism education in a scientific and effective way under the new circumstances is a kind of systematic work that requires crucial yet complicated endeavors to be made.Amongst these endeavors,setting up and improving the safeguard mechanism for patriotism education is not only a crucial subsystem of that systematic work but also an effective and long-lasting guarantee for realizing the effectiveness of patriotism education.An ideal safeguard mechanism for patriotism education usually comprises the leadership guarantee mechanism;the personnel guarantee mechanism;the investment guarantee mechanism;the mechanism of motivation;the mechanism of examination and evaluation;as well as the mechanism of information feedback.

  1. Achilles tendinosis: Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos, M. de; El, B. van; Groot, J. de; Jahr, H.; Schie, H.T.M. van; Arkel, E.R. van; Tol, H.; Heijboer, R.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Verhaar, J.A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design: Descript

  2. Achilles tendinosis - Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mos, Marieke; van El, Benno; DeGroot, Jeroen; Jahr, Holger; van Schie, Hans T. M.; van Arkel, Ewoud R.; Tol, Hans; Heijboer, Rien; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design: Descript

  3. Achilles tendinosis: Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos, M. de; El, B. van; Groot, J. de; Jahr, H.; Schie, H.T.M. van; Arkel, E.R. van; Tol, H.; Heijboer, R.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Verhaar, J.A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design:

  4. Achilles tendinosis - Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mos, Marieke; van El, Benno; DeGroot, Jeroen; Jahr, Holger; van Schie, Hans T. M.; van Arkel, Ewoud R.; Tol, Hans; Heijboer, Rien; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design:

  5. Achilles tendinosis - Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mos, Marieke; van El, Benno; DeGroot, Jeroen; Jahr, Holger; van Schie, Hans T. M.; van Arkel, Ewoud R.; Tol, Hans; Heijboer, Rien; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design: Descript

  6. Achilles tendinosis: Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos, M. de; El, B. van; Groot, J. de; Jahr, H.; Schie, H.T.M. van; Arkel, E.R. van; Tol, H.; Heijboer, R.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Verhaar, J.A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design: Descript

  7. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  8. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  9. Heading for the top. Computer-aided fabrication in the mechanical engineering sector ensures high precision; Auf dem Weg zur Spitze. Computergestuetztes Fertigen sorgt im Maschinenbau fuer hohe Praezision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K. [Cimatron GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The increasing complexity of parts, and materials that are ever more demanding, like alumium, titanium and steel, call for advanced know-how on the part of manufacturers. A precision mechanical engineering firm manufacturing engine housings and parts for GT bolides, formula-1 racing cars and standard racing cars for different car manufacturers has installed a 3D-CAD/CAM system in order to secure for itself a top position as a supplier of components to the automobile industry. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die zunehmende Komplexitaet der Teile, immer anspruchsvollere Werkstoffe wie Aluminium, Titan und Stahl verlangen vom Hersteller viel handwerkliches Know-how. Ein Praezisionsmaschinenbau-Unternehmen, das Motorengehaeuse und Teile fuer GT-Boliden, Formel-1-Rennwagen sowie Tourenrennwagen fuer verschiedene Automobilbauer herstellt, hat sich deshalb ein 3D-CAD/CAM-System angeschafft, um unter den konkurrierenden Zulieferern einen Spitzenplatz in der Automobilbranche zu erreichen. (orig.)

  10. 75 FR 15597 - Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Executive Order 13535--Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient... ] Executive Order 13535 of March 24, 2010 Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in... adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except...

  11. Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EURP) Excellence in GI Practice Operations Recognition Program (PRP) Tools to Educate Patients Polyp Information Sheets Foundation ... endoscopes to ensure patient safety. Quality Assurance and Training Any facility in which gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed ...

  12. Ensuring success for J-NIH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    ...). By integrating all MedR&D projects currently run by the government's compartmentalized ministries, the new institution is expected to ensure strategic budget allocations and facilitate a seamless flow from basic biomedical...

  13. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckel Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at http://www.ball-project.org. Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  14. Development of Biochemical Cyanide Antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The long accepted mechanism of action for thiosulfate is that it serves as a sulfane-sulfur donor, in the presence of the mitochondrial enzyme...capable of identifying biochemical cyanide antidotes, but would not be expected to detect sulfur donors or methemoglobin formers. Blockade of mitochondrial ...549-558. Yamamoto, H. (1989). Hyperammonemia, increased brain neutral and aromauic amino acid levels and encephalopathy induced by cyanide in mice

  15. Efficiency of Mechanisms for Ensuring Financial Stability in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizjuk Bohdan M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify relationships between the monetary policy and long-term financial stability. The main method of the study is retrospective analysis of macroeconomic and financial performance of the United States and other developed countries. It has been shown that neither Neo-Keynesian nor monetarist approaches are able to provide long-term financial stability under simultaneous low levels of volatility of GDP and inflation. In addition, the policy of inflation targeting in developed countries is not able to eliminate the risk of significant macro-economic recessions. The article states that the cause of the recessions is a systemic risk growth due to concentration of financial resources in the banking sector and in the hands of owners of non-financial corporations. This concentration has two effects: 1 growth of moral hazard at crediting; 2 decrease in the effective demand on the part of households. Redistribution of financial resources among different macro-economic groups of agents does not happen in a short period of time and is a result of the long-term monetary policy. Since the modern economic statistics has certain methodological problems with calculation of the Gini coefficient, such indicator as a share of wages in GDP is proposed in the article for studying the dynamics of uneven distribution of financial resources in the United States. The conducted retrospective analysis of the US monetary policy showed that an important system indicator of uniformity of financial resources distribution among macroeconomic agents falls out of sight of regulators. Distribution of macroeconomic risks depends on distribution of financial resources in the system, which determines its financial stability. The article justifies the need for developing the monetary policy methods that would simultaneously minimize the volatility of the GDP, inflation and maintain a uniform distribution of financial resources at an acceptable level.

  16. Ensuring Quality in a Virtual Reference Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Pat; Ward, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    Soon after AskALibrarian, Florida's Statewide Virtual Reference Desk, began to offer Chat Reference to the public in 2003, a Quality Assurance Workgroup was established to ensure that the service patrons received would be friendly, accurate, and adequate. To make certain that best practices were used in answering the real time questions, two…

  17. Screening of biochemical and molecular mechanisms of secondary injury and repair in the brain after experimental blast-induced traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Patrick M; Dixon, C Edward; Shellington, David K; Shin, Samuel S; Bayır, Hülya; Jackson, Edwin K; Kagan, Valerian E; Yan, Hong Q; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Bauman, Richard; Clark, Robert S B; Garman, Robert H; Bandak, Faris; Ling, Geoffrey; Jenkins, Larry W

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Explosive blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in modern combat casualty care and has been linked to post-traumatic stress disorder, memory loss, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In this article we report on blast-induced mild TBI (mTBI) characterized by fiber-tract degeneration and axonal injury revealed by cupric silver staining in adult male rats after head-only exposure to 35 psi in a helium-driven shock tube with head restraint. We now explore pathways of secondary injury and repair using biochemical/molecular strategies. Injury produced ∼25% mortality from apnea. Shams received identical anesthesia exposure. Rats were sacrificed at 2 or 24 h, and brain was sampled in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Hippocampal samples were used to assess gene array (RatRef-12 Expression BeadChip; Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA) and oxidative stress (OS; ascorbate, glutathione, low-molecular-weight thiols [LMWT], protein thiols, and 4-hydroxynonenal [HNE]). Cortical samples were used to assess neuroinflammation (cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX) and purines (adenosine triphosphate [ATP], adenosine diphosphate, adenosine, inosine, 2'-AMP [adenosine monophosphate], and 5'-AMP). Gene array revealed marked increases in astrocyte and neuroinflammatory markers at 24 h (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and complement component 1) with expression patterns bioinformatically consistent with those noted in Alzheimer's disease and long-term potentiation. Ascorbate, LMWT, and protein thiols were reduced at 2 and 24 h; by 24 h, HNE was increased. At 2 h, multiple cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1α]) were increased; by 24 h, only MIP-1α remained elevated. ATP was not depleted, and adenosine correlated with 2'-cyclic AMP (cAMP), and not 5'-cAMP. Our data reveal (1) gene-array alterations similar to disorders of

  18. Unique biochemical and molecular biological mechanism of synergistic actions of formamidine compounds on selected pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph F A; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that formamidine pesticides such as amitraz and chlordimeform effectively synergize toxic actions of certain pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in some insect species on the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Here we studied the biochemical basis of the synergistic actions of the formamidines in amplifying the toxicity of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids such as dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, as well as deltamethrin-fenvalerate type of pyrethroids. We tested the hypothesis that their synergistic actions are mediated by the octopamine receptor, and that the major consequence of octopamine receptor activation is induction of trehalase to increase glucose levels in the hemolymph. The results show that formamidines cause a significant up-regulation of the octopamine receptor and trehalase mRNA expressions. Furthermore, formamidines significantly elevate levels of free glucose when co-treated with dinotefuran, deltamethrin and fenvalerate, but not with permethrin or fenitrothion, which showed no synergistic toxic effects with formamidines. These results support the conclusion that the main mode of synergism is based on the ability to activate the octopamine receptor, which is particularly effective with insecticides causing hyperexcitation-induced glucose release and consequently leading to quick energy exhaustion.

  19. A comparative analysis of transcriptomic, biochemical, and physiological responses to elevated ozone identifies species-specific mechanisms of resilience in legume crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendrek, Craig R; Koester, Robert P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Current concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O3]) pollution negatively impact plant metabolism, which can result in decreased crop yields. Interspecific variation in the physiological response of plants to elevated [O3] exists; however, the underlying cellular responses explaining species-specific differences are largely unknown. Here, a physiological screen has been performed on multiple varieties of legume species. Three varieties of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were resilient to elevated [O3]. Garden pea showed no change in photosynthetic capacity or leaf longevity when exposed to elevated [O3], in contrast to varieties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses were then done to examine the mechanistic differences in legume responses to elevated [O3]. In all three species, there was an O3-mediated reduction in specific leaf weight and total non-structural carbohydrate content, as well as increased abundance of respiration-related transcripts. Differences specific to garden pea included a pronounced increase in the abundance of GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE transcript, as well as greater contents of foliar glutathione, apoplastic ascorbate, and sucrose in elevated [O3]. These results suggest that garden pea may have had greater capacity for detoxification, which prevented net losses in CO2 fixation in an elevated [O3] environment.

  20. Biochemical regulators in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbel, F; Schreiber, V

    1983-01-01

    In recent years research has shown that muscle is capable of reacting to mechanical stimuli by altering biochemical processes. Myocardium is probably the source of a biochemical factor, or factors which activate myocardial protein synthesis. In experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy adaptive alterations have been shown to occur not only in the adrenal medulla but also in the adrenal cortex. Finally, detection of cross reactivity between digitalis glycosides and a number of steroid hormones has succeeded. We assume that such cross reactivity indicates the existence of an endogenic factor of steroid character, which is produced in the adrenal gland and functions as an endogenic cardiotonic agent. During experimental cardiac hypertrophy its synthesis is possibly increased. We propose the term "endocardin" or "endocardiotonin" for this agent.

  1. Energy Supplies Ensured in Earthquake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hebin

    2008-01-01

    @@ China is releasing oil products from its state reserve stockpiles to areas stricken by earthquake on May 12 to ensure energy supply. PetroChina has also resumed fuel distribution in those regions. The State Reserve Bureau has sent 6,313 tons of oil products to the quake-hit areas. The reserve bureau will also release gasoline and diesel from its stockpiles in Jiangyou, Sichuan and Guiyang, Guizhou to quake hit areas. The government has also diverted jet fuel tankers to Shuangliu and Mianyang airports in Sichuan to ensure air transport.China National Aviation Fuel Group Corp. has sent 68 tankers carrying 3,200 tons of jet fuel to the airports.

  2. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Ollis, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a biochemical engineering course that is offered as part of a chemical engineering curriculum and includes topics that influence the behavior of man-made or natural microbial or enzyme reactors. (MLH)

  3. Ensuring Long-Term Data Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José; Kassab, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    ETCS Data Integrity Requirements Can Be Fulfilled Even under Unfavorable Conditions with the Proper LTE Mechanisms.......ETCS Data Integrity Requirements Can Be Fulfilled Even under Unfavorable Conditions with the Proper LTE Mechanisms....

  4. RISK MANAGEMENT IN ENSURING AVIATION (TRANSPORT SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Prozorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with risk management in aviation (transport security based on the three-level assessment of the current threat levels according to the method of application of countermeasures, presented by ICAO in the form of a matrix of risk management, as well as by the introduction of measures to ensure transport safety, depending on the category of transport infrastructure (or vehicle and the level of Iransport safety. The article illustrates the complementarity of the two approaches, suggesting a higher efficiency of relevant processes in their joint application.

  5. Mechanistic, mathematical model to predict the dynamics of tissue genesis in bone defects via mechanical feedback and mediation of biochemical factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R Moore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The link between mechanics and biology in the generation and the adaptation of bone has been well studied in context of skeletal development and fracture healing. Yet, the prediction of tissue genesis within - and the spatiotemporal healing of - postnatal defects, necessitates a quantitative evaluation of mechano-biological interactions using experimental and clinical parameters. To address this current gap in knowledge, this study aims to develop a mechanistic mathematical model of tissue genesis using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP to represent of a class of factors that may coordinate bone healing. Specifically, we developed a mechanistic, mathematical model to predict the dynamics of tissue genesis by periosteal progenitor cells within a long bone defect surrounded by periosteum and stabilized via an intramedullary nail. The emergent material properties and mechanical environment associated with nascent tissue genesis influence the strain stimulus sensed by progenitor cells within the periosteum. Using a mechanical finite element model, periosteal surface strains are predicted as a function of emergent, nascent tissue properties. Strains are then input to a mechanistic mathematical model, where mechanical regulation of BMP-2 production mediates rates of cellular proliferation, differentiation and tissue production, to predict healing outcomes. A parametric approach enables the spatial and temporal prediction of endochondral tissue regeneration, assessed as areas of cartilage and mineralized bone, as functions of radial distance from the periosteum and time. Comparing model results to histological outcomes from two previous studies of periosteum-mediated bone regeneration in a common ovine model, it was shown that mechanistic models incorporating mechanical feedback successfully predict patterns (spatial and trends (temporal of bone tissue regeneration. The novel model framework presented here integrates a mechanistic feedback system based

  6. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  7. Biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in simultaneous phenol and Cr(VI) removal by Acinetobacter guillouiae SFC 500-1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañon, Ornella M; González, Paola S; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Bioremediation has emerged as an environmental friendly strategy to deal with environmental pollution. Since the majority of polluted sites contain complex mixtures of inorganic and organic pollutants, it is important to find bacterial strains that can cope with multiple contaminants. In this work, a bacterial strain isolated from tannery sediments was identified as Acinetobacter guillouiae SFC 500-1A. This strain was able to simultaneously remove high phenol and Cr(VI) concentrations, and the mechanisms involved in such process were evaluated. The phenol biodegradation was catalized by a phenol-induced catechol 1,2-dioxygenase through an ortho-cleavage pathway. Also, NADH-dependent chromate reductase activity was measured in the cytosolic fraction. The ability of this strain to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was corroborated by detection of Cr(III) in cellular biomass after the removal process. While phenol did not affect significantly the chromate reductase activity, Cr(VI) was a major disruptor of catechol dioxygenase activity. Nevertheless, this activity was high even in presence of high Cr(VI) concentrations. Our results suggest the potential application of A. guillouiae SFC 500-1A for wastewaters treatment, and the obtained data provide the insights into the removal mechanisms, dynamics, and possible limitations of the bioremediation.

  8. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  9. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione+oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to be

  10. Effects of nanomolar copper on water plants—Comparison of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of deficiency and sublethal toxicity under environmentally relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George, E-mail: george.thomas@uni.kn [Universität Konstanz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion, Fachbereich Biologie, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: ha-jo.staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wellenreuther, Gerd, E-mail: Gerd.wellenreuther@desy.de [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: bryan.dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [Universität Konstanz, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Sektion, Fachbereich Biologie, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We found different optimal Cu requirement for different physiological mechanisms. •Kinetics and concentration thresholds of damage mechanisms were established. •Cu toxicity caused internal Cu re-distribution and inhibition of Zn uptake. •Cu deficient plants released Cu, indicating lack of high-affinity Cu transporters. •Cu deficiency caused re-distribution of zinc in the plant. -- Abstract: Toxicity and deficiency of essential trace elements like Cu are major global problems. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu (supplied as CuSO{sub 4}) and simulations of natural light- and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Growth was optimal at 10 nM Cu, while PSII activity (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was maximal around 2 nM Cu. Damage to the PSII reaction centre was the first target of Cu toxicity, followed by disturbed regulation of heat dissipation (NPQ). Only after that, electron transport through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}) was inhibited, and finally chlorophylls decreased. Copper accumulation in the plants was stable until 10 nM Cu in solution, but strongly increased at higher concentrations. The vein was the main storage site for Cu up to physiological concentrations (10 nM). At toxic levels it was also sequestered to the epidermis and mesophyll until export from the vein became inhibited, accompanied by inhibition of Zn uptake. Copper deficiency led to a complete stop of growth at “0” nM Cu after 6 weeks. This was accompanied by high starch accumulation although electron flow through PSII (Φ{sub PSII}) decreased from 2 weeks, followed by decrease in pigments and increase of non photochemical quenching (NPQ). Release of Cu from the plants below 10 nM Cu supply in the nutrient solution indicated lack of high-affinity Cu transporters, and on the tissue level copper deficiency led to a re-distribution of zinc.

  11. The Role of Corporations in Ensuring Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLY; HODGE

    1996-11-01

    / Corporations own approximately 25% of all private land in the United States and, therefore, play an essential role in protecting biodiversity and maintaining natural habitats. The Wildlife Habitat Council (WHC) is a unique joint venture between conservation organizations and corporations to utilize corporate lands for ensuring biodiversity. The following case studies demonstrate how corporations have helped ensure healthy ecosystems and provided critical leadership in regional efforts. Amoco Chemical Company's Cooper River Plant has been instrumental in developing a cooperative project that involves numerous corporations, plantation owners, private citizens, nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and community groups to develop a comprehensive, ecosystem-based management plan for part of the Cooper River in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. The second case focuses on the Morie Company, a national sand quarry operator headquartered in southern New Jersey, USA. Morie Company is working with WHC, community groups, the Pinelands Commission, and other state regulatory agencies to explore sustainable development opportunities for companies within the Pinelands regulations. The third case takes us to DuPont Company's Asturias, Spain, site. A win-win success story of improved habitat and cost savings is the result of DuPont's concern for the environment, ability to work with a variety of groups, and willingness to consider innovative restoration techniques. The fourth case discusses Consumers Power Company's Campbell Plant in West Olive, Michigan, USA. In addition to implementing projects that contribute to biodiversity, Consumers Power has developed an environmental education field station to teach others about the importance of natural habitats. The final case highlights Baltimore Gas & Electric Company's efforts to maintain habitat for endangered species at their Calvert Cliffs site in Maryland.KEY WORDS: Partnerships; Stewardship; International; Habitats

  12. Ensuring Economic Security in Lending Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vadimovich Kochikin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the topic is determined by the need for sustainable development of the country’s banking system, capable of ensuring the process of raising funds to producers and the public for their projects. One of the implementation of this objective is to discourage unfair behavior in financial markets. Trust is a key factor in the development of financial markets, therefore it is necessary to suppress the appearance of unfair practices and participants – black creditors, falsification of financial statements, trading on insider information and market manipulation. It requires a whole range of activities, and above all ensuring the inevitability and proportionality of punishment for unscrupulous players, the introduction of requirements for the business reputation of the management of financial institutions.The article is devoted to structuring legal violations in the lending sphere. The analysis of indicators of credit organizations in Russia was conducted to fulfill this aim. This analysis revealed the causes of sustainable growth of overdue accounts payable – job cuts in enterprises, violations in the financial sector, various errors in the credit granting / raising. The authors carry out the systematization and classification of offenses in the area of lending, provide examples, as well as factual material illustrating the violations in the lending process having the characteristics of a fraud. The article substantiates the obligations of employees of the credit institution, in the result of which risks of granting credit to fraudsters can be reduced. The methods of fraud prevention should include the identified methods of protection against fraud in the area under consideration – exchange of information by banks associated with the criminal intentions of customers; technology development and technical support, training, and personnel responsibilities.

  13. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  14. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappello, Tiziana, E-mail: tcappello@unime.it [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brandão, Fátima, E-mail: fatimabrandao@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Canário, João [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instítuto Superíor Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  15. Evaluation of Insecticide Resistance and Biochemical Mechanisms in a Population of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracco José Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish an insecticidal resistance surveillance program, Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from São Paulo, Brazil, were colonized (PIN95 strain and analyzed for levels of resistance. The PIN95 strain showed low levels of resistance to organophosphates [malathion (3.3-fold, fenitrothion (11.2-fold] and a carbamate [propoxur (3.0-fold]. We also observed an increase of 7.4 and 9.9 in a and b esterase activities, respectively, when compared with the reference IAL strain. An alteration in the sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase to insecticide inhibition was also found in the PIN95 mosquitoes. The resistant allele (Ace.1R, however, was found at low frequencies (0.12 and does not play an important role in the described insecticide resistance. One year later, Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected (PIN96 strain at the same site and compared to the PIN95 strain. The esterase activity patterns observed for the PIN96 strain were similar to those of the PIN95 mosquitoes. However the occurrence of the Ace.1R allele was statistically higher in the PIN96 strain. The results show that esterase-based insecticide resistance was established in the PIN95 Cx. quinquefasciatus population and that an acethylcholinesterase based resistant mechanism has been selected for. A continuous monitoring of this phenomenon is fundamental for rational mosquito control and insecticide application programs.

  16. The Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms Providing the Increased Constitutive Cold Resistance in the Potato Plants, Expressing the Yeast SUC2 Gene Encoding Apoplastic Invertase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Deryabin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The expression of heterologous genes in plants is an effective method to improve our understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. The purpose of this work was to investigate the involvement of cell-wall invertase and apoplastic sugars into constitutive cold resistance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Dйsirйe plants, which expressed the yeast SUC2 gene encoding apoplastic invertase. WT-plants of a potato served as the control. The increase in the essential cell-wall invertase activity in the leaves of transformed plants indicates significant changes in the cellular carbohydrate metabolism and regulatory function of this enzyme. The activity of yeast invertase changed the composition of intracellular sugars in the leaves of the transformed potato plant. The total content of sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose in the leaves and apoplast was higher in the transformants, in comparison by WT-plants. Our data indicate higher constitutive resistance of transformants to severe hypothermia conditions compared to WT-plants. This fact allows us to consider cell-wall invertase as a enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism playing an important regulatory role in the metabolic signaling upon forming increased plant resistance to low temperature. Thus, the potato line with the integrated SUC2 gene is a convenient tool to study the role of the apoplastic invertase and the products of its activity during growth, development and formation constitutive resistance to hypothermia.

  17. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  18. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  19. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  20. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  1. Biochemical mechanisms of skin radiation burns inhibition and healing by the volumetric autotransplantation of fibroblasts and of keratinocytes with fibroblasts composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Altukhova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of influence of volumetric autotransplantation of fibroblasts and of the mixture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes on the development of the local 3rd degree X-ray burn and the radiation skin ulcer in guinea pigs were investigated. We used deepadministration into the irradiation zone on its perimeter of 6 doses, which contained (150–160×103 fibroblasts and (130–140×103 keratinocytes in 100 µl. It is shown that this autotransplantation carried out 1 hour after the irradiation, and then every 24 hours, reduces the area of burn on the 35th day, compared to the control by 63%. Radiation ulcer appears on the 10th day after irradiation and is completely healed on the 25th day. With the same regimen of administration of only fibroblasts containing (200–210×103 cells in 100 µl, these parameters of treatment were equal to 31% on 4th and 35th day, respectively. It is shown that as a result of radiation in the area of burn the level of gene expression of collagen types I and III, elastin, fibronectin, vinculin, decorin, hyaluronansynthases 1, 2, 3, matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, 3, 7, 9 and hyaluronidase is reduced. Besides, in the burn area the level of gene expression of transforming growth factor α, fibroblast growth factors 1, 2, 8 and anti-inflammatory cytokines – interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor-β1 – is reduced, while the level of gene expression of proinflammatory cytokine (interleykin1β increases. Both types of autotransplantation cause the growth of the expression level of all the structural genes and regulatory proteins of biopolymers and decrease in the expression level of interleukin 1β, which leads to activation of tissue regeneration and healing of the burn wound. Reasonsfor the higher efficiency of autotransplantation using the mixture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes compared to autotransplantation by fibroblasts only are both the larger total number of live cells regularly replacing dead cells in

  2. Ensuring Machine and Tractor Aggregates Operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redreev, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    the operability of the machine and tractor aggregates is ensured by processes which occur in machine units and considered as technical systems. In order to develop theoretical understanding of the processes in technical systems as the basis and purpose of the repairserving actions, the author's concept is presented which relies on on the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems", "maintenance and repair of performers", "maintenance and repair of technology" "objectives of the maintenance and repair". Analysis of the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems" made possible to distinguishing four types of relations: of order, stipulation, exactingness, and non-contradiction. It is shown that the implementation of maintenance and repair of technology should be conducted according to the assessment of the effectiveness of processes in technical systems, revealed in complex diagnosis. The perfection of the design of the machine in terms of its technical operation can be estimated according to the degree of consistency of processes in technical systems, purposes of maintenance and repair. In order to increase the efficiency of the lubrication system,the modernised design of the centrifugal oil filter with permanent control of its cleaning power is offered, which allows changing the technology of the maintenance of engine lubrication system by separating the operations of crankcase oil replacement and the rotor filter cleaning.

  3. [Information technology for ensuring drug safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Fumito

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, information technology (IT) in the medical field has prevailed as a means for handling claims for health insurance reimbursement. In contrast, IT is primarily used for electronic medical records in Western countries. Originally, preparation of health insurance claims was one of the outcomes of computerized medical information in Japan. As its protocols are already well established in Japan, information from the insurance claim system is hard to integrate into the Electronic Medical Chart system. To ensure drug safety, it is necessary to determine the number of users, and to accurately tabulate the incidence of adverse events. For this purpose, three kinds of information are required: prescription information, dispensing information, and drug administration information. Prescription information and dispensing information should be consistent with each other in content. Dispensing information is essential to identify the "substance" when adverse events occur. Drug administration information is the "true drug history". With these three kinds of information, it should be possible to enter drug safety data as evidence. To accurately capture these three kinds of information, it is necessary to utilize Standard Drug Code and Standard Usage Master, suggesting that it may be necessary to reconstruct the current system.

  4. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals.

  5. The physiological and biochemical bases of functional brain imaging

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging is based on the display of computer-derived images of changes in physiological and/or biochemical functions altered by activation or depression of local functional activities in the brain. This article reviews the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved.

  6. SteadyCom: Predicting microbial abundances while ensuring community stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Hung Joshua Chan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic modeling has become widespread for analyzing microbial metabolism. Extending this established paradigm to more complex microbial communities is emerging as a promising way to unravel the interactions and biochemical repertoire of these omnipresent systems. While several modeling techniques have been developed for microbial communities, little emphasis has been placed on the need to impose a time-averaged constant growth rate across all members for a community to ensure co-existence and stability. In the absence of this constraint, the faster growing organism will ultimately displace all other microbes in the community. This is particularly important for predicting steady-state microbiota composition as it imposes significant restrictions on the allowable community membership, composition and phenotypes. In this study, we introduce the SteadyCom optimization framework for predicting metabolic flux distributions consistent with the steady-state requirement. SteadyCom can be rapidly converged by iteratively solving linear programming (LP problem and the number of iterations is independent of the number of organisms. A significant advantage of SteadyCom is compatibility with flux variability analysis. SteadyCom is first demonstrated for a community of four E. coli double auxotrophic mutants and is then applied to a gut microbiota model consisting of nine species, with representatives from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. In contrast to the direct use of FBA, SteadyCom is able to predict the change in species abundance in response to changes in diets with minimal additional imposed constraints on the model. By randomizing the uptake rates of microbes, an abundance profile with a good agreement to experimental gut microbiota is inferred. SteadyCom provides an important step towards the cross-cutting task of predicting the composition of a microbial community in a given environment.

  7. Biochemically responsive smart surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Fabian; Smirnov, Sergei

    2009-04-01

    A design of smart surfaces responsive to biochemical analytes is demonstrated in the example of mixed monolayers of biotin/fluorocarbon. The contact angle of aqueous solutions on such surfaces decreases upon streptavidin binding and can be used in detecting this protein. The specificity of the effect is confirmed by the lack of a contact angle change by streptavidin blocked with biotin and by bovine serum albumin.

  8. ESCHERICHIA COLI REDOX MUTANTS AS MICROBIAL CELL FACTORIES FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF REDUCED BIOCHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena A. Ruiz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioprocesses conducted under conditions with restricted O2 supply are increasingly exploited for the synthesis of reduced biochemicals using different biocatalysts. The model facultative aerobe Escherichia coli, the microbial cell factory par excellence, has elaborate sensing and signal transduction mechanisms that respond to the availability of electron acceptors and alternative carbon sources in the surrounding environment. In particular, the ArcBA and CreBC two-component signal transduction systems are largely responsible for the metabolic regulation of redox control in response to O2 availability and carbon source utilization, respectively. Significant advances in the understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and physiological duties of these regulatory systems have been achieved in recent years. This situation allowed to rationally-design novel engineering approaches that ensure optimal carbon and energy flows within central metabolism, as well as to manipulate redox homeostasis, in order to optimize the production of industrially-relevant metabolites. In particular, metabolic flux analysis provided new clues to understand the metabolic regulation mediated by the ArcBA and CreBC systems. Genetic manipulation of these regulators proved useful for designing microbial cells factories tailored for the synthesis of reduced biochemicals with added value, such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate, under conditions with restricted O2 supply. This network-wide strategy is in contrast with traditional metabolic engineering approaches, that entail direct modification of the pathway(s at stake, and opens new avenues for the targeted modulation of central catabolic pathways at the transcriptional level.

  9. Biochemical mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, L A; Wewer, U; Rao, N C

    1988-01-01

    Cancer invasion and metastases is a complex multistep process. In order for a tumor cell to successfully traverse all the steps of this process and initiate a metastatic colony, it must express the right combination of gene products. Such gene products may include proteins which regulate cell...... interaction with the basement membrane and cell motility. Tumor cells attach to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin via the cell surface laminin receptor. The human laminin receptor was purified and molecularly cloned. The level of laminin receptor mRNA is a variety of human carcinoma cells correlated...... with the number of laminin receptors on the cell surface of these cells. Following attachment to the basement membrane, the tumor cell next secretes proteases which may degrade type IV collagen. A genetic linkage between type IV collagenase secretion and metastases was studied using our new genetic system...

  10. Biochemical mechanisms of thyroid hormone deiodination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, George G J M; Kester, Monique H A; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

    2005-08-01

    Deiodination is the foremost pathway of thyroid hormone metabolism not only in quantitative terms but also because thyroxine (T(4)) is activated by outer ring deiodination (ORD) to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas both T(4) and T(3) are inactivated by inner ring deiodination (IRD) to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine and 3,3'-diiodothyronine, respectively. These reactions are catalyzed by three iodothyronine deiodinases, D1-3. Although they are homologous selenoproteins, they differ in important respects such as catalysis of ORD and/or IRD, deiodination of sulfated iodothyronines, inhibition by the thyrostatic drug propylthiouracil, and regulation during fetal and neonatal development, by thyroid state, and during illness. In this review we will briefly discuss recent developments in these different areas. These have resulted in the emerging view that the biological activity of thyroid hormone is regulated locally by tissue-specific regulation of the different deiodinases.

  11. Biochemical mechanisms of tumor invasion and metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, L A; Wewer, U; Rao, N C;

    1988-01-01

    interaction with the basement membrane and cell motility. Tumor cells attach to the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin via the cell surface laminin receptor. The human laminin receptor was purified and molecularly cloned. The level of laminin receptor mRNA is a variety of human carcinoma cells correlated...... with the number of laminin receptors on the cell surface of these cells. Following attachment to the basement membrane, the tumor cell next secretes proteases which may degrade type IV collagen. A genetic linkage between type IV collagenase secretion and metastases was studied using our new genetic system...

  12. THE ROLE OF MORTGAGE CREDIT IN ENSURING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Garipova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision of the important social task - ensuring the availability of housing for the mass of the population of the country, on the one hand, allowed to launch investment, savings, financial and credit mechanisms for ensuring economic growth of the Russian economy on the other. Despite the high degree of sophistication in the scientific literature of the organization of mortgage lending system, a study of its impact on economic growth factors in the scientific literature clearly insufficient. The original article was the theory of economic growth, which allowed on the basis of research of interaction of demand for residential property, it deals with the housing mortgage credit to justify a conclusion about its importance not only for solution of social tasks, availability of housing, but also a significant impact on the demand and supply on the residential property market. Based on the analysis of statistical data for the period from 2006 to 2012, and their correlation analysis carried out research of factors of development of housing markets and mortgage lending, namely incomes, housing prices, interest rates on loans, «channel lending conditions, the terms of banking mortgage.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  13. Ensuring US National Aeronautics Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    process; and the reductions in wind tunnel testing requirements within the largest consumer of ATP wind tunnel test time, the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). Retirement of the Space Shuttle Program and recent perturbations of NASA's Constellation Program will exacerbate this downward trend. Therefore it is crucial that ATP periodically revisit and determine which of its test capabilities are strategically important, which qualify as low-risk redundancies that could be put in an inactive status or closed, and address the challenges associated with both sustainment and improvements to the test capabilities that must remain active. This presentation will provide an overview of the ATP vision, mission, and goals as well as the challenges and opportunities the program is facing both today and in the future. We will discuss the strategy ATP is taking over the next five years to address the National aeronautics test capability challenges and what the program will do to capitalize on its opportunities to ensure a ready, robust and relevant portfolio of National aeronautics test capabilities.

  14. Ensuring quality control of forensic accounting for efficient and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring quality control of forensic accounting for efficient and effective ... has taken the center stage in every discussion whether in business or social. ... To ensure a valid conclusion of the study the ex-post facto research design was applied.

  15. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  16. The biochemical basis of antimicrobial responses in Manduca sexta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haobo Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Innate immunity is essential for the wellbeing of vertebrates and invertebrates.Key components of this defense system include pattern recognition receptors that bind to infectious agents, extra-and intra-cellular proteins that relay signals, as well as molecules and cells that eliminate pathogens. We have been studying the defense mechanisms in a biochemical model insect, Manduca sexta. In this insect, hemolin, peptidoglycan recognition proteins, β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins and C-type lectins detect microbial surface molecules and induce immune responses such as phagocytosis, nodulation, encapsulation,melanization and production of antimicrobial peptides. Some of these responses are mediated by extracellular serine proteinase pathways. The proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) yields active phenoloxidase (PO) which catalyzes the formation of quinones and melanin for wound healing and microbe killing. M. sexta hemolymph proteinase 14 (HP 14) precursor interacts with peptidoglycan or β- 1,3-glucan, autoactivates,and leads to the activation of other HPs including HP21 and proPO-activating proteinases (PAPs). PAP-1, -2 and -3 cut proPO to generate active PO in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs. Inhibition of the proteinases by serpins and association of the proteinase homologs with bacteria ensure a localized defense reaction. M. sexta HP1, HP6,HP8, HP17 and other proteinases may also participate in proPO activation or processing of sp(a)tzle and plasmatocyte spreading peptide.

  17. Biomechanical and biochemical characterization of porcine tracheal cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Benjamin; Martin, Matthew; Brown, Bryan N; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cheetham, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    The trachea is essential to respiratory function and is a mechanically and biochemically complex composite tissue. Tissue-engineering approaches to treat tracheal diseases require detailed knowledge of the native mechanical and biochemical properties of the trachea. Although the porcine trachea represents an excellent preclinical model, relevant mechanical and biochemical composition are incompletely characterized. Experimental. The mechanical and biochemical properties of 12 intact porcine tracheas were determined to characterize their compliance, as well as the aggregate modulus, bidirectional elastic modulus, hydraulic permeability, and biochemical characteristics of individual cartilage rings. Data demonstrate the glycosaminoglycan content of tracheal rings was (mean ± standard deviation) 190 ± 49 μg/mg. Hydroxyproline content was 8.2 ± 3.2 μg/mg, and DNA content was 1.3 ± 0.27 μg/mg, a four-fold difference between circumferential elastic modulus (5.6 ± 2.0 megapascal [MPa]) and longitudinal composite elastic modulus (1.1 ± 0.7 MPa, P biochemical and mechanical properties of porcine tracheal cartilage, which is considered an excellent candidate for xenogenic tracheal graft and a source for tissue-engineered tracheal reconstruction. The range of parameters characterized in this study agrees with those reported for hyaline cartilage of the airway in other species. These characteristics can be used as quantitative benchmarks for tissue-engineering approaches to treat tracheal disease. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:E325-E331, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Biochemical Mechanism of Resistance against Soybean Cyst Nematode Induced by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Soybean%根际促生菌诱导大豆抗大豆胞囊线虫的生化机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉玺; 张禹; 朱晓峰; 刘大伟; 李颂; 陈立杰; 王媛媛

    2011-01-01

    为揭示由根际促生细菌[Sneb207(Bacillus megaterium),Sneb482(Bacillus megaterum)]诱导大豆抗大豆胞囊线虫(Heterodera glycines Inhinhe)的生化机理.使用菌株Sneb207、Sneb482发酵液包衣处理大豆种子,在豆苗三叶期时接种大豆胞囊线虫卵悬液,分别于接种后6、12、18、24、30 d取样,测定大豆根内防御酶系活性(PAL,PP0,POD)、总酚含量和几丁质酶活性的动态变化.结果表明:大豆种子经Sneb207、Sneb482发酵液处理后,根内PAL、PP0、POD活性较对照均表现上升趋势,总酚含量也有所提高.与菌株SneB482相比,菌株Sneb207表现出对大豆胞囊线虫病更好的诱导抗病潜力.%It has been a new research focus on biological control that the induction of disease resistance and growth response in plants is elicited by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR). This study aimed to examine the biochemical mechanism of the resistance to soybean cyst nematode ( Heterodera glycines Ichinohe ) in soybean induced by PGPR [ Sneb207 ( Bacillus megaterium) and Sneb482 (Bacillus megaterium) ]. Seed bacterization with Sneb207 and Sneb482 were utilized in the experiment. The soybean plants were inoculated with eggs of soybean cyst nematode after soybean trefoil stage and the samples of roots were obtained 6,12,18,24 and 30 days later. Activities of plant resistance correlated enzymes including defense enzymes, namely phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and chitinase were measured, the content of total phenolics was also determined. The results showed that both the activities of PAL, PPO, POD,chitinase and the contents of total phenolics could be increased significantly by seed coating with fermentation liquid of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Sneb207, Sneb482) in the soybean roots than those in control. Sneb207 showed greater potential in induced resistance against soybean cyst nematode in the soybean plants than Sneb482.

  19. Associative learning in biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nikhil; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2007-11-07

    It has been recently suggested that there are likely generic features characterizing the emergence of systems constructed from the self-organization of self-replicating agents acting under one or more selection pressures. Therefore, structures and behaviors at one length scale may be used to infer analogous structures and behaviors at other length scales. Motivated by this suggestion, we seek to characterize various "animate" behaviors in biochemical networks, and the influence that these behaviors have on genomic evolution. Specifically, in this paper, we develop a simple, chemostat-based model illustrating how a process analogous to associative learning can occur in a biochemical network. Associative learning is a form of learning whereby a system "learns" to associate two stimuli with one another. Associative learning, also known as conditioning, is believed to be a powerful learning process at work in the brain (associative learning is essentially "learning by analogy"). In our model, two types of replicating molecules, denoted as A and B, are present in some initial concentration in the chemostat. Molecules A and B are stimulated to replicate by some growth factors, denoted as G(A) and G(B), respectively. It is also assumed that A and B can covalently link, and that the conjugated molecule can be stimulated by either the G(A) or G(B) growth factors (and can be degraded). We show that, if the chemostat is stimulated by both growth factors for a certain time, followed by a time gap during which the chemostat is not stimulated at all, and if the chemostat is then stimulated again by only one of the growth factors, then there will be a transient increase in the number of molecules activated by the other growth factor. Therefore, the chemostat bears the imprint of earlier, simultaneous stimulation with both growth factors, which is indicative of associative learning. It is interesting to note that the dynamics of our model is consistent with certain aspects of

  20. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  1. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of Mimosa annexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Hayashi, Asami; Temmei, Yusuke; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2004-09-01

    To characterize the biochemical properties of plant annexin, we isolated annexin from Mimosa pudica L. and analyzed the biochemical properties conserved between Mimosa annexin and animal annexins, e.g. the ability to bind phospholipid and F-actin in the presence of calcium. We show that Mimosa annexin is distributed in a wide variety of tissues. Immunoblot analysis also revealed that the amount of annexin is developmentally regulated. To identify novel functions of Mimosa annexin, we examined the pattern of distribution and the regulation of its expression in the pulvinus. The amount of annexin in the pulvinus increased at night and was sensitive to abscisic acid; however, there was no detectable induction of annexin by cold or mechanical stimulus. Annexin distribution in the cell periphery during the daytime was changed to a cytoplasmic distribution at night, indicating that Mimosa annexin may contribute to the nyctinastic movement in the pulvinus.

  2. Synergisms and Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Three New Mixtures against Pieris rapae L.%3种新型复配剂对菜青虫的增效作用及生理生化机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米凤玉; 王永模; ELTAYEB E Mansour; 张国安

    2011-01-01

    [方法]为明确乙酰甲胺磷·噻虫嗪水乳剂、水分散粒剂和毒死蜱·噻虫嗪水分散粒剂3种新型复配剂的增效作用及增效机理,室内采用喷雾法测定了对菜青虫的增效作用;通过生化测定法研究了其对菜青虫体内羧酸酯酶(CarE)、谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTs)和乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)活力的影响;采用石蜡切片显微观察法分析了3种复配剂处理后菜青虫中肠组织细胞的变化.[结果]3种复配剂对菜青虫都有很好的杀虫活性,处理48 h后的共毒系数分别为13110、459.04、204.94,都表现为明显的增效作用;乙酰甲胺磷·噻虫嗪水乳剂显著抑制CarE、GSTs和AChE活力,抑制率分别为90.04%、74.98%、71.59%;乙酰甲胺磷·噻虫嗪水分散粒剂对3种酶活力的抑制率分别为72.11%、74.98%、90.60%;毒死蜱·噻虫嗪水分散粒剂则仅抑制CarE和GSTs活力,抑制率为71.16%和88.55%;3种复配剂明显影响菜青虫中肠肠壁细胞的层次结构以及肠壁细胞中的杯状细胞形状及结构.[结论]3种新型复配剂可能是通过抑制菜青虫体内关键酶活性和破坏中肠组织细胞形状和结构,进而影响其正常的消化和吸收功能,达到增效和杀虫的目的.%[Methods] In order to explicit their synergisms and mechanisms against Pieris rapae L., the synergized action against Pieris rapae L. Of three new mixtures of acephate and thiamethoxam emulsion in water, acephate and thiamethoxam water dispersible granule, chlorpyrifos and thiamethoxam water dispersible granule were determined by using spray application bioassays. The influences on the activities of carboxylesterase(CarE), glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) and acetylcholinesterase(AChE) were tested by biochemical method. Besides, the effects on midgut cells were studied by paraffin section method. [Results] All the three mixtures showed good insecticidal activity on P. Rapae L.. The co-toxicity coefficient (CTCs

  3. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  4. A cooperative approach to ensure software product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sangeetha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality is the process of ensuring that software developed satisfies customer requirements. Among the many software quality attributes like functionality, usability, capability, maintainability, etc., reliability is a major factor to assure quality of the software. Reliability ensures that software is failure free. In this work, we propose to ensure quality through a behavioral model that evaluates business requirements and gives priority for quality attributes. The model consists of behavioural and human perspectives in assessment. It is used for assessment of software developed.

  5. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  6. A Course in... Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terry K-L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for senior undergraduates and first year graduate students in biochemical engineering. Discusses five experiments used in the course: aseptic techniques, dissolved oxygen measurement, oxygen uptake by yeast, continuous sterilization, and cultivation of microorganisms. (MVL)

  7. Biochemical Engineering Education through Videotapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, G. D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The implementation and results of the use of videotapes in introductory biochemical engineering classes are discussed. The topics of the videotapes and the results of a questionnaire about this instructional method are presented. (CW)

  8. Mathematical Models of Biochemical Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Emery David

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explain the mathematics involved in modeling biochemical oscillations. We first discuss several important biochemical concepts fundamental to the construction of descriptive mathematical models. We review the basic theory of differential equations and stability analysis as it relates to two-variable models exhibiting oscillatory behavior. The importance of the Hopf Bifurcation will be discussed in detail for the central role it plays in limit cycle behavior and...

  9. CONDITIONS AND MAIN CRITERIA OF ENSURING FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailushkin P. V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main components, factors and criteria of ensuring food security of the modern state. Need of state regulation of economy as a whole and its food subcomplex in particular has been designated

  10. Strategies for Ensuring Quality in the Business Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    to ensure quality in the business education programme in tertiary institutions in ... syllabus and provision of requisite infrastructure and facilities to the business education ..... delivered at Excellence Hotel on 6th July. Vol. 8 (1) Serial No.

  11. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  12. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  13. Universal Health Insurance in India: Ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian health system is characterized by a vast public health infrastructure which lies underutilized, and a largely unregulated private market which caters to greater need for curative treatment. High out-of-pocket (OOP health expenditures poses barrier to access for healthcare. Among those who get hospitalized, nearly 25% are pushed below poverty line by catastrophic impact of OOP healthcare expenditure. Moreover, healthcare costs are spiraling due to epidemiologic, demographic, and social transition. Hence, the need for risk pooling is imperative. The present article applies economic theories to various possibilities for providing risk pooling mechanism with the objective of ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality care. Asymmetry of information leads to failure of actuarially administered private health insurance (PHI. Large proportion of informal sector labor in India′s workforce prevents major upscaling of social health insurance (SHI. Community health insurance schemes are difficult to replicate on a large scale. We strongly recommend institutionalization of tax-funded Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS, with complementary role of PHI. The contextual factors for development of UHIS are favorable. SHI schemes should be merged with UHIS. Benefit package of this scheme should include preventive and in-patient curative care to begin with, and gradually include out-patient care. State-specific priorities should be incorporated in benefit package. Application of such an insurance system besides being essential to the goals of an effective health system provides opportunity to regulate private market, negotiate costs, and plan health services efficiently. Purchaser-provider split provides an opportunity to strengthen public sector by allowing providers to compete.

  14. Ensuring Strategic Stability In The Second Nuclear Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    good chance of nuclear retaliation.4 Thus, stability centered on the threat the atomic bomb presented, as no promise of victory was beneficial if...paper argues the United States must seek a balanced systems approach to ensure strategic stability in a nuclear multiplicity environment among its...approach to ensure strategic stability in a nuclear multiplicity environment among its nuclear-armed peers, near peers and nonpeers. This paper will not

  15. [Chronic fatigue syndrome: biochemical examination of blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakariya, Yukiko; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2007-06-01

    Though patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have lots of complaints, abnormal findings cannot be detected by biochemical screening tests. However, some specialized blood tests have revealed neuroendocrine immune axis abnormalities, which is closely associated with each other. Recent studies indicate that CFS can be understood as a special condition based on abnormality of the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunological system, with the distinguishing feature of CFS seeming to be the secondary brain dysfunction caused by several cytokines and/or autoantibodies. In this paper, we summarize these abnormalities found in CFS and show the neuro-molecular mechanism leading to chronic fatigue.

  16. Biochemical composition of tangerine fruits under microfertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Belous; Yuliya Abilfazova

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the long-term research and its results in the field of biochemical composition and mechanical analysis of dwarf tangerine fruits ('Miagava-Vase') growing in the subtropical zone of the Black Sea coast, Krasnodar region. The given results have been obtained after treatments with the following micro fertilizers: H3BO3 (at a concentration of 0.06%), MnSO4 H2O (0.4%), ZnSO4 H2O (0.3%) and CuSO4 H2O (0.06%), an option with foliar water spraying served as a control. It is shown t...

  17. Modelling biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-07

    In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach.

  18. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  19. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanism of Massage on Repairing of Injury Skeletal Muscle%骨骼肌损伤修复的生理生化机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯懿烜; 柳满然; 张萍; 郑元义; 刘仁建; 唐成林

    2011-01-01

    To understand the physiological and biochemical mechanism of massage on the repair of rabbit damaged skeletal muscle and its motor endplate (MEP). Methods 30 of New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, which were normal group, self-repairing group (including 7-day (3 rabbits) , 14-day, 21-day injury subgroup (6 rabbits/subgroup)) and massage group (including 7-day, 14-day subgroup, 6 rabbits/subgroup). The quadriceps femoris injured models were established with self-made lead hitter. H&E staining and Choline copper method were employed todetect the pathologic change or activity of AchE and MEPs in the quadriceps femoris tissue derived from massage therapeutic and self-repairing rabbits. Results The obvious broken muscular fibers, muscle atrophy were found in self-repairing tissue contrasted to the tissue from massage-rabbits. No obvious histological change was found in the normal tissue with average 9.1 M Eps/field and its average size of 91.6μm2. In the massaged rabbits, muscle atrophy was found to be hindered, and higher activity of AchE was detected in the recovering skeletal muscle. The average numbers of MEPs were 6. 3 (about 72μm2) and 8.9 (about 89μm2) in massage-rabbits for 7 days and 14 days respectively. However, these parameters were 3.0 (about 31μm2) in rabbits injured for 7 days, 3. 8 (about 53μm2) in 14 days' self-repairing rabbits and 5.9 (about 74 u,m2) in 21 days' self-repairing rabbits. Conclusion Massage can prompt the repair of injured quadriceps femoris through enhancing muscular AchE activity and recovery of MEPs, thus prevent the degenerative muscle atrophy.%为探讨新西兰兔股四头肌损伤修复过程中,按摩对骨骼肌和运动终板(MEP)损伤修复的生理生化机制,将30只雄性新西兰大白兔随机分成正常组、自然恢复组(损伤后7d(3只)、14 d和21 d三个亚组(各6只))和按摩治疗组(按摩7d和14d两个亚组(各6只)).重物打击法制作兔股四头肌急性损伤模型,H&E染

  20. Study on the clinical effect of acupuncture on migraine and its biochemical mechanism%针刺治疗偏头痛的临床疗效及生化机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠人; 吴燕璟; 李晓捷

    2004-01-01

    背景:中医治疗偏头痛方法较多,其中针刺治疗偏头痛的疗效显著,往往收到针到痛止之奇效,故值得进一步研究.目的:明确针刺治疗偏头痛的临床疗效,并探讨针刺治疗偏头痛的生化学机制.设计:以诊断为依据的病例对照研究.地点、对象和干预:将63例偏头痛患者按随机抽签法分为针刺组(32例)和对照组(31例),观察临床疗效及治疗前后血中血小板活化因子(platelet activatingfactor,PAF),血栓烷B2,6-酮-PGF1α含量,并选择20例健康人作为正常对照组.主要观察指标:针刺对偏头痛症状的作用和对其血中PAF,血栓烷B2,6-酮-前列腺素F1α含量的影响.结果:针刺治疗对偏头痛疗效明显,总有效率达90.6%,优于对照组(x2=3.9459,P<0.05);偏头痛患者在治疗前血中PAF、血栓烷B2、6-酮-前列腺素F1α含量均高于正常对照组(t=6.416~13.144,P<0.01),而针刺组在治疗后血中PAF、血栓烷B2、6-酮-前列腺素F1α含量[(18.13±1.90)μg/L,(99.65±36.43),(20.71±4.65)ng/L]低于对照组[(22.41±2.44)μg/L,(130.56±49.74),(29.67±6.78)ng/L](t=2.807~7.752,P<0.01).结论:针刺治疗偏头痛疗效明显;PAF、血栓烷B2、6-酮-前列腺素F1α均参与偏头痛的病理过程,针刺对偏头痛患者血中PAF、血栓烷B2、6-酮-前列腺素F,α有调节作用.%BACKGROUND: Acupuncture therapy is a kind of remarkable curative means of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) in the treatment of migraine, and the pain can often be alleviated as soon as the needle is inserted. Consequently, it is worth making further study.OBJECTIVE: To study the clinic effect and the biochemical mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of migraine.DESIGN: Case-control study on the basis of diagnosis.SETTING, PARTICIPANTS and INTERVENTION: Totally 63 patients with migraine were enrolled and divided into 2 groups at random: acupuncture group(32 cases) and control group(31 cases) . The effect of the acupuncture therapy was

  1. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-01-01

    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  2. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  3. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, A. [Univ. di Milano (Italy); Falini, A. [Univ. Vita e Salute (Italy). IRCCS; Ravasi, L.; Ottobrini, L.; Lucignani, G. [Univ. di Milano (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; De Marchis, D. [Univ. di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Bombardieri, E. [Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  4. KEY FACTORS OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMIC SOVEREIGNTY ENSURING IN CONDIDIONS OF THE MODERN GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov A. B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is the analysis of the key factors of the Russian economic sovereignty ensuring now. As a result, we have identified the weaknesses in the economy and proposed the ways of solving some problems. The analysis of the mechanism of budget allocation under the anti-crisis plan of the government was performed as well. The prospects for the global oil market, the capital market and the exchange rate of the Russian currency were presented

  5. Integration of biochemical sensors into wearable biomaterial platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sidhartha; Walper, Scott A.; Cargill, Allison A.; Ozual, Abigail; Daniele, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    With rapidly inflating healthcare costs, a limited supply of physicians and an alarming surge in lifestyle diseases, radical changes must be made to improve preventative medicine and ensure a sustainable healthcare system. A compelling solution is to equip the population with wearable health monitors to continuously record representative and actionable physiological data. Herein, we present a preliminary design and evaluation of a biochemical sensor node enabled by a substrate comprised of a nanocellulose thin-film that conforms to the skin and carries a printed sensor element. The nanocellulose layer ensures conformal and biocompatible contact with the skin, while a printed layer provides a high surface-area electrode. While the recognition/transduction element can be exchanged for many different sensing motifs, we utilize the general structure of an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  6. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  7. Salt stress induced lipid accumulation in heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides: Mechanisms based on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Haiyan; Liu, Tingting; Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Zejian; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-06-20

    Salt stress as an effective stress factor that could improve the lipid content and lipid yield of glucose in the heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides was demonstrated in this study. The highest lipid content of 41.2% and lipid yield of 185.8mg/g were obtained when C. protothecoides was stressed under 30g/L NaCl condition at its late logarithmic growth phase. Moreover, the effects of salt and osmotic stress on lipid accumulation were comparatively analyzed, and it was found that the effects of NaCl and KCl stress had no significant differences at the same osmolarity level of 1150mOsm/kg with lipid contents of 41.7 and 40.8% as well as lipid yields of 192.9 and 186.8mg/g, respectively, whereas these results were obviously higher than those obtained under the iso-osmotic glycerol and sorbitol stresses. Furthermore, basing on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration, the superior performance of salt stress driving lipid over-synthesis was probably ascribed to the more ROS production as a result of additional ion effect besides the osmotic effect, subsequently mediating the alteration from carbohydrate storage to lipid accumulation in signal transduction process of C. protothecoides.

  8. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  9. How ScienceQuest Ensures Success for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Zorfass

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Informal educational programs that reach out to minority youth in low-income urban areas need to anticipate diversity. Not only will participants exhibit a range of abilities and needs, but some, just like in any population, are likely to have learning disabilities. ScienceQuest, an informal science education program funded by the National Science Foundation, was designed to ensure that youth aged 10 to 14 with diverse abilities and needs, including learning disabilities, can successfully participate and succeed in inquiry-based learning. The program uses the I-Search curriculum as the basis of its inquiry process. Embedded in this curriculum are the following inclusive practices: youth are motivated to explore their topic; they use varied media that supports their learning styles; they are guided to process information through multiple means; and they have access to technology tools. These ongoing inclusive practices ensure that everyone successfully explores the world around them.

  10. Ensuring the Validity of the Micro Foundation in DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    The presence of i) stochastic trends, ii) deterministic trends, and/or iii) stochastic volatil- ity in DSGE models may imply that the agents' objective functions attain infinite values. We say that such models do not have a valid micro foundation. The paper derives sufficient condi- tions which...... ensure that the objective functions of the households and the firms are finite even when various trends and stochastic volatility are included in a standard DSGE model. Based on these conditions we test the validity of the micro foundation in six DSGE models from the literature. The models of Justiniano...... & Primiceri (American Economic Review, forth- coming) and Fernández-Villaverde & Rubio-Ramírez (Review of Economic Studies, 2007) do not satisfy these sufficient conditions, or any other known set of conditions ensuring finite values for the objective functions. Thus, the validity of the micro foundation...

  11. The Concept of a Method Ensuring Aeronautical Data Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Ewa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of a method ensuring quality of aeronautical data. European Union (among others UE 73/2010 as well as international (among others ICAO Annex 15 regulations introduce a number of requirements regarding the quality and safety of aeronautical data. Those directives set up a complementary regulations system. However with their objective and scope they determine mainly the specifications and requirements that are to be implemented and compatible. Mentioned regulations also refer to selected international standards (e.g. ISO 19157, focused on quality and safety of geographic data and information. Nevertheless within the scope of considered regulations and norms no algorithms and methods of ensuring required quality in the process of aeronautical data collection and processing were determined. Taking into account the identified needs, authors proposed the application of statistical method for process quality management – six-sigma.

  12. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana A. Salimova; Lyudmila A. Fedos’kina

    2017-01-01

    Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buye...

  13. Cep63 and cep152 cooperate to ensure centriole duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Brown

    Full Text Available Centrosomes consist of two centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material and function as the main microtubule organising centres in dividing animal cells. They ensure proper formation and orientation of the mitotic spindle and are therefore essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Centrosome function is crucial during embryonic development, highlighted by the discovery of mutations in genes encoding centrosome or spindle pole proteins that cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, including Cep63 and Cep152. In this study we show that Cep63 functions to ensure that centriole duplication occurs reliably in dividing mammalian cells. We show that the interaction between Cep63 and Cep152 can occur independently of centrosome localisation and that the two proteins are dependent on one another for centrosomal localisation. Further, both mouse and human Cep63 and Cep152 cooperate to ensure efficient centriole duplication by promoting the accumulation of essential centriole duplication factors upstream of SAS-6 recruitment and procentriole formation. These observations describe the requirement for Cep63 in maintaining centriole number in dividing mammalian cells and further establish the order of events in centriole formation.

  14. Cep63 and cep152 cooperate to ensure centriole duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicola J; Marjanović, Marko; Lüders, Jens; Stracker, Travis H; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Centrosomes consist of two centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material and function as the main microtubule organising centres in dividing animal cells. They ensure proper formation and orientation of the mitotic spindle and are therefore essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Centrosome function is crucial during embryonic development, highlighted by the discovery of mutations in genes encoding centrosome or spindle pole proteins that cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, including Cep63 and Cep152. In this study we show that Cep63 functions to ensure that centriole duplication occurs reliably in dividing mammalian cells. We show that the interaction between Cep63 and Cep152 can occur independently of centrosome localisation and that the two proteins are dependent on one another for centrosomal localisation. Further, both mouse and human Cep63 and Cep152 cooperate to ensure efficient centriole duplication by promoting the accumulation of essential centriole duplication factors upstream of SAS-6 recruitment and procentriole formation. These observations describe the requirement for Cep63 in maintaining centriole number in dividing mammalian cells and further establish the order of events in centriole formation.

  15. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  16. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  17. Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

  18. Associative learning in biochemical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi, Nikhil; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    We develop a simple, chemostat-based model illustrating how a process analogous to associative learning can occur in a biochemical network. Associative learning is a form of learning whereby a system "learns" to associate two stimuli with one another. In our model, two types of replicating molecules, denoted A and B, are present in some initial concentration in the chemostat. Molecules A and B are stimulated to replicate by some growth factors, denoted GA and GB, respectively. It is also assu...

  19. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  20. Model of Formation of the Enterprise Business Portfolio in the Context of Ensuring Strategic Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatilova Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers urgent problems of enterprise management under conditions of external environment instability, studies problems of the enterprise strategic flexibility management. It shows that one of the efficient mechanisms of ensuring strategic flexibility is restructuring of the enterprise business portfolio in accordance with the change of the situation in the target market of enterprise functioning. The goal of the article is development of a model of formation of enterprise business portfolio in the context of ensuring strategic flexibility. The main method of optimisation of the enterprise business portfolio in the context of ensuring strategic flexibility is the use of modification of the Markowitz model of investment portfolio formation. The offered model of the enterprise business portfolio formation allows taking into account changes of external and internal environments and conducting portfolio restructuring in the event of the change of the enterprise target market situation. Prospects of further studies in this direction are detailed elaboration and formalisation of the organisational and economic mechanism of realisation of strategic flexibility at an enterprise.

  1. Analysis of the Romanian Insurance Market Based on Ensuring and Exercising Consumers` Right to Claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the financial market of insurance, consumer protection represents an important component contributing to the stability, discipline and efficiency of the market. In this respect, the activity of educating and informing insurance consumers on ensuring and exercising their right to claim plays a leading role in the mechanism of consumer protection. This study aims to improve the decision-making capacity of the financial services consumers from the Romanian insurance market through better information on ensuring and exercising their right to claim under the legislation. Thus, by applying three data analysis techniques – principal components analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis – to the data regarding the petitions that were registered by the 41 insurance companies which operated in the Romanian market in 2012, a classification that assesses the insurance market transparency is achieved, resulting in a better information for consumers and, hence, the improvement of their protection through reducing the level of transactions that are harmful to consumers

  2. Ensuring the quality, potency and safety of vaccines during preclinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Jose A; Wolf, Jayanthi J; Kaplanski, Catherine V; Ledwith, Brian J

    2005-12-01

    There is an abundance of vaccines currently in development, with most of them exploring novel mechanisms, adjuvants and/or delivery systems not only for traditional prophylactic use, but also for therapeutic uses. As vaccines are generally administered to healthy individuals, ensuring their quality, potency and safety becomes crucial, especially prior to evaluation in humans. To ensure these key attributes, vaccine developers need to incorporate them as early in the development program as possible, starting in basic research and continuing through preclinical, clinical and postmarketing development. Fortunately for vaccine developers, ample guidance is available from various regulatory agencies to enlighten the long and arduous path of vaccine development. This review will highlight these regulatory expectations, and provide some clarity as to why they are in place.

  3. Mode of inheritance for biochemical traits in genetically engineered cotton under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad Ali; Malik, Waqas; Yasmeen, Azra; Qayyum, Abdul; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Chengzhen; Guo, Sandui; Ashraf, Javaria

    2016-02-02

    Drought is an abiotic environmental stress that can significantly reduce crop productivity. We examined the mode of inheritance for different biochemical traits including total soluble proteins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total phenolic contents and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), and their relationship with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin under control and drought conditions. Eight genetically diverse cotton genotypes were selfed for two generations to ensure homozygosity. Fifteen F1 hybrids were developed by crossing five non-Bt female lines with three Bt male testers. The F1 hybrids and eight parents were finally evaluated under control (100 % field capacity (FC)) and drought (50 % FC) conditions in 2013. The biochemical traits appeared to be controlled by non-additive gene action with low narrow sense heritability estimates. The estimates of general combining ability and specific combining ability for all biochemical traits were significant under control and drought conditions. The genotype-by-trait biplot analysis showed the better performance of Bt cotton hybrids when compared with their parental genotypes for various biochemical traits under control and drought conditions. The biplot and path coefficient analyses revealed the prevalence of different relationships between Cry1Ac toxin and biochemical traits in the control and drought conditions. In conclusion, biochemical traits could serve as potential biochemical markers for breeding Bt cotton genotypes without compromising the optimal level of Bt toxin.

  4. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  5. How NASA Utilizes Dashboards to Help Ensure Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeley, Chris

    2013-01-01

    NASA is actively planning to expand human spaceflight and robotic exploration beyond low Earth orbit. To prepare for the challenge of exploring these destinations in space, NASA conducts missions here on Earth in remote locations that have physical similarities to extreme space environments. Program managers for the Advanced Exploration Systems program requested a simple way to track financial information to ensure that each task stayed within their budgetary constraints. Using SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards (Formerly Xcelsius), a dashboard was created to satisfy all of their key requirements. Lessons learned, along with some tips and tricks, will be highlighted during this session.

  6. Techniques for Efficiently Ensuring Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    The Cloud Computing is the next generation architecture of IT Enterprise. It moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. Here, focus is on cloud data storage security, an important aspect...... of quality of service. To ensure the correctness of users’ data in the cloud, we propose an effective and flexible distributed scheme with two salient features. By utilizing the homomorphic token with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, the scheme achieves the integration of storage correctness...

  7. Ensuring the Validity of the Micro Foundation in DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    The presence of i) stochastic trends, ii) deterministic trends, and/or iii) stochastic volatil- ity in DSGE models may imply that the agents' objective functions attain infinite values. We say that such models do not have a valid micro foundation. The paper derives sufficient condi- tions which...... ensure that the objective functions of the households and the firms are finite even when various trends and stochastic volatility are included in a standard DSGE model. Based on these conditions we test the validity of the micro foundation in six DSGE models from the literature. The models of Justiniano...... in these models remains to be established....

  8. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed.

  9. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a biorefinery concept for biological production of chemicals, drugs, feed and fuels using plant biomass as raw material in well-defined cell-factories. Among the important goals is the discovery of new biocatalysts for production of enzymes, biochemicals and fuels and already our...... screening of a large collection of fungal strains isolated from natural habitats have resulted in identification of strains with high production of hydrolytic enzymes and excretion of organic acids. Our research focuses on creating a fungal platform based on synthetic biology for developing new cell...

  10. Biochemical testing of thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, G G; Hay, I D

    1997-12-01

    Various published guidelines recommending serum thyrotropin (TSH)-first thyroid testing are outlined. The entities called "subclinical hypothyroidism" and "subclinical hyperthyroidism" are defined on the basis of abnormal TSH concentrations and normal values of other biochemical thyroid tests. The controversies about follow-up and treatment of these disorders are discussed. The laboratory experience of Mayo Clinic Rochester in using TSH-first thyroid testing and the subsequent implementation of a thyroid test ordering cascade are presented. Finally, recommendations are given for further optimizing laboratory testing for thyroid disorders.

  11. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  12. Biochemical aspects of Huntington's chorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraceni, T; Calderini, G; Consolazione, A; Riva, E; Algeri, S; Girotti, F; Spreafico, R; Branciforti, A; Dall'olio, A; Morselli, P L

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients affected by Huntington's chorea were divided into two groups, 'slow' and 'fast', according to IQ scores on the Wechsler-Bellevue scale, and scores on some motor performance tests. A possible correlation was looked for between some biochemical data (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA) levels, plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), dopamine (DA) uptake by platelets), and clinical data (duration of illness, severity of symptoms, age of patients, IQ scores, 'slow' and 'fast' groups). The CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA levels were found to be significantly lowered in comparison with normal controls. DBH activity and DA uptake by platelets did not differ significantly from normal subjects. Treatment with haloperidol in all patients and with dipropylacetic acid in three patients did not appear to modify the CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA concentrations, the plasma DBH activity, or the DA uptake. There were no significant differences in the CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA contents between the two groups of patients, and there was no correlation between biochemical data and clinical features. PMID:143508

  13. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  14. Ensuring Longevity: Ancient Glasses Help Predict Durability of Vitrified Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jamie L.; McCloy, John S.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2016-05-01

    How does glass alter with time? For the last hundred years this has been an important question to the fields of object conservation and archeology to ensure the preservation of glass artifacts. This same question is part of the development and assessment of durable glass waste forms for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Researchers have developed experiments ranging from simple to highly sophisticated to answer this question, and, as a result, have gained significant insight into the mechanisms that drive glass alteration. However, the gathered data have been predominately applicable to only short-term alteration times, i.e. over the course of decades. What has remained elusive is the long-term mechanisms of glass alteration[1]. These mechanisms are of particular interest to the international nuclear waste glass community as they strive to ensure that vitrified products will be durable for thousands to tens of thousands of years. For the last thirty years this community has been working to fill this research gap by partnering with archeologists, museum curators, and geologists to identify hundred to million-year old glass analogues that have altered in environments representative of those expected at potential nuclear waste disposal sites. The process of identifying a waste glass relevant analogue is challenging as it requires scientists to relate data collected from short-term laboratory experiments to observations made from long-term analogues and extensive geochemical modeling.

  15. A learning program that ensures prompt and versatile vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Nottebohm, Fernando

    2007-12-18

    Here we show how a migratory songbird, the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), achieves prompt and precise vocal imitation. Juvenile chipping sparrow males develop five to seven potential precursor songs; the normal development of these songs requires intact hearing but not imitation from external models. The potential precursor songs conform with general species-typical song parameters but differ from the song of wild, adult territorial males. As chipping sparrow males return from migration to start their first breeding season, they settle close to an older adult. The young male then stops producing all but one of its precursor songs, retaining the one that most resembles that of its neighbor. This single song then becomes more variable and, in a matter of days, is altered to closely match the neighbor's song. This elegant solution ensures species specificity and promptness of imitation.

  16. Ensuring Pain Relief for Children at the End of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Grégoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain management in the context of pediatric palliative care can be challenging. The present article reviews, through a case-based presentation, the nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods used to ensure adequate pain control in children facing end of life. Details on the impressive range of opioid dosages required and routes of administration are highlighted from published literature and clinical experience. Where available, evidence-based recommendations are provided. Potential side effects of pain medication and barriers to good pain control are discussed. Novel analgesics and innovative delivery methods are presented as future tools enhancing pain relief at the end of life. Some challenges to ethically grounded research in this important context of care are reviewed.

  17. Strategies to ensure the welfare of street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Street children refer to a vulnerable section of children who lives on the street in the absence of any guidance of a responsible person, to ensure their own or their family′s survival. Multiple determinants have been ascertained in the causation of the menace of street children. In order to address the challenges faced by street children, there is an indispensable need to develop a comprehensive strategy by involving all the concerned stakeholders. To conclude, to counter the menace of street children, there is a definite need to understand the role of heterogeneous determinants that push children towards street life, so that the welfare needs of street children can be safeguarded and the problem can be addressed at the grass root level.

  18. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  19. Distributed Design of a Central Service to Ensure Deterministic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ali Jokhio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A central authentication service to EPC (Electronic Product Code system architecture is proposed in our previous work. A challenge for a central service always arises that how it can ensure a certain level of delay while processing emergent data. The increasing data in the EPC system architecture is tags data. Therefore, authenticating increasing number of tag in the central authentication service with a deterministic time response is investigated and a distributed authentication service is designed in a layered approach. A distributed design of tag searching services in SOA (Service Oriented Architecture style is also presented. Using the SOA architectural style a self-adaptive authentication service over Cloud is also proposed for the central authentication service, that may also be extended for other applications.

  20. Optimized System Design to Ensure Safe and Smooth Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huilin; Zhao Lei; Ren Hua

    2008-01-01

    After the replacement with automatic system for the down direction hump of Zhengzhou North Station, some problems occurred in the sub-system of the speed control of the TW-2 hump automatic system and the sub-system of the sorting interlocking, such as poor control accuracy, complicated operation, too long time for mode switch of different performances etc. had made it impossible to meet the physical requirements of the sorting performance of the station, having an adverse effect on the safety and efficiency of the hump. Through intensive analysis on both external and internal causes, some counter measures had been put forward to solve the problems and some validations were carried out on the site. Therefore the aims to ensure safe and reliable operation of the station were reached.

  1. 生化试剂对机插水稻产量及生理生态特征的影响%Effects of Biochemical Reagents on Yield, Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of Mechanical-transplanting Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱聪聪; 邓建平; 张洪程; 汪洪洋; 王维屯

    2015-01-01

    Using Nanjing 9108 as the experimental material, setting different treatments by spraying 1.5 L/hm2 Jingfeng, 60 g/hm2 bi-hu, 675 g/hm2 Aizhuangfeng, 750 g/hm2 potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 15 g/hm2 gibberellic acid to study the effects of these treat-ments on rice yield, physiological and ecological characteristics of blanket seedling mechanical- transplanting rice and nutrition bowl mechanical-transplanting rice. The results showed that aizhuangfeng, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and bihu can increase the rice yield. Aizhuangfeng increases the grain number per spike, seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight significantly, the rice yields of the two mechanical-transplanting methods are 12.71%and 10.39%higher than the contrast respectively. The nutrition bowl mechanical-transplanting rice has an advantage in the population growth at anaphase and has more dry matter. The yield of nutrition bowl mechan-ical-transplanting rice is 6.95%higher than blanket seedling mechanical-transplanting rice on average.%以南粳9108为材料,始穗期通过喷施劲丰(1.5 L/hm2)、碧护(60 g/hm2)、矮壮丰(675 g/hm2)、磷酸二氢钾(750 g/hm2)、赤霉酸(15 g/hm2)处理,比较研究生化试剂对毯苗机插和钵苗机插水稻产量及生理生态特征的影响。结果表明,矮壮丰、磷酸二氢钾、碧护处理后的水稻抽穗后叶面积大,干物质积累多,群体生长率、光合势显著高于对照。喷施矮壮丰能够显著增加穗粒数、结实率和千粒重,两种机插方式实产分别较对照增加12.71%和10.39%,可有效缓解水稻生育中期持续低温阴雨天气的不利影响。钵苗机插稻后期群体生长优势明显,光合物质积累多,较毯苗机插平均增产6.95%,有利于抗逆减灾和大面积平衡高产。

  2. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling - based on spin systems - has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis-Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy - based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs - which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions.

  3. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...... and of eicosatrienoic acid but decreased linoleic acid content was found in serum from patients with Batten syndrome. An inverse relationship between erythrocyte GSHPx and serum eicosatrienoic acid was found in the patients. Finally normal selenium levels were found in erythrocytes, but decreased values were traced...

  4. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  5. Nonlinear Biochemical Signal Processing via Noise Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cell...

  6. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL CAPITAL INVESTMENTS TO ENSURE THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Every year more attention is paid for the theoretical and practical issue of sustainable development of railway transport. But today the mechanisms of financial support of this development are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine the optimal investment allocation to ensure sustainable development of the railway transport on the example of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway» and the creation of preconditions for the mathematical model development. Methodology. The ensuring task for sustainable development of railway transport is solved on the basis of the integral indicator of sustainable development effectiveness and defined as the maximization of this criterion. The optimization of measures technological and technical characters are proposed to carry out for increasing values of the integral performance measure components. To the optimization activities of technological nature that enhance the performance criteria belongs: optimization of the number of train and shunting locomotives, optimization of power handling mechanisms at the stations, optimization of routes of train flows. The activities related to the technical nature include: modernization of railways in the direction of their electrification and modernization of the running gear and coupler drawbars of rolling stock, as well as means of separators mechanization at stations to reduce noise impacts on the environment. Findings. The work resulted in the optimal allocation of investments to ensure the sustainable development of railway transportation of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway». This allows providing such kind of railway development when functioning of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway» is characterized by a maximum value of the integral indicator of efficiency. Originality. The work was reviewed and the new approach was proposed to determine the optimal allocation of capital investments to ensure sustainable

  7. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Salimova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buyers is the availability of presales and aftersales service. The current research works in the sphere of logistics services are analyzed which refer to the approaches to its definition as well as selecting the criteria for its functional quality. It is established that the increase of interest in the activities of logistics centers of car service is due to several reasons such as the growing complexity of their construction and the increased competition in this area. The critical review of the scientific literature was conducted as well as the analysis of the scientific problem of determining the functional areas of logistics service of an automobile company with a view to ensuring quality and enhancing the satisfaction of end users of automobiles. The key areas of corporate logistics services were systematized and classified detailing for each of these areas was made. Different approaches were described to defining the range of services at different stages of the life cycle of technical means. Basing on the studied viewpoints four components of the functional activities of service centers were formulated presales service car sales aftersales maintenance and disposal of vehicles. Basing on these components a model of brand service of a car company was formed taking into account the functional characteristics of each component. Scientific novelty a functional model was developed of the system of service vehicles in a brand servicesales chain automotive company allowing to provide

  8. Chordee repair utilizing a novel technique ensuring neurovascular bundle preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, G E; Burno, D K; Zaontz, M R

    2000-03-01

    Penile chordee, with and without hypospadias, is amenable to surgical correction. The Nesbit technique of dorsal plication of the ventral tunica albuginea is effective in correcting most cases of corporal disproportion. A hazard with this approach is the potential inclusion of the dorsal neurovascular bundle, with resultant erectile and sensory dysfunction. We developed a simple technique using the Freer elevator to isolate the neurovascular bundle prior to plication. This ensures that no injury occurs to the neurovascular bundle during plication. Since 1994, 37 boys with chordee have been repaired using this approach. Their ages at the time of operation ranged from 5 months to 28 years (mean 9 months). Following standard degloving of the penis, an incision through Buck's fascia is made lateral and parallel to the neurovascular bundle at the maximum level of the chordee. A similar incision is carried out on the contralateral side. A 4-mm-wide Freer elevator is positioned under Buck's fascia while hugging the tunica albuginea. The Freer elevator slides across the midline to the contralateral side, separating Buck's fascia and underlying layers from the tunica albuginea. Following isolation of the bundle, each corporal body is plicated by creating a longitudinal incision through the tunica albuginea, which then is closed transversely with a 5-0 polydioxanone suture. Buck's fascia subsequently is closed with an absorbable suture following confirmation of chordee correction. No complications have been encountered during a mean follow-up of 21 months (range 5-51 months). No patients have required reoperation for persistent chordee. We developed a technique that elevates the neurovascular bundle prior to plication, thereby ensuring no injury to this structure. We have successfully used this modified Nesbit technique since 1994 and have had no complications. Utilization of the Freer elevator adds an estimated 5 minutes to chordee correction compared to a standard

  9. Liquid standards utilization for metrological ensuring of spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilnaya, L. G.; Sayapin, A. I.; Solov'ev, Victor A.

    1993-12-01

    At the present time the testing of spectrophotometrical measuring means (spectrophotometers) in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum in accordance with the existing USSR verification scheme carried out by means of glass light filters, types KS-100, KS-102 certified with standard instruments. The main shortage of these light filters when using them as the standard measures is the necessity to certify them for transmission coefficient. To solve the problem, it seems reasonable to develop and use the liquid standard samples of optical density (LS) as highly efficient and economical means ensuring the unity of measurements in the spectrophotometry. In this report the possibility of utilization of the set of LS of optical density is considered. The set of LS represents acid and water solutions of organic compounds of five types (LS 04-1, LS 04-2, LS 04-3, LS 04-4, LS 04-5) having two levels of optical density in the wave band of 220 - 720 nm.

  10. Ensuring quality in qualitative inquiry: using key concepts as guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Frances Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of qualitative scientific inquiry employs a fast-growing variety of approaches, whose traditions, procedures, and structures vary, depending on the type of study design and methodology (i.e., phenomenological, ethnographic, grounded theory, case study, action research, etc.. With the interpretive approach, researchers do not utilize the same measures of validity used in positivist approaches to scientific inquiry, since there is "...no one standard or accepted structure as one typically finds in quantitative research" (Creswell, 2007. With the absence of a single standard, how, then, is it possible for qualitative researchers to know whether or not their study was done with rigor, that it has validity, that it is ready to submit to their peers? The research literature is sprinkled with references to quality in qualitative inquiry, which helps to construe a study's validity. Markula (2008 suggests that we validate our study's findings by assuring readers that it was done "in the best possible way." While each research tradition has its own set of criteria for judging quality, we present here general concepts drawn from the literature. We hope this article will provide a framework from which qualitative researchers can judge their work before submitting it to their peers¸ one which will help ensure that their study was done "in the best possible way."

  11. The Research on Biochemical Indexes of Athletes after Taking Nutritional Supplements during Winter Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Pan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper takes hemoglobin and blood urea as the indexes of biochemical monitoring and accordingly supplying sports nutritional supplements into them at the same time, the effect on exercise capacity and the changes in biochemical indicators in different training stages will be observed in this research. The quality of winter training determines the motion states of athletes in the next year. However, the poor weather condition and the large amount of training will lead to the accumulation of fatigue, affecting the training status of athletes seriously. Therefore, it is essential to monitor their biochemical indicators and supply them with special nutrition. In order to ensure the completion of a large load of training for athletes, it is far enough to supplement the nutrients just by food, some special powerful nutrition are also needed in a scientific way.

  12. Ensuring the population living safety in the contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Voronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state policy of the Russian Federation to ensure population, living in the contaminated areas, life safety is implemented by means of federal programs.12 programs for overcoming the Chernobyl accident consequences, children’s population protection and housing provision for the Chernobyl accident liquidators are adopted and realized during this time. Total financing amount from the federal budget is more than 9,2 billion rubles. The main efforts are directed to create necessary infrastructure in settlements, development and deployment rehabilitation measures for agricultural lands and forests, creation of radiation situation monitoring systems, increase housekeeping safety culture in the contaminated territories, informational support and social and psychological rehabilitation of the population. Within the state programs are developing complex systems of a radiation situation monitoring in 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. Experts training for the outreach work with population, concerning radiation safety, increasing population knowledge level about radiation in a format of seminars, conferences, with use of online technologies is provided. The project on creation the uniform interdepartmental information system on overcoming radiation accidents aftermath, integrating the operating information systems of The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing and the Russian Academy of Sciences is realized.However, the problem of overcoming the radiation accidents aftermath remains relevant up to date.In 14 subjects of the Russian Federation there are territories contaminated by radioactive materials as a result of the Chernobyl accident where more than 1,5 million people live.

  13. Ensuring Sustainable Data Interoperability Across the Natural and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    environmental stewardship by 2030. These efforts suggest the need for a holistic approach towards improving and implementing strategies, policies, and practices that will ensure long-term sustainability and interoperability of scientific data repositories and networks across multiple scientific domains.

  14. An approach to ensuring quality in environmental software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelston, G.M.; Lundgren, R.E.; McDonald, J.P.; Hoopes, B.L.

    1998-05-01

    Environmental software is often used to determine impacts to the public, workers, and the environment from environmental contamination. It is vital, therefore, that the modeling results, and the software that provides them, be scientifically defensible and capable of withstanding the most rigorous of technical reviews. The control and assurance of quality is a critical factor for the project team that develops environmental software at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This document describes the philosophy, process, and activities that ensure a quality product throughout the life cycle of requirements analysis, design, programming, modification, testing, and implementation of environmental software. Environmental software developed by the project team is designed using an object-oriented approach. This software offers increased benefits, such as ease of maintenance and retention of the development and testing legacy of individual components, over traditional hard wired software. These benefits allow the design and testing of the models and future additions to be faster and less costly. This software is developed using a modular framework concept that allows a variety of models to work within a single construct. This software has two parts: an overall system framework and a set of modules. Each module has up to three components: a user interface, a scientific model, and pre/post-processors. Each of these pieces has a different set of quality criteria associated with it. However, whatever form this software might take for a particular client, standard processes apply to protect the information from inappropriate use. The information contained within this document can be applied to most environmental software to analyze risk in multiple environmental media.

  15. Biochemical Properties of Cysteine Desulfurase and Its Mechanism for the Desulfuration of L-Cysteine%半胱氨酸脱硫酶的生化特性及其脱硫作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭加平; 韦平和; 周锡樑

    2011-01-01

    半胱氨酸脱硫酶是一类依赖磷酸吡哆醛的酶,为同质二聚体,能催化L-半胱氨酸脱硫生成L-丙氨酸和硫.NifS首先在棕色固氮菌中发现,并被认为在固氮酶铁硫簇的形成中起重要作用.NifS同系物也存在于许多非固氮的原核及真核生物中,它们在分子质量、分光光度特性、底物选择性、氨基酸序列和生物学功能等方面非常相似.根据氨基酸序列的相似性,将NifS同系物分成二组,Ⅰ组包括NifS和IscS等,Ⅱ组包括CSD和CsdB等.半胱氨酸脱硫酶均具有保守的赖氨酸和半胱氨酸残基,前者与PLP形成Schiff碱,后者参与半胱氨酸过硫化物中间物形成.半胱氨酸脱硫酶的作用机理涉及半胱氨酸残基亲核攻击底物L-半胱氨酸上的巯基,形成与酶结合的半胱氨酸过硫化物中间物,该过硫化物中间物作为供硫体,参与生物素、硫胺素、钼碟呤以及铁硫簇、硫代核苷等含硫分子的生物合成.%Cysteine desulfurases are pyridoxal phosphate dependent homodimeric enzymes that catalyze the desulfuration of L-cyste-ine to yield L-alanine and free sulfur. The enzyme NifS was first identified in Azotobacter vinelandii, indicating that it might serve a general role in the formation of Fe-S clusters in nitrogenase. NifS homologs also occur in many nondiazotrophic prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and they are very similar in molecular weight, spectrophotometric property, substrate specificity, amino acid sequence, and function to the A. Vinelandii NifS. On the basis of sequence similarity relationships, the NifS homologs are divided into groups I and II. NifS and IscS are group I enzymes, whereas CSD and CsdB are members of group II. All cysteine desulfurases contain a conserved lysine that forms a Schiff base with the PLP cofactor in the resting state and a conserved catalytic cysteine involved in transient persulfide formation. The mechanism for desulfuration of L-cysteine catalyzed by cysteine

  16. Biochemical genetic markers in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaszmann, J C; Fautret, A; Noyer, J L; Feldmann, P; Lanaud, C

    1989-10-01

    Isozyme variation was used to identify biochemical markers of potential utility in sugarcane genetics and breeding. Electrophoretic polymorphism was surveyed for nine enzymes among 39 wild and noble sugarcane clones, belonging to the species most closely related to modern varieties. Up to 114 distinct bands showing presence versus absence type of variation were revealed and used for qualitative characterization of the materials. Multivariate analysis of the data isolated the Erianthus clone sampled and separated the Saccharum spontaneum clones from the S. robustum and S. officinarum clones; the latter two were not differentiated from one another. The analysis of self-progenies of a 2n=112 S. spontaneum and of a commercial variety showed examples of mono- and polyfactorial segregations. Within the progeny of the variety, co-segregation of two isozymes frequent in S. spontaneum led to them being assigned to a single chromosome initially contributed by a S. spontaneum donor. This illustrates how combined survey of ancestral species and segregation analysis in modern breeding materials should permit using the lack of interspecific cross-over to establish linkage groups in a sugarcane genome.

  17. Efficient Parallel Statistical Model Checking of Biochemical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ballarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of verifying stochastic models of biochemical networks against behavioral properties expressed in temporal logic terms. Exact probabilistic verification approaches such as, for example, CSL/PCTL model checking, are undermined by a huge computational demand which rule them out for most real case studies. Less demanding approaches, such as statistical model checking, estimate the likelihood that a property is satisfied by sampling executions out of the stochastic model. We propose a methodology for efficiently estimating the likelihood that a LTL property P holds of a stochastic model of a biochemical network. As with other statistical verification techniques, the methodology we propose uses a stochastic simulation algorithm for generating execution samples, however there are three key aspects that improve the efficiency: first, the sample generation is driven by on-the-fly verification of P which results in optimal overall simulation time. Second, the confidence interval estimation for the probability of P to hold is based on an efficient variant of the Wilson method which ensures a faster convergence. Third, the whole methodology is designed according to a parallel fashion and a prototype software tool has been implemented that performs the sampling/verification process in parallel over an HPC architecture.

  18. Detection of alloimmunization to ensure safer transfusion practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sood

    2013-01-01

    significant role in improving blood safety. Centers that have incorporated antibody screen test and identification have ensured safe transfusion. Identified patients should be flagged in a database and information shared. Such patients can be given carry-on cards and educated about the names of the identified antibodies. Full red cell phenotyping of individuals, patients and donors, can be feasibility.

  19. Robustness analysis of stochastic biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceska, Milan; Safránek, David; Dražan, Sven; Brim, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new framework for rigorous robustness analysis of stochastic biochemical systems that is based on probabilistic model checking techniques. We adapt the general definition of robustness introduced by Kitano to the class of stochastic systems modelled as continuous time Markov Chains in order to extensively analyse and compare robustness of biological models with uncertain parameters. The framework utilises novel computational methods that enable to effectively evaluate the robustness of models with respect to quantitative temporal properties and parameters such as reaction rate constants and initial conditions. We have applied the framework to gene regulation as an example of a central biological mechanism where intrinsic and extrinsic stochasticity plays crucial role due to low numbers of DNA and RNA molecules. Using our methods we have obtained a comprehensive and precise analysis of stochastic dynamics under parameter uncertainty. Furthermore, we apply our framework to compare several variants of two-component signalling networks from the perspective of robustness with respect to intrinsic noise caused by low populations of signalling components. We have successfully extended previous studies performed on deterministic models (ODE) and showed that stochasticity may significantly affect obtained predictions. Our case studies demonstrate that the framework can provide deeper insight into the role of key parameters in maintaining the system functionality and thus it significantly contributes to formal methods in computational systems biology.

  20. BIOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following- Persistent albuminuria (>300mg/d or >200μg/min, that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months apart diabetic, progressive decline in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR, elevated arterial blood pressure. The earliest biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is the presence of micro-albumin in the urine, which if left untreated will eventually lead to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. Micro-albuminuria refers to the excretion of albumin in the urine at a rate that exceeds normal limits. The current study was conducted to establish the prevalence of micro-albuminuria in a sequential sample of diabetic patients attending hospital and OPD Clinic to determine its relationship with known and putative risk factors to identify micro- and normo-albuminuric patients in their sample for subsequent comparison in different age, sex, weight and creatinine clearance of the micro- and normo-albuminuric patients. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in one hundred patients at Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Anwarpur, Hapur, U. P. Patients having diabetes mellitus in different age group ranging from 30 to 70 years were selected. Data was analysed by SPSS software. Micro-albuminuria was observed in 35% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was observed that 65% patients were free from any type of albuminuria. Also micro-albuminuria was present in 10% of the patients less than 50 yrs. of age, while 15% of the patients more than 50 yrs. of age were having micro-albuminuria. There was a statistically significant correlation of micro-albuminuria with duration of diabetes. Incidence of micro-albuminuria increases with age as well as increased duration of diabetes mellitus. Our study shows that only 5% patients developed macro-albuminuria. Glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose was significantly raised among all these

  1. Methodology and systems to ensure reliable thin-film PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jon; Varde, Uday; Konson, Alla; Walters, Mike; Kotarba, Chad, III; Kraft, Tim; Guha, Subhendu

    2008-08-01

    The reliability of Uni-Solar triple-junction amorphous silicon thin-film PV modules is very important to their success in an increasingly competitive PV market. Modules must show useful operating lifetimes on the order of 20 to 30 years, and although module efficiency is very important, the total energy a module will produce is largely dependent on its operating lifetime. Thus, it is essential to evaluate module reliability in order to estimate module lifetime and establish customer warranty periods. While real world outdoor exposure testing is necessary and important, it is essential that accelerated environmental test methods are utilized to provide more rapid feedback regarding failure modes, design flaws and degradation mechanisms. The following paper gives an overview of the methodology used to ensure long-term reliability of Uni-Solar flexible thin-film modules. The applied test methods are primarily based upon accepted industry test standards such as IEC-61646, UL-1703, and ASTM. The design, screening, and qualification process to ensure the robustness of new designs is described as well as subsequent module validation testing and manufacturing process control. Test methods important for flexible module laminates are briefly discussed and examples of reliability tests are given. Upon successful design validation and certification, the quality and reliability of manufactured modules is maintained through supplier and product quality assurance programs.

  2. Palmitoylation controls DLK localization, interactions and activity to ensure effective axonal injury signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Sabrina M.; Collura, Kaitlin M.; Ketschek, Andrea; Noma, Kentaro; Ferguson, Toby A.; Jin, Yishi; Gallo, Gianluca; Thomas, Gareth M.

    2016-01-01

    Dual leucine-zipper kinase (DLK) is critical for axon-to-soma retrograde signaling following nerve injury. However, it is unknown how DLK, a predicted soluble kinase, conveys long-distance signals and why homologous kinases cannot compensate for loss of DLK. Here, we report that DLK, but not homologous kinases, is palmitoylated at a conserved site adjacent to its kinase domain. Using short-hairpin RNA knockdown/rescue, we find that palmitoylation is critical for DLK-dependent retrograde signaling in sensory axons. This functional importance is because of three novel cellular and molecular roles of palmitoylation, which targets DLK to trafficking vesicles, is required to assemble DLK signaling complexes and, unexpectedly, is essential for DLK’s kinase activity. By simultaneously controlling DLK localization, interactions, and activity, palmitoylation ensures that only vesicle-bound DLK is active in neurons. These findings explain how DLK specifically mediates nerve injury responses and reveal a novel cellular mechanism that ensures the specificity of neuronal kinase signaling. PMID:26719418

  3. The spatial and mechanical challenges of female meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janice P; Robinson, Douglas N

    2011-01-01

    Recent work shows that cytokinesis and other cellular morphogenesis events are tuned by an interplay among biochemical signals, cell shape, and cellular mechanics. In cytokinesis, this includes cross-talk between the cortical cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle in coordination with cell cycle control, resulting in characteristic changes in cellular morphology and mechanics through metaphase and cytokinesis. The changes in cellular mechanics affect not just overall cell shape, but also mitotic spindle morphology and function. This review will address how these principles apply to oocytes undergoing the asymmetric cell divisions of meiosis I and II. The biochemical signals that regulate cell cycle timing during meiotic maturation and egg activation are crucial for temporal control of meiosis. Spatial control of the meiotic divisions is also important, ensuring that the chromosomes are segregated evenly and that meiotic division is clearly asymmetric, yielding two daughter cells - oocyte and polar body - with enormous volume differences. In contrast to mitotic cells, the oocyte does not undergo overt changes in cell shape with its progression through meiosis, but instead maintains a relatively round morphology with the exception of very localized changes at the time of polar body emission. Placement of the metaphase-I and -II spindles at the oocyte periphery is clearly important for normal polar body emission, although this is likely not the only control element. Here, consideration is given to how cellular mechanics could contribute to successful mammalian female meiosis, ultimately affecting egg quality and competence to form a healthy embryo.

  4. Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter Sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Ming; Brantley, Susan L.

    2013-10-28

    To provide the scientific understanding required to allow DOE sites to incorporate relevant biological, chemical, and physical processes into decisions concerning environmental remediation, a fundamental understanding of the controls on micro-organism growth in the subsurface is necessary. Specifically, mobility of metals in the environment, including chromium, technetium and uranium, is greatly affected by the process of dissimilatory metal reduction (DMR), which has been shown to be an important biological activity controlling contaminant mobility in the subsurface at many DOE sites. Long-term maintenance of DMR at constant rates must rely upon steady fluxes of electron donors to provide the maintenance energy needed by organisms such as Geobacter sulfurreducens to maintain steady state populations in the subsurface.

  5. Inherited copper transport disorders: biochemical mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroko; Fujisawa, Chie; Bhadhprasit, Wattanaporn

    2012-03-01

    Copper is an essential trace element required by all living organisms. Excess amounts of copper, however, results in cellular damage. Disruptions to normal copper homeostasis are hallmarks of three genetic disorders: Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, and Wilson's disease. Menkes disease and occipital horn syndrome are characterized by copper deficiency. Typical features of Menkes disease result from low copper-dependent enzyme activity. Standard treatment involves parenteral administration of copper-histidine. If treatment is initiated before 2 months of age, neurodegeneration can be prevented, while delayed treatment is utterly ineffective. Thus, neonatal mass screening should be implemented. Meanwhile, connective tissue disorders cannot be improved by copper-histidine treatment. Combination therapy with copper-histidine injections and oral administration of disulfiram is being investigated. Occipital horn syndrome characterized by connective tissue abnormalities is the mildest form of Menkes disease. Treatment has not been conducted for this syndrome. Wilson's disease is characterized by copper toxicity that typically affects the hepatic and nervous systems severely. Various other symptoms are observed as well, yet its early diagnosis is sometimes difficult. Chelating agents and zinc are effective treatments, but are inefficient in most patients with fulminant hepatic failure. In addition, some patients with neurological Wilson's disease worsen or show poor response to chelating agents. Since early treatment is critical, a screening system for Wilson's disease should be implemented in infants. Patients with Wilson's disease may be at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding the link between Wilson's disease and hepatocellular carcinoma will be beneficial for disease treatment and prevention.

  6. Biochemical Mechanisms Controlling Bioreactivity of Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-31

    kinase activity was examined from several chromatographic media, including: DEAE cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose , heparin sepharose, cellulose...Tau. Submitted to Neuron 12/91. Hall, F., Braun, R., Mihara, K., Fung, Y., Berndt, N., Carbonaro-Hall, D. and Vulliet, P. Characterization of the... Characterization and Application of Monoclonal Antibodies to Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase J. Neurosci. Research 23: 316-325, 1989. Hall, F. L, Mitchell, J. P., and

  7. Biophysical and Biochemical Mechanisms in Synaptic Transmitter Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-31

    8217, AND R. LLINAS• *Instituto de Biologia Celular Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Paraguay 2155. Buenos Aires 1121. Argentina: and...K. H. (1987). Ez’perientia 43. 537-543. Reprinted from THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, Vol. 177, No. 2, October 1989 Printed in U.S.A. Preliminary molecular ...acetonitrile:water gradients. FPLC on Superose indicated that FTX was of low molecular weight (200-400 Da), but did not effect an adequate purification. Anion

  8. Biochemical Mechanisms controlling Bioreactivity of Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-17

    conditioning in the laboratory rat . B. Examination of the morphological changes that accompany changes in bioreactivity of the rat adrenal medulla: When... Laboratory Rat . Proc. Western Pharmacol. Soc. 29: 315-318, 1986. Campbell, D. C., Hardie, D. G. and Vulliet, P. R. Identification of four Phosphorylation...Robert Lennox (New York, Plenum Press, 1987) pp 367-374. Vulliet, P. R., Loskutoff, N. and Kraemer, D. A Technique of Embryo Transfer in the

  9. Biochemical mechanisms of detoxification in higher plants: basis of phytoremediation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvesitadze, G. I

    2006-01-01

    ... structures might be a significant route to solve the problem. As an inherently biological principle of environmental remediation, phytoremediation is the closest to nature among the various available technologies, and is especially effective against widespread contamination of low concentration (chronic pollution), which, it is now recognized, is a far mor...

  10. Conseptual framework of ensuring food security in the Ural federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Samvelovich Beletskiy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the risks and threats to food security of the Ural Federal District which can significantly reduce its the level. The most significant risks are grouped according to the following classification: macroeconomic, technological, climatic, agro-ecological and foreign trade risks. The main directions of economic policy of the Ural Federal District in the area of food security are defined. Particular attention is paid to the improvement of economic and physical availability of food for all groups of population and to the problems of formation of the state material reserves and food safety. Strategic development priorities in the field of agricultural and fishery products, raw materials and food, sustainable development of rural areas in the field of foreign policy are formulated. Conceptual bases for the implementation mechanism of economic policies to ensure food security in the region are suggested.

  11. Conformational mechanism for the stability of microtubule-kinetochore attachments

    CERN Document Server

    Bertalan, Zsolt; Maiato, Helder; Zapperi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Regulating the stability of microtubule(MT)-kinetochore attachments is fundamental to avoiding mitotic errors and ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell division. While biochemical factors involved in this process have been identified, its mechanics still needs to be better understood. Here we introduce and simulate a mechanical model of MT-kinetochore interactions in which the stability of the attachment is ruled by the geometrical conformations of curling MT-protofilaments entangled in kinetochore fibrils. The model allows us to reproduce with good accuracy in vitro experimental measurements of the detachment times of yeast kinetochores from MTs under external pulling forces. Numerical simulations suggest that geometrical features of MT-protofilaments may play an important role in the switch between stable and unstable attachments.

  12. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  13. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  14. Isolation, biochemical and molecular characterization of 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, biochemical and molecular characterization of ... Abstract. Pure cultures of 2-chlorophenol degrading bacteria were isolated from a natural enrichment that may be adapted to ... three isolates out of six yielded positive PCR products.

  15. Personnel Risks in Ensuring Safety of Medical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: modern strategies of management of the organization require the formation of special management approaches based on the analysis of the mechanisms and processes of the organization of medical activities related to possible risks in activity of medical personnel. Based on international experience and own research the authors have identified features of a system of management of personnel risk in medical activities, examined approaches showing the sequence and contents of the main practical activities of the formation, maintenance and development of the system of management of personnel risks. Emphasized is the need for further research and implementation of the system of management of personnel risk in health care organizations. Study and assessment of personnel risks affecting the security of medical activities aimed at the development of the system of personnel risk management, development of a system of identification and monitoring of HR risk indicators with a purpose to improve institutional management and increase efficiency of activity of medical organizations. Methods: in the present study, the following methods were used: systemic approach, content analysis, methods of social diagnosis (questionnaires, interviews, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, method of statistical processing of information. Results: approaches to predict the occurrence and development of personnel risks have been reviewed and proposed. Conclusions and Relevance: patient safety is a global issue affecting countries at all levels of development. Each year, the WHO identifies a number of systemic and technical aspects and trends in the field of patient safety related to actions of medical workers. Existing imbalances in the staffing of the health system of the Russian Federation increase the probability of potential risks in medical practice. The personnel policy of healthcare of the Russian Federation requires further improvement and

  16. Biochemical and Anatomical Characteristics of Dolphin Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Nekooi, J. Durivage, and C. E. Blanco ) of the University of California, Los Angeles, for their excellent quantitative work in anatomical, biochemi...cal, and histochemical analyses of the dolphin’s musculo -tendonous system. J. E. Haun for providing constant support and guidance in areas of project...potential of these animals by examining the anatomical and biochemical characteristics of the musculo - tendonous systems involved with swimming. Strickler

  17. 75 FR 8272 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition Throughout the Life Cycle of Major... Reform Act of 2009, section 202, Acquisition Strategies to Ensure Competition throughout the Lifecycle of... requirements. Section 202 directs the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) to ensure that the acquisition strategy...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.100 - What must my agency ensure is on each SF 1113?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ensure is on each SF 1113? 102-118.100 Section 102-118.100 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.100 What must my agency ensure is on each SF 1113? Your agency must ensure during its prepayment audit of a TSP bill that the TSP filled out the Public Vouchers, SF 1113, completely including...

  19. 25 CFR 39.409 - How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability? 39.409... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Accountability § 39.409 How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability? (a) The Director of OIEP must ensure accountability in student counts and student transportation by doing all of...

  20. Chlamydia causes fragmentation of the Golgi compartment to ensure reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Dagmar; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Machuy, Nikolaus; Karlas, Alexander; Wehrens, Andrea; Siedler, Frank; Brinkmann, Volker; Meyer, Thomas F

    2009-02-05

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis survives and replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed the inclusion, which intercepts host exocytic pathways to obtain nutrients. Like many other intracellular pathogens, C. trachomatis has a marked requirement for host cell lipids, such as sphingolipids and cholesterol, produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. However, the mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens acquire host cell lipids are not well understood. In particular, no host cell protein responsible for transporting Golgi-derived lipids to the chlamydial inclusions has yet been identified. Here we show that Chlamydia infection in human epithelial cells induces Golgi fragmentation to generate Golgi ministacks surrounding the bacterial inclusion. Ministack formation is triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of the Golgi matrix protein golgin-84. Inhibition of golgin-84 truncation prevents Golgi fragmentation, causing a block in lipid acquisition and maturation of C. trachomatis. Golgi fragmentation by means of RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of distinct Golgi matrix proteins before infection enhances bacterial maturation. Our data functionally connect bacteria-induced golgin-84 cleavage, Golgi ministack formation, lipid acquisition and intracellular pathogen growth. We show that C. trachomatis subverts the structure and function of an entire host cell organelle for its own advantage.

  1. Adding Perches for Cross-Pollination Ensures the Reproduction of a Self-Incompatible Orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qiang; Rao, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Tang, Guang-Da; Huang, Lai-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Outcrossing is known to carry genetic advantages in comparison with inbreeding. In many cases, flowering plants develop a self-incompatibility mechanism, along with a floral component adaptation mechanism, to avoid self-pollination and to promote outbreeding. Orchids commonly have a lip in their flower that functions as the a visiting plate for insect pollinators. Aside from the lip, however, many species (including Coelogyne rigida) have sheaths around the axis of inflorescence. The function of these sheaths remains unknown, and has long been a puzzle to researchers. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the function of these sheaths in relation to the lip and the pollinators, as well as their role in the modes of pollination and reproduction of Coelogyne rigida in 30 flowering populations of orchids in the limestone area of Southeast Yunnan, China. We found that self-incompatible C. rigida developed specialized bird perches around the basal axis of inflorescence to attract sunbirds and to complement their behavioral tendency to change foraging locations frequently. This self-incompatibility mechanism operates separately from the floral component adaptation mechanism. This mechanism thus prevents bees from repeatedly visiting the floral lip of the same plant which, in turn, results in autogamy. In this way, instead of preventing autogamy, C. rigida responds to these negative effects through a highly efficient cross-pollination method that successfully transfers pollen to different plants. Conclusions The proposed method ensures reproductive success, while offsetting the infertile self-pollination by insects, thereby reducing mating costs and addressing the lack of cross-pollination. The adaptation provides a novel and striking example of structural adaptation that promotes cross-pollination in angiosperms. PMID:23308277

  2. Adding perches for cross-pollination ensures the reproduction of a self-incompatible orchid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Jian Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outcrossing is known to carry genetic advantages in comparison with inbreeding. In many cases, flowering plants develop a self-incompatibility mechanism, along with a floral component adaptation mechanism, to avoid self-pollination and to promote outbreeding. Orchids commonly have a lip in their flower that functions as the a visiting plate for insect pollinators. Aside from the lip, however, many species (including Coelogyne rigida have sheaths around the axis of inflorescence. The function of these sheaths remains unknown, and has long been a puzzle to researchers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the function of these sheaths in relation to the lip and the pollinators, as well as their role in the modes of pollination and reproduction of Coelogyne rigida in 30 flowering populations of orchids in the limestone area of Southeast Yunnan, China. We found that self-incompatible C. rigida developed specialized bird perches around the basal axis of inflorescence to attract sunbirds and to complement their behavioral tendency to change foraging locations frequently. This self-incompatibility mechanism operates separately from the floral component adaptation mechanism. This mechanism thus prevents bees from repeatedly visiting the floral lip of the same plant which, in turn, results in autogamy. In this way, instead of preventing autogamy, C. rigida responds to these negative effects through a highly efficient cross-pollination method that successfully transfers pollen to different plants. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method ensures reproductive success, while offsetting the infertile self-pollination by insects, thereby reducing mating costs and addressing the lack of cross-pollination. The adaptation provides a novel and striking example of structural adaptation that promotes cross-pollination in angiosperms.

  3. Ensuring sustained ACT production and reliable artemisinin supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olliaro Piero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This paper reviews recent trends in the production, supply and price of the active ingredients as well as finished ACT products. Production and cost data provided in this paper are based on an ongoing project (Artepal. Stability data are derived from a development project on rectal artesunate. Discussion The artemisinin raw material and its derivatives appear to be very stable compared to the finished products. Supply of artemisinin changed in May 2004 when the Global Fund shifted financial support to qualified countries from chloroquine or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to an ACT for treatment of malaria. First, there was a sudden shortage of the starting material, and short term scarcity led to a steep rise in API price: it increased dramatically in 2004, from $350 per kg to more than $1000. Second, there was a parallel increase in the number of companies extracting artemisinin from 10 to 80 between 2003 and 2005 in China, and from 3 to 20 in Vietnam. Commercial cultivation began also in East Africa and Madagascar. A steady and predictable demand for the crop can eliminate such wide fluctuations and indirectly contribute to price stability of the herb, the API and ACT. With appropriate mechanisms to reduce those fluctuations, the cost of artemisinin might decrease sustainably to US$ 250–300 per kg. Conclusion Today the global health community is facing the risk of another cyclical swing with lower demand feeding into reduced planting of A. annua and, thereafter, a new shortage of the raw material and higher API prices. International donors, the largest purchasers for ACTs could better coordinate their activities, in order to guarantee purchase of ACTs and consequently of API with manufacturers. In parallel, the base of quality producers of APIs and finished ACT products needs to be broadened. While the ACT programme is still in its early stages, the consequences of another wave of artemisinin and ACT shortages would

  4. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  5. Design of a biochemical circuit motif for learning linear functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Minnich, Amanda; Lane, Terran; Stefanovic, Darko

    2014-12-06

    Learning and adaptive behaviour are fundamental biological processes. A key goal in the field of bioengineering is to develop biochemical circuit architectures with the ability to adapt to dynamic chemical environments. Here, we present a novel design for a biomolecular circuit capable of supervised learning of linear functions, using a model based on chemical reactions catalysed by DNAzymes. To achieve this, we propose a novel mechanism of maintaining and modifying internal state in biochemical systems, thereby advancing the state of the art in biomolecular circuit architecture. We use simulations to demonstrate that the circuit is capable of learning behaviour and assess its asymptotic learning performance, scalability and robustness to noise. Such circuits show great potential for building autonomous in vivo nanomedical devices. While such a biochemical system can tell us a great deal about the fundamentals of learning in living systems and may have broad applications in biomedicine (e.g. autonomous and adaptive drugs), it also offers some intriguing challenges and surprising behaviours from a machine learning perspective.

  6. ENSURING SANITARY RELIABILITY OF TERRITORIES WHEN USING REMOVABLE SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found out that in most cases the system of removable water disposal is arranged with violations, i.e. cesspools that collect runoffs are either not designed at all — waste water merge into an open trench (ditch, and then water is filtered into the ground, or are designed against the rules (instead of a cesspool the user presupposes a simple hole dug in the ground. The authors witnessed the cases of ingress of wastewater into open waters, near which holiday villages are situated. This fact raises the question on the necessity of solving these problems which will prevent pollution of soil and surface waters, as well as the surrounding areas by sewages to prevent the development of infections and to prevent environmental disaster on a local scale. If you have a small rate of water flow in a summer cottage, it is feasible to design a sump for removal of faecal discharge (human physiological discharge, which are the most dangerous. It is advisable to install in the ground sealed (cumulative capacity, and build headroom on the top in the form of a toilet cabin (detached structure. This will allow completely getting rid of contamination with sewage effluents. The volume of the tank must be calculated individually depending on the water consumption on the site. Periodically it is needed to call out a cesspoolage truck after filling the reservoir, which would be then emptied of faecal material. In the last 20 years in our country a promising trend in removable sanitation began to develop — bio toilets. They became popular in country houses, as well as for persons with disabilities A composting toilet is a portable container, which is very compact and can be installed in any location of a country house. A more costly option, but an environmentally sound and convenient one to use is the construction of local water disposal systems with the use of not only mechanical, but also biological treatment. The choice of a particular scheme of

  7. Biochemical and behavioral effects of long-term citalopram administration and discontinuation in rats Role of serotonin synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Fokko J.; Tanke, Marit A. C.; Jongsma, Minke E.; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.; Jagtman, Evelien; Pietersen, Charmaine Y.; van der Hart, Marieke G. C.; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V.; Kema, Ido P.; Westerink, Ben H. C.; Korf, Jakob; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated effects of continuous SSRI administration and abrupt discontinuation on biochemical and behavioral indices of rat brain serotonin function and attempted to identify underlying mechanisms Biochemistry of serotonin was assessed with brain tissue assays and microdialysis behavior w

  8. Molecular and biochemical studies on bovine ephemeral fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Thabet; Emad W. Ghazy; Mohamed A. Nayel; Mohamed Abo-Elkhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF in cattle has been reported to be associated with a range of biochemical changes which are similar to those seen in milk fever. This study aimed to clarify the biochemical alterations that associate infection of cattle with BEF with special references to the mechanisms involved in the development of hypocalcemia. The study was conducted on 30 cases of cattle infected with BEF based on the characteristic clinical signs which were confirmed by isolation of virus and RT-PCR. Another 6 healthy cows were used in the study as control. The evaluated parameters included biochemical variables such as serum values of total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, glucose (Glu, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, inorganic phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Hormonal profile included parathyroid hormone (PTH, insulin (Ins, and cortisol (Cor. The results showed that BEF-infected animals demonstrated a significant decrease (P<0.05 in serum concentrations of TP, Glo, iCa, P, Na, K, BUN and ALP while the mean values of serum levels of Glu and Cl were significantly increased (P<0.05. The mean values of serum levels of PTH were significantly decreased (P<0.05 while serum concentrations of Ins and Cor showed a significant increase. It was concluded that the clinical signs of bovine ephemeral fever are related to the hypocalcemia resulting from suppression of parathyroid hormone which seems to be mediated by respiratory alkalosis caused by the disease. This explanation needs future studies to provide a direct link between measurement of blood indicators of acid-base status, blood biochemical parameters and urine analysis. However, this work can provide a good knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease that can lead to better management and proper treatment.

  9. Research Advances in the Physiological and Biochemical Mechanism in Water-saving Irrigation Techniques for High Yield and High Efficiency of Transplanted Rice%移栽水稻高产高效节水灌溉技术的生理生化机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 杨建昌

    2014-01-01

    The water crisis is threatening rice sustainability and food security in the world.Agricultural scientists have developed a variety of water-saving irrigation techniques and production systems in order to deal with water shortages meanwhile to increase food production.This paper reviewed dominant water-saving irrigation techniques applied in transplanted rice production,summarized their physiological and biochemical mechanism for rice growth,hormones, and activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose-to-starch conversion.The problems existed in water-saving irrigation techniques for high-yielding and high-efficiency of rice and research prospects were put forward and discussed.%水资源匮乏威胁水稻生产的可持续发展和粮食安全。为了应对水资源紧缺和增加粮食产量,农业科学家开发了各种节水灌溉技术和生产体系。本文综述了当前移栽水稻生产上主要应用的节水灌溉技术并从水稻生长、激素、蔗糖-淀粉代谢途径关键酶活性等方面阐述了其生理生化机制,提出水稻高产高效节水灌溉技术存在的问题与研究展望。

  10. Constraining canopy biophysical simulations with daily MODIS reflectance data ensuring pixel-target adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Duveiller, G.

    2013-12-01

    Modern vegetation models incorporate ecophysiological details that allow for accurate estimates of carbon dioxide uptake, water use and energy exchange, but require knowledge of dynamic structural and biochemical traits. Variations in these traits are controlled by genetic factors as well as growth stage and nutrient and moisture availability, making them difficult to predict and prone to significant error. Here we explore the use of daily MODIS optical reflectance data for constraining key canopy- and leaf-level traits required by forward biophysical models. A multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to invert the PROSAIL canopy radiation transfer model against MODIS optical reflectance observations. PROSAIL accounts for the effects of leaf-level optical properties, foliage distribution and orientation on canopy reflectance across the optical range. Inversions are conducted for several growing seasons for both soybean and maize at multiple sites across the Central US agro-ecosystem. These inversions provide estimates of seasonal variations, and associated uncertainty, of variables such as leaf area index (LAI). The inversion-derived canopy properties are used to examine the ability of MODIS data to characterize seasonal variations in these states relative to field observations. The canopy properties are then used as inputs into the MLCan biophysical model to conduct forward simulations. MLCan characterizes the ecophysiological functioning of a plant canopy at a half-hourly timestep, and has been rigorously validated for both C3 and C4 crops against observations of canopy CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and sensible heat exchange. By utilizing the inverted canopy states to drive MLCan over several growing seasons, we are able to assess the impact of uncertainty in the MODIS inversion procedure on uncertainties in forward model flux estimates. This work requires the use of instant (non-composited) observations obtained at a daily frequency from both Terra and

  11. Construction and engineering of large biochemical pathways via DNA assembler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    DNA assembler enables rapid construction and engineering of biochemical pathways in a one-step fashion by exploitation of the in vivo homologous recombination mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has many applications in pathway engineering, metabolic engineering, combinatorial biology, and synthetic biology. Here we use two examples including the zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway and the aureothin biosynthetic gene cluster to describe the key steps in the construction of pathways containing multiple genes using the DNA assembler approach. Methods for construct design, pathway assembly, pathway confirmation, and functional analysis are shown. The protocol for fine genetic modifications such as site-directed mutagenesis for engineering the aureothin gene cluster is also illustrated.

  12. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  13. The Challenge of Ensuring Persistency of Identifier Systems in the World of Ever-Changing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Car

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of information objects has always been important with library collections with indexes having been created in the most ancient times. Since the digital age, many specialised and generic persistent identifier (PID systems have been used to identify digital objects. Just as many ancient indexes have died over time, so too PID systems have had a lifecycle from inception to active phase to paralysis, and eventually a fall into oblivion. Where the indexes within the Great Library at Alexandria finally succumbed to fire, technology change has been the destroyer of more recent digital indexes. We distil four PID system design principles from observations over the years that we think should be implemented by PID system architects to ensure that their systems survive change. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers’ system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In addition to suggesting specific items for each principle, we propose that a platform-independent model (PIM be established for persistent identifiers – of any sort and with any resolver technology – in order to enable transition between present and future systems and the preservation of the identifiers’ functioning. We detail our PID system—the PID Service—that implements the proposed principles and a data model to some extent and we describe an implementation case study of an organisation’s implementation of PID systems that implement the Pillars further but still not completely. Penultimately, we describe in a Future Work section, an opportunity for the use of both the Pillars and the PIM; that of the World Wide Web Consortium’s Permanent Identifier Community Group who is seeking to “set up and maintain a secure permanent, URL re-direction service for the web”.

  14. Protein Phosphatase 1 inactivates Mps1 to ensure efficient Spindle Assembly Checkpoint silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Margarida; Osswald, Mariana; Leça, Nelson; Barbosa, João; Pereira, António J; Maiato, Helder; Sunkel, Claudio E; Conde, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Faithfull genome partitioning during cell division relies on the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC), a conserved signaling pathway that delays anaphase onset until all chromosomes are attached to spindle microtubules. Mps1 kinase is an upstream SAC regulator that promotes the assembly of an anaphase inhibitor through a sequential multi-target phosphorylation cascade. Thus, the SAC is highly responsive to Mps1, whose activity peaks in early mitosis as a result of its T-loop autophosphorylation. However, the mechanism controlling Mps1 inactivation once kinetochores attach to microtubules and the SAC is satisfied remains unknown. Here we show in vitro and in Drosophila that Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) inactivates Mps1 by dephosphorylating its T-loop. PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of Mps1 occurs at kinetochores and in the cytosol, and inactivation of both pools of Mps1 during metaphase is essential to ensure prompt and efficient SAC silencing. Overall, our findings uncover a mechanism of SAC inactivation required for timely mitotic exit. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25366.001 PMID:28463114

  15. Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M

    2013-10-14

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  16. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  17. Effect of flavour of liquid Ensure diet supplement on energy intake in male SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoe A; Brown, Yvonne A; Rayner, D Vernon; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2006-10-30

    Outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of the four flavours of the liquid diet, Ensure, in addition to chow pellets, to examine whether differences in flavour lead to differences in energy intake i.e. degree of over-consumption. For half the rats, the Ensure supplement was provided for 14 days and then withdrawn for the final 8 days of the study, whereas the remaining animals were allowed to consume Ensure for 22 days. All four flavours of Ensure, chocolate, vanilla, coffee and asparagus, induced a sustained increase in daily energy intake of approximately 15%. There was an effect of flavour on initial consumption of the Ensure diet, with coffee and asparagus flavours being consumed less avidly than vanilla or chocolate. However, this effect was short-lived. Overall, there was no effect of flavour on body weight gain, energy intake from Ensure, total energy intake, body composition, or measured blood hormones and metabolites. Withdrawal of Ensure resulted in reductions in body weight gain, total energy intake, fat but not lean tissue mass, and concentrations of blood leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, but there was no effect of the flavour of Ensure previously supplied on any of these parameters. The ability of the liquid diet, Ensure, to stimulate long-term caloric over-consumption is not due to its flavouring. Rather, other attributes of Ensure must be more important, such as its intrinsic flavour, liquid formulation, macronutrient composition, and ease of ingestion, digestion and absorption.

  18. eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

  19. Norms to establish the most elementary environmental control system which ensures summer thermal comfort in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, W.; Mathews, E.H. (Pretoria Univ. (ZA). Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow)

    1992-01-01

    Various types of environmental control systems (ECS) such as natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation, evaporative cooling and full air-conditioning can be used to cool buildings in hot climates. It is not always clear which of these would be the most elementary ECS that would still ensure thermal comfort in a thermally efficient building for a specific climate. No method to establish norms describing a minimum acceptable ECS was found. This paper proposes a method and gives the norms for South African buildings. The norms are based on existing thermally efficient reference buildings. The minimum ECS to provide comfort in the reference building for a specific summer climate is established by means of a novel and easy to use thermal simulation procedure. The design must then ensure thermal comfort in new designs by utilizing this minimum ECS. (author).

  20. Optimization of the enterprise’s innovative culture level from the standpoint of ensuring its economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Shypulina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article is to determine the role of enterprise’s innovative culture to ensure its economic security and develop the methodical approach to the optimization of the enterprise’s innovative culture level from the standpoint of ensuring its economic security. The results of the analysis. It is shown that innovations and innovative activity are natural means to adapt to changes in macro- and microenvironment of the enterprise in permanently changing modern economy. Innovations and innovative activity are the backgrounds of economic security. One of the main factors of the formation of the environment conducive to innovation at the enterprise is its innovative culture, viewed as a mechanism for regulation of social and cultural innovation behavior of its staff. Accordingly, the innovative culture is also an important component of a mechanism ensuring economic security. It should be considered as a condition of effective use of enterprise’s resources and market opportunities, what prevents internal and external threats and ensures enterprise’s survival and sustainable development at the market in accordance with the selected mission and motivation activity. The results of the research confirm that economic security is a function of its innovative culture. The level of innovation culture depends on the expenses for its development. The author developed a methodical approach to determine the optimal level of enterprise’s innovative culture according to the «economic security/expenses» criterion under the given constraints: the financial costs and risk. A mathematical model realizing this methodical approach was also elaborated. Testing of the developed econometric model confirmed its adequacy and proved the feasibility of its implementation for optimization of enterprise’s innovative culture level from the standpoint of ensuring its economic security. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The results

  1. Advances in Biochemical Indices of Zooplankton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra, L; Kobari, T; Sastri, A R; Gusmão, F; Hernández-León, S

    2017-01-01

    Several new approaches for measuring zooplankton growth and production rates have been developed since the publication of the ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) Zooplankton Methodology Manual (Harris et al., 2000). In this review, we summarize the advances in biochemical methods made in recent years. Our approach explores the rationale behind each method, the design of calibration experiments, the advantages and limitations of each method and their suitability as proxies for in situ rates of zooplankton community growth and production. We also provide detailed protocols for the existing methods and information relevant to scientists wanting to apply, calibrate or develop these biochemical indices for zooplankton production.

  2. Ensuring Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "Stable"will be a key word for China’s economy in 2012.That’s the beat set at the annual Central Economic Work Conference held in Beijing on December 12-14,which reviewed this year’s development and mapped out plans for the next year.Policymakers at the conference decided to keep macroeconomic policies stable,seek a stable and relatively fast economic growth,stabilize consumer prices and maintain social stability in 2012.On the basis of stability,the government will transform the development model,deepen reform and improve people’s livelihood.

  3. Quantum Zeno Effect Underpinning the Radical-Ion-Pair Mechanism of Avian Magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, I K

    2008-01-01

    The intricate biochemical processes underlying avian magnetoreception, the sensory ability of migratory birds to navigate using earths magnetic field, have been narrowed down to spin-dependent recombination of radical-ion pairs to be found in avian species retinal proteins. The avian magnetic field detection is governed by the interplay between magnetic interactions of the radicals unpaired electrons and the radicals recombination dynamics. Critical to this mechanism is the long lifetime of the radical-pair spin coherence, so that the weak geomagnetic field will have a chance to signal its presence. It is here shown that a fundamental quantum phenomenon, the quantum Zeno effect, is at the basis of the radical-ion-pair magnetoreception mechanism. The quantum Zeno effect naturally leads to long spin coherence lifetimes, without any constraints on the systems physical parameters, ensuring the robustness of this sensory mechanism. Basic experimental observations regarding avian magnetic sensitivity are seamlessly...

  4. Surface Modification of Gold Nanoparticles with Small Molecules for Biochemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2017-02-21

    accessibility of small molecules on AuNPs in most cases can be precisely controlled without compromising their bioactivity as well, thus ensuring the performance, such as the specificity and sensitivity, of AuNP-based biochemical assays. This Account reviews recent progress in the surface chemistry of functionalized AuNPs for biochemical assays. The surface chemistries mainly include click chemistry, ligand exchange reaction, and coordination-based recognition. These surface-modified AuNPs allow for assaying a range of important biochemical markers including metal ions, small biomolecules, enzymes, and antigens and antibodies. Applications of these systems range from environmental monitoring to medical diagnostics. This Account highlights the advantages and limitations (sensitivity, detection efficiency, and stability) that AuNP-mediated assays still have compared with conventional analytical methods. This Account also discusses the future research directions of surface-modified AuNP-mediated biochemical analysis. The main aim of this Account is to summarize the current surface modification strategies for AuNPs and further demonstrate how to make use of surface modification strategies to effectively improve the performance of AuNP-mediated analytical methods for a wide variety of applications relating to biochemical analysis.

  5. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  6. A Course in Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals (Revisited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. E.; Ollis, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) a glossary of terms used in biochemical engineering; (2) a list of key developments in the field; and (3) emphases placed in 15 topic areas in a course restructured on the basis of these developments. Topic areas include enzyme kinetics/applications, genetics and microbial control, transport phenomena, and others. (JN)

  7. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  8. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  9. Prediction of the preeclampsia: a view of biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sühha Bostancı

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a diverse, multiorgan group of related disease processes that occurs in up to 5%-8% of pregnancies after 20 weeks’ gestation and it is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Many molecular mechanisms are contributed to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Although it is unknown whether the mechanisms act independently or have synergistic effects. This review describes review of primary papers investigating blood based biomarker such as PAP-A, Inhibin A, sFlt1, and PP13 in general and first trimester biochemical markers and combinations of them specifically for preeclampsia.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i4.699

  10. Regulation of NDR1 activity by PLK1 ensures proper spindle orientation in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Maomao; Chu, Lingluo; Qin, Bo; Wang, Zhikai; Liu, Xing; Jin, Changjiang; Zhang, Guanglan; Gomez, Marta; Hergovich, Alexander; Chen, Zhengjun; He, Ping; Gao, Xinjiao; Yao, Xuebiao

    2015-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis requires the physical separation of sister chromatids which depends on correct position of mitotic spindle relative to membrane cortex. Although recent work has identified the role of PLK1 in spindle orientation, the mechanisms underlying PLK1 signaling in spindle positioning and orientation have not been fully illustrated. Here, we identified a conserved signaling axis in which NDR1 kinase activity is regulated by PLK1 in mitosis. PLK1 phosphorylates NDR1 at three putative threonine residues (T7, T183 and T407) at mitotic entry, which elicits PLK1-dependent suppression of NDR1 activity and ensures correct spindle orientation in mitosis. Importantly, persistent expression of non-phosphorylatable NDR1 mutant perturbs spindle orientation. Mechanistically, PLK1-mediated phosphorylation protects the binding of Mob1 to NDR1 and subsequent NDR1 activation. These findings define a conserved signaling axis that integrates dynamic kinetochore-microtubule interaction and spindle orientation control to genomic stability maintenance.

  11. Cluster Interaction of Enterprise Structures in Housing Sector of Municipalities in Ensuring Improvement of Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelin Mikhail, D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of modernization and greening of business activity is considered in the paper. This process requires in terms of the development dynamics of Russian regions, the implementation of directed towards the modern transformation of the municipal infrastructure in the region, which allows to transform the reform processes on different objects to achieve well-being in the Russian regions from the perspective of state interests, business and civil society. The effective direction for the modernization of the system to ensure the regional social-economic development is the creation of our proposed mechanism of cluster interaction of state and business structures in the sphere of housing and communal services of municipalities. Therefore, in this study, an analysis of the directions of state support for the development of cluster cooperation in the sphere of housing and communal services of municipalities, aimed at achieving a multiplier effect, in the exercise of entrepreneurial activity in the region socially significant areas, in particular - in the landscaping and planting areas is carried out.

  12. MOF-associated complexes ensure stem cell identity and Xist repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmicki, Tomasz; Dündar, Friederike; Ramírez, Fidel; Gendrel, Anne-Valerie; Wright, Patrick Rudolf; Videm, Pavankumar; Backofen, Rolf; Heard, Edith; Manke, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) play distinct roles in many cellular processes and are frequently misregulated in cancers. Here, we study the regulatory potential of MYST1-(MOF)-containing MSL and NSL complexes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neuronal progenitors. We find that both complexes influence transcription by targeting promoters and TSS-distal enhancers. In contrast to flies, the MSL complex is not exclusively enriched on the X chromosome, yet it is crucial for mammalian X chromosome regulation as it specifically regulates Tsix, the major repressor of Xist lncRNA. MSL depletion leads to decreased Tsix expression, reduced REX1 recruitment, and consequently, enhanced accumulation of Xist and variable numbers of inactivated X chromosomes during early differentiation. The NSL complex provides additional, Tsix-independent repression of Xist by maintaining pluripotency. MSL and NSL complexes therefore act synergistically by using distinct pathways to ensure a fail-safe mechanism for the repression of X inactivation in ESCs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02024.001 PMID:24842875

  13. Sustained centrosome-cortical contact ensures robust polarization of the one-cell C. elegans embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, Dominique M; Castanzo, Dominic T; Williams, Margaret; Parikh, Devayu A; Jaeger, Eva C; Lyczak, Rebecca

    2017-02-15

    In C. elegans, the anterior-posterior axis is established at the one-cell stage when the embryo polarizes along its long axis. One model suggests that a cue from the centrosome triggers symmetry breaking and is then dispensable for further steps in the process. In the absence of the initial centrosome cue, a redundant mechanism, reliant on the centrosome's microtubules, can polarize the cell. Despite this model, data from multiple sources suggest that direct centrosome-contact with the cortex may play a role in ensuring robust polarization. Some of this past work includes analysis of pam-1 mutants, which lack a functional puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase and have aberrant centrosome positioning and variable polarization defects. To better understand the role of centrosome dynamics in polarization, we looked in detail at centrosome behavior in relation to key polarity landmarks in pam-1 mutants as well as those lacking cortical flows. We provide evidence for a model in which sustained direct contact between the centrosome and the cortex acts to reinforce both the actomyosin and the microtubule-dependent pathways. This contact is necessary for polarization when flows are inhibited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants - including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification - to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention.

  15. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato TM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Todd M Sabato, Tanis J Walch, Dennis J Caine Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. Keywords: elite, young athlete, athletic injury, psychological, risk factors, injury prevention

  16. ENSURING RADIATION SAFETY AT THE XXVII WORLD SUMMER UNIVERSIADE IN KAZAN BY ROSPOTREBNADZOR BODIES AND ORGANIZATIONS. Сommunication 2. Ensuring radiation safety during the universiade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second communication, the authors present and analyze in detail in chronological order all the activities performed in the course of providing radiation safety of the XXVII World Summer Universiade in Kazan. Special attention is given to assessing the effectiveness of the measures envisaged and implemented. Recommendations to improve the planning system have been developed, the list of measures ensuring radiation safety of the participants and guests to be held before and during large-scale events to ensure radiation safety was specified.

  17. 24 CFR 81.102 - Verification and enforcement to ensure GSE data integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification and enforcement to ensure GSE data integrity. 81.102 Section 81.102 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... Provisions § 81.102 Verification and enforcement to ensure GSE data integrity. (a) Independent verification...

  18. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-01-01

    . The investigators should ensure proper documentation and dissemination of changes both during and after the projects in order to ensure transparency, and national or international organisations should establish a database with relevant data fields. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  19. 34 CFR 602.18 - Ensuring consistency in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring consistency in decision-making. 602.18 Section... relies on for making accrediting decisions is accurate; and (e) Provides the institution or program with... Criteria for Recognition Required Standards and Their Application § 602.18 Ensuring consistency in...

  20. The Essence and Phases of the Comprehensive System of Ensuring the Economic Security of Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianioglo, Alina; Polajeva, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    In present conditions of instability of the environment, entrepreneurs assume the most of the business risks. In this regard, problems of ensuring the economic security become particularly important. The comprehensive system of ensuring the economic security of enterprise was worked out and the results are presented in the article. This system is…

  1. Graduation Requirements for Students with Disabilities: Ensuring Meaningful Diplomas for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The call to ensure that every student, including students with disabilities, graduates from high school well prepared for college and careers is acknowledged by policymakers, professionals and business leaders. This policy brief was developed to provide guidance to state education policy leaders to support the goal of ensuring that students with…

  2. Technical Education as a Tool for Ensuring Sustainable Development: A Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gagan Deep; Uppal, Raminder Singh; Mahendru, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    This paper notes that education needs to essentially lead to sustainable development serving two-fold purpose--eradicating the problems of unemployment and poverty; and ensuring equitable distribution of wealth while ensuring the right understanding leading to a peaceful, prosperous and developed world. In its current state, technical education…

  3. The structure of the ensuring of the functioning of Special Olympics’ program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perederiy A.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the ensuring components of the program of Special Olympics, consisting of medical, psychological-pedagogical and material- technical ensuring. Medical ensuring includes admission procedure for athletes training to a particular sport, athletes' medical monitoring, medical care sports events and the program (Healthy Athletes. Psychological-pedagogical ensuring is an extremely important component, given nosological features athletes with intellectual disabilities, represented permitted to participate in Special Olympics programs, psychological and pedagogical support training athletes and psychiatric examination program participants of Special Olympics. In the technical ensuring regarded the structure and volumes involved and spent resources for the programs of Special Olympics and special equipment, equipment, inventory used during in training and competition. All levels of programs functioning of the Special Olympics are interrelated and interdependent, equally important to address their various problems.

  4. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging...

  5. Deciphering diatom biochemical pathways via whole-cell proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Brook L; Aker, Jocelyn R; Shaffer, Scott A; Tsai, Shannon; Strzepek, Robert F; Boyd, Philip W; Freeman, Theodore Larson; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Malmström, Lars; Goodlett, David R

    2009-06-03

    Diatoms play a critical role in the oceans' carbon and silicon cycles; however, a mechanistic understanding of the biochemical processes that contribute to their ecological success remains elusive. Completion of the Thalassiosira pseudonana genome provided 'blueprints' for the potential biochemical machinery of diatoms, but offers only a limited insight into their biology under various environmental conditions. Using high-throughput shotgun proteomics, we identified a total of 1928 proteins expressed by T. pseudonana cultured under optimal growth conditions, enabling us to analyze this diatom's primary metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. Of the proteins identified, 70% are involved in cellular metabolism, while 11% are involved in the transport of molecules. We identified all of the enzymes involved in the urea cycle, thereby describing the complete pathway to convert ammonia to urea, along with urea transporters, and the urea-degrading enzyme urease. Although metabolic exchange between these pathways remains ambiguous, their constitutive presence suggests complex intracellular nitrogen recycling. In addition, all C(4) related enzymes for carbon fixation have been identified to be in abundance, with high protein sequence coverage. Quantification of mass spectra acquisitions demonstrated that the 20 most abundant proteins included an unexpectedly high expression of clathrin, which is the primary structural protein involved in endocytic transport. This result highlights a previously overlooked mechanism for the inter- and intra-cellular transport of nutrients and macromolecules in diatoms, potentially providing a missing link to organelle communication and metabolite exchange. Our results demonstrate the power of proteomics, and lay the groundwork for future comparative proteomic studies and directed analyses of specifically expressed proteins and biochemical pathways of oceanic diatoms.

  6. Biochemical Models for S-Rnase-Based Self-Incompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Hua; Allison Fields; Teh-hui Kao

    2008-01-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically determined self/non-self-recognition process employed by many flowering plant species to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrosses.For the Plantaginaceae,Rosa-ceae and Solanaceae,it is now known that S-RNase and S-Iocu F-box(two multiple allelic genes at the S-locus)determine the female and male specificity,respectively,during SI interactions.However,how allelic products of these two genes interact inside pollen tubes to result in specific growth inhibition of self-pollen tubes remains to be investigated.Here,we review all the previously proposed biochemical models and discuss whether their predictions are consistent with all SI phenomena,including competitive jnteraction where SI breaks down in pollen that carries two different pollen 5-alleles.We also discuss these models in Iight of the recent findings of compartmentalization of S-RNases in both incompatible and compatible pollen tubes.Lastly,we summarize the results from our recent biochemical studies of PiSLF(Petunia inflata SLF)and S-RNase.and present a new model for the biochemical mechanism of SI in the Solanaceae.The tenet of this model is that a PiSLF preferentially interacts with its non-self S-RNases in the cytoplasm of a pollen tube to result in the assembly of an E3-like complex,which then mediates ubiquitination and degradation of non-self S-RNases through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway.This model can explain all SI phenomena and,at the same time,has raised new questions for further study.

  7. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  8. In vitro reparative dentin: a biochemical and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Teti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a  synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1 and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP, as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I  collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. 

  9. Coarse-graining stochastic biochemical networks: adiabaticity and fast simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.

  10. Thermodynamics of biochemical networks and duality theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Daniele

    2013-05-01

    One interesting yet difficult computational issue has recently been posed in biophysics in regard to the implementation of thermodynamic constraints to complex networks. Biochemical networks of enzymes inside cells are among the most efficient, robust, differentiated, and flexible free-energy transducers in nature. How is the second law of thermodynamics encoded for these complex networks? In this article it is demonstrated that for chemical reaction networks in the steady state the exclusion (presence) of closed reaction cycles makes possible (impossible) the definition of a chemical potential vector. Interestingly, this statement is encoded in one of the key results in combinatorial optimization, i.e., the Gordan theorem of the alternatives. From a computational viewpoint, the theorem reveals that calculating a reaction's free energy and identifying infeasible loops in flux states are dual problems whose solutions are mutually exclusive, and this opens the way for efficient and scalable methods to perform the energy balance analysis of large-scale biochemical networks.

  11. Advancement in biochemical assays in andrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolf-BernhardSchill; RaftHenkel

    1999-01-01

    Determination of maikers of sperm function, accessory sex gland secretion and silent male genital tract inflammation is of considerable diagnostic value in the evaluation of male infertility. The introduction of biochemical tests into the analysis of male factor has the advantage that standardized assays with a coefficient of variafion characteristic of clinical chemistry are performed, in contrast to biological test systems with a large variability .Biochemical parameters may be used in clinical practice to evaluate the sperm fertitizing capacity (acrosin, aniline blue,ROS), to characterize male accessory sex gland secretinns (fructose, a-glucosidase, PSA), and to identify men with silent genital tract inflammation (elastase, C'3 complement component, coeruloplasmin, IgA, IgG, ROS). (As/an J Androl 1999 Jun; 1: 45-51)

  12. Report: Human biochemical genetics: an insight into inborn errors of metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chunli; SCOTT C. Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) include a broad spectrum of defects of various gene products that affect intermediary metabolism in the body. Studying the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of those inherited disorder, systematically summarizing the disease phenotype and natural history, providing diagnostic rationale and methodology and treatment strategy comprise the context of human biochemical genetics. This session focused on: (1) manifestations of representative metabolic disorders; (2) the emergent technology and application of newborn screening of metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry; (3) principles of managing IEM; (4) the concept of carrier testing aiming prevention. Early detection of patients with IEM allows early intervention and more options for treatment.

  13. Biochemical changes in blood under Cr6+

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzenko E.V.; Romaniuk A.M.; Butko H.Yu.; Logvinova H.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background. For the manufacture of dentures many different alloys containing chromium are used. Interaction with oral fluid, organic acids and food, results in formation of Cr3+, Cr6+ ions, but their influence on the whole organism is poorly investigated. Objective. To analyze the biochemical changes in blood plasma during the influence of Cr6+ ions. Methods. 15 animals of experimental group were receiving drinking water with potassium dichromate in a dose of 0,2 mol/l. Rats of control group ...

  14. Outsourcing your medical practice call center: how to choose a vendor to ensure regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Medical practices receive hundreds if not thousands of calls every week from patients, payers, pharmacies, and others. Outsourcing call centers can be a smart move to improve efficiency, lower costs, improve customer care, ensure proper payer management, and ensure regulatory compliance. This article discusses how to know when it's time to move to an outsourced call center, the benefits of making the move, how to choose the right call center, and how to make the transition. It also provides tips on how to manage the call center to ensure the objectives are being met.

  15. Haematological and biochemical analysis in canine enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Bhat

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation screened eighteen clinical cases of canine enteritis for haematological and biochemical analyses. Materials and Methods: Eighteen dogs suffering from enteritis were selected and detailed clinical manifestations were noted. Hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated by using various kits. Blood was also collected from twelve healthy dogs for establishing control values and data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The affected dogs showed anorexia, diarrhoea, depression, varying degree of dehydration and tachycardia. There were significant changes in packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Biochemical investigation revealed significant decrease in plasma glucose, total plasma protein, albumin and albumin:globulin ratio (A:G ratio. The level of potassium and chloride was markedly decreased. Significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN was observed. Conclusion: Packed Cell Volume (PCV and Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC remained almost similar between healthy dogs and dogs affected with diarrhoea. Mean Total Leukocyte Count (TLC value was significantly higher as compared to the control group. Hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia and increase in blood urea nitrogen was observed in dogs suffering from enteritis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 380-383

  16. [Basic biochemical processes in glaucoma progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thun und Hohenstein-Blaul, N; Kunst, S; Pfeiffer, N; Grus, F H

    2015-05-01

    The term glaucoma summarizes a group of eye diseases that are accompanied by impairments of the optic nerve and related visual field deficits. An early diagnosis of glaucoma is currently not possible due to a lack of diagnostic tests; therefore, in most cases the disease is diagnosed many years after onset, which prevents an early therapy. The known risk factors for the development and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy comprise elevated intraocular pressure and a broad range of pressure fluctuations as well as lipometabolic disorders, genetic factor and diabetes. The consequences include the induction of anti-inflammatory proteins, elevated levels of oxidative stress and the destruction of retinal ganglion cells. Changes in the autoantibody repertoire have also been observed in the course of the disease. Basic ophthalmological research therefore focuses on the investigation of basic biochemical processes in the course of the disease. A better understanding of physiological and biochemical events is sought in order to develop new and more sensitive diagnostic options and to allow more targeted therapeutic measures. The understanding of biochemical processes allows a better insight into glaucoma progression to be gained, which will lead to improvements in diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-12-01

    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered.

  18. Electronic modulation of biochemical signal generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordonov, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; Cheng, Yi; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Ghodssi, Reza; Rubloff, Gary; Yin, Jun-Jie; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.

    2014-08-01

    Microelectronic devices that contain biological components are typically used to interrogate biology rather than control biological function. Patterned assemblies of proteins and cells have, however, been used for in vitro metabolic engineering, where coordinated biochemical pathways allow cell metabolism to be characterized and potentially controlled on a chip. Such devices form part of technologies that attempt to recreate animal and human physiological functions on a chip and could be used to revolutionize drug development. These ambitious goals will, however, require new biofabrication methodologies that help connect microelectronics and biological systems and yield new approaches to device assembly and communication. Here, we report the electrically mediated assembly, interrogation and control of a multi-domain fusion protein that produces a bacterial signalling molecule. The biological system can be electrically tuned using a natural redox molecule, and its biochemical response is shown to provide the signalling cues to drive bacterial population behaviour. We show that the biochemical output of the system correlates with the electrical input charge, which suggests that electrical inputs could be used to control complex on-chip biological processes.

  19. The Use of Item Analysis for Improvement of Biochemical Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    2004-01-01

    Item analysis was used to find out which biochemical explanations need to be improved in biochemical teaching, not which items are to be discarded, improved, or reusable in biochemical examinations. The analysis revealed the basic facts of which less able students had more misunderstanding than able students. Identifying these basic facts helps…

  20. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  1. Structure and biochemical characterization of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen from a parasitic protozoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Brieba, Luis G. (LNLS)

    2012-02-08

    Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a toroidal-shaped protein that is involved in cell-cycle control, DNA replication and DNA repair. Parasitic protozoa are early-diverged eukaryotes that are responsible for neglected diseases. In this work, a PCNA from a parasitic protozoon was identified, cloned and biochemically characterized and its crystal structure was determined. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that PCNA from Entamoeba histolytica assembles as a homotrimer that is able to interact with and stimulate the activity of a PCNA-interacting peptide-motif protein from E. histolytica, EhDNAligI. The data indicate a conservation of the biochemical mechanisms of PCNA-mediated interactions between metazoa, yeast and parasitic protozoa.

  2. Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Privman, Vladimir; Arugula, Mary A; Melnikov, Dmitriy; Bocharova, Vera; Katz, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    The first realization of a designed, rather than natural, biochemical filter process is reported and analyzed as a promising network component for increasing the complexity of biomolecular logic systems. Key challenge in biochemical logic research has been achieving scalability for complex network designs. Various logic gates have been realized, but a "toolbox" of analog elements for interconnectivity and signal processing has remained elusive. Filters are important as network elements that allow control of noise in signal transmission and conversion. We report a versatile biochemical filtering mechanism designed to have sigmoidal response in combination with signal-conversion process. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chromogenic electron donor by hydrogen peroxide, was altered by adding ascorbate, allowing to selectively suppress the output signal, modifying the response from convex to sigmoidal. A kinetic model was developed for evaluation of the quality of filtering. The results offer improved...

  3. Biochemical filter with sigmoidal response: increasing the complexity of biomolecular logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privman, Vladimir; Halámek, Jan; Arugula, Mary A; Melnikov, Dmitriy; Bocharova, Vera; Katz, Evgeny

    2010-11-11

    The first realization of a designed, rather than natural, biochemical filter process is reported and analyzed as a promising network component for increasing the complexity of biomolecular logic systems. Key challenge in biochemical logic research has been achieving scalability for complex network designs. Various logic gates have been realized, but a "toolbox" of analog elements for interconnectivity and signal processing has remained elusive. Filters are important as network elements that allow control of noise in signal transmission and conversion. We report a versatile biochemical filtering mechanism designed to have sigmoidal response in combination with signal-conversion process. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chromogenic electron donor by H(2)O(2) was altered by adding ascorbate, allowing to selectively suppress the output signal, modifying the response from convex to sigmoidal. A kinetic model was developed for evaluation of the quality of filtering. The results offer improved capabilities for design of scalable biomolecular information processing systems.

  4. Solvent driving force ensures fast formation of a persistent and well-separated radical pair in plant cryptochrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüdemann, Gesa; Solov'yov, Ilia; Kubar, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    radical pair has despite various theoretical and experimental efforts not been unambiguously identified yet. We challenge this unambiguity through a unique quantum mechanical molecular dynamics approach where we perform electron transfer dynamics simulations taking into account the motion of the protein......The photoreceptor protein cryptochrome is thought to host, upon light absorption, a radical pair which is sensitive to very weak magnetic fields, endowing migratory birds with a magnetic compass sense. The molecular mechanism which leads to formation of a stabilised, magnetic field sensitive...... upon the electron transfer. This approach allows us to follow the time evolution of the electron transfer in an unbiased fashion and to reveal the molecular driving force which ensures fast electron transfer in cryptochrome guaranteeing formation of a persistent radical pair suitable...

  5. Solvent driving force ensures fast formation of a persistent and well-separated radical pair in plant cryptochrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüdemann, Gesa; Solov'yov, Ilia; Kubar, Tomás;

    2015-01-01

    The photoreceptor protein cryptochrome is thought to host, upon light absorption, a radical pair which is sensitive to very weak magnetic fields, endowing migratory birds with a magnetic compass sense. The molecular mechanism which leads to formation of a stabilised, magnetic field sensitive radi...... upon the electron transfer. This approach allows us to follow the time evolution of the electron transfer in an unbiased fashion and to reveal the molecular driving force which ensures fast electron transfer in cryptochrome guaranteeing formation of a persistent radical pair suitable...... for magnetoreception. We argue that this unraveled molecular mechanism is a general principle inherent to all proteins of the cryptochrome/photolyase family and that cryptochromes are, therefore, tailored to potentially function as efficient chemical magnetoreceptors....

  6. State Child Support Agencies with Programs to Ensure Current Support Orders Reflect Current Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive Program Innovation Map - Click on State or Territory for information about child support agency programs designed to ensure that child support orders...

  7. 36 CFR 805.4 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Council decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officials required to consider environmental documents Recommendations for legislation During staff... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring environmental... Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL...

  8. Ensuring safe foods and medical products through stronger regulatory systems abroad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riviere, J. Edmond; Buckley, Gillian J

    2012-01-01

    ...) border inspections to be sufficient to ensure product purity and safety, and incidents such as American deaths due to adulterated heparin imported from China propelled the problem to public awareness...

  9. Development of an industrial complex for ensuring national competitiveness and economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kalach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living standards depends on the state of the country’s industrial complex. In a message to Russian President Vladimir Putin's Federal Assembly was asked to implement in 2015 a national technological initiative, the development of industries of the new technological order. As a result of the predominance of the industry of the sixth technological order should occur major changes in the structure of production factors and significance. It follows the inevitability of structural changes in the system of economic institutions and mechanisms of economic security and competitiveness of the state achieve the main goal of the state program “The development of industry and increase its competitiveness” is carried out through the following the directions of sub-programs: investment goods (chemical complex development composite materials, industrial biotechnology, power engineering, machine tool industry, agricultural machinery, machinery specialized production, transport engineering; goods (light industry, children;s products industry, the automotive industry; military-industrial complex; infrastructure (development of engineering activities, industrial parks; semi-finished goods and materials (timber industry, metallurgy, industrial development of rare-earth metals. At the current pace of technological and economic development, the 6 th technological structure will come into proliferation phase in 2010–2020, and in the phase of maturity – 40-ies of XXI century. At the same time in 2020–2025 there will be a new scientific-technical and technological revolution, which will become the basis for developing, synthesizing advances in the above basic technologies. In this paper, we proposed as a tool to ensure the economic security of the state to use the acceleration system of technical development of the industrial complex.

  10. Understanding coupling between natural and human systems to ensure disease resilient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Nguyen, T. H.; Colwell, R. R.; Akanda, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Human well-being is one of the key long-term indicators of a sustainable environment. John Snow, a prominent 19th century physician, provided insights on the role of drinking contaminated water and cholera outbreak(s). Extrapolation of Snow's discovery on locating source of cholera bacteria (in local wells) lead to the tenets of traditional doctrines of environmental sustainability of water where source capacities (such as physical condition of water) are directly linked to sink capacities (e.g., bacterial growth in water) of a system, a balance that must be maintained to sustain human life supporting mechanisms. With a changing climate, stress on availability of safe drinking water is likely to increase, particularly where population vulnerability intersects with hydroclimatic extremes. This raises a critical question on how environmental sustainability of water will affect human societies. A dynamic equilibrium exists between large scale geophysical (e.g., sea surface temperature-SST; precipitation, evaporative fluxes) and local scale water-ecological processes (salinity, plankton, organic matter) in water resources (ponds, rivers, lakes). The ecological processes aid in growth and proliferation of water based pathogens (such as cholera, Rotavirus, Shigella and other vibrios). Societal determinants, such as access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, defines interaction of human population with water. The feedback loop, between geophysical and water-ecological processes is fundamental to ensure a sustainable environment for human well-being. However, the feedback loops are often misconstrued resulting in massive loss of human life, and further leading to outbreak of diseases at various spatial and temporal scales across region(s). Using historical data on Cholera and Zika virus as examples, we will demonstrate the intricacies involved in understanding coupled human-natural system. The two infections result from a very different asymmetric

  11. Algorithm To Ensure And Enforce Brute-Force Attack-Resilient Password In Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Issues of weak login passwords arising from default passwords in wired and wireless routers has been a concern for more than a decade. In this research we develop and test an algorithm to ensure and enforce passwords in routers that are resistant to brute-force attack. A comparative analysis is performed to show the improved strengths of passwords derived via this algorithm. Implementation of this algorithm in routers will ensure setup of brute-force attack resistant passwords.

  12. Qualitive electronic management of information in health services as an implement of ensuring of total quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsounis A.; Sarafis P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: the promotion and ensuring of quality is an important challenge for modern social-care organizations, which are complex systems based in the intensity of work, with a large number of inputs and outputs. Aim : The aim of this task is to negotiate the issue of the qualitative electronic management of information in healthcare services, as an important implement of support of the qualitative functions of a hospital and by extension as an implement of ensuring of total quality in it...

  13. Balanced biochemical reactions: a new approach to unify chemical and biochemical thermodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sabatini

    Full Text Available A novel procedure is presented which, by balancing elements and electric charge of biochemical reactions which occur at constant pH and pMg, allows assessing the thermodynamics properties of reaction Δ(rG'⁰, Δ(rH'⁰, Δ(rS'⁰ and the change in binding of hydrogen and magnesium ions of these reactions. This procedure of general applicability avoids the complex calculations required by the use of the Legendre transformed thermodynamic properties of formation Δ(fG'⁰, Δ(fH'⁰ and Δ(fS'⁰ hitherto considered an obligatory prerequisite to deal with the thermodynamics of biochemical reactions. As a consequence, the term "conditional" is proposed in substitution of "Legendre transformed" to indicate these thermodynamics properties. It is also shown that the thermodynamic potential G is fully adequate to give a criterion of spontaneous chemical change for all biochemical reactions and then that the use of the Legendre transformed G' is unnecessary. The procedure proposed can be applied to any biochemical reaction, making possible to re-unify the two worlds of chemical and biochemical thermodynamics, which so far have been treated separately.

  14. Balanced biochemical reactions: a new approach to unify chemical and biochemical thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Antonio; Vacca, Alberto; Iotti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    A novel procedure is presented which, by balancing elements and electric charge of biochemical reactions which occur at constant pH and pMg, allows assessing the thermodynamics properties of reaction Δ(r)G'⁰, Δ(r)H'⁰, Δ(r)S'⁰ and the change in binding of hydrogen and magnesium ions of these reactions. This procedure of general applicability avoids the complex calculations required by the use of the Legendre transformed thermodynamic properties of formation Δ(f)G'⁰, Δ(f)H'⁰ and Δ(f)S'⁰ hitherto considered an obligatory prerequisite to deal with the thermodynamics of biochemical reactions. As a consequence, the term "conditional" is proposed in substitution of "Legendre transformed" to indicate these thermodynamics properties. It is also shown that the thermodynamic potential G is fully adequate to give a criterion of spontaneous chemical change for all biochemical reactions and then that the use of the Legendre transformed G' is unnecessary. The procedure proposed can be applied to any biochemical reaction, making possible to re-unify the two worlds of chemical and biochemical thermodynamics, which so far have been treated separately.

  15. Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wensvoort

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes during fasting or the withholding of feed for 5 day were studied in serum of camelids (dromedary camel, llama and ruminants (sheep, steers. Camels maintained low levels of 13-hydroxybutyrate (BHB and high levels of glucose but showed some increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and urea when fasting. Sheep and steers showed a rise in serum BHB and much higher increases of NEFA than camels and llamas. Sheep showed decreased serum glucose. The llama showed some increase in BHB but NEFA was lower than the other three species. The results indicate that camelids have a unique ability to control lipolytic and gluconeogenic activity to prevent or postpone the state of ketosis. Understanding and manipulation of these metabolic mechanisms in cattle and sheep could have great benefit to the livestock industry.

  16. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J. [UMDI-Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  17. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YU-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones including ethylene,gibberellin,and brassinolide have been reported to be involved in this process.Here we first identified by proteomic analysis a cotton cytosolic APX1 (GhAPX1) that was specifically accumulated during cotton fiber elongation.GhAPX1 expression was up-regulated in response to cellular H2O2 and ethylene,and it was involved in modulating the stead-state level of H2O2.

  18. Morphological, kinetic, membrane biochemical and genetic aspects of intestinal enteroplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; M Tom Clandinin; Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    The process of intestinal adaptation ("enteroplasticity") is complex and multifaceted. Although a number of trophic nutrients and non-nutritive factors have been identified in animal studies, successful, reproducible clinical trials in humans are awaited. Understanding mechanisms underlying this adaptive process may direct research toward strategies that maximize intestinal function and impart a true clinical benefit to patients with short bowel syndrome, or to persons in whom nutrient absorption needs to be maximized. In this review, we consider the morphological, kinetic and membrane biochemical aspects of enteroplasticity, focus on the importance of nutritional factors, provide an overview of the many hormones that may alter the adaptive process, and consider some of the possible molecular profiles. While most of the data is derived from rodent studies, wherever possible, the results of human studies of intestinal enteroplasticity are provided.

  19. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.

    2010-07-27

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Preterm labour. Biochemical and endocrinological preparation for parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzidou, Vasso

    2007-10-01

    Preterm delivery is a common obstetric problem occurring in about 1 in 10 of all births. Preterm babies have a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Such births account for 75% of all major neonatal problems. At the other end of the spectrum, prolonged pregnancy is also a subject of concern because it too is associated with increased fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms that control the length of human pregnancy and signal the onset of labour have not been fully determined. This chapter will discuss basic principles in the biology of parturition and the regulation of contraction-associated proteins including the oxytocin receptor. The major pathways regulating contractions and the transcriptional regulation of the main genes that are known to be involved in the onset of labour and parturition will be examined. Some new potentially therapeutic strategies for the biochemical management of preterm labour will be discussed.

  1. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  2. Adaptative biochemical pathways and regulatory networks in Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10 producing a biotechnologically relevant exopolysaccharide during Fe(III-citrate fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III reduction to Fe(II and showing unusual physiological characteristics. In fact, under this growth condition, BAS-10 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS having a high rhamnose content and metal-binding properties, whose biotechnological applications were proven as very relevant. Results Further phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rDNA sequence, definitively confirmed that BAS-10 belongs to K. oxytoca species. In order to rationalize the biochemical peculiarities of this unusual enterobacteriun, combined 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis and mass spectrometry procedures were used to investigate its proteomic changes: i under aerobic or anaerobic cultivation with Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon source; ii under anaerobic cultivations using Na(I-citrate or Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon source. Combining data from these differential studies peculiar levels of outer membrane proteins, key regulatory factors of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and enzymes involved in TCA cycle and sugar biosynthesis or required for citrate fermentation and stress response during anaerobic growth on Fe(III-citrate were revealed. The protein differential regulation seems to ensure efficient cell growth coupled with EPS production by adapting metabolic and biochemical processes in order to face iron toxicity and to optimize energy production. Conclusion Differential proteomics provided insights on the molecular mechanisms necessary for anaeorobic utilization of Fe(III-citrate in a biotechnologically promising enterobacteriun, also revealing genes that can be targeted for the rational design of high-yielding EPS producer strains.

  3. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  4. BNDB – The Biochemical Network Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmann Michael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances in high-throughput techniques and efficient data acquisition methods have resulted in a massive amount of life science data. The data is stored in numerous databases that have been established over the last decades and are essential resources for scientists nowadays. However, the diversity of the databases and the underlying data models make it difficult to combine this information for solving complex problems in systems biology. Currently, researchers typically have to browse several, often highly focused, databases to obtain the required information. Hence, there is a pressing need for more efficient systems for integrating, analyzing, and interpreting these data. The standardization and virtual consolidation of the databases is a major challenge resulting in a unified access to a variety of data sources. Description We present the Biochemical Network Database (BNDB, a powerful relational database platform, allowing a complete semantic integration of an extensive collection of external databases. BNDB is built upon a comprehensive and extensible object model called BioCore, which is powerful enough to model most known biochemical processes and at the same time easily extensible to be adapted to new biological concepts. Besides a web interface for the search and curation of the data, a Java-based viewer (BiNA provides a powerful platform-independent visualization and navigation of the data. BiNA uses sophisticated graph layout algorithms for an interactive visualization and navigation of BNDB. Conclusion BNDB allows a simple, unified access to a variety of external data sources. Its tight integration with the biochemical network library BN++ offers the possibility for import, integration, analysis, and visualization of the data. BNDB is freely accessible at http://www.bndb.org.

  5. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  6. Azoospermia: clinical, hormonal, and biochemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimas, J; Papadopoulou, F; Ioannidis, S; Spanos, E; Tarlatzis, B; Bontis, J; Mantalenakis, S

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, hormonal and biochemical characteristics of infertile men with azoospermia. A total of 187 azoospermic out of 2610 infertile men (7.2%) were studied. Mean testicular volume and basal plasma levels of FSH were the most useful parameters concerning the evaluation of azoospermia. Basal plasma levels of LH and T were useful only in azoospermic men with hypogonadism, whereas plasma PRL levels, semen volume, and seminal plasma fructose levels were not found to be of common use except in selected cases.

  7. Biochemical Markers of Joint Tissue Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Sondergaard, Bodil Cecilie; Christiansen, Claus;

    2009-01-01

    Recent disappointments in late stage developments of anti-osteoarthritic drugs have reinforced efforts to develop better biomarkers for application in both the drug development process as well as in the routine management of these patients. Here we provide a brief review of biochemical tests...... available for the study of tissue turnover in each of the three compartments of the articular joint, that is the bone, the cartilage, and the synovium. Finally, we provide some perspective to future developments in biomarker discovery and discuss the potential impact such technologies could have on the drug...

  8. Clinical, biochemical & cytomorphologic study on Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tina; Sreedharan, Suja; Khadilkar, Urmila N.; Deviprasad, D; Kamath, M. Panduranga; Bhojwani, Kiran M.; Alva, Arathi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite, the extensive salt iodization programmes implemented in India, the prevalence of goiter has not reduced much in our country. The most frequent cause of hypothyroidism and goiter in iodine sufficient areas is Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). This study records the clinical presentation, biochemical status, ultrasonographic picture and cytological appearance of this disease in a coastal endemic zone for goiter. Methods: Case records of patients with cytological diagnosis of HT were studied in detail, with reference to their symptoms, presence of goiter, thyroid function status, antibody levels and ultrasound picture. Detailed cytological study was conducted in selected patients. Results: A total of 144 patients with cytological proven HT/lymphocytic thyroiditis were studied. Ninety per cent of the patients were females and most of them presented within five years of onset of symptoms. Sixty eight per cent patients had diffuse goiter, 69 per cent were clinically euthyroid and 46 per cent were biochemically mildly hypothyroid. Antibody levels were elevated in 92.3 per cent cases. In majority of patients the sonographic picture showed heterogeneous echotexture with increased vascularity. Cytological changes were characteristic. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed predominance of females in the study population in 21-40 yr age group with diffuse goiter. We suggest that in an endemic zone for goiter, all women of the child bearing age should be screened for HT. PMID:25758571

  9. Biotin: biochemical, physiological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hamid M

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiological and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamin biotin (vitamin H). It is well know now that biotin plays important roles in a variety of critical metabolic reactions in the cell, and thus, is essential for normal human health, growth and development. This is underscored by the serious clinical abnormalities that occur in conditions of biotin deficiency, which include, among other things, growth retardation, neurological disorders, and dermatological abnormalities (reviewed in 1). Studies in animals have also shown that biotin deficiency during pregnancy leads to embryonic growth retardation, congenital malformation and death (Watanabe 1983; Cooper and Brown 1958; Mock et al. 2003; Zempleni and Mock 2000). The aim of this chapter is to provide coverage of current knowledge of the biochemical, physiological, and clinical aspects of biotin nutrition. Many sections of this chapter have been the subject of excellent recent reviews by others (Wolf 2001; McMahon 2002; Mock 2004; Rodriguez-Melendez and Zempleni 2003; Said 2004; Said et al. 2000; Said and Seetheram 2006), and thus, for more information the reader is advised to consider these additional sources.

  10. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients.

  11. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  12. Biochemical Manifestation of HIV Lipodystrophy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ihenetu, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, including protease inhibitors (PI have led to dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of life in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. However, a significant number of AIDS patients on HAART develop characteristic changes in body fat redistribution referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS. Features of LDS include hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump, increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch, gynecomastia and loss of fat in the mid-face and extremities.Methods:The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding this syndrome. This article reviews the published investigations on biochemical manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome.Results:It is estimated that approximately 64% of patients treated with PI will experience this syndrome. Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides (Trig, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:It is hoped that awareness of this syndrome would aid in early diagnosis and better patient management, possibly leading to a lower incidence of cardiovascular complications among these patients.

  13. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cano Megías

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35–45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups: cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx, involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1, linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic, and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc. in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients.

  14. Biochemical basis for the biological clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Pletcher, Jake; Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Lian-Ying; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    NADH oxidases at the external surface of plant and animal cells (ECTO-NOX proteins) exhibit stable and recurring patterns of oscillations with potentially clock-related, entrainable, and temperature-compensated period lengths of 24 min. To determine if ECTO-NOX proteins might represent the ultradian time keepers (pacemakers) of the biological clock, COS cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding tNOX proteins having a period length of 22 min or with C575A or C558A cysteine to alanine replacements having period lengths of 36 or 42 min. Here we demonstrate that such transfectants exhibited 22, 36, or 40 to 42 h circadian patterns in the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a common clock-regulated protein, in addition to the endogenous 24 h circadian period length. The fact that the expression of a single oscillatory ECTO-NOX protein determines the period length of a circadian biochemical marker (60 X the ECTO-NOX period length) provides compelling evidence that ECTO-NOX proteins are the biochemical ultradian drivers of the cellular biological clock.

  15. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  16. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  17. Separable Roles for a Caenorhabditis elegans RMI1 Homolog in Promoting and Antagonizing Meiotic Crossovers Ensure Faithful Chromosome Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagut, Marlène; Hamminger, Patricia; Woglar, Alexander; Millonigg, Sophia; Paulin, Luis; Mikl, Martin; Dello Stritto, Maria Rosaria; Tang, Lois; Habacher, Cornelia; Tam, Angela; Gallach, Miguel; von Haeseler, Arndt; Villeneuve, Anne M.; Jantsch, Verena

    2016-01-01

    During the first meiotic division, crossovers (COs) between homologous chromosomes ensure their correct segregation. COs are produced by homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). As more DSBs are induced than COs, mechanisms are required to establish a regulated number of COs and to repair remaining intermediates as non-crossovers (NCOs). We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RMI1 homolog-1 (RMH-1) functions during meiosis to promote both CO and NCO HR at appropriate chromosomal sites. RMH-1 accumulates at CO sites, dependent on known pro-CO factors, and acts to promote CO designation and enforce the CO outcome of HR-intermediate resolution. RMH-1 also localizes at NCO sites and functions in parallel with SMC-5 to antagonize excess HR-based connections between chromosomes. Moreover, RMH-1 also has a major role in channeling DSBs into an NCO HR outcome near the centers of chromosomes, thereby ensuring that COs form predominantly at off-center positions. PMID:27011106

  18. Separable Roles for a Caenorhabditis elegans RMI1 Homolog in Promoting and Antagonizing Meiotic Crossovers Ensure Faithful Chromosome Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagut, Marlène; Hamminger, Patricia; Woglar, Alexander; Millonigg, Sophia; Paulin, Luis; Mikl, Martin; Dello Stritto, Maria Rosaria; Tang, Lois; Habacher, Cornelia; Tam, Angela; Gallach, Miguel; von Haeseler, Arndt; Villeneuve, Anne M; Jantsch, Verena

    2016-03-01

    During the first meiotic division, crossovers (COs) between homologous chromosomes ensure their correct segregation. COs are produced by homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). As more DSBs are induced than COs, mechanisms are required to establish a regulated number of COs and to repair remaining intermediates as non-crossovers (NCOs). We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RMI1 homolog-1 (RMH-1) functions during meiosis to promote both CO and NCO HR at appropriate chromosomal sites. RMH-1 accumulates at CO sites, dependent on known pro-CO factors, and acts to promote CO designation and enforce the CO outcome of HR-intermediate resolution. RMH-1 also localizes at NCO sites and functions in parallel with SMC-5 to antagonize excess HR-based connections between chromosomes. Moreover, RMH-1 also has a major role in channeling DSBs into an NCO HR outcome near the centers of chromosomes, thereby ensuring that COs form predominantly at off-center positions.

  19. Ensuring quality of service for multimedia services in two-step reservation MAC protocol for PLC access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrasnica, Halid; Lehnert, Ralf

    2004-09-01

    Recent and future communications networks have to provide QoS guarantees for a rapidly growing number of various telecommunication services, which can be ensured by application of an efficient MAC layer. Various communication technologies, such as cellular networks and PLC (PowerLine Communications) access networks, apply reservation MAC protocols, providing a good network utilization and realization of different QoS guarantees. In this investigation, we analyze possibilities for provision of QoS guarantees for various telecommunications services with a two-step reservation MAC protocol using per-packet reservation principle, which is proposed for application in broadband PLC access networks. Particularly, performance of the reservation procedure is analyzed to provide priority mechanisms which are necessary for realization of various telecommunications services ensuring the required QoS guarantees. Since the telephony, realized by the packet voice service, has the strongest QoS requirements among various telecommunications services, we analyze possibility for its realization within the two-step MAC protocol. It can be concluded that the packet voice can be efficiently implemented. However, with application of a combined reservation domains for various service classes, network performance could be further improved.

  20. 柚皮苷改善束缚性应激引起的小鼠生化指标及行为变化的一氧化氮调节机制%Amelioration of immobilization stress-induced biochemical and behavioral alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction by naringin in mice: possible mechanism of nitric oxide modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gollapalle L.Viswanatha; Hanumanthappa Shylaja; K.Sadashiva Sandeep Rao; Yathiraj Ashwini; V. Ramaiah Santhosh Kumar; C. Gangadharaiah Mohan; Venkate Gowda Sunil; M. Venkateshappa Sarvesh Kumar; Subbanna Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of naringin on immobilization stress-induced biochemical-behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.Methods:Mice were randomized and grouped based on body weights.Respective drug treatments were given for 14 d,and on the 15th day all the animals were subjected to a 6-hour immobilization stress; then all the animals were subjected to various behavioral paradigms and were sacrificed.Various biochemical parameters and mitochondrial functions were analyzed using brain homogenate.Results:The 6-hour acute immobilization stress significantly altered the behavioral (anxiety and memory) and biochemical parameters coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.Fourteen days pretreatment with naringin (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) significantly inhibited the behavioral and biochemical alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by acute immobilization stress (P<0.05).Further,pretreatment with L-arginine (50 mg/kg,intraperitoneally),a nitric oxide precursor,reversed the protective effect of naringin (P<0.05).In addition,pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (5 mg/kg,intraperitoneally) caused potentiation in the protective effect of naringin.Conclusion:These results suggest the possible involvement of nitrergic pathway in the protective effect of naringin against immobilization stress-induced behavioral,biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunctions in mice.%目的:研究柚皮苷对束缚性应激引起的小鼠生化指标改变、行为变化及线粒体功能紊乱的影响.方法:将小鼠按照体质量随机分组,分别给予不同药物治疗14 d.在第15天让所有小鼠接受束缚性应激刺激6h,然后在接受各种不同的行为测试后处死.取小鼠的大脑匀浆进行各种生化指标测量和线粒体功能分析.结果:6h的急性束缚性应激刺激能显著改变小鼠的行为(焦虑和记忆),引起生化指标变化和线粒体功

  1. Ensuring patient choices about dignity and place of death are respected at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracegirdle, Lorna-Rose

    Ensuring patient choice and dignity are priorities in providing high quality end of life care. This artide discusses the importance of psychosocial care when patients receive a terminal diagnosis, and the district nurse's role in ensuring their choices about place of death are respected. It examines some of the dilemmas nurses may face in respecting patients' preferences about place of care and death, and looks at how services may need to change in the future to meet the needs of the increasing ageing population.

  2. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehere, Prajwalini; Han, Qian; Lemkul, Justin A; Vavricka, Christopher J; Robinson, Howard; Bevan, David R; Li, Jianyong

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using α-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  3. Tyrosine Aminotransferase: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Mehere; Q Han; J Lemkul; C Vavricka; H Robinson; D Bevan; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  4. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehere, P.; Robinson, H.; Han, Q.; Lemkul, J. A.; Vavricka, C. J.; Bevan, D. R.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  5. DNA Polymerases and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases: Shared Mechanisms for Ensuring the Fidelity of Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Francklyn, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    DNA polymerases and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) represent large enzyme families with critical roles in the transformation of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. DNA polymerases carry out replication and collaborate in the repair of the genome, while ARSs provide aminoacylated tRNA precursors for protein synthesis. Enzymes of both families face the common challenge of selecting their cognate small molecule substrates from a pool of chemically related molecules, achieving high...

  6. Geminin deploys multiple mechanisms to regulate Cdt1 before cell division thus ensuring the proper execution of DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabeni, Andrea; Zamponi, Raffaella; Moore, Jodene K

    2013-01-01

    the accumulation of Cdt1 in mitosis, because decreasing the Geminin levels prevents Cdt1 accumulation and impairs DNA replication. Geminin is known to inhibit Cdt1 function; its depletion during G2 leads to DNA rereplication and checkpoint activation. Here we show that, despite rapid Cdt1 protein turnover in G2...

  7. Single Hydrogen Bond Donation from Flavin N5 to Proximal Asparagine Ensures FAD Reduction in DNA Photolyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I M Mahaputra; Domratcheva, Tatiana; Iwata, Tatsuya; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kandori, Hideki

    2016-04-06

    The spread of the absorbance of the stable FADH(•) radical (300-700 nm) allows CPD photolyase to highly efficiently form FADH(-), making it functional for DNA repair. In this study, FTIR spectroscopy detected a strong hydrogen bond, from FAD N5-H to the carbonyl group of the Asn378 side chain, that is modulated by the redox state of FAD. The observed characteristic frequency shifts were reproduced in quantum-mechanical models of the flavin binding site, which were then employed to elucidate redox tuning governed by Asn378. We demonstrate that enhanced hydrogen bonding of the Asn378 side chain with the FADH(•) radical increases thermodynamic stabilization of the radical state, and further ensures kinetic stabilization and accumulation of the fully reduced FADH(-) state.

  8. Detailed enzyme kinetics in terms of biochemical species: study of citrate synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Beard

    Full Text Available The compulsory-ordered ternary catalytic mechanism for two-substrate two-product enzymes is analyzed to account for binding of inhibitors to each of the four enzyme states and to maintain the relationship between the kinetic constants and the reaction equilibrium constant. The developed quasi-steady flux expression is applied to the analysis of data from citrate synthase to determine and parameterize a kinetic scheme in terms of biochemical species, in which the effects of pH, ionic strength, and cation binding to biochemical species are explicitly accounted for in the analysis of the data. This analysis provides a mechanistic model that is consistent with the data that have been used support competing hypotheses regarding the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.

  9. On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A water/salt system in an evaporative environment is both a physicochemical region and a biological one. All the parameters of the system, such as the salinity, temperature and CO2 partial pressure, are affected by halophilic bacteria. The system controls salt deposition but is modified by an accompanying ecological system; therefore it should be called a water/salt/biological system. Salt minerals result from accumulation of the remains of bacteria/algae, namely, bacteria/algae formation; whereas biological, biophysical and biochemical processes provide full evidence for organic involvement. Consequently, salt deposits should not be called purely chemical but biological/chemical ones. This new argument supplements and develops the traditional idea and helps perfect the mineralization theory of salts and even general deposits, thus giving guidance to prospecting for salt deposits.

  10. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...... techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...

  11. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  12. Hemoglobin variants: biochemical properties and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S; Dickson, Claire F; Gell, David A; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2013-03-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples.

  13. Quantifying robustness of biochemical network models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias Pablo A

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robustness of mathematical models of biochemical networks is important for validation purposes and can be used as a means of selecting between different competing models. Tools for quantifying parametric robustness are needed. Results Two techniques for describing quantitatively the robustness of an oscillatory model were presented and contrasted. Single-parameter bifurcation analysis was used to evaluate the stability robustness of the limit cycle oscillation as well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations. A tool from control engineering – the structural singular value (SSV – was used to quantify robust stability of the limit cycle. Using SSV analysis, we find very poor robustness when the model's parameters are allowed to vary. Conclusion The results show the usefulness of incorporating SSV analysis to single parameter sensitivity analysis to quantify robustness.

  14. Plant Glutathione Biosynthesis: Diversity in Biochemical Regulation and Reaction Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eGalant

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, exposure to temperature extremes, heavy metal-contaminated soils, drought, air pollutants, and pathogens results in the generation of reactive oxygen species that alter the intracellular redox environment, which in turn influences signaling pathways and cell fate. As part of their response to these stresses, plants produce glutathione. Glutathione acts as an antioxidant by quenching reactive oxygen species, and is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that eliminates damaging peroxides. Plants also use glutathione for the detoxification of xenobiotics, herbicides, air pollutants (sulfur dioxide and ozone, and toxic heavy metals. Two enzymes catalyze glutathione synthesis: glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, and glutathione synthetase (GS. Glutathione is a ubiquitous protective compound in plants, but the structural and functional details of the proteins that synthesize it, as well as the potential biochemical mechanisms of their regulation, have only begun to be explored. As discussed here, the core reactions of glutathione synthesis are conserved across various organisms, but plants have diversified both the regulatory mechanisms that control its synthesis and the range of products derived from this pathway. Understanding the molecular basis of glutathione biosynthesis and its regulation will expand our knowledge of this component in the plant stress response network.

  15. Plant glutathione biosynthesis: diversity in biochemical regulation and reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, Ashley; Preuss, Mary L; Cameron, Jeffrey C; Jez, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    In plants, exposure to temperature extremes, heavy metal-contaminated soils, drought, air pollutants, and pathogens results in the generation of reactive oxygen species that alter the intracellular redox environment, which in turn influences signaling pathways and cell fate. As part of their response to these stresses, plants produce glutathione. Glutathione acts as an anti-oxidant by quenching reactive oxygen species, and is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that eliminates damaging peroxides. Plants also use glutathione for the detoxification of xenobiotics, herbicides, air pollutants (sulfur dioxide and ozone), and toxic heavy metals. Two enzymes catalyze glutathione synthesis: glutamate-cysteine ligase, and glutathione synthetase. Glutathione is a ubiquitous protective compound in plants, but the structural and functional details of the proteins that synthesize it, as well as the potential biochemical mechanisms of their regulation, have only begun to be explored. As discussed here, the core reactions of glutathione synthesis are conserved across various organisms, but plants have diversified both the regulatory mechanisms that control its synthesis and the range of products derived from this pathway. Understanding the molecular basis of glutathione biosynthesis and its regulation will expand our knowledge of this component in the plant stress response network.

  16. Transcription fluctuation effects on biochemical oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nishino

    Full Text Available Some biochemical systems show oscillation. They often consist of feedback loops with repressive transcription regulation. Such biochemical systems have distinctive characteristics in comparison with ordinary chemical systems: i numbers of molecules involved are small, ii there are typically only a couple of genes in a cell with a finite regulation time. Due to the fluctuations caused by these features, the system behavior can be quite different from the one by deterministic rate equations, because the rate equations ignore molecular fluctuations and thus are exact only in the infinite molecular number limit. The molecular fluctuations on a free-running circadian system have been studied by Gonze et al. (2002 by introducing a scale parameter [Formula: see text] for the system size. They consider, however, only the first effect, assuming that the gene process is fast enough for the second effect to be ignored, but this has not been examined systematically yet. Here we study fluctuation effects due to the finite gene regulation time by introducing a new scale parameter [Formula: see text], which we take as the unbinding time of a nuclear protein from the gene. We focus on the case where the fluctuations due to small molecular numbers are negligible. In simulations on the same system studied by Gonze et al., we find the system is unexpectedly sensitive to the fluctuation in the transcription regulation; the period of oscillation fluctuates about 30 min even when the regulation time scale [Formula: see text] is around 30 s, that is even smaller than 1/1000 of its circadian period. We also demonstrate that the distribution width for the oscillation period and amplitude scales with [Formula: see text], and the correlation time scales with [Formula: see text] in the small [Formula: see text] regime. The relative fluctuations for the period are about half of that for the amplitude, namely, the periodicity is more stable than the amplitude.

  17. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  18. A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2010-10-01

    Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal

  19. Role and Responsibility of Board of Governors [BOG] in Ensuring Educational Quality in Colleges & Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents in brief the need and importance of effective, imaginative and responsible governing boards in colleges and universities, so as to ensure educational quality. BOG should engage fruitfully with the principal and activities in college/ university. UGC, AICTE have now prescribed creation of effective boards for both government and…

  20. Throwing down the Gauntlet: Ten Ways to Ensure That Higher Education Research Continues to Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.

    2016-01-01

    As members of ASHE, we have an obligation to ensure that ASHE is an association that both promotes career development of members and advances the production and dissemination of high-quality research-based knowledge on current and emerging issues in higher education. In this presidential address, I look to the future of ASHE, offering questions…

  1. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process: Upon... Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO... contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making...

  2. Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force A Monograph by Maj Stephen P. Joca United...States Air Force School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2017 Approved...Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force Approved by: __________________________________, Monograph

  3. 76 FR 2581 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Deterioration Program to Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Federal Implementation Plan for Jefferson County... Air Pollution Control District (LMAPCD), through the Commonwealth of Kentucky, has not submitted by... greenhouse gases (GHGs). This action will ensure that a permitting authority--EPA--is available in...

  4. 34 CFR 200.66 - Requirements to ensure that funds do not benefit a private school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... private school. 200.66 Section 200.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... of Eligible Children in Private Schools § 200.66 Requirements to ensure that funds do not benefit a private school. (a) An LEA must use funds under subpart A of this part to provide services that supplement...

  5. Beyond Recruitment: Retention and Promotion Strategies To Ensure Diversity and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for libraries not only to recruit, but also to retain, diverse professional staffs. Topics include diversity as a multi-dimensional concept; creating an environment conducive to retention; ensuring equity in regard to promotion, professional development, and success; the tenure process in academic libraries; and mentoring…

  6. Ensuring Reliable Communication in Disaster Recovery Operations with Reliable Routing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G. Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper is to ensure reliable and continuous communication between the rescue officers and other people during disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. Most of the communication infrastructure gets damaged during the disaster and proper communication cannot be established in the area which leads to longer delays in emergency operations and increased damage to life and property. Various methods proposed to enable communication between the people using wireless ad hoc networks do not guarantee reliable delivery of data with fast moving devices. This paper presents a Reliable Routing Technique (RRT that ensures reliable data delivery at the destination device even when the people with the mobile devices are moving in the network. We make use of the broadcasting property of the wireless network and create a priority list of probable forwarding candidates at each device. With this technique, RRT ensures that if a forwarder device is unable to forward the data packet due to movement of mobile devices, the next priority candidate forwards the data packet to the destination device, thus ensuring reliability of data delivery in the network. Simulation results show that RRT achieves significant performance improvement with better data delivery in ad hoc networks.

  7. Ensuring Academic Depth and Rigour in Teacher Education through Benchmarking, with Special Attention to Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, H. J.; van der Walt, J. L.; Wolhuter, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Benchmarking is one way of ensuring academic depth and rigour in teacher education. After making a case for setting benchmarks in teacher education based on the widely recognised intra-education system contextual factors, the importance of also taking into account the external (e.g. the national-social) context in which teacher education occurs is…

  8. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  9. 76 FR 302 - Pesticides; Satisfaction of Data Requirements; Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 152 RIN 2070-AJ58 Pesticides; Satisfaction of Data Requirements; Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  10. THE MISSING AS A SPECIFIC ASPECT OF ENSURING THE SECURITY OF SOCIETY DEMOGRAPHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many countries of the world are payingincreasing attention to the problems of ensuring the safetypopulation. In this regard, a comprehensive analysis ofvarious aspects of this important public policies, includingreducing the number of people missing, according to the Lawis of great scientific and practical interest.

  11. 25 CFR 36.120 - What type of reporting is required to ensure accountability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accountability? 36.120 Section 36.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Waivers and Accountability § 36.120 What type of reporting is required to ensure accountability? The homeliving program must provide to the appropriate local school board...

  12. Formative Evaluation of EFNEP Curriculum: Ensuring the Eating Smart • Being Active Curriculum Is Theory Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natker, Elana; Baker, Susan S.; Auld, Garry; McGirr, Kathryn; Sutherland, Barbara; Cason, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    The project reported here served to assess a curriculum for EFNEP to ensure theory compliance and content validity. Adherence to Adult Learning Theory and Social Cognitive Theory tenets was determined. A curriculum assessment tool was developed and used by five reviewers to assess initial and revised versions of the curriculum. T-tests for…

  13. FACTORS TO ENSURE FINANCIAL STABILITY AND SOLVENCY OF AN INSURANCE COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Solonina S. V.; Ovsyanitsky E. S.; Anufrieva A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the factors to ensure solvency and financial stability of the insurance company's howl. It shows the classification of types of financial stability and solvency of insurance companies; as-sesses the tariff policy of organizations and reveals the essence of reinsurance

  14. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim;

    2015-01-01

    Background Food legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk manageme...

  15. No Strings Attached? Ensuring that "CFE" Funds Are Spent Effectively. Civic Report No. 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    The 2003 New York State Court of Appeals ruling in the "Campaign for Fiscal Equity" ("CFE") case has created a historic opportunity to reform New York City's troubled schools. This opening was created because the court not only required changing the state aid formula to ensure a "sound basic education" for all New…

  16. FACTORS TO ENSURE FINANCIAL STABILITY AND SOLVENCY OF AN INSURANCE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solonina S. V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the factors to ensure solvency and financial stability of the insurance company's howl. It shows the classification of types of financial stability and solvency of insurance companies; as-sesses the tariff policy of organizations and reveals the essence of reinsurance

  17. Formative Evaluation of EFNEP Curriculum: Ensuring the Eating Smart • Being Active Curriculum Is Theory Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natker, Elana; Baker, Susan S.; Auld, Garry; McGirr, Kathryn; Sutherland, Barbara; Cason, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    The project reported here served to assess a curriculum for EFNEP to ensure theory compliance and content validity. Adherence to Adult Learning Theory and Social Cognitive Theory tenets was determined. A curriculum assessment tool was developed and used by five reviewers to assess initial and revised versions of the curriculum. T-tests for…

  18. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger information capacity and is more efficient in information transmission. This is consistent with theory of evolution.

  19. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation...

  20. Evaluation of clinical, biochemical and hematological parameters in macrocytic anemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aarthi Kannan; Vijai Tilak; Madhukar Rai; Vineetha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Macrocytosis is a common finding encountered in automated coulters and evaluation of clinical, biochemical and haematological parameters in macrocytic anemias will provide a clue to diagnosis...

  1. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. to Auto Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Vijeta; Chandra, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Auto pollution is the by-product of our mechanized mobility, which adversely affects both plant and human life. However, plants growing in the urban locations provide a great respite to us from the brunt of auto pollution by absorbing the pollutants at their foliar surface. Foliar surface configuration and biochemical changes in plant species, namely, Sida cordifolia L. and Catharanthus roseus L. grown at roadside (polluted site 1, Talkatora; polluted site 2, Charbagh) in Lucknow city and in ...

  2. [The biochemical and rheological properties of the blood during the performance of angiography using Ultravist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliaev, Iu A; Lazarev, V V; Kulikova, I S; Shimanovskiĭ, N L; Usenko, A N; Smirnova, O Iu; Isakov, Iu F; Sergeev, P V

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that Ultravist makes it possible to receive clear visualization of vessel channel in the zone "of interest" without changing functional conditions of heart vascular system and biochemical blood parameters (level of erythrocytes, bilirubine, urine nitrogen, activity of aspartataminotransferase). In concentration 30 mg/ml in vitro and in vivo Ultravist decreases a viscosity limit not affecting other rheological properties of blood. A mechanism of the found Ultravist effect and prospects of its application in practice for children are considered.

  3. Mating activates the heme peroxidase HPX15 in the sperm storage organ to ensure fertility in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W. Robert; Teodori, Eleonora; Mitchell, Sara N.; Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are major African vectors of malaria, a disease that kills more than 600,000 people every year. Given the spread of insecticide resistance in natural mosquito populations, alternative vector control strategies aimed at reducing the reproductive success of mosquitoes are being promoted. Unlike many other insects, An. gambiae females mate a single time in their lives and must use sperm stored in the sperm storage organ, the spermatheca, to fertilize a lifetime's supply of eggs. Maintenance of sperm viability during storage is therefore crucial to the reproductive capacity of these mosquitoes. However, to date, no information is available on the factors and mechanisms ensuring sperm functionality in the spermatheca. Here we identify cellular components and molecular mechanisms used by An. gambiae females to maximize their fertility. Pathways of energy metabolism, cellular transport, and oxidative stress are strongly regulated by mating in the spermatheca. We identify the mating-induced heme peroxidase (HPX) 15 as an important factor in long-term fertility, and demonstrate that its function is required during multiple gonotrophic cycles. We find that HPX15 induction is regulated by sexually transferred 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E), a steroid hormone that is produced by the male accessory glands and transferred during copulation, and that expression of this peroxidase is mediated via the 20E nuclear receptor. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence of the mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles, and identify HPX15 as a target for vector control. PMID:24711401

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-23 - Notice of Requirement for Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. 52.222-23 Section 52.222-23... Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal Employment Opportunity for Construction. As prescribed in 22.810(b), insert the following provision: Notice of Requirement for Affirmative Action To Ensure Equal...

  5. 25 CFR 224.120 - What action may the Director take to ensure compliance with a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What action may the Director take to ensure compliance... DETERMINATION ACT Interested Party Petitions § 224.120 What action may the Director take to ensure compliance... take action to ensure compliance with the TERA including: (a) Temporarily suspending any activity...

  6. A simple separation method for downstream biochemical analysis of aquatic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Cody E; Bochdansky, Alexander B

    2015-04-01

    In order to study the chemical composition of aquatic microbes it is necessary to obtain completely separated fractions of subpopulations. Size separation by filtration is usually unsuccessful because the smaller group of organisms contaminates the larger fractions due to being trapped on filter surfaces of nominally much larger pore sizes. Here we demonstrate that a simple sucrose density separation method allowed us to separate microorganisms of even subtle size differences and to determine their bulk biochemical composition (proteins, polysaccharides+nucleic acids, and lipids). Both autotrophs and heterotrophs (through anaplerotic pathways) were labeled with (14)C-bicarbonate for biochemical fractionation. We provided proof of concept that eukaryotic microbes could be cleanly separated from prokaryotes in cultures and in field samples, enabling detection of differences in their biochemical makeup. We explored methodological issues regarding separation mechanisms, fixation, and pre-concentration via tangential flow filtration of oligotrophic marine waters where abundances of microorganisms are comparably low. By selecting an appropriate centrifugal force, two processes (i.e., isopycnal and rate-zonal separation) can be exploited simultaneously resulting in finely-separated density fractions, which also resulted in size separation. Future applications of this method include exploration of the stoichiometric, biochemical and genetic differences among subpopulations of microbes in a wide variety of aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise-induced biochemical changes and their potential influence on cancer: a scientific review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert James; Kenfield, Stacey A; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Aim To review and discuss the available international literature regarding the indirect and direct biochemical mechanisms that occur after exercise, which could positively, or negatively, influence oncogenic pathways. Methods The PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane libraries were searched for papers up to July 2016 addressing biochemical changes after exercise with a particular reference to cancer. The three authors independently assessed their appropriateness for inclusion in this review based on their scientific quality and relevance. Results 168 papers were selected and categorised into indirect and direct biochemical pathways. The indirect effects included changes in vitamin D, weight reduction, sunlight exposure and improved mood. The direct effects included insulin-like growth factor, epigenetic effects on gene expression and DNA repair, vasoactive intestinal peptide, oxidative stress and antioxidant pathways, heat shock proteins, testosterone, irisin, immunity, chronic inflammation and prostaglandins, energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Summary Exercise is one of several lifestyle factors known to lower the risk of developing cancer and is associated with lower relapse rates and better survival. This review highlights the numerous biochemical processes, which explain these potential anticancer benefits. PMID:27993842

  8. Physiological and biochemical responses of three Veneridae clams exposed to salinity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregosa, Vanessa; Velez, Cátia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Given their global importance, coastal marine environments are a major focus of concern regarding the potential impacts of climate change, namely due to alterations in seawater salinity. It is known that environmental characteristics, such as salinity, affect immune and physiological parameters of bivalves. Nevertheless, scarce information is available concerning the biochemical alterations associated with salinity changes. For this reason, the present work aimed to evaluate the biochemical responses of three venerid clam species (Venerupis decussata, Venerupis corrugata, Venerupis philippinarum) submitted to salinity changes. The effects on the native (V. decussata and V. corrugata) and invasive (V. philippinarum) species collected from the same sampling site and submitted to the same salinity gradient (0 to 42g/L) were compared. The results obtained demonstrated that V. corrugata is the most sensitive species to salinity changes and V. decussata is the species that can tolerate a wider range of salinities. Furthermore, our work showed that clams under salinity associated stress can alter their biochemical mechanisms, such as increasing their antioxidant defenses, to cope with the higher oxidative stress resulting from hypo and hypersaline conditions. Among the physiological and biochemical parameters analyzed (glycogen and protein content; lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzymes activity; total, reduced and oxidized glutathione) Catalase (CAT) and especially superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed to be useful biomarkers to assess salinity impacts in clams.

  9. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Compounds Improve the Biochemical Indices of the Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Danshen was able to reduce the risk of the patients with coronary heart disease (CHD, but the mechanism is still widely unknown. Biochemical indices (lipid profile, markers of renal and liver function, and homocysteine (Hcy are closely associated with CHD risk. We aimed to investigate whether the medicine reduces CHD risk by improving these biochemical indices. The patients received 10 Danshen pills (27 mg/pill in Dashen group, while the control patients received placebo pills, three times daily. The duration of follow-up was three months. The serum biochemical indices were measured, including lipid profiles (LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, apolipoprotein (Apo A, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a (Lp(a; markers of liver function (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, total bilirubin (TBil, indirect bilirubin (IBil, and direct bilirubin (DBil; marker of renal function (uric acid (UA and Hcy. After three-month follow-up, Danshen treatment reduced the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, Lp(a, GGT, DBil, UA, and Hcy (P<0.05. In contrast, the treatment increased the levels of HDL-C, ApoA, ApoB, ApoE, TBil, and IBil (P<0.05. Conclusion. Danshen can reduce the CHD risk by improving the biochemical indices of CHD patients.

  10. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  11. Mechanotransduction in mechanically coupled pulsating cells: transition to collective constriction and mesoderm invagination simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driquez, Benjamin; Bouclet, Adrien; Farge, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Embryonic differentiation and morphogenesis require the coordination of the cascades of gene product expression with the morphogenetic sequence of development. The influence of mechanical deformations driven by morphogenetic movements on biochemical activities was recently revealed by the existence of mechanotransduction processes in development, involving both gene transcription and protein behaviour. In the early Drosophila embryo, apical stabilization of Myosin-II leading to mesoderm invagination at the onset of gastrulation was proposed to be triggered in response to the activation of the Fog mechanotransduction pathway by the Snail-dependent active mechanical oscillations of cell apex sizes. Here we simulate the mesoderm as mechanically coupled cells, with pulsatile forces of constriction at the cell level mimicking Snail-dependent active fluctuations of apexes. We define a critical apex diameter triggering active constriction that mimics the activation of the Fog mechanotransduction pathway leading to cell constriction. We find that collective movements trigger the dynamical transition to constriction predicting the experimental dynamics of mesoderm cell apex size decrease with a modulus of contractility four times higher than the passive modulus of elastic deformation of the cells. The contraction wave is activated in a pulsation frequency-dependent process, and propagates at multicellular scales through local cell-cell mechanical interactions. By reproducing the pattern of Snail and Fog gene product protein expression in a simulation of ventral cells, the model phenocopies the pattern of Myo-II apical stabilization, and the dynamic pattern of constriction that initiates along a central sub-domain of the mesoderm. We propose that multicellular mechanical collective effects couple with mechanotransduction biochemical mechanisms to trigger the transition of collective coordinated constriction, through a mechano-genetic process ensuring efficient and regular

  12. Mechanotransduction in mechanically coupled pulsating cells: transition to collective constriction and mesoderm invagination simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driquez, Benjamin; Bouclet, Adrien; Farge, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Embryonic differentiation and morphogenesis require the coordination of the cascades of gene product expression with the morphogenetic sequence of development. The influence of mechanical deformations driven by morphogenetic movements on biochemical activities was recently revealed by the existence of mechanotransduction processes in development, involving both gene transcription and protein behaviour. In the early Drosophila embryo, apical stabilization of Myosin-II leading to mesoderm invagination at the onset of gastrulation was proposed to be triggered in response to the activation of the Fog mechanotransduction pathway by the Snail-dependent active mechanical oscillations of cell apex sizes. Here we simulate the mesoderm as mechanically coupled cells, with pulsatile forces of constriction at the cell level mimicking Snail-dependent active fluctuations of apexes. We define a critical apex diameter triggering active constriction that mimics the activation of the Fog mechanotransduction pathway leading to cell constriction. We find that collective movements trigger the dynamical transition to constriction predicting the experimental dynamics of mesoderm cell apex size decrease with a modulus of contractility four times higher than the passive modulus of elastic deformation of the cells. The contraction wave is activated in a pulsation frequency-dependent process, and propagates at multicellular scales through local cell-cell mechanical interactions. By reproducing the pattern of Snail and Fog gene product protein expression in a simulation of ventral cells, the model phenocopies the pattern of Myo-II apical stabilization, and the dynamic pattern of constriction that initiates along a central sub-domain of the mesoderm. We propose that multicellular mechanical collective effects couple with mechanotransduction biochemical mechanisms to trigger the transition of collective coordinated constriction, through a mechano-genetic process ensuring efficient and regular

  13. A software for the estimation of binding parameters of biochemical equilibria based on statistical probability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisicaro, E; Braibanti, A; Sambasiva Rao, R; Compari, C; Ghiozzi, A; Nageswara Rao, G

    1998-04-01

    An algorithm is proposed for the estimation of binding parameters for the interaction of biologically important macromolecules with smaller ones from electrometric titration data. The mathematical model is based on the representation of equilibria in terms of probability concepts of statistical molecular thermodynamics. The refinement of equilibrium concentrations of the components and estimation of binding parameters (log site constant and cooperativity factor) is performed using singular value decomposition, a chemometric technique which overcomes the general obstacles due to near singularity. The present software is validated with a number of biochemical systems of varying number of sites and cooperativity factors. The effect of random errors of realistic magnitude in experimental data is studied using the simulated primary data for some typical systems. The safe area within which approximate binding parameters ensure convergence has been reported for the non-self starting optimization algorithms.

  14. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL CONTROL STRUCTURES AND SUSTAINABILITY HEALTH ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Andreea, MARINESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Investigation of sustainability sanitary herein, matters to a define the structure of the health sector; b knowing the contents of the local health systems, c to obtain information about the properties and characteristics associated with health in Romania; d obtaining views on the mission, objectives, goals and targets pursued by health services; e scheduling results, effects and positive consequences among human communities to ensure sustainable health in the framework of sustainable development of the country and, last but not least; f it is intended to measure people's participation and the rule management process, based on biochemical and biophysical control structures. Mainly, it is considered that the sustainability and health have depicted conceptual content that must be secured effectively recovered, concrete operational activities of health systems in laboratories and hospitals.

  15. Early diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: video-EEG monitoring and biochemical and genetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ville, Dorothée; Ginguene, Carole; Marignier, Stéphanie; des Portes, Vincent; de Bellescize, Jullita

    2013-11-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease. A delay of treatment may affect outcome and early initiation of pyridoxine based on effective diagnosis is crucial to ensure good cognitive outcome in neonates. A consensus for the diagnosis of PDE is based on refractive seizures and responsiveness to pyridoxine, however, a growing body of evidence suggests that additional elements should be considered which include biochemical data, genetic screening, and EEG monitoring. We present a case study of a neonate with PDE, who presented with misleading clinical presentation and a novel mutation in the antiquitin (ALDH7A1) gene (A294V), and highlight important aspects in order to consider the definition of diagnosis and management of PDE in the light of more recent data.

  16. A MEMS approach to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recoules, L.; Migaou, A.; Dollat, X.; Thouand, G.; Gue, A. M.; Boukabache, A.

    2017-07-01

    A MEMS approach to obtain an efficient tool for the evaluation of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewaters is introduced. Its operating principle is based on the measurement of oxygen concentration in water samples containing organic pollutants and specific bacteria. The microsystem has been designed to perform multiple and parallel measurements in a poly-wells microfluidic device. The monitoring of the bacterial activity is ensured by optical sensors incorporated in each well of the fluidic network. By using an optode sensor, it is hereby demonstrated that this approach is efficient to measure organic pollutants by testing different Luria Bertani buffer dilutions. These results also show that it is possible to reduce the duration of measurements from 5 d (BOD5) of the standard approach to few hours, typically 3 h-5 h.

  17. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J, Pingel; Fredberg, Ulrich; K, Qvortrup

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts....

  18. Biochemical evaluation of phenylketonuria (PKU: from diagnosis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Belmont-Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Besides periodical Phe and Tyr testing, biochemical follow-up includes the measurement of necessary elements that guarantee normal physical and intellectual development such as selenium, zinc, B12 vitamin, folates, iron and long chain fatty acids. Clinical context is as important as biochemical status so periodic evaluation of nutritional, medical, social and psychological aspects should be included.

  19. A Biochemical Approach to the Problem of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sidney McDonald

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents the case of a sixth-grade boy, labeled dyslexic, who responded positively to a biochemical approach. Remedy of iron, zinc, and Vitamin B-6 deficiencies as well as an imbalance of fatty acids resulted in improvements in hair and skin and also in reading. A biochemical approach to behavior problems is proposed. (Author/CL)

  20. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.W.M.; Pacak, K.; Walther, M.M.; Linehan, W.M.; Mannelli, M.; Friberg, P.; Keiser, H.R.; Goldstein, D.S.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. However, the best test to establish the diagnosis has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the biochemical test or combination of tests that provides the best method for diagnosis

  1. Editorial: ESBES - European Society of Biochemical Engineering Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Guilherme; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-06-01

    The latest ESBES special issue on "Biochemical Engineering Sciences" is edited by Prof. Guilherme Ferreira (Chairman, ESBES) and Prof. Alois Jungbauer (co-Editor-in-Chief, Biotechnology Journal). This special issue comprises the latest research in biochemical engineering science presented at the 9(th) ESBES Conference held in Istanbul, Turkey in 2012.

  2. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.W.M.; Pacak, K.; Walther, M.M.; Linehan, W.M.; Mannelli, M.; Friberg, P.; Keiser, H.R.; Goldstein, D.S.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. However, the best test to establish the diagnosis has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the biochemical test or combination of tests that provides the best method for diagnosis

  3. Vol. 40 - Methods to Increase Reliability and Ensure Determinism in a White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080423; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    The current control and timing system at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has been serving its accelerators for several decades and is reaching its design limits. In preparation is the next generation system, called White Rabbit. White Rabbit is intentionally based on commonly used networking technologies to ensure the flexibility, maintainability and wide commercial support that were missing in the old system. The new system is meant to coordinate the actions of thousands of individual devices constituting the CERN accelerator complex in a timely manner for several decades. At the time of White Rabbit’s conception in 2008, none of the existing networking standards could provide the unprecedented characteristics required by a future-proof accelerator control and timing system. Therefore, the most suitable solutions needed to be enhanced with new specialized services. Two non-existent enhancements are proposed and developed in the context of this thesis. The first ensures that critical i...

  4. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-07-16

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised.

  5. TECHNOLOGY ENSURING PROTECTION OF COMPUTER NETWORKS USING THE MEANS VARIABLE IN COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Evgenyevna GALASHINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the dependence of steady operation of computer network on a deliberate change of operation modes of software and hardware.The authors consider the technologies ensuring computer network security with the use of the means variable in time and with the use of the means variable in nomenclature. Structure of the technology ensuring protection of computer networks using the softwares compatible in nomenclature has been worked through. To verify the practical implementation of the nomenclature method using two programs BitLocker and TrueCrypt was used the virtualization program VMware Workstation 11 with the operating system Microsoft Windows 7 Enterprise without a TPM. 

  6. How to ensure sustainable interoperability in heterogeneous distributed systems through architectural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Frank, Lars

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in ensuring ubiquitous information is the utilization of heterogeneous systems in eHealth. The objective in this paper is to illustrate how an architecture for distributed eHealth databases can be designed without lacking the characteristic features of traditional sustainable databases. The approach is firstly to explain traditional architecture in central and homogeneous distributed database computing, followed by a possible approach to use an architectural framework to obtain sustainability across disparate systems i.e. heterogeneous databases, concluded with a discussion. It is seen that through a method of using relaxed ACID properties on a service-oriented architecture it is possible to achieve data consistency which is essential when ensuring sustainable interoperability.

  7. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identifies the main threats to the business, as well as the objects and subjects of this study. It is noted that the performance of the business in the form of a complex hierarchical system depends on the principle of specification. The author gives examples of the use of the basic principles of specification. It is noted that the decomposition of the economic system from the viewpoint of its hierarchical nature is of great importance not only to the distribution of the goals and objectives of security of business levels of the system, but their subordination corresponding to each level. The result is the development of specific recommendations and elaboration of the main directions to ensure complex business security for mega-, macro-, micro-, mini-, nano - and mesoeconomic levels. Although the priority of action in multi-level hierarchical system is directed from the upper to the lower levels, the success of the system as a whole depends on the behavior of all system components. It is stated that the interaction with the environment in business occurs mainly in the lower levels of the hierarchy. The quality system of ensuring complex business security which deals with hierarchical positions, will depend not so much on top-level elements, but on response to intervention on the part of lower level, more precisely from their total effect. In other words, the quality of the system of integrated safety management business provides organized feedbacks in the system.

  8. Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Zotkin Sergey Petrovich; Khrenov Konstantin Evgen’evich; Dezhina Irina Sergeevna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna

    2015-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The ar...

  9. PRACTICE OF APPLICATION OF METHODS ENSURING COMPETITIVE CAPACITY THE STRUCTURE OF ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Lukin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article are viewed topical question ensuring competitive capacity the structure of entrepreneur of microbiological field. At the heart of the question lies the achievement of the idea of economical production. Authors are called attention optimizing direction of making value of microbiological production, which offers substantively increase the efficiency and competitive capacity the structure of entrepreneur in present field of economics.

  10. The Conceptual Framework for Ensuring Economic Safety of Corporate Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutsaliuk Oleksii M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective growth of the number of displays and influence of negative factors of threats from the environment actualizes the issue of ensuring economic safety of national economic entities. The article notes that simultaneously with counteracting threats enterprises are working for development, one form of which is the establishment of corporate structures and implementation of integration processes. It is proposed to ensure achieving the desired level of the corporate structure economic safety through optimizing the correlation of resources and competencies, skills and technologies for their use within the integrated logistics value chain. In this case it is the implementation of the integration process that serves as an instrument for achieving this optimal correlation, and the level of economic safety is considered as one of the optimization criteria. The system of authors’ hypotheses is taken as the basis for ensuring economic safety of the corporate integration process. Each of the hypotheses corresponds to a set of conceptual principles aimed at practical implementation of the proposed approaches. Within these conceptual principles the relationship between incentives and benefits of integration and the basis for ensuring their safety is presented, the differences between safety of functioning and safety of development are studied, the use of the methodology of logistics to harmonize the interests of participants of the corporate structure is justified, the relevance of applying the resource approach to manage the integration and development safety is proved. The graphical representation of causal relationships between the proposed conceptual principles allowed formalizing the subject area of studying corporate integration safety

  11. Defense Health Care Reform: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Defense Health Agency Maintains Implementation Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    trend data, and clarity, two analysts used a scorecard methodology to independently review the measures for each of the product lines for the ten...Performance and Results Act, and the IRS’s handbook on Managing Statistics in a Balanced Measures System. In addition, we drew on previous GAO work including...have to sort through redundant, costly information that does not add value. Balance Taken together, measures ensure that an organization’s various

  12. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Baryah, Neha; Mukhra, Richa

    2016-11-28

    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.

  13. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  14. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundari, Noor Anis, E-mail: nooranis@batan.go.id; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi [Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir – Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional Jl. Babarsari P.O. BOX 6101 YKBB Yogyakarta 55281 Telp : (0274) 48085, 489716, Fax : (0274) 489715 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  15. Existing FDA pathways have potential to ensure early access to, and appropriate use of, specialty drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Tan, Yongtian Tina; Darrow, Jonathan J; Avorn, Jerry

    2014-10-01

    Specialty drugs are notable among prescription drugs in that they offer the possibility of substantial clinical improvement, come with important risks of adverse events and mortality, can be complex to manufacture or administer, and are usually extremely costly. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plays a critical role in ensuring that patients who could benefit from specialty drugs have access to them in a timely fashion. In this article we review the different strategies that the FDA can use to approve and influence the post-approval prescribing of specialty drugs. When specialty drugs show promise in early clinical trials, the FDA can expedite the drugs' availability to patients through expanded access programs and expedited approval pathways that speed regulatory authorization. After approval, to ensure that specialty drugs are directed to the patients who are most likely to benefit from them, the FDA can limit the scope of the drugs' indications, encourage the development of companion diagnostic tests to indicate which patients should receive the drugs, or require that manufacturers subject them to Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies to ensure that their use is appropriately limited to a restricted population that is aware of the drugs' risks and benefits. Implementing these existing regulatory approaches can promote timely patient access to specialty drugs while preventing expensive and potentially inappropriate overuse.

  16. Survey on Influence of Tourism Development on Ensuring Supply and Increasing Income of Farmers in Nyingchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmei; GONG; Lianjiu; SONG

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is an essential industry promoting economic development of Nyingchi and also plays a great role in national economy. Increasing people’s income and improving living conditions are starting points of promoting tourism development. This survey indicates that tourism in Nyingchi develops rapidly,growth rate of tourists is slightly lower than growth rate of income,and per capita tourist consumption is also increasing. Comparative analysis indicates that tourist resources,traffic condition,tourism propaganda intensity,development intensity of relevant products,and seasonal factor have significant influence on ensuring supply and increasing income of farmers. Further analysis shows that low educational level,weak basic tourism knowledge,backward tourism sanitation,and lagging tourist service infrastructure are major problems and obstacles. Resource advantages of scenic spots,setting foot on structural adjustment of characteristic industry,developing specialized farmer cooperatives and leading enterprises,and deeply exploring intension of tourist culture are major approaches for ensuring supply and increasing income of farmers. In sum,it is urgent and important to strengthen ability of ensuring supply and increasing income in improving people’s living conditions and promoting tourism development.

  17. Reaction networks and kinetics of biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceo, Carlene Perpetua P; Jose, Editha C; Lao, Angelyn R; Mendoza, Eduardo R

    2017-01-01

    This paper further develops the connection between Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT) and Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) that we recently introduced [1]. We first use algebraic properties of kinetic sets to study the set of complex factorizable kinetics CFK(N) on a CRN, which shares many characteristics with its subset of mass action kinetics. In particular, we extend the Theorem of Feinberg-Horn [9] on the coincidence of the kinetic and stoichiometric subsets of a mass action system to CF kinetics, using the concept of span surjectivity. We also introduce the branching type of a network, which determines the availability of kinetics on it and allows us to characterize the networks for which all kinetics are complex factorizable: A "Kinetics Landscape" provides an overview of kinetics sets, their algebraic properties and containment relationships. We then apply our results and those (of other CRNT researchers) reviewed in [1] to fifteen BST models of complex biological systems and discover novel network and kinetic properties that so far have not been widely studied in CRNT. In our view, these findings show an important benefit of connecting CRNT and BST modeling efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: amartin@univap.br [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  19. Control analysis for autonomously oscillating biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijenga, Karin A; Westerhoff, Hans V; Kholodenko, Boris N; Snoep, Jacky L

    2002-01-01

    It has hitherto not been possible to analyze the control of oscillatory dynamic cellular processes in other than qualitative ways. The control coefficients, used in metabolic control analyses of steady states, cannot be applied directly to dynamic systems. We here illustrate a way out of this limitation that uses Fourier transforms to convert the time domain into the stationary frequency domain, and then analyses the control of limit cycle oscillations. In addition to the already known summation theorems for frequency and amplitude, we reveal summation theorems that apply to the control of average value, waveform, and phase differences of the oscillations. The approach is made fully operational in an analysis of yeast glycolytic oscillations. It follows an experimental approach, sampling from the model output and using discrete Fourier transforms of this data set. It quantifies the control of various aspects of the oscillations by the external glucose concentration and by various internal molecular processes. We show that the control of various oscillatory properties is distributed over the system enzymes in ways that differ among those properties. The models that are described in this paper can be accessed on http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za.

  20. The role of thermodynamics in biochemical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stockar, Urs

    2013-09-01

    This article is an adapted version of the introductory chapter of a book whose publication is imminent. It bears the title "Biothermodynamics - The role of thermodynamics in biochemical engineering." The aim of the paper is to give a very short overview of the state of biothermodynamics in an engineering context as reflected in this book. Seen from this perspective, biothermodynamics may be subdivided according to the scale used to formalize the description of the biological system into three large areas: (i) biomolecular thermodynamics (most fundamental scale), (ii) thermodynamics of metabolism (intermediary scale), and (iii) whole-cell thermodynamics ("black-box" description of living entities). In each of these subareas, the main available theoretical approaches and the current and the potential applications are discussed. Biomolecular thermodynamics (i) is especially well developed and is obviously highly pertinent for the development of downstream processing. Its use ought to be encouraged as much as possible. The subarea of thermodynamics of live cells (iii), although scarcely applied in practice, is also expected to enhance bioprocess research and development, particularly in predicting culture performances, for understanding the driving forces for cellular growth, and in developing, monitoring, and controlling cellular cultures. Finally, there is no question that thermodynamic analysis of cellular metabolism (ii) is a promising tool for systems biology and for many other applications, but quite a large research effort is still needed before it may be put to practical use.

  1. Biochemical engineering nerve conduits using peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2012-11-10

    Peripheral nerve injury is a debilitating condition. The gold standard for treatment is surgery, requiring an autologous nerve graft. Grafts are harvested from another part of the body (a secondary site) to treat the affected primary area. However, autologous nerve graft harvesting is not without risks, with associated problems including injury to the secondary site. Research into biomaterials has engendered the use of bioartificial nerve conduits as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts. These include synthetic and artificial materials, which can be manufactured into nerve conduits using techniques inspired by nanotechnology. Recent evidence indicates that peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are promising candidates for use as materials for bioengineering nerve conduits. PAs are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based nanomaterials, capable of self-assembly in aqueous solutions. Their self-assembly system, coupled with their intrinsic capacity for carrying bioactive epitopes for tissue regeneration, form particularly novel attributes for biochemically-engineered materials. Furthermore, PAs can function as biomimetic materials and advanced drug delivery platforms for sustained and controlled release of a plethora of therapeutic agents. Here we review the realm of nerve conduit tissue engineering and the potential for PAs as viable materials in this exciting and rapidly advancing field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NUTRITION AND SPORTS: A BIOCHEMICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.G. Bianco

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a course dedicated to the pedagogical instruction of graduate students (Ensino deBioqumica - QBQ 5711 in which they have to plan and teach a 30 hour-discipline for undergraduatestudents. The graduate students have to choose a subject for the discipline and, in 2003, the cho-sen subject was Nutrition and Sports: a Biochemical Approach, which is not specically broached inregular disciplines. The discipline was structured in the basis of collaborative learning, thus, the 75 en-rolled undergraduate students (from dierent courses as Nutrition, Sports, Pharmacy, Chemistry andBiology were organized in small working groups. The students were given a study guide produced bythe graduate teachers (available in Portuguese at http://www.sbbq.org.br/revista/mtdidaticos.php,in which the following contents were covered: muscle contraction, O2 up-take, oxidative stress andanti-oxidant response, cramp, hydration, doping and nutritional supplies. In the nal activity thestudents had to evaluate critically myths and true facts in 80 statements usually associated to physi-cal activities and sports. The discipline was evaluated through questionnaires. From the analysis ofthe answers of both undergraduate and graduate/teachers students it is possible to conclude that thediscipline was well conduced and succeeded. These results emphasize the relevance and contribution ofthis kind of discipline to the pedagogical instruction of the graduate students and also to the increaseof undergraduate students interests in Biochemistry.

  3. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail.

  4. Biochemical and biomolecular aspects of oxidative stress due to acute and severe hypoxia in human muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbucci, G G; Sessego, R; Velluti, C; Salvi, M

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress was investigated in severe and acute hypoxia and in reperfusion applied to human muscle tissues. The biochemical and biomolecular relationship between the response of the respiratory-chain enzymic complexes and the metabolism of specific hypoxia stress proteins (HSP) suggest an adaptive mechanism which antagonizes the oxidative damage due to acute and severe tissue hypoxia.

  5. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofides EA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elena A Christofides Endocrinology Associates, Inc., Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1] through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. Keywords: disease burden, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, medical therapy, pituitary

  6. Rapid Discrimination Among Putative Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2016-08-31

    An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among putative models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values.

  7. Short communication: Biochemically active humic substances in contrasting agricultural managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, E.; Nogales, R.; Doni, S.; Masciandaro, G.; Moreno, B.

    2016-11-01

    Because their crucial role in several soil biochemical cycles and their fast response to changes in soil management, extracellular enzymes activities are widely used as sensitive indicators of ecological change and soil quality. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of soil management on the stable pool of soil carbon cycling enzymes as indicators of essential functions. For this, extracellular β-glucosidase enzymes bounded by humic acids (C higher than 104 Da) were used to compare four long-term contrasting agricultural managements in a rainfed olive orchard representative of semi-arid Mediterranean habitats. The study was conducted for 30 years by designing a random-block of four treatments (nude vs. covered soils) and four replicates. Maintaining cover crops through fall, winter and early spring provoked a more stable and active pool of extracellular β-glucosidase in soils only if spontaneous vegetation was managed with mechanical methods. When herbicides were used during 30 years, the pattern of the molecular composition and activity of humus β-glucosidase complexes were similar in covered and nude soils, although higher activity was retrieved in the former. Tillage management increased carbon mineralization and the level of humic substances and the activity of β-glucosidase humic-bound were quite lower than in the rest of treatments. Given the ecological role of extracellular soil carbon cycling enzymes, the characterization of humus β-glucosidase complexes could be an adequate indicator of sustainability of agricultural management systems. (Author)

  8. Biochemical measurement of bilirubin with an evanescent wave optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscio, Patrick; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Emery, Y.; Parriaux, Olivier M.; Voirin, Guy

    1991-09-01

    Optical sensing techniques can be considered as powerful information sources on the biochemistry of tissue, blood, and physiological fluids. Various sensing modalities can be considered: spectroscopic determination of the fluorescence or optical absorption of the biological medium itself, or more generally, of a reagent in contact with the biological medium. The principle and realization of the optical sensor developed are based on the use of polished fibers: the cladding of a monomode fiber is removed on a longitudinal section. The device can then be inserted into an hypodermic needle for in-vivo measurements. Using this minute probe, local measurements of the tissue biochemistry or metabolic processes can be obtained. The sensing mechanism is based on the propagation of the evanescent wave in the tissues or reagent: the proximity of the fiber core allows the penetration of the model field tail into the sensed medium, with a uniquely defined field distribution. Single or multi-wavelength analysis of the light collected into the fiber yields the biochemical information. Here an example of this sensing technology is discussed. In-vitro measurement of bilirubin in gastric juice demonstrates that the evanescent wave optical sensor provides a sensitivity which matches the physiological concentrations. A device is proposed for in-vivo monitoring of bilirubin concentration in the gastro-oesophageal tract.

  9. Plant nanobionics approach to augment photosynthesis and biochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Landry, Markita P.; Faltermeier, Sean M.; McNicholas, Thomas P.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Boghossian, Ardemis A.; Reuel, Nigel F.; Hilmer, Andrew J.; Sen, Fatih; Brew, Jacqueline A.; Strano, Michael S.

    2014-04-01

    The interface between plant organelles and non-biological nanostructures has the potential to impart organelles with new and enhanced functions. Here, we show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) passively transport and irreversibly localize within the lipid envelope of extracted plant chloroplasts, promote over three times higher photosynthetic activity than that of controls, and enhance maximum electron transport rates. The SWNT-chloroplast assemblies also enable higher rates of leaf electron transport in vivo through a mechanism consistent with augmented photoabsorption. Concentrations of reactive oxygen species inside extracted chloroplasts are significantly suppressed by delivering poly(acrylic acid)-nanoceria or SWNT-nanoceria complexes. Moreover, we show that SWNTs enable near-infrared fluorescence monitoring of nitric oxide both ex vivo and in vivo, thus demonstrating that a plant can be augmented to function as a photonic chemical sensor. Nanobionics engineering of plant function may contribute to the development of biomimetic materials for light-harvesting and biochemical detection with regenerative properties and enhanced efficiency.

  10. Short communication: Biochemically active humic substances in contrasting agricultural managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Benitez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Because their crucial role in several soil biochemical cycles and their fast response to changes in soil management, extracellular enzymes activities are widely used as sensitive indicators of ecological change and soil quality. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of soil management on the stable pool of soil carbon cycling enzymes as indicators of essential functions. For this, extracellular β-glucosidase enzymes bounded by humic acids (C higher than 104 Da were used to compare four long-term contrasting agricultural managements in a rainfed olive orchard representative of semi-arid Mediterranean habitats. The study was conducted for 30 years by designing a random-block of four treatments (nude vs. covered soils and four replicates. Maintaining cover crops through fall, winter and early spring provoked a more stable and active pool of extracellular β-glucosidase in soils only if spontaneous vegetation was managed with mechanical methods. When herbicides were used during 30 years, the pattern of the molecular composition and activity of humus β-glucosidase complexes were similar in covered and nude soils, although higher activity was retrieved in the former. Tillage management increased carbon mineralization and the level of humic substances and the activity of β-glucosidase humic-bound were quite lower than in the rest of treatments. Given the ecological role of extracellular soil carbon cycling enzymes, the characterization of humus β-glucosidase complexes could be an adequate indicator of sustainability of agricultural management systems.

  11. A family study of the biochemical defects in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soothill, J F; Blainey, J D; Neale, F C; Fischer-Williams, M; Melnick, S C

    1961-05-01

    Estimations of serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin (immunochemical), and urinary amino-acids excretion (quantitative and chromatographic) in 44 healthy relatives of patients with Wilson's disease (39 from one family) are reported. Each technique revealed some abnormal individuals. Good agreement was obtained between the serum copper and serum ceruloplasmin estimations and between the quantitative and chromatographic estimations of amino-acid excretion. Some individuals were abnormal to one or other of the pairs of tests only. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that the symptoms of Wilson's disease are secondary to a quantitative (or qualitative) abnormality of ceruloplasmin. They also suggest that the mode of inheritance of the biochemical defects may be more complicated than that of a simple recessive mutant gene. Two of the relatives (one pregnant and one immediately post-partum) had a high serum copper level, as is expected in pregnancy, but normal serum ceruloplasmin. This suggests that the mechanism of control of the serum ceruloplasmin concentration may, normally, depend on the serum copper concentration.

  12. Biochemical analysis of elastic and rigid cuticles of Cirsium horridulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marga, F; Pesacreta, T C; Hasenstein, K H

    2001-10-01

    The cuticle is a complex structure of soluble lipids, lipid polymers and polysaccharides. In addition to its functions to reduce water loss and provide a protective barrier, its mechanical properties may be significant to plant growth and development. We investigated the cuticle of Cirsium horridulum Michx. because of its involvement in the thigmonastic contraction of staminal filaments. The staminal filaments and portions of the style are surrounded by a highly elastic cuticle in contrast to the rigid cuticle of the corolla and leaves. Our aim was to determine if the biochemical composition affected the elasticity of the cuticle. We discovered that the ratio of carbohydrates to lipids is 1:7 in floral parts but 2:1 in leaf cuticle. Esterified cutin components represented about 80% of the cuticle and di-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids were the major monomers of cutin, regardless of origin. The cutin of elastic tissues is characterized by a higher content of tri-hydroxy monomers than the cutin of rigid tissues. The data suggest that hydroxyl groups enhance the hydrophilic character of the cuticle and contribute to cuticular elasticity.

  13. Biochemical biomarkers in algae and marine pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Moacir A; Barros, Marcelo P; Campos, Sara C G; Pinto, Ernani; Rajamani, Satish; Sayre, Richard T; Colepicolo, Pio

    2008-09-01

    Environmental pollution by organic compounds and metals became extensive as mining and industrial activities increased in the 19th century and have intensified since then. Environmental pollutants originating from diverse anthropogenic sources have been known to possess adverse values capable of degrading the ecological integrity of marine environment. The consequences of anthropogenic contamination of marine environments have been ignored or poorly characterized with the possible exception of coastal and estuarine waters close to sewage outlets. Monitoring the impact of pollutants on aquatic life forms is challenging due to the differential sensitivities of organisms to a given pollutant, and the inability to assess the long-term effects of persistent pollutants on the ecosystem as they are bio-accumulated at higher trophic levels. Marine microalgae are particularly promising indicator species for organic and inorganic pollutants since they are typically the most abundant life forms in aquatic environments and occupy the base of the food chain. We review the effects of pollutants on the cellular biochemistry of microalgae and the biochemical mechanisms that microalgae use to detoxify or modify pollutants. In addition, we evaluate the potential uses of microalgae as bioindicator species as an early sentinel in polluted sites.

  14. Possible incorporation of petroleum-based carbons in biochemicals produced by bioprocess--biomass carbon ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioka, Masao

    2010-06-01

    The biomass carbon ratios of biochemicals related to biomass have been reviewed. Commercial products from biomass were explained. The biomass carbon ratios of biochemical compounds were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) based on the (14)C concentration of carbons in the compounds. This measuring method uses the mechanism that biomass carbons include a very low level of (14)C and petroleum carbons do not include (14)C similar to the carbon dating measuring method. It was confirmed that there were some biochemicals synthesized from petroleum-based carbons. This AMS method has a high accuracy with a small standard deviation and can be applied to plastic products.

  15. The Theoretical Foundations of Formation of the Essence of Concept of «Ensuring the Economic Security of Enterprise in the Conditions of Raiding»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysarevskyi Mykola I.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the scientific substantiation of the theoretical aspects of formation of an effective mechanism for ensuring the economic security of enterprise in the conditions of raiding. The conceptual approaches to determining the main features of individual elements of the conceptual apparatus, namely, the concepts of «economic security of enterprise» and «raiding» were analyzed. The author’s own definition of ensuring the economic security of enterprise in the conditions of raiding has been formed, which provides an opportunity to develop a complex of organizational and economic measures aimed at maintaining the sustainable functioning and development of enterprise in the current and future periods. Prospect for further research in this direction is a critical analysis of the approaches to assessing threats to the economic security of enterprise in the context of raiding, thus broadening the theoretical basis for an effective response mechanism and establishing a qualitative methodical basis for research. Application of new scientific and methodical approaches to the integrated assessment of the level of economic security in the conditions of raiding will ensure the development and implementation of efficient managerial decisions aimed at establishing a system of preventive measures to address threats to the economic security of enterprise.

  16. biochem4j: Integrated and extensible biochemical knowledge through graph databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainston, Neil; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carbonell, Pablo; Dobson, Paul D; Dunstan, Mark; Jervis, Adrian J; Vinaixa, Maria; Williams, Alan R; Ananiadou, Sophia; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Mendes, Pedro; Kell, Douglas B; Scrutton, Nigel S; Breitling, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Biologists and biochemists have at their disposal a number of excellent, publicly available data resources such as UniProt, KEGG, and NCBI Taxonomy, which catalogue biological entities. Despite the usefulness of these resources, they remain fundamentally unconnected. While links may appear between entries across these databases, users are typically only able to follow such links by manual browsing or through specialised workflows. Although many of the resources provide web-service interfaces for computational access, performing federated queries across databases remains a non-trivial but essential activity in interdisciplinary systems and synthetic biology programmes. What is needed are integrated repositories to catalogue both biological entities and-crucially-the relationships between them. Such a resource should be extensible, such that newly discovered relationships-for example, those between novel, synthetic enzymes and non-natural products-can be added over time. With the introduction of graph databases, the barrier to the rapid generation, extension and querying of such a resource has been lowered considerably. With a particular focus on metabolic engineering as an illustrative application domain, biochem4j, freely available at http://biochem4j.org, is introduced to provide an integrated, queryable database that warehouses chemical, reaction, enzyme and taxonomic data from a range of reliable resources. The biochem4j framework establishes a starting point for the flexible integration and exploitation of an ever-wider range of biological data sources, from public databases to laboratory-specific experimental datasets, for the benefit of systems biologists, biosystems engineers and the wider community of molecular biologists and biological chemists.

  17. Genetic, Biochemical and Clinical Insights into Primary Congenital Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb; Sharma, Reetika; Dada, Rima; Mohanty, Kuldeep; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is an irreversible form of optic neuropathy in which the optic nerve suffers damage in a characteristic manner with optic nerve cupping and retinal ganglion cell death. Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is an idiopathic irreversible childhood blinding disorder which manifests at birth or within the first year of life. PCG presents with a classical triad of symptoms (viz epiphora, photophobia and blepharospasm) though there are many additional symptoms, including large eye ball and hazy cornea. The only anatomical anomaly found in PCG is trabecular meshwork (TM) dysgenesis. PCG is an inheritable disease with established genetic etiology. It transmits through autosomal recessive mode. A number of cases are sporadic also. Mutations in many genes have been found to be causative in PCG and many are yet to be found. Mutations in cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) gene have been found to be the predominant cause of PCG. Other genes that have been implicated in PCG etiology are myocilin, Forkhead-related transcription factor C1 (FOXC1) and latent transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP2). Mutations in these genes have been reported from many parts of the world. In addition to this, mitochondrial genome mutations are also thought to be involved in its pathogenesis. There appears to be some mechanism involving more than one genetic factor. In this review, we will discuss the various clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects of PCG. We emphasize that etiology of PCG does not lie in a single gene or genetic factor. Research needs to be oriented into a direction where gene-gene interactions, ocular embryology, ophthalmic metabolism and systemic oxidative status need to be studied in order to understand this disorder. We also accentuate the need for ophthalmic genetic facilities in all ophthalmology setups. How to cite this article: Faiq M, Sharma R, Dada R, Mohanty K, Saluja D, Dada T. Genetic, Biochemical and Clinical Insights into Primary Congenital Glaucoma

  18. CLINICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH MELASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandravathi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of melasma has been found to be 40% in females and 20% in males in Southeast Asian population. Heredity, exposure to sunlight, cosmetics eliciting phototoxic mechanisms, various hormones, pregnancy, and oral contracepti ve pill usage are the factors that may influence the causation of melasma. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the clinico epidemiological and biochemical profile of patients with melasma. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study was done in 30 p atients with clinical diagnosis of mel a sma from June 2011 to June 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female patients above 18 years of age were included in the study. Patients with exogenous ochronosis and males were excluded from the study. Detailed clinical hi story was taken. Biochemical profile which included serum estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, leutinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, cortisol, adreno corticotrophic hormone (ACTH, T ri - iodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was done. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: For all the statistical analysis SPSS statistical software , version 16.0 for windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA was used. Chi - square test was used for statistical significance. In all instances , p ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: Melasma was found to be more common in 40 - 50 years age group (46%, with a positive family history in 53.33%. Summer exacerbation was found in 80%. Positive correlation with pregnancy was found in 33.3% and with oral contraceptive pills in 46.6%. 60% of patients belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Malar pattern was found to be most common (58.3%. Thyroid abnormalities were found in 50%. Serum estradiol was low in 3 patients and progesterone was l ow in 2 out of 30 patients. FSH was high in 2 patients. LH, ACTH and cortisol were normal in all patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V were more prone to

  19. The biophysical properties of Basal lamina gels depend on the biochemical composition of the gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Fabienna; Nowald, Constantin; Pflieger, Kerstin; Boettcher, Kathrin; Zahler, Stefan; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The migration of cells within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends sensitively on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the matrix. An example for a biological ECM is given by reconstituted basal lamina gels purified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma of mice. Here, we compare four different commercial variants of this ECM, which have all been purified according to the same protocol. Nevertheless, in those gels, we detect strong differences in the migration behavior of leukocyte cells as well as in the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. We show that these differences correlate with the mechanical properties and the microarchitecture of the gels which in turn arise from small variations in their biochemical composition.

  20. Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Wang, Hang; Zhu, Jun; Suneethi, Sundar; Zheng, JianGuo

    2012-08-01

    Improper handling of animal manure generated from concentrated swine operations greatly deteriorates water ecosystems. In this study, a full-scale vermireactor using housefly larvae (Musca domestica) was designed to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of swine manure reduction, and to explore the associated biochemical-biological mechanisms. The one-week larvae vermireactor resulted in a total weight reduction rate of 106±17 kg/(m(3) d) and moisture reduction of 80.2%. Microbial activities in manure decreased by 45% after vermicomposting, while the activities of cellulose, proteases, and phosphatases in the vermicompost were significantly 69 times, 48%, and 82% lower than those in raw manure, respectively. The vermicompost was exclusively dominated by Entomoplasma somnilux, Proteobacterium, and Clostridiaceae bacterium where the microbial diversity was decreased from 2.57 in raw manure to 1.77. Correlation coefficients statistic showed that organic C might be a key indicator of the biochemical features and microbial functions of the larvae vermireactor.