WorldWideScience

Sample records for biochemical engineering

  1. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-01-01

    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  2. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  3. Biochemical reaction engineering for redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Redox reactions are still a challenge for biochemical engineers. A personal view for the development of this field is given. Cofactor regeneration was an obstacle for quite some time. The first technical breakthrough was achieved with the system formate/formate dehydrogenase for the regeneration of NADH2. In cases where the same enzyme could be used for chiral reduction as well as for cofactor regeneration, isopropanol as a hydrogen source proved to be beneficial. The coproduct (acetone) can be removed by pervaporation. Whole-cell reductions (often yeast reductions) can also be used. By proper biochemical reaction engineering, it is possible to apply these systems in a continuous way. By cloning a formate dehydrogenase and an oxidoreductase "designer bug" can be obtained where formate is used instead of glucose as the hydrogen source. Complex sequences of redox reactions can be established by pathway engineering with a focus on gene overexpression or with a focus on establishing non-natural pathways. The success of pathway engineering can be controlled by measuring cytosolic metabolite concentrations. The optimal exploitation of such systems calls for the integrated cooperation of classical and molecular biochemical engineering.

  4. MATLAB-Based Teaching Modules in Biochemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilho; Comolli, Noelle K.; Kelly, William J.; Huang, Zuyi

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models play an important role in biochemical engineering. For example, the models developed in the field of systems biology have been used to identify drug targets to treat pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms. In addition, competitive binding models for chromatography processes have been developed to predict expanded…

  5. Virtual laboratories in (bio)chemical engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Lucília; Rocha, I.; Dourado, Fernando; Alves, M.M.; Ferreira, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) have been promoting the creation and adoption of new learning and teaching styles. Virtual laboratories, by overcoming some limitations of conventional hands-on experiments, have been adopted as a complement or in substitution of laboratory sessions. This paper describes the design and implementation of two virtual labs for biochemical engineering education intended for students at the BSc degree. One of the virtua...

  6. A view on chemical and biochemical engineering: Where are they going?

    OpenAIRE

    Veljković Vlada B.

    2002-01-01

    A short history of chemical and biochemical engineering is presented, both industrial and educational aspects being considered. The most important trend in the future development of bio/chemical engineering - biological engineering - is pointed out. The current state and near future of biotechnology are described.

  7. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  8. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  9. Biomedical and Biochemical Engineering for K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madihally, Sundararajan V.; Maase, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    REACH (Reaching Engineering and Architectural Career Heights) is a weeklong summer academy outreach program for high school students interested in engineering, architecture, or technology. Through module-­based instruction, students are introduced to various engineering fields. This report describes one of the modules focused on introducing…

  10. The effect of tissue-engineered cartilage biomechanical and biochemical properties on its post-implantation mechanical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, C.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today's tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Focus has been on engineering cartilage with enhanced mechanical stiffness by reproducing native biochemical compositions. More recently, depth dependency of the biochemical content an

  11. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D2EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  12. Data on biochemical fluxes generated from biofabricated enzyme complexes assembled through engineered tags and microbial transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendranath Bhokisham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data presented is related to an article titled “Modular construction of multi-subunit protein complexes using engineered tags and microbial transglutaminase” (Bhokisham et al., 2016 [1]. In this article, we have presented western blot and flux data associated with assembly of Pfs–LuxS enzyme complexes on beads using uni-tagged and bi-tagged LuxS enzymes. We have also presented biochemical flux following changes in enzyme stoichiometries. We covalently coupled a Pfs-LuxS complex with Protein G, an antibody binding non-enzyme component and directed these complexes to the surfaces of bacterial cells via anti-Escherichia coli antibodies. Fluorescence microscopy images represented the altered behavior of bacterial cells in response to the autoinducer-2 that is synthesized by the Protein G-enzyme complexes.

  13. Econophysics and bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics: The exergetic analysis of a municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Exergy is a fundamental quantity because it allows us to obtain information on the useful work obtainable in a process. The analyses of irreversibility are important not only in the design and development of the industrial devices, but also in fundamental thermodynamics and in the socio-economic analysis of municipality. Consequently, the link between entropy and exergy is discussed in order to link econophysics to the bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics. Last, this link holds to the fundamental role of fluxes and to the exergy exchanged in the interaction between the system and its environment. The result consists in a thermodynamic approach to the analysis of the unavailability of the economic, productive or social systems. The unavailability is what the system cannot use in relation to its internal processes. This quantity result is interesting also as a support to public manager for economic decisions. Here, the Alessandria Municipality is analyzed in order to highlight the application of the theoretical results.

  14. Engineering interpenetrating network hydrogels as biomimetic cell niche with independently tunable biochemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels have been widely used as artificial cell niche to mimic extracellular matrix with tunable properties. However, changing biochemical cues in hydrogels developed-to-date would often induce simultaneous changes in mechanical properties, which do not support mechanistic studies on stem cell-niche interactions. Here we report the development of a PEG-based interpenetrating network (IPN), which is composed of two polymer networks that can independently and simultaneously crosslink to form hydrogels in a cell-friendly manner. The resulting IPN hydrogel allows independently tunable biochemical and mechanical properties, as well as stable and more homogeneous presentation of biochemical ligands in 3D than currently available methods. We demonstrate the potential of our IPN platform for elucidating stem cell-niche interactions by modulating osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. The versatility of such IPN hydrogels is further demonstrated using three distinct and widely used polymers to form the mechanical network while keeping the biochemical network constant.

  15. A structured approach for the engineering of biochemical network models, illustrated for signalling pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, Rainer; Gilbert, David; Heiner, Monika; Orton, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative models of biochemical networks (signal transduction cascades, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory circuits) are a central component of modern systems biology. Building and managing these complex models is a major challenge that can benefit from the application of formal methods adopted

  16. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops. PMID:24556196

  17. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops.

  18. Biochemical, mechanical, and spectroscopic analyses of genetically engineered flax fibers producing bioplastic (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Skórkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Maczka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The interest in biofibers has grown in recent years due to their expanding range of applications in fields as diverse as biomedical science and the automotive industry. Their low production costs, biodegradability, physical properties, and perceived eco-friendliness allow for their extensive use as composite components, a role in which they could replace petroleum-based synthetic polymers. We performed biochemical, mechanical, and structural analyses of flax stems and fibers derived from field-grown transgenic flax enriched with PHB (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate). The analyses of the plant stems revealed an increase in the cellulose content and a decrease in the lignin and pectin contents relative to the control plants. However, the contents of the fibers' major components (cellulose, lignin, pectin) remain unchanged. An FT-IR study confirmed the results of the biochemical analyses of the flax fibers. However, the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibers differed from that in the control, and a significant increase in the number of hydrogen bonds was detected. The mechanical properties of the transgenic flax stems were significantly improved, reflecting the cellulose content increase. However, the mechanical properties of the fibers did not change in comparison with the control, with the exception of the fibers from transgenic line M13. The generated transgenic flax plants, which produce both components of the flax/PHB composites (i.e., fibers and thermoplastic matrix in the same plant organ) are a source of an attractive and ecologically safe material for industry and medicine. PMID:19572280

  19. Engineering the iron-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans for biochemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Timothy; Majumdar, Sudipta; Li, Xiaozheng; Guan, Jingyang; West, Alan C; Banta, Scott

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in developing non-photosynthetic routes for the conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. One underexplored approach is the transfer of energy to the metabolism of genetically modified chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an obligate chemolithoautotroph that derives its metabolic energy from the oxidation of iron or sulfur at low pH. Two heterologous biosynthetic pathways have been expressed in A. ferrooxidans to produce either isobutyric acid or heptadecane from CO2 and the oxidation of Fe(2+). A sevenfold improvement in productivity of isobutyric acid was obtained through improved media formulations in batch cultures. Steady-state efficiencies were lower in continuous cultures, likely due to ferric inhibition. If coupled to solar panels, the photon-to-fuel efficiency of this proof-of-principle process approaches estimates for agriculture-derived biofuels. These efforts lay the foundation for the utilization of this organism in the exploitation of electrical energy for biochemical synthesis. PMID:26174759

  20. Engineering the iron-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans for biochemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Timothy; Majumdar, Sudipta; Li, Xiaozheng; Guan, Jingyang; West, Alan C; Banta, Scott

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in developing non-photosynthetic routes for the conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. One underexplored approach is the transfer of energy to the metabolism of genetically modified chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an obligate chemolithoautotroph that derives its metabolic energy from the oxidation of iron or sulfur at low pH. Two heterologous biosynthetic pathways have been expressed in A. ferrooxidans to produce either isobutyric acid or heptadecane from CO2 and the oxidation of Fe(2+). A sevenfold improvement in productivity of isobutyric acid was obtained through improved media formulations in batch cultures. Steady-state efficiencies were lower in continuous cultures, likely due to ferric inhibition. If coupled to solar panels, the photon-to-fuel efficiency of this proof-of-principle process approaches estimates for agriculture-derived biofuels. These efforts lay the foundation for the utilization of this organism in the exploitation of electrical energy for biochemical synthesis.

  1. Genetic Engineering: A Promising Tool to Engender Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Stress Resilience in Green Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Khan, Asif; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest toward a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy ...

  2. Genetic engineering: a promising tool to engender physiological, biochemical and molecular stress resilience in green microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy eGuiheneuf; Asif eKhan; Lam-Son ePhan Tran

    2016-01-01

    As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest towards a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy...

  3. Genetic engineering: a promising tool to engender physiological, biochemical and molecular stress resilience in green microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy eGuiheneuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest towards a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric CO2 into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60–65% of dry weight, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors like nitrogen starvation , salinity, heat shock etc. can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests.

  4. Genetic Engineering: A Promising Tool to Engender Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Stress Resilience in Green Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Khan, Asif; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2016-01-01

    As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest toward a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60-65% of dry weight), carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors such as nitrogen starvation, salinity, heat shock, etc., can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests. PMID:27066043

  5. Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here.

  6. Tissue engineering approaches for studying the effect of biochemical and physiological stimuli on cell behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Vergara, Andrea Carolina

    Tissue engineering (TE) approaches have emerged as an alternative to traditional tissue and organ replacements. The aim of this work was to contribute to the understanding of the effects of cell-material and endothelial cell (EC) paracrine signaling on cell responses using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels as a material platform. Three TE applications were explored. First, the effect of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) identity was evaluated for vocal fold restoration. Second, the influence of GAG identity was explored and a novel approach for stable endothelialization was developed for vascular graft applications. Finally, EC paracrine signaling in the presence of cyclic stretch, and hydrophobicity and inorganic content were studied for osteogenic applications. In terms of vocal fold restoration, it was found that vocal fold fibroblast (VFF) phenotype and extracellular matrix (ECM) production were impacted by GAG identity. VFF phenotype was preserved in long-term cultured hydrogels containing high molecular weight hyaluronan (HAHMW). Furthermore, collagen I deposition, fibronectin production and smooth muscle α-actin (SM-α-actin) expression in PEG-HA, PEG-chondroitin sulfate C and PEG-heparan sulfate (HS) gels suggest that CSC and HS may be undesirable for vocal fold implants. Regarding vascular graft applications, the impact of GAG identity on smooth muscle cell (SMC) foam cell formation was explored. Results support the increasing body of literature that suggests a critical role for dermatan sulfate (DS)-bearing proteoglycans in early atherosclerosis. In addition, an approach for fabricating bi-layered tissue engineering vascular grafts (TEVGs) with stable endothelialization was validated using PEGDA as an intercellular “cementing” agent between adjacent endothelial cells (ECs). Finally, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation toward osteogenic like cells was evaluated. ECM and cell phenotypic data showed that elevated scaffold inorganic

  7. Biochemical Engineering Approaches for Increasing Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Thanh Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature presents a growing body of evidence demonstrating the positive effect of probiotics on health. Probiotic consumption levels are rising quickly in the world despite the fluctuation of their viability and functionality. Technological methods aiming at improving probiotic characteristics are thus highly wanted. However, microbial metabolic engineering toolbox is not available for this kind of application. On the other hand, basic microbiology teaches us that bacteria are able to exhibit adaptation to external stresses. It is known that adequately applied sub-lethal stress, i.e., controlled in amplitude and frequency at a given stage of the culture, is able to enhance microbial robustness. This property could be potentially used to improve the viability of probiotic bacteria, but some technical challenges still need to be overcome before any industrial implementation. This review paper investigates the different technical tools that can be used in order to define the proper condition for improving viability of probiotic bacteria and their implementation at the industrial scale. Based on the example of Bifidobacterium bifidum, potentialities for simultaneously improving viability, but also functionality of probiotics will be described.

  8. From physiology to systems metabolic engineering for the production of biochemicals by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Paula; Carvalho, Ana L; Vinga, Susana; Santos, Helena; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-11-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a functionally related group of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria known essentially for their roles in bioprocessing of foods and animal feeds. Due to extensive industrial use and enormous economical value, LAB have been intensively studied and a large body of comprehensive data on their metabolism and genetics was generated throughout the years. This knowledge has been instrumental in the implementation of successful applications in the food industry, such as the selection of robust starter cultures with desired phenotypic traits. The advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput experimentation combined with powerful computational tools currently allows for a systems level understanding of these food industry workhorses. The technological developments in the last decade have provided the foundation for the use of LAB in applications beyond the classic food fermentations. Here we discuss recent metabolic engineering strategies to improve particular cellular traits of LAB and to design LAB cell factories for the bioproduction of added value chemicals.

  9. Biochemical Engineering Approaches for Increasing Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Truong, Dieu-Hien; Kouhoundé, Sonagnon; Ly, Sokny; Razafindralambo, Hary; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The literature presents a growing body of evidence demonstrating the positive effect of probiotics on health. Probiotic consumption levels are rising quickly in the world despite the fluctuation of their viability and functionality. Technological methods aiming at improving probiotic characteristics are thus highly wanted. However, microbial metabolic engineering toolbox is not available for this kind of application. On the other hand, basic microbiology teaches us that bacteria are able to exhibit adaptation to external stresses. It is known that adequately applied sub-lethal stress, i.e., controlled in amplitude and frequency at a given stage of the culture, is able to enhance microbial robustness. This property could be potentially used to improve the viability of probiotic bacteria, but some technical challenges still need to be overcome before any industrial implementation. This review paper investigates the different technical tools that can be used in order to define the proper condition for improving viability of probiotic bacteria and their implementation at the industrial scale. Based on the example of Bifidobacterium bifidum, potentialities for simultaneously improving viability, but also functionality of probiotics will be described.

  10. Biochemical Engineering Approaches for Increasing Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Truong, Dieu-Hien; Kouhoundé, Sonagnon; Ly, Sokny; Razafindralambo, Hary; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The literature presents a growing body of evidence demonstrating the positive effect of probiotics on health. Probiotic consumption levels are rising quickly in the world despite the fluctuation of their viability and functionality. Technological methods aiming at improving probiotic characteristics are thus highly wanted. However, microbial metabolic engineering toolbox is not available for this kind of application. On the other hand, basic microbiology teaches us that bacteria are able to exhibit adaptation to external stresses. It is known that adequately applied sub-lethal stress, i.e., controlled in amplitude and frequency at a given stage of the culture, is able to enhance microbial robustness. This property could be potentially used to improve the viability of probiotic bacteria, but some technical challenges still need to be overcome before any industrial implementation. This review paper investigates the different technical tools that can be used in order to define the proper condition for improving viability of probiotic bacteria and their implementation at the industrial scale. Based on the example of Bifidobacterium bifidum, potentialities for simultaneously improving viability, but also functionality of probiotics will be described. PMID:27271598

  11. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2004-07-14

    A regenerating biochemical mixture and organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, followed by approximately 140 barrels of a 2% KCl solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area and into the producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris which was immediately produced into the flowlines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. Next steps include larger treatments and tracer tests to better understand the fluid flow dynamics.

  12. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2005-04-29

    A combination of a regenerating biochemical mixture and an organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, with a 2% KCl carrier solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area adjacent to producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris, which was immediately produced into the flow lines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. In task 3 the permeability restrictions in a cylindrical area of 10 to 20 feet from the wellbore within the reservoir were treated with the biochemical solution. Fluid was forced into the producing horizon using the hydraulic head of the well filled with 2 % KCl solution, allowed to acclimate, and then withdrawn by pumping. The chloride content of the produce water was measured and production of oil and water monitored. The most significant effect in improving permeability and removing scale and high molecular weight hydrocarbons was accomplished in the wellbore perforations and near wellbore treatments of tasks 1 and 2. The effect the deeper insertion of solution in task 3 had minimal impact on production.

  13. Tissue Engineering of Ligament/tendon-Part II-Importance of Biochemical and Mechanical Factors on the Neogenesis of Ligament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvaine; Muller; Shalaw; Fawzi-Grancher; Said; Slimani

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionLigaments and tendons are bands of parallel fibers, made of dense connective tissue, that play an important role in mediating normal movement and stability of joints. Injury to these structures can cause significant joint instability, which may lead to injury of others tissues and the development of degenerative joint diseases. Tissue engineering offers the potential to improve the reconstruction of tendons and ligaments. The concept is based on the manipulation of cellular and molecular media...

  14. Risks of Cadmium Nanoparticles on Estuarine Organisms : Ecotoxicological Effects of Engineered Cadmium Nanoparticles through Biochemical and Behavioral Responses in Two Marine Invertebrates, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Pianpian

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing concern over the safety of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to humans and the environment. It is important that the environmental risks of these particles to be tested under research and regulatory schemes, e.g. Nano Risks to the environment & Human Health (NanoReTox) under Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) in EU. Due to their unique properties and the fact that their detection and characterization in complex matrices is challenging, classic analytical methods and te...

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  16. Biochemical, Environmental Engineering and Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to Environmental Considerations - The environmental impacts of a proposed wastewater treatment facility are as important,t, if not more so, as cost considerations, a few comments regarding applicable environmental considerations that must also be addressed are appropriate. - The environmental evaluations should focus on social, technical, ecological, economic, political, legal, and institutional (STEEPLI) criteria. - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for any proposed governmental action that is determined to have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment. - The regulations ensure that the probable environmental effects are identified, that a reasonable number of alternative actions and their environmental impacts are considered, that the environmental information is available for public understanding and scrutiny, and that the public and governmental agencies participate as a part of the decision process. - All pertinent regulations and the inherent participate afforded must be disclosed in the EIS. - National Environmental Policy Act of USA (NEP A ) neither prohibits nor permits any action but requires full disclosure of environmental information and public participation in the decision making process

  17. Recent abstracts in biochemical technology

    OpenAIRE

    R R Siva Kiran; Brijesh P

    2008-01-01

    “Recent abstracts in biochemical technology” is a collection of interesting research articles published in “List of biochemical technology journals” (Table 1). The abstracts are most likely to report significant results in biochemical technology.

  18. Reconfigurable neuromorphic computation in biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Ju Katherine; Jiang, Jie-Hong R; Fages, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Implementing application-specific computation and control tasks within a biochemical system has been an important pursuit in synthetic biology. Most synthetic designs to date have focused on realizing systems of fixed functions using specifically engineered components, thus lacking flexibility to adapt to uncertain and dynamically-changing environments. To remedy this limitation, an analog and modularized approach to realize reconfigurable neuromorphic computation with biochemical reactions is presented. We propose a biochemical neural network consisting of neuronal modules and interconnects that are both reconfigurable through external or internal control over the concentrations of certain molecular species. Case studies on classification and machine learning applications using the DNA strain displacement technology demonstrate the effectiveness of our design in both reconfiguration and autonomous adaptation. PMID:26736417

  19. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  20. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  1. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  2. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals. PMID:24685537

  3. Biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, E.; Richter, G.

    1978-03-30

    Until now, biochemical fuel cells have suffered a reduction of capacity in operation due to omission of internal contact between the electrodes and the diaphragm. This disadvantage is remedied by the invention by connecting the oxygen electrode with a rigid electrode frame and providing means for pressing the fuel electrode to the diaphragm and the diaphragm to the oxygen electrode on the side of the fuel electrode away from the diaphragm. The means of exerting pressure can be metal springs, but preferably elastomers, particularly silicon rubber, or springy gels are used.

  4. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  5. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60Co and to a lesser extent by 137Cs, 182Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  6. Electronic modulation of biochemical signal generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordonov, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; Cheng, Yi; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Ghodssi, Reza; Rubloff, Gary; Yin, Jun-Jie; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.

    2014-08-01

    Microelectronic devices that contain biological components are typically used to interrogate biology rather than control biological function. Patterned assemblies of proteins and cells have, however, been used for in vitro metabolic engineering, where coordinated biochemical pathways allow cell metabolism to be characterized and potentially controlled on a chip. Such devices form part of technologies that attempt to recreate animal and human physiological functions on a chip and could be used to revolutionize drug development. These ambitious goals will, however, require new biofabrication methodologies that help connect microelectronics and biological systems and yield new approaches to device assembly and communication. Here, we report the electrically mediated assembly, interrogation and control of a multi-domain fusion protein that produces a bacterial signalling molecule. The biological system can be electrically tuned using a natural redox molecule, and its biochemical response is shown to provide the signalling cues to drive bacterial population behaviour. We show that the biochemical output of the system correlates with the electrical input charge, which suggests that electrical inputs could be used to control complex on-chip biological processes.

  7. Biochemical synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descriptions of the biochemical synthesis of glucose-13C6 from Agmenellum quadruplication; the biochemical labelling of [13C, 15N] Chlorella and [13C] E. coli, [15N] E. coli, and the production of lactic-13C3 acid utilizing Lactobacillus casei are discussed

  8. EVALUATING BIOCHEMICAL INTERNET RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Many people fail to properly evaluate INTERNET information. This is often due to alack of understanding of the issues, by responsible authorities, and, morespecifically, a lack of understanding of the structure and modis operandi of theINTERNET tool. The aim of this project was to analyze biochemical issuesavailable in WEB pages, evaluating contents quality, coverage, accuracy, authorityand currency. Twenty three sites were analyzed for their contents, presence ofbibliographical references, authorship, titles responsibility and adequacy to targetpublic. The great majority (95% did not mention bibliographic references andtarget public. Less than half divulged names and/or graduation status ofresponsibles. Some sites contained critical conceptual errors, such as: oxygen isessential for anaerobic respiration; presence of H2O in photosynthesis dark phase;yeast is a pluricellular fungal; the overall equation of photosynthesis with errors;NADH2 instead NAD+; etc. None of the analyzed sites was thus consideredexcellent. Although the use of the internet is expanding rapidly on collegecampuses, little is known about students usage; how they perceive the reality ofinternet information and how successful they are in searching through it. Our datastrenghthen the need for rigorous evaluation concerning to educational research ofbiochemical themes on the WEB.

  9. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  10. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  11. Hyponatraemia: biochemical and clinical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G; Leese, G

    1998-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is a common bio-chemical abnormality, occurring in about 15% of hospital inpatients. It is often associated with severe illness and relatively poor outcome. Pathophysiologically, hyponatraemia may be spurious, dilutional, depletional or redistributional. Particularly difficult causes and concepts of hyponatraemia are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and the sick cell syndrome, which are discussed here in detail. Therapy should always be targeted at the underlying disea...

  12. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  13. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  14. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  15. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. PMID:27479451

  16. Biochemical Markers of Myocardial Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Geza S

    2016-04-01

    Heart diseases, especially coronary artery diseases (CAD), are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Effective therapy is available to ensure patient survival and to prevent long term sequelae after an acute ischemic event caused by CAD, but appropriate therapy requires rapid and accurate diagnosis. Research into the pathology of CAD have demonstrated the usefulness of measuring concentrations of chemicals released from the injured cardiac muscle can aid the diagnosis of diseases caused by myocardial ischemia. Since the mid-1950s successively better biochemical markers have been described in research publications and applied for the clinical diagnosis of acute ischemic myocardial injury. Aspartate aminotransferase of the 1950s was replaced by other cytosolic enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and their isoenzymes that exhibited better cardiac specificity. With the availability of immunoassays, other muscle proteins, that had no enzymatic activity, were also added to the diagnostic arsenal but their limited tissue specificity and sensitivity lead to suboptimal diagnostic performance. After the discovery that cardiac troponins I and T have the desired specificity, they have replaced the cytosolic enzymes in the role of diagnosing myocardial ischemia and infarction. The use of the troponins provided new knowledge that led to revision and redefinition of ischemic myocardial injury as well as the introduction of biochemicals for estimation of the probability of future ischemic myocardial events. These markers, known as cardiac risk markers, evolved from the diagnostic markers such as CK-MB or troponins, but markers of inflammation also belong to these groups of diagnostic chemicals. This review article presents a brief summary of the most significant developments in the field of biochemical markers of cardiac injury and summarizes the most recent significant recommendations regarding the use of the cardiac markers in

  17. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena;

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a biorefinery concept for biological production of chemicals, drugs, feed and fuels using plant biomass as raw material in well-defined cell-factories. Among the important goals is the discovery of new biocatalysts for production of enzymes, biochemicals and fuels and already our...... screening of a large collection of fungal strains isolated from natural habitats have resulted in identification of strains with high production of hydrolytic enzymes and excretion of organic acids. Our research focuses on creating a fungal platform based on synthetic biology for developing new cell...

  18. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail. PMID:23294864

  19. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail.

  20. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  1. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  2. Biochemical Analysis of Microbial Rhodopsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Julia A; Keffer, Jessica L; Miller, Kelsey J

    2016-01-01

    Ion-pumping rhodopsins transfer ions across the microbial cell membrane in a light-dependent fashion. As the rate of biochemical characterization of microbial rhodopsins begins to catch up to the rate of microbial rhodopsin identification in environmental and genomic sequence data sets, in vitro analysis of their light-absorbing properties and in vivo analysis of ion pumping will remain critical to characterizing these proteins. As we learn more about the variety of physiological roles performed by microbial rhodopsins in different cell types and environments, observing the localization patterns of the rhodopsins and/or quantifying the number of rhodopsin-bearing cells in natural environments will become more important. Here, we provide protocols for purification of rhodopsin-containing membranes, detection of ion pumping, and observation of functional rhodopsins in laboratory and environmental samples using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27153387

  3. Moorella Strains for the Production of Biochemicals from Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    In the process of sugar fermentation, a significant portion of lignocellulosic biomass is left unused. An alternative is the gasification into syngas, a carbon-rich gas mixture. Syngas serves as energy and carbon source for acetogenic bacteria, which can then produce biochemicals. In the syngas f...... gene expression was constructed. These tools developed in my project will be applied to engineer bacterial cell factories for production of higher value biochemicals like acetone.......In the process of sugar fermentation, a significant portion of lignocellulosic biomass is left unused. An alternative is the gasification into syngas, a carbon-rich gas mixture. Syngas serves as energy and carbon source for acetogenic bacteria, which can then produce biochemicals. In the syngas...... fermentation process even the recalcitrant lignin portion can be fully converted into higher value compounds. Still the cost-effectiveness of this process requires better understanding of the metabolism and modification of the acetogenic strains. In my PhD project I am laying the basis for production of higher...

  4. Biochemical bases of mineral waters genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Zhernosekov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work directs data about mineral water genesis. The accent on balneological sense is done. We suggest the criteria of biochemical processes estimation which take part in mineral water compounds creation. These criteria can be used for illustration of dependence between waters medical properties and biochemical processes of their genesis.

  5. Programming Surface Chemistry with Engineered Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Heyde, Keith C; Scott, Felicia Y; Paek, Sung-Ho; Ruder, Warren C

    2016-09-16

    We have developed synthetic gene networks that enable engineered cells to selectively program surface chemistry. E. coli were engineered to upregulate biotin synthase, and therefore biotin synthesis, upon biochemical induction. Additionally, two different functionalized surfaces were developed that utilized binding between biotin and streptavidin to regulate enzyme assembly on programmable surfaces. When combined, the interactions between engineered cells and surfaces demonstrated that synthetic biology can be used to engineer cells that selectively control and modify molecular assembly by exploiting surface chemistry. Our system is highly modular and has the potential to influence fields ranging from tissue engineering to drug development and delivery.

  6. Rational and combinatorial engineering of the glucan synthesizing enzyme amylosucrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albenne, C.; Van Der Veen, B.A.; Potocki-Véronèse, G.;

    2003-01-01

    Rational engineering of amylosucrase required detailed investigations of the molecular basis of catalysis. Biochemical characterization of the enzyme coupled to structural analyses enabled the polymerization mechanism to be elucidated. This provided key information for successfully changing amylo...

  7. BIOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following- Persistent albuminuria (>300mg/d or >200μg/min, that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months apart diabetic, progressive decline in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR, elevated arterial blood pressure. The earliest biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is the presence of micro-albumin in the urine, which if left untreated will eventually lead to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. Micro-albuminuria refers to the excretion of albumin in the urine at a rate that exceeds normal limits. The current study was conducted to establish the prevalence of micro-albuminuria in a sequential sample of diabetic patients attending hospital and OPD Clinic to determine its relationship with known and putative risk factors to identify micro- and normo-albuminuric patients in their sample for subsequent comparison in different age, sex, weight and creatinine clearance of the micro- and normo-albuminuric patients. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in one hundred patients at Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Anwarpur, Hapur, U. P. Patients having diabetes mellitus in different age group ranging from 30 to 70 years were selected. Data was analysed by SPSS software. Micro-albuminuria was observed in 35% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was observed that 65% patients were free from any type of albuminuria. Also micro-albuminuria was present in 10% of the patients less than 50 yrs. of age, while 15% of the patients more than 50 yrs. of age were having micro-albuminuria. There was a statistically significant correlation of micro-albuminuria with duration of diabetes. Incidence of micro-albuminuria increases with age as well as increased duration of diabetes mellitus. Our study shows that only 5% patients developed macro-albuminuria. Glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose was significantly raised among all these

  8. Simulation of Biochemical Pathway Adaptability Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosl, W J

    2005-01-26

    The systems approach to genomics seeks quantitative and predictive descriptions of cells and organisms. However, both the theoretical and experimental methods necessary for such studies still need to be developed. We are far from understanding even the simplest collective behavior of biomolecules, cells or organisms. A key aspect to all biological problems, including environmental microbiology, evolution of infectious diseases, and the adaptation of cancer cells is the evolvability of genomes. This is particularly important for Genomes to Life missions, which tend to focus on the prospect of engineering microorganisms to achieve desired goals in environmental remediation and climate change mitigation, and energy production. All of these will require quantitative tools for understanding the evolvability of organisms. Laboratory biodefense goals will need quantitative tools for predicting complicated host-pathogen interactions and finding counter-measures. In this project, we seek to develop methods to simulate how external and internal signals cause the genetic apparatus to adapt and organize to produce complex biochemical systems to achieve survival. This project is specifically directed toward building a computational methodology for simulating the adaptability of genomes. This project investigated the feasibility of using a novel quantitative approach to studying the adaptability of genomes and biochemical pathways. This effort was intended to be the preliminary part of a larger, long-term effort between key leaders in computational and systems biology at Harvard University and LLNL, with Dr. Bosl as the lead PI. Scientific goals for the long-term project include the development and testing of new hypotheses to explain the observed adaptability of yeast biochemical pathways when the myosin-II gene is deleted and the development of a novel data-driven evolutionary computation as a way to connect exploratory computational simulation with hypothesis

  9. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  10. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  11. Four Engineers...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are four engineers traveling in a car;a mechanical engineer,a chemical engi-neer,an electrical engineer and a comput-er engineer.The car breaks down.“Sounds to me as if the pistons have seized.We ll have to strip down the engine before we canget the car working again,”says the mechanical

  12. Engineering Special

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Smart phones, supersonic planes, Formula 1 cars, green cities, the Internet; engineers built them all. Engineers are everywhere. The world needs them and so do you. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/engineering-special-feature-editorial/

  13. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  15. Micro- and nanotechnology in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Xiao, Yun; Hsieh, Anne; Thavandiran, Nimalan; Radisic, Milica

    2011-12-01

    While in nature the formation of complex tissues is gradually shaped by the long journey of development, in tissue engineering constructing complex tissues relies heavily on our ability to directly manipulate and control the micro-cellular environment in vitro. Not surprisingly, advancements in both microfabrication and nanofabrication have powered the field of tissue engineering in many aspects. Focusing on cardiac tissue engineering, this paper highlights the applications of fabrication techniques in various aspects of tissue engineering research: (1) cell responses to micro- and nanopatterned topographical cues, (2) cell responses to patterned biochemical cues, (3) controlled 3D scaffolds, (4) patterned tissue vascularization and (5) electromechanical regulation of tissue assembly and function.

  16. Engineering and Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  17. Engineering ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bengisu, Murat

    2001-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  18. Neural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  19. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  20. Engineering Lesquerella for Safe Castor Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a part of genetic approach to engineering ricinoleate synthesis, we investigated the seed development in L. fendleri. The morphological, physiological and biochemical changes during seed development of Lesquerella fendleri were characterized from 7 days after pollination (DAP) to desiccation. The...

  1. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, P.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Siemann, D.W.; Shapiro, D.L.; Van Houtte, P.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve.

  2. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  3. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  4. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  5. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the vibratio

  6. Predictive biochemical assays for late radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactant precursors or other products of Type II pneumocytes have the potential to be the first biochemical marker for late radiation effects. This is particularly clinically important in the combined modality era because of the frequent occurrence of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Accordingly, correlative studies have been pursued with the Type II pneumocyte as a beginning point to understand the complex pathophysiology of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. From our ultrastructural and biochemical studies, it is evident that Type II pneumocytes are an early target of radiation and the release of surfactant into the alveolus shortly after exposure persists for days and weeks. Through the use of lavaging techniques, alveolar surfactant has been elevated after pulmonary irradiation. In three murine strains and in the rabbit, there is a strong correlation with surfactant release at 7 and/or 28 days in vivo with later lethality in months. In vitro studies using cultures of type II pneumocytes also demonstrate dose response and tolerance factors that are comparable to the in vivo small and large animal diagnostic models. New markers are being developed to serve as a predictive index for later lethal pneumonopathies. With the development of these techniques, the search for early biochemical markers in man has been undertaken. Through the use of biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural techniques, a causal relationship between radiation effects on type II pneumocytes, pulmonary cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and their roles in the production of pneumonitis and fibrosis will evolve

  7. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  8. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  9. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  10. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  11. Prosthetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview CoE for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering Menu Menu VA Center of Excellence for Limb ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Prosthetic Engineering - Overview Our aim is to improve prosthetic prescription ...

  12. Engineering economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written for engineer and manager who is working for analysis of propriety of project. It gives descriptions of basic of engineering economy, compare principle of engineering economy, application of compare principle, evaluation of capital project, value of time of funds and evaluation of investment, engineering economy analysis of an alternative idea, depreciation, determination and principle analysis of uncertain prospect, analysis of propriety of project, profitable plan in product progress, quality, cost and profit and analysis of complex investment project.

  13. Engineering Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  14. Cytologic-Biochemical Radiation Dosimeters in Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of radiation interacting with living tissue is the deposition of energy therein. This energy triggers numerous chemical reactions within the molecules of the target tissues. We have measured in man the results of some of these reactions at doses up to 300 rads: chromosome aberrations; alterations in the kinetics of specific human cell populations; changes in 37 biochemical constituents of serum and/or urine. The utilization of chromosomes as a biological dosimeter is partially perfected but there are numerous discrepancies in data between different laboratories. Etiocholanolone can be used to evaluate marrow injury before the white-cell count falls below 5000/mm3. Most biochemical dosimeters evaluated gave negative or inconsistent results. However, salivary amylase is a promising indicator of human radiation injury from doses as low as 100 rads. (author)

  15. Optical Biochemical Platforms for Nanoparticles Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Campanella, Clarissa Martina

    2014-01-01

    In the biochemical sensing field, a fervent research activity related to the development of real time, low cost, compact and high throughput devices for the detection and characterization of natural or synthetic nanoparticles NPs actually exists. In this research scenario, different platforms for biosensing purposes have been developed according to the huge amount of physical effects involved in the transduction of the biochemical-signal into a measurable output signal. In the present work two different optical platforms for NP detection have been investigated, one based on integrated optics and the other based on microscopy. Both the approaches rely on the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with a small particle in the hypothesis of dealing with a Rayleigh scatterer, i.e. a nanoparticle having a size really smaller than the one of the wavelength of the incident light and scattering light elastically.

  16. Advancement in biochemical assays in andrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolf-BernhardSchill; RaftHenkel

    1999-01-01

    Determination of maikers of sperm function, accessory sex gland secretion and silent male genital tract inflammation is of considerable diagnostic value in the evaluation of male infertility. The introduction of biochemical tests into the analysis of male factor has the advantage that standardized assays with a coefficient of variafion characteristic of clinical chemistry are performed, in contrast to biological test systems with a large variability .Biochemical parameters may be used in clinical practice to evaluate the sperm fertitizing capacity (acrosin, aniline blue,ROS), to characterize male accessory sex gland secretinns (fructose, a-glucosidase, PSA), and to identify men with silent genital tract inflammation (elastase, C'3 complement component, coeruloplasmin, IgA, IgG, ROS). (As/an J Androl 1999 Jun; 1: 45-51)

  17. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic...

  18. The stochastic dynamics of biochemical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Challenger, Joseph Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the stochastic dynamics of biochemical reaction systems. The importance of the intrinsic fluctuations in these systems has become more widely appreciated in recent years, and should be accounted for when modelling such systems mathematically. These models are described as continuous time Markov processes and their dynamics defined by a master equation. Analytical progress is made possible by the use of the van Kampen system-size expansion, which splits the dynamics...

  19. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  20. Haematological and biochemical analysis in canine enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Bhat

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation screened eighteen clinical cases of canine enteritis for haematological and biochemical analyses. Materials and Methods: Eighteen dogs suffering from enteritis were selected and detailed clinical manifestations were noted. Hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated by using various kits. Blood was also collected from twelve healthy dogs for establishing control values and data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The affected dogs showed anorexia, diarrhoea, depression, varying degree of dehydration and tachycardia. There were significant changes in packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Biochemical investigation revealed significant decrease in plasma glucose, total plasma protein, albumin and albumin:globulin ratio (A:G ratio. The level of potassium and chloride was markedly decreased. Significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN was observed. Conclusion: Packed Cell Volume (PCV and Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC remained almost similar between healthy dogs and dogs affected with diarrhoea. Mean Total Leukocyte Count (TLC value was significantly higher as compared to the control group. Hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia and increase in blood urea nitrogen was observed in dogs suffering from enteritis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 380-383

  1. [Biochemical antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfadóttir, G; Jónsson, J J

    2001-05-01

    Biochemical antenatal screening started 30 years ago. Initially, the goal was to detect neural tube defects by measuring a-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) and amniotic fluid (AF-AFP). The serendipitous discovery of an association between low AFP maternal serum concentration and chromosomal anomalies resulted in increased research interest in biochemical screening in pregnancy. Subsequently double, triple or quadruple tests in 2nd trimester of pregnancy became widely used in combination with fetal chromosome determination in at risk individuals. In Iceland, antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies has essentially been based on fetal chromosome studies offered to pregnant women 35 years or older. This strategy needs to be revised. Recently first trimester biochemical screening based on maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (MS-PAPP-A) and free b-human chorionic gonadotropin (MS-free b-hCG) and multivariate risk assessment has been developed. This screening test can be improved if done in conjunction with nuchal translucency measurements in an early sonography scan. PMID:17018982

  2. Hydrogel-based piezoresistive biochemical microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Margarita; Schulz, Volker; Gerlach, Gerald; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Solzbacher, Florian; Magda, Jules J.; Tathireddy, Prashant; Lin, Genyao; Orthner, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This work is motivated by a demand for inexpensive, robust and reliable biochemical sensors with high signal reproducibility and long-term-stable sensitivity, especially for medical applications. Micro-fabricated sensors can provide continuous monitoring and on-line control of analyte concentrations in ambient aqueous solutions. The piezoresistive biochemical sensor containing a special biocompatible polymer (hydrogel) with a sharp volume phase transition in the neutral physiological pH range near 7.4 can detect a specific analyte, for example glucose. Thereby the hydrogel-based biochemical sensors are useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. The response of the glucosesensitive hydrogel was studied at different regimes of the glucose concentration change and of the solution supply. Sensor response time and accuracy with which a sensor can track gradual changes in glucose was estimated. Additionally, the influence of various recommended sterilization methods on the gel swelling properties and on the mechano-electrical transducer of the pH-sensors has been evaluated in order to choose the most optimal sterilization method for the implantable sensors. It has been shown that there is no negative effect of gamma irradiation with a dose of 25.7 kGy on the hydrogel sensitivity. In order to achieve an optimum between sensor signal amplitude and sensor response time, corresponding calibration and measurement procedures have been proposed and evaluated for the chemical sensors.

  3. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  4. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  5. Engineering Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-15

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  6. Cognitive Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kyle M.; Helton, William S; Wiggins, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human–machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regard...

  7. Reverse Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of reverse engineering with principle and structure of it, including what reverse engineering is, prospect and concerned laws, basic knowledge for reverse engineering like manual and back to user mode, using tool such as IDA installation, dependency walker and dump bin, network monitoring and universal extractor. It indicates analysis of malignant code, giving explanations of file virus, spy ware, an infection way of malignant code, anti debugging like Find window.

  8. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  9. Engineering Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Rosenberg; W. Edward Steinmuller

    2012-01-01

    In historical perspective, both the nature of and arrangements for the generation of engineering knowledge have evolved over the past 150 years. We examine the historical development of the search for ‘useful knowledge’ in agriculture, aeronautics and chemical engineering during the first half of this period and the evolving balance between public and private initiative in supporting this search. During this period, the US was engaged in the engineering knowledge was often empirical, practice...

  10. Engineering Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the author presents the research field called "engineering ethics" and analyses some ethical issues related to the engineering profession. Ce chapitre dresse un état des lieux du champ de recherche intitulé depuis les années 1980 "engineering ethics"en anglais. Il présente quelques enjeux éthiques que soulève le métier d'ingénieur.

  11. Rehabilitation Engineering: What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Rehabilitation Engineering What is rehabilitation engineering? What types of assistive ... the area of rehabilitation engineering? What is rehabilitation engineering? Source: Michael Goldfarb, Vanderbilt University Rehabilitation engineering is ...

  12. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  13. BNDB – The Biochemical Network Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmann Michael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances in high-throughput techniques and efficient data acquisition methods have resulted in a massive amount of life science data. The data is stored in numerous databases that have been established over the last decades and are essential resources for scientists nowadays. However, the diversity of the databases and the underlying data models make it difficult to combine this information for solving complex problems in systems biology. Currently, researchers typically have to browse several, often highly focused, databases to obtain the required information. Hence, there is a pressing need for more efficient systems for integrating, analyzing, and interpreting these data. The standardization and virtual consolidation of the databases is a major challenge resulting in a unified access to a variety of data sources. Description We present the Biochemical Network Database (BNDB, a powerful relational database platform, allowing a complete semantic integration of an extensive collection of external databases. BNDB is built upon a comprehensive and extensible object model called BioCore, which is powerful enough to model most known biochemical processes and at the same time easily extensible to be adapted to new biological concepts. Besides a web interface for the search and curation of the data, a Java-based viewer (BiNA provides a powerful platform-independent visualization and navigation of the data. BiNA uses sophisticated graph layout algorithms for an interactive visualization and navigation of BNDB. Conclusion BNDB allows a simple, unified access to a variety of external data sources. Its tight integration with the biochemical network library BN++ offers the possibility for import, integration, analysis, and visualization of the data. BNDB is freely accessible at http://www.bndb.org.

  14. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  15. Induced biochemical conversions of heavy crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products formed during multiple interactions of microorganisms with oils fall into two major categories: those formed due to the action of indigenous microorganisms under reservoir conditions over geological periods of time and those products which are generated by the action of introduced organisms. The extreme end product of the first category is the production of heavy 'biodegraded' crudes. The extreme end product of the second category is the production of reduced sulfates due to the introduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria which may lead to the souring of a field. There is, however, a select group of microorganisms whose action on the crudes is beneficial. The interactions between such microorganisms and different crude oils occur through complex biochemical and chemical reactions. These reactions depend on multiple variables within and at the interface of a multicomponent system consisting of organic, aqueous, and inorganic components. Studies, carried out in this laboratory (BNL) of biochemical and chemical reactions in crude oils which involve extremophilic organisms (organisms which thrive in extreme environments), have shown that the reactions are not random and follow distinct trends. These trends can be categorized. The use of a group of characteristic chemical markers, such as mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of light and heavy hydrocarbons, heterocyclic and organometallic compounds, as well as total trace metal and heteroatom contents of crude oils before and after the biochemical treatment allows to follow the type and the extent of chemical changes which occur during the biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils by microorganisms. The bioconversion involves multiple, simultaneous, and/or concurrent chemical reactions in which the microorganisms serve as biocatalysts. In this sense, the biocatalysts are active in a reaction medium which depends on the chemical composition of the crude and the selectivity of the biocatalyst. Thus, the

  16. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  17. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  18. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  19. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  20. Biosystems engineering

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ulger; E. Gonulol

    2015-01-01

    Higher agricultural education system has been getting multidiscipline as a result of the level oftechnology, recently. Biosystems Engineering has become popular in developed countries particularly afterelectronic and information technologies has been getting to be a part of agriculture and accompanied ofbiology. In this study definition of Biosystems Engineering discipline, working areas, research, publicationand job opportunities were discussed meticulously. Academic organization of Biosyste...

  1. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  2. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  3. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  4. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  5. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  6. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  7. Moorella Strains for the Production of Biochemicals from Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    . In the syngasfermentation process even the recalcitrant lignin portion can be fully converted into higher valuecompounds.However, cost-effectiveness of this process requires better understanding of the metabolism andmodification of the acetogenic strains. The present project lays the basis for production of higher......, was constructed. Thesetools and knowledge will be applied to engineer strains with outstanding abilities for the production ofhigher value biochemicals which are currently derived from fossil sources....... valuebiochemicals (acetone) from syngas using Moorella strains. Moorella has outstanding abilities likethermophily and carbon source conversion yields that make it especially suitable for the syngasfermentation process.The present project focuses on understanding the primary metabolism in acetogenic bacteria...

  8. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus. PMID:25659824

  9. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  10. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, ρ-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc

  11. Conceptual Aspects of Theory Appraisal: Some Biochemical Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Michael Akeroyd

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers papers on conceptual analysis by Laudan (1981 and Whitt (1989 and relates them to three biochemical episodes: (1 the modern 'biochemical explanation' of acupuncture; (2 the chemio-osmotic hypothesis of oxidative phosphorylation; (3 the theory of the complete digestion of proteins in the gut. The advantages of including philosophical debate in chemical/biochemical undergraduate courses is then discussed.

  12. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  13. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  14. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger information capacity and is more efficient in information transmission. This is consistent with theory of evolution.

  15. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, U.; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The ex....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts.......The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy...

  16. Hemoglobin variants: biochemical properties and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S; Dickson, Claire F; Gell, David A; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2013-03-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples.

  17. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  18. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  19. Transcription fluctuation effects on biochemical oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nishino

    Full Text Available Some biochemical systems show oscillation. They often consist of feedback loops with repressive transcription regulation. Such biochemical systems have distinctive characteristics in comparison with ordinary chemical systems: i numbers of molecules involved are small, ii there are typically only a couple of genes in a cell with a finite regulation time. Due to the fluctuations caused by these features, the system behavior can be quite different from the one by deterministic rate equations, because the rate equations ignore molecular fluctuations and thus are exact only in the infinite molecular number limit. The molecular fluctuations on a free-running circadian system have been studied by Gonze et al. (2002 by introducing a scale parameter [Formula: see text] for the system size. They consider, however, only the first effect, assuming that the gene process is fast enough for the second effect to be ignored, but this has not been examined systematically yet. Here we study fluctuation effects due to the finite gene regulation time by introducing a new scale parameter [Formula: see text], which we take as the unbinding time of a nuclear protein from the gene. We focus on the case where the fluctuations due to small molecular numbers are negligible. In simulations on the same system studied by Gonze et al., we find the system is unexpectedly sensitive to the fluctuation in the transcription regulation; the period of oscillation fluctuates about 30 min even when the regulation time scale [Formula: see text] is around 30 s, that is even smaller than 1/1000 of its circadian period. We also demonstrate that the distribution width for the oscillation period and amplitude scales with [Formula: see text], and the correlation time scales with [Formula: see text] in the small [Formula: see text] regime. The relative fluctuations for the period are about half of that for the amplitude, namely, the periodicity is more stable than the amplitude.

  20. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  1. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  2. Harmonic engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  3. Climate engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Es klingt wie eine Mischung aus Größenwahn und Science Fiction: Wissenschaftler wollen das Klima mit Hightechverfahren beeinflussen. "Climate engineering" heißt der Fachbegriff. Natürlich geht es dabei nicht um den verregneten Sommer, sondern um den globalen Klimawandel. Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann hat sich bei den Umweltforschern der Uni Heidelberg umgehört, ob was dran ist am "climate engineering". Der Beitrag erschien in der Sendereihe "Campus-Report" - einer Beitragsreihe, in ...

  4. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  5. Engineering liver

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2013-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the e...

  6. Engineering Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    2003-01-01

    In this entry we seek to put into perspective some of the ways in which statistical methods contribute to modern engineering practice. Engineers design and oversee the production, operation, and maintenance of the products and systems that under-gird modern technological society. Their work is built on the foundation of physical (and increasingly biological) science. However, it is of necessity often highly empirical, because there simply isn’t scientific theory complete and simple enough to ...

  7. Ecosystems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Guhl Nannetti

    2015-01-01

    The article begins by referring to the evolution of engineering with the advancement of natural and physical sciences and the resulting specialization, which has blurred the boundaries of its integrating and holistic nature. This process is illustrated through the expansion of the programs and denominations in Colombia. Further on, it attempts to establish a relationship between engineering and sustainability, and it presents the strong impact of development on the planet's ecosystems, which ...

  8. Photoreceptor engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Thea eZiegler; Andreas eMöglich

    2015-01-01

    Sensory photoreceptors not only control diverse adaptive responses in Nature, but as light-regulated actuators they also provide the foundation for optogenetics, the non-invasive and spatiotemporally precise manipulation of cellular events by light. Novel photoreceptors have been engineered that establish control by light over manifold biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic intervention. Recently, photoreceptor engineering has witnessed a rapid development, and light-regu...

  9. Web Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Yogesh; Murugesan, San; Ginige, Athula; Hansen, Steve; Schwabe, Daniel; Gaedke, Martin; White, Bebo

    2003-01-01

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: a) why is it needed? b) what is its domain of operation? c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application develo...

  10. Game Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Aumann, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    "Game Engineering" deals with the application of game theoretic methods to interactive situations or systems in which the rules are well defined, or where the designer can himself specify the rules. This talk, which addressed a business-school audience with no specific knowledge of game theory, describes five examples of game engineering: two dealing with auctions, two with traffic systems, and one with arbitration. At the end of the talk there was a Q & A session, which, too, is recorded here.

  11. Governing Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions w...

  12. Overcoming Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, M J; Söll, D; Church, G M

    2016-02-27

    Withstanding 3.5 billion years of genetic drift, the canonical genetic code remains such a fundamental foundation for the complexity of life that it is highly conserved across all three phylogenetic domains. Genome engineering technologies are now making it possible to rationally change the genetic code, offering resistance to viruses, genetic isolation from horizontal gene transfer, and prevention of environmental escape by genetically modified organisms. We discuss the biochemical, genetic, and technological challenges that must be overcome in order to engineer the genetic code. PMID:26348789

  13. Overcoming Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, M J; Söll, D; Church, G M

    2016-02-27

    Withstanding 3.5 billion years of genetic drift, the canonical genetic code remains such a fundamental foundation for the complexity of life that it is highly conserved across all three phylogenetic domains. Genome engineering technologies are now making it possible to rationally change the genetic code, offering resistance to viruses, genetic isolation from horizontal gene transfer, and prevention of environmental escape by genetically modified organisms. We discuss the biochemical, genetic, and technological challenges that must be overcome in order to engineer the genetic code.

  14. Cell-Free Metabolic Engineering: Biomanufacturing beyond the cell

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, Quentin M.; Karim, Ashty S.; Jewett, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology and microbial metabolic engineering are poised to help meet the growing demand for sustainable, low-cost commodity chemicals and natural products, yet the fraction of biochemicals amenable to commercial production remains limited. Common problems afflicting the current state-of-the-art include low volumetric productivities, build-up of toxic intermediates or products, and byproduct losses via competing pathways. To overcome these limitations, cell-free metabolic engin...

  15. Engineering Annual Summary 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimolitsas, S

    1999-05-01

    mechanics and micro-instrumentation. For example, our DYNA code is widely used both by government and industry to model the behavior of structures under large deformation conditions, such as automobile and aircraft collisions. Today, our codes have expanded to run on the world's most powerful Tflop/s class computer, in the massively parallel, coupled/-multi-physics domain. More recently, in microtechnology, we have been designing and fabricating unique microinstruments using lithographic processing. Building on Engineering's pioneering work in precision engineering, we are now able to fabricate complete biomedical and biochemical instruments, often at far less than one-tenth size, with improved performance over current ''state-of-the-art'' laboratory instruments. These developments are helping us make unique contributions in the fields of proximal and remote sensing related to nonproliferation and counterproliferation of weapons of mass destruction (such as nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) and in biotechnology, where we actively support LLNL's significant involvement in human genome sequencing.

  16. Model-Based Design of Biochemical Microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbinger, Tobias; Gahn, Markus; Neuss-Radu, Maria; Hante, Falk M; Voll, Lars M; Leugering, Günter; Knabner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of biochemical pathways is an important resource in Synthetic Biology, as the predictive power of simulating synthetic pathways represents an important step in the design of synthetic metabolons. In this paper, we are concerned with the mathematical modeling, simulation, and optimization of metabolic processes in biochemical microreactors able to carry out enzymatic reactions and to exchange metabolites with their surrounding medium. The results of the reported modeling approach are incorporated in the design of the first microreactor prototypes that are under construction. These microreactors consist of compartments separated by membranes carrying specific transporters for the input of substrates and export of products. Inside the compartments of the reactor multienzyme complexes assembled on nano-beads by peptide adapters are used to carry out metabolic reactions. The spatially resolved mathematical model describing the ongoing processes consists of a system of diffusion equations together with boundary and initial conditions. The boundary conditions model the exchange of metabolites with the neighboring compartments and the reactions at the surface of the nano-beads carrying the multienzyme complexes. Efficient and accurate approaches for numerical simulation of the mathematical model and for optimal design of the microreactor are developed. As a proof-of-concept scenario, a synthetic pathway for the conversion of sucrose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) was chosen. In this context, the mathematical model is employed to compute the spatio-temporal distributions of the metabolite concentrations, as well as application relevant quantities like the outflow rate of G6P. These computations are performed for different scenarios, where the number of beads as well as their loading capacity are varied. The computed metabolite distributions show spatial patterns, which differ for different experimental arrangements. Furthermore, the total output of G6P

  17. The Research Proposal in Biomechanical and Biological Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roger G.; Nollert, Matthias U.; Schmidtke, David W.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.

    2006-01-01

    Students in four biochemical and biological engineering courses for upper-­level undergraduates and graduate students were required to write a research proposal. Breaking the requirements down into segments (such as a summary with specific aims, rough draft, and final draft) due on different dates helped make the assignment more manageable for the…

  18. Definitions of biochemical failure in prostate cancer following radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) published a consensus panel definition of biochemical failure following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In this paper, we develop a series of alternative definitions of biochemical failure. Using data from 688 patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the various definitions, with respect to a defined 'clinically meaningful' outcome. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO definition of biochemical failure requires 3 consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We considered several modifications to the standard definition: to require PSA rises of a certain magnitude, to consider 2 instead of 3 rises, to require the final PSA value to be greater than a fixed cutoff level, and to define biochemical failure based on the slope of PSA over 1, 1.5, or 2 years. A clinically meaningful failure is defined as local recurrence, distant metastases, initiation of unplanned hormonal therapy, unplanned radical prostatectomy, or a PSA>25 later than 6 months after radiation. Results: Requiring the final PSA in a series of consecutive rises to be larger than 1.5 ng/mL increased the specificity of biochemical failure. For a fixed specificity, defining biochemical failure based on 2 consecutive rises, or the slope over the last year, could increase the sensitivity by up to approximately 20%, compared to the ASTRO definition. Using a rule based on the slope over the previous year or 2 rises leads to a slightly earlier detection of biochemical failure than does the ASTRO definition. Even with the best rule, only approximately 20% of true failures are biochemically detected more than 1 year before the clinically meaningful event time. Conclusion: There is potential for improvement in the ASTRO consensus definition of biochemical failure. Further research is needed, in studies with long follow-up times, to evaluate the relationship between various definitions of biochemical failure and

  19. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  20. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  1. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091943 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China);Zhu Mingcheng Application of Pipe-Roof Curtain Grouting in Construction of Coal Mine Tunnel Crossing the Fractured Zone(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.79-81,3 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:curtain grouting20091944 Chen Changfu(Civil Engineering College,Hunan University,Changsha 410082,China);Xiao Shujun Application of Weighted Residual Method in Whole Internal Force Calculation of Anti-Slide Pile(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.75-79,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:slide-resistant

  2. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  3. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: amartin@univap.br [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  4. Biochemical and Proteomic Characterization of Alkaptonuric Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconi, Daniela; Bernardini, Giulia; Bianchini, Claretta; Laschi, Marcella; Millucci, Lia; Amato, Loredana; Tinti, Laura; Serchi, Tommaso; Chellini, Federico; Spreafico, Adriano; Santucci, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease associated with the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized/polymerized products which leads to the deposition of melanin-like pigments (ochronosis) in connective tissues. Although numerous case reports have described ochronosis in joints, little is known on the molecular mechanisms leading to such a phenomenon. For this reason, we characterized biochemically chondrocytes isolated from the ochronotic cartilage of AKU patients. Based on the macroscopic appearance of the ochronotic cartilage, two sub-populations were identified: cells coming from the black portion of the cartilage were referred to as “black” AKU chondrocytes, while those coming from the white portion were referred to as “white” AKU chondrocytes. Notably, both AKU chondrocytic types were characterized by increased apoptosis, NO release, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed that intracellular ochronotic pigment deposition was common to both “white” and “black” AKU cells. We then undertook a proteomic and redox-proteomic analysis of AKU chondrocytes which revealed profound alterations in the levels of proteins involved in cell defence, protein folding, and cell organization. An increased post-translational oxidation of proteins, which also involved high molecular weight protein aggregates, was found to be particularly relevant in “black” AKU chondrocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 3333–3343, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22213341

  5. NUTRITION AND SPORTS: A BIOCHEMICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.G. Bianco

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a course dedicated to the pedagogical instruction of graduate students (Ensino deBioqumica - QBQ 5711 in which they have to plan and teach a 30 hour-discipline for undergraduatestudents. The graduate students have to choose a subject for the discipline and, in 2003, the cho-sen subject was Nutrition and Sports: a Biochemical Approach, which is not specically broached inregular disciplines. The discipline was structured in the basis of collaborative learning, thus, the 75 en-rolled undergraduate students (from dierent courses as Nutrition, Sports, Pharmacy, Chemistry andBiology were organized in small working groups. The students were given a study guide produced bythe graduate teachers (available in Portuguese at http://www.sbbq.org.br/revista/mtdidaticos.php,in which the following contents were covered: muscle contraction, O2 up-take, oxidative stress andanti-oxidant response, cramp, hydration, doping and nutritional supplies. In the nal activity thestudents had to evaluate critically myths and true facts in 80 statements usually associated to physi-cal activities and sports. The discipline was evaluated through questionnaires. From the analysis ofthe answers of both undergraduate and graduate/teachers students it is possible to conclude that thediscipline was well conduced and succeeded. These results emphasize the relevance and contribution ofthis kind of discipline to the pedagogical instruction of the graduate students and also to the increaseof undergraduate students interests in Biochemistry.

  6. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckel Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at http://www.ball-project.org. Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  7. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  8. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  9. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  10. Lightwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokubun, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Suitable as either a student text or professional reference, Lightwave Engineering addresses the behavior of electromagnetic waves and the propagation of light, which forms the basis of the wide-ranging field of optoelectronics. Divided into two parts, the book first gives a comprehensive introduction to lightwave engineering using plane wave and then offers an in-depth analysis of lightwave propagation in terms of electromagnetic theory. Using the language of mathematics to explain natural phenomena, the book includes numerous illustrative figures that help readers develop an intuitive unders

  11. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  12. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140498An Shize(Sichuan Institute of Geological Engineering Investigation,Chengdu610072,China);Liu Zongxiang On the Failure Mechanism of a Bedding Landslide in Northeast Sichuan(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.14-19,2illus.,9refs.)Key words:bedding faults,landslides The landslide was caused by excavation engineering.The failure mechanism is explored for slopes with soft interlayer in the red

  13. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  14. Harmonic engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  15. Concurrent engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Leger, L.; Hunter, D.; Jones, C.; Sprague, R.; Berke, L.; Newell, J.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: issues (liquid rocket propulsion - current development approach, current certification process, and costs of engineering changes); state of the art (DICE information management system, key government participants, project development strategy, quality management, and numerical propulsion system simulation); needs identified; and proposed program.

  16. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141768 An Shaopeng(Institute of Rock and Soil Mechannics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Wuhan 430071,China);Wei Lide Experimental Study on Mechanical Behavior of Xigeda Formation Siltstone and Structure Interface(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,21(5),2013,p.702-708,9illus.,1 table,16 refs.)

  17. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20051144 Gu Jun (Petroleum University, Beijing); Gao Deli Analysis of Mechanic Characterstics for Coal Bed and Drilling Countermeasure in Tuha Basin, Xinjiang, China (Exploration Engineering (Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling), ISSN 1672 - 7428, CN11-5063/TD, 31(5), 2004, p. 51-52, 55, 3 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Key words: coal seams, drilling

  18. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152094 Cai Xiaowen(No.145 Brigade,Gansu Bureau of Coal Geology,Zhangye734000,China);Chen Xiqing Performance Evaluation and Field Application of GFT AntiCollapse and Drag Reduction Agent(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-

  19. Engineering Cellulases for Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2010-06-27

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  20. Engineering biomolecular microenvironments for cell instructive biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Catarina A; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2014-06-01

    Engineered cell instructive microenvironments with the ability to stimulate specific cellular responses are a topic of high interest in the fabrication and development of biomaterials for application in tissue engineering. Cells are inherently sensitive to the in vivo microenvironment that is often designed as the cell "niche." The cell "niche" comprising the extracellular matrix and adjacent cells, influences not only cell architecture and mechanics, but also cell polarity and function. Extensive research has been performed to establish new tools to fabricate biomimetic advanced materials for tissue engineering that incorporate structural, mechanical, and biochemical signals that interact with cells in a controlled manner and to recapitulate the in vivo dynamic microenvironment. Bioactive tunable microenvironments using micro and nanofabrication have been successfully developed and proven to be extremely powerful to control intracellular signaling and cell function. This Review is focused in the assortment of biochemical signals that have been explored to fabricate bioactive cell microenvironments and the main technologies and chemical strategies to encode them in engineered biomaterials with biological information.

  1. Biochemical effects of Calotropis procera on hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali Abd Alrheam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropis procera commonly known as Sodom apple is a 6-meter high shrub that belongs to the Aclepiadaceae plant family and is commonly found in West Africa and other tropical places. In Saudi Arabia the plant is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of diseases including fever, constipation, muscular spasm and joint pain. Aim: In the present study C. procera were investigated for the hepatoprotective activity. Material and Methods: Carbon tetrachloride is used to produce hepatotoxicity. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats. Carbon tetrachloride 2ml/kg was administered twice a week to all of the groups of animals except group I, which served as control and given the normal saline. Group II served as Carbon tetrachloirde control. Group III received Silymarin at 100 mg/kg/day dose, Group IV received aqueous leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group V received chloroform leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group VI received ethanol leaves extracts C. procera 200 mg/kg, Group VII received latex of C. procera 200mg/kg. The effect of aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera on biochemical parameters of liver was measured. Results: The results showed that the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera produced significant decrease in Acid phosphatase, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Total protein, Albumin and total bilirubin levels compared to the CCL4 treated group II. Conclusion: Calotropis procera appears to to have hepatoprotective activity and these may be due to enrich of the plant by phytoconstituents that activate and in hence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the plant. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(12.000: 446-453

  2. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Edward V.

    1988-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in the context of software engineering: early use of the term; the 1968 NATO conference; Barry Boehm's definition; four requirements fo software engineering; and additional criteria for software engineering. Additionally, the four major requirements for software engineering--computer science, mathematics, engineering disciplines, and excellent communication skills--are discussed. The presentation is given in vugraph form.

  3. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  4. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  5. The influence of different stocking densities on biochemical composition of rainbow trout meat reared in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Cretu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the biochemical composition of rainbow trout meat, reared in a recirculating aquaculture system, at different stocking densities (DS1-2,64 kg/m3, DS2-5,16 kg/m3, DS3-7,12 kg/m3, DS4-9,42 kg/m3. The analyses were performed in the research laboratory of Aquaculture, Environmental Science and Cadastre Department – Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, from ,,Dunarea de Jos’’University of Galati. The content of meat proteins, fats, dry substance and ash was determined. After a 33 days experimental trial, the biochemical analysis of meat from all four experimental variants shows that protein content was higher in DS1 and DS4 variants, while the smallest amount of fats was quantified at DS1 and DS2 variants, without significant differences (p >0.05 for none of the biochemical compounds analyzed, at the mean comparison on experimental variants. Thus, it can be concluded that biochemical composition of rainbow trout meat was not influenced by the tested stocking densities.

  6. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092040 Chen Jing(College of Petroleum Engineering,Yangtze University,Jingzhou 434023,China);Xiong Qingshan Technology of Well Cementing with Expandable Tube and Its Application(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.19-21,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:cementingExpandable tube is a new technology and has been developed oversea.It can be applied in well drilling and completion for deep water,deep well,extended reach well and multilateral well,as well as in oil extraction and workover.This paper briefly introduces the technology of well cementing with

  7. Engineering materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data of the Engineering Materials such as concrete, metals and wood. Portland Cement Concrete is a particulate composite consisting of a continuous binder phase, the cementitious matrix and a dispersed particulate phase, the aggregates. Metals as construction material are an important construction material. They possess characteristics such as strength, stiffness, toughness and ductili...

  8. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132723 Chai Bo(School of Environmental Studies,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Yin Kunlong Experimental Study on Rock Energy Dissipation of the Middle Triassi Badong Formation(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,20(6),2012,p.1013-1019,3illus.,1table,12refs.)Key words:rock mechanics,Yangtze Three

  9. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110579 Cao Shenghua(Construction Headquarters of Sutong Yangtze River Bridge,Nanjing 210001,China)A Preliminary Study on Engineering Characters of Interbedded Soils in Littoral and River Facies(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,34(1),2010,p.61-66,4 illus.,3 tables,5 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:cohesive soil,soil mechanics 20110580 Chen Shangrong(Shanghai Geological

  10. Spreadsheet engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Jácome Miguel Costa; Fernandes, João Paulo Soares; Mendes, Jorge; Saraiva, João Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    These tutorial notes present a methodology for spreadsheet engineering. First, we present data mining and database techniques to reason about spreadsheet data. These techniques are used to compute relationships between spreadsheet elements (cells/columns/rows). These relations are then used to infer a model defining the business logic of the spreadsheet. Such a model of a spreadsheet data is a visual domain specific language that we embed in a well-known spreadsheet system. The embedded model...

  11. Engineering Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Pim; Akkermans, Hans; Top, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the construction as well as the role of ontologies in knowledge sharing and reuse for complex industrial applications. In this article, the practical use of ontologies in large-scale applications not restricted to knowledge-based systems is demonstrated, for the domain of engineering systems modelling, simulation and design. A general and formal ontology, called PHYSSYS, for dynamic physical systems is presented and its structuring principles are discussed. We show how the PHYSSYS ...

  12. Engineering tools

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give an overview of the results of Work Package 5 “Engineering Tools”. In this workpackage numerical tools have been developed for all relevant CHCP systems in the PolySMART demonstration projects (WP3). First, existing simulation platforms have been described and specific characteristics have been identified. Several different simulation platforms are in principle appropriate for the needs in the PolySMART project. The result is an evaluation of available simulat...

  13. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090712 Ge Mingjun(General Institution of Mineral Exploration & Development in Qiqihaer of Heilongjiang Province,Qiqihaer 161006,China) Application of Emulsified Diesel Oil Drilling Fluid in Under-Balanced Drilling(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,34(11),2007,p.43-45,1 illus.,2 tables,4 refs.)

  14. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072985 Bai Mingzhou(Beijing Jiaotong University,Beijing 100044,China);Du Yongqiang Study on Application Technology of Geology Horizontal Drilling in Qiyueshan Tunnel at Yiwan Railway(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,33(4),2006,p.59-61,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:tunnels,horizontal drilling

  15. Biochemical Aspects of Acclimatization of Man to High Altitude Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Srivastava

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the biochemical aspects of acclimatization of human body to high altitude with particular reference to the adaptive changes in Skeletal muscles, hepatic function, adrenal function and carbohydrate metabolism.

  16. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  17. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  18. Assessment of biochemical concentrations of vegetation using remote sensing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main biochemicals (such as lignin, protein, cellulose, sugar, starch, chlorophyll and water) of vegetation are directly or indirectly involved in major ecological processes, such as the functions of terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., nutrient-cycling processes, primary production, and decomposition). Remote sensing techniques provide a very convenient way of data acquisition capable of covering a large area several times during one season, so it can play a unique and essential role provided that we can relate remote sensing measurements to the biochemical characteristics of the Earth surface in a reliable and operational way. The application of remote sensing techniques for the estimation of canopy biochemicals was reviewed. Three methods of estimating biochemical concentrations of vegetation were included in this paper: index, stepwise multiple linear regression, and stepwise multiple linear regression based on a model of the forest crown. In addition, the vitality and potential applying value are stressed.

  19. Approaches to Chemical and Biochemical Information and Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    We outline models and approaches for error control required to prevent buildup of noise when ``gates'' and other ``network elements'' based on (bio)chemical reaction processes are utilized to realize stable, scalable networks for information and signal processing. We also survey challenges and possible future research. [4pt] [1] Control of Noise in Chemical and Biochemical Information Processing, V. Privman, Israel J. Chem. 51, 118-131 (2010).[0pt] [2] Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic, V. Privman, J. Halamek, M. A. Arugula, D. Melnikov, V. Bocharova and E. Katz, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 14103-14109 (2010).[0pt] [3] Towards Biosensing Strategies Based on Biochemical Logic Systems, E. Katz, V. Privman and J. Wang, in: Proc. Conf. ICQNM 2010 (IEEE Comp. Soc. Conf. Publ. Serv., Los Alamitos, California, 2010), pages 1-9.

  20. Decoupling of Growth from Production of Biochemicals and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songyuan

    tyrosine and mevalonate, was achieved through this type of growth limitation. Second, rationally designed genetic growth switches, based on CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) systems, have been developed. By switching off cell growth during production, the production of biochemicals and proteins, exemplified...

  1. Metabolic engineering in methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnaya, MG; Puri, AW; Lidstrom, ME

    2015-05-01

    Methane, as natural gas or biogas, is the least expensive source of carbon for (bio)chemical synthesis. Scalable biological upgrading of this simple alkane to chemicals and fuels can bring new sustainable solutions to a number of industries with large environmental footprints, such as natural gas/petroleum production, landfills, wastewater treatment, and livestock. Microbial biocatalysis with methane as a feedstock has been pursued off and on for almost a half century, with little enduring success. Today, biological engineering and systems biology provide new opportunities for metabolic system modulation and give new optimism to the concept of a methane-based bio-industry. Here we present an overview of the most recent advances pertaining to metabolic engineering of microbial methane utilization. Some ideas concerning metabolic improvements for production of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, two main precursors for bioconversion, are presented. We also discuss main gaps in the current knowledge of aerobic methane utilization, which must be solved in order to release the full potential of methane-based biosystems. (C) 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanopro...

  3. Correlations between female breast density and biochemical markers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Park, Hyong-Keun; Yang, Han-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify biochemical markers related to breast density. The study was performed with 200 patients who received mammography and biochemical marker testing between March 1, 2014 to October 1, 2014. [Subjects and Methods] Following the American College of Radiology, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR BI-RADS), breast parenchymal pattern density from mammography was categorized into four grades: grade 1, almost entirely fat; grade 2, fibroglandula...

  4. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  5. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  6. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  7. Internet Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  8. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical responses inherent to antioxidant systems as well morphological and anatomical properties of photomorphogenic, hormonal and developmental tomato mutants were investigated. Compared to the non-mutant Micro-Tom (MT, we observed that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was enhanced in the diageotropica (dgt and lutescent (l mutants, whilst the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were observed in high pigment 1 (hp1 and aurea (au mutants. The analyses of antioxidant enzymes revealed that all mutants exhibited reduced catalase (CAT activity when compared to MT. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX was enhanced in both sitiens (sit and notabilis (not mutants, whereas in not mutant there was an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Based on PAGE analysis, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR isoforms III, IV, V and VI were increased in l leaves, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoform III was reduced in leaves of sit, epi, Never ripe (Nr and green flesh (gf mutants. Microscopic analyses revealed that hp1 and au showed an increase in leaf intercellular spaces, whereas sit exhibited a decrease. The au and hp1 mutants also exhibited a decreased in the number of leaf trichomes. The characterization of these mutants is essential for their future use in plant development and ecophysiology studies, such as abiotic and biotic stresses on the oxidative metabolism.Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT, observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt e lutescent (l, enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1 e aurea (au. Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT quando comparado a MT. A

  9. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON NIGERIAN MONODORA TENUIFOLIA SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeanyanwu Raphael Chukwuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive constituents of the seeds of Monodora tenuifolia were analyzed to augment the available information on Monodora tenuifolia research. Blood glucose and lipid profile were investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of M. tenuifolia in rats. The composition (gkg-1 of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins and flavonoids were 13.3±0.1, 21.2×10-2±0.6, 1.3±0.1, 1.7±0.1 and 11.7±1.1 respectively. The proximate composition (gkg-1 of M. tenuifolia seed were crude fibre (262.3±1.2, crude protein (82.6±1.0, crude fat (349.9±1.9, ash (49.9±0.6, moisture (190.0±0.00 and carbohydrate (65.5±4.7. Analysis of the minerals content (gkg-1 yielded calcium (864.0±29.38, sodium (2752.0±140.35, iron (3.34±0.06, zinc (5.26±0.08, potassium (326.4±13.06, magnesium (342.9±13.71 and phosphorus (9.52±0.17, while vitamin analysis yielded vitamin A (10.05±0.17 iu/100 g, C (56.40±0.14 gkg-1 and E (11.71±0.87 iu /100 g, thiamine (0.11±0.01 gkg-1, niacin (0.46±0.32 gkg-1 and riboflavin (0.04±0.01 gkg-1. The results of amino acid analysis showed the total amino acid of M. tenuifolia seed was 71.78 of crude protein. The total essential amino acid with Histidine was calculated to be 29.24 of the crude protein. The antinutrient analysis of M. tenuifolia shows it contained total phenol (0.8±0.0 gkg-1, oxalates (4.09±1.17 gkg-1, phytates (0.012±0.42 gkg-1 and trypsin inhibitor (0.230±0.42 iu/g. The main fatty acids of the seed oil are linoleic acid (401.7 g kg-1, oleic acid (346.1 g kg-1 and palmitic acid (122.61 g kg-1. The LD50 of the flavonoid-rich fraction was found to be above 5000 mg kg-1 b.w. After the day 14 study, biochemical markers such as triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein increased significantly (p0.05 effect was observed on the blood glucose and lipid profile of wistar albino rats compared with the control. The result shows that M. tenuifolia seed is rich

  10. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122758 Chen Huiming ( No.8 Geology Team of Fujian Province,Longyan 364000,China ) Application Research on Drilling Technology Process Combination for Deep Explora-tion in an Iron Mine of Fujian Province ( Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063 / TD,38 ( 9 ), 2011,p.6-9,8ta-bles,6refs. ) Key words:drilling in complicated formation According to the drilling technical problems in deep complex formations of the ironmine surrounding Makeng of Fujian Province ,

  11. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  12. From physiology to systems metabolic engineering for the production of biochemicals by lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Paula; Carvalho, Ana L.; Vinga, Susana;

    2013-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a functionally related group of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria known essentially for their roles in bioprocessing of foods and animal feeds. Due to extensive industrial use and enormous economical value, LAB have been intensively studied and a large body...... of comprehensive data on their metabolism and genetics was generated throughout the years. This knowledge has been instrumental in the implementation of successful applications in the food industry, such as the selection of robust starter cultures with desired phenotypic traits. The advent of genomics, functional...

  13. Biothermodynamics of live cells: a tool for biotechnology and biochemical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stockar, Urs

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to review the application of thermodynamics to live cultures of microbial and other cells and to explore to what extent this may be put to practical use. A major focus is on energy dissipation effects in industrially relevant cultures, both in terms of heat and Gibbs energy dissipation. The experimental techniques for calorimetric measurements in live cultures are reviewed and their use for monitoring and control is discussed. A detailed analysis of the dissipation of Gibbs energy in chemotrophic growth shows that it reflects the entropy production by metabolic processes in the cells and thus also the driving force for growth and metabolism. By splitting metabolism conceptually up into catabolism and biosynthesis, it can be shown that this driving force decreases as the growth yield increases. This relationship is demonstrated by using experimental measurements on a variety of microbial strains. On the basis of these data, several literature correlations were tested as tools for biomass yield prediction. The prediction of other culture performance characteristics, including product yields for biorefinery planning, energy yields for biofuel manufacture, maximum growth rates, maintenance requirements, and threshold concentrations is also briefly reviewed.

  14. Wavelet Based Analytical Expressions to Steady State Biofilm Model Arising in Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, S; Hariharan, G

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an efficient wavelet based approximation method to biofilm model under steady state arising in enzyme kinetics. Chebyshev wavelet based approximation method is successfully introduced in solving nonlinear steady state biofilm reaction model. To the best of our knowledge, until now there is no rigorous wavelet based solution has been addressed for the proposed model. Analytical solutions for substrate concentration have been derived for all values of the parameters δ and SL. The power of the manageable method is confirmed. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the wavelet method. Moreover the use of Chebyshev wavelets is found to be simple, efficient, flexible, convenient, small computation costs and computationally attractive. PMID:26661721

  15. Chalcogenide glass fibers: Optical window tailoring and suitability for bio-chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Pierre; Coleman, Garrett J.; Jiang, Shibin; Luo, Tao; Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    Glassy materials based on chalcogen elements are becoming increasingly prominent in the development of advanced infrared sensors. In particular, infrared fibers constitute a desirable sensing platform due to their high sensitivity and versatile remote collection capabilities for in-situ detection. Tailoring the transparency window of an optical material to the vibrational signature of a target molecule is important for the design of infrared sensor, and particularly for fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy. Here we review the basic principles and recent developments in the fabrication of chalcogenide glass infrared fibers for application as bio-chemical sensors. We emphasize the challenges in designing materials that combine good rheological properties with chemical stability and sufficiently wide optical windows for bio-chemical sensing. The limitation in optical transparency due to higher order overtones of the amorphous network vibrations is established for this family of glasses. It is shown that glasses with wide optical window suffer from higher order overtone absorptions. Compositional engineering with heavy elements such as iodine is shown to widen the optical window but at the cost of lower chemical stability. The optical attenuations of various families of chalcogenide glass fibers are presented and weighed for their applications as chemical sensors. It is then shown that long-wave infrared fibers can be designed to optimize the collection of selective signal from bio-molecules such as cells and tissues. Issues of toxicity and mechanical resistance in the context of bio-sensing are also discussed.

  16. Synthesizing Configurable Biochemical Implementation of Linear Systems from Their Transfer Function Specifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yin Chiu

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow.

  17. Nano surface engineering and remanufacture engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin-shi

    2004-01-01

    Nano surface engineering and remanufacture engineering are introduced, and the relationship between them is set forth. It points out the superiority of nano surface engineering to the traditional one, and reveals the advantages of remanufacture engineering. Taking some nano surface techniques as samples, such as nano-materials brush electroplating, nano-materials thermal spraying and nano-materials self-repairing antifriction additive technology, it shows the applications of nano surface engineering technology to remanufacturing mechanical parts.

  18. An engineering context for software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Riehle, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    New engineering disciplines are emerging in the late Twentieth and early Twenty-first Century. One such emerging discipline is software engineering. The engineering community at large has long harbored a sense of skepticism about the validity of the term software engineering. During most of the fifty-plus years of software practice, that skepticism was probably justified. Professional education of software developers often fell short of the standard expected for conventional engineers; so...

  19. A Computational Model of Cell Migration in Response to Biochemical Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, Nicholas C [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Ward, Richard C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The Computational Sciences and Engineering Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is partnering with the University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine to design a computational model describing various factors related to the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH) in response to arterial injury. This research focuses on modeling the chemotactic and haptotactic processes that stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell migration into the intima. A hybrid discrete-continuous mathematical model of cell migration in response to biochemical diffusion was developed in C++. Chemoattractant diffusion is modeled as a continuous partial differential equation, whereas migration of the cells is modeled as a series of discrete events. Results obtained from the discrete state model for cell migration agree with those obtained from Boyden chamber experiments.

  20. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  1. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  2. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  3. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  4. Dynamic biomaterials: toward engineering autonomous feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eliza; Chavez, Michael; Tan, Cheemeng

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic biomaterials are biocompatible engineered systems capable of sensing and actively responding to their surrounding environment. They are of growing interest, both as models in basic research to understand complex cellular systems and in medical applications. Here, we review recent advances in nano-scale and micro-scale biomaterials, specifically artificial cells consisting of compartmentalized biochemical reactions and biologically compatible hydrogels. These dynamic biomaterials respond to stimuli through triggered reactions, reaction cascades, logic gates, and autonomous feedback loops. We outline the advances and remaining challenges in implementing such 'smart' biomaterials capable of autonomously responding to environmental stimuli. PMID:26974245

  5. The influence of different stocking densities on biochemical composition of rainbow trout meat reared in a recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Cretu; Cristea Victor; Dediu Lorena; Petrea Stefan Mihai

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the biochemical composition of rainbow trout meat, reared in a recirculating aquaculture system, at different stocking densities (DS1-2,64 kg/m3, DS2-5,16 kg/m3, DS3-7,12 kg/m3, DS4-9,42 kg/m3). The analyses were performed in the research laboratory of Aquaculture, Environmental Science and Cadastre Department – Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, from ,,Dunarea de Jos’’University of Galati. The content of meat proteins, fats, dry substance and ash wa...

  6. How Engineers Engineer: Lessons from My First Big Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2008-01-01

    Little did the author realize how much his first engineering project would change his career path, but when it came, he was hooked forever on doing R&D-type engineering. In this article, the author takes the reader back to his first really important electrical engineering project. While the technology he worked on back then is antiquated by…

  7. SABRE: A Tool for Stochastic Analysis of Biochemical Reaction Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Didier, Frederic; Mateescu, Maria; Wolf, Verena

    2010-01-01

    The importance of stochasticity within biological systems has been shown repeatedly during the last years and has raised the need for efficient stochastic tools. We present SABRE, a tool for stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks. SABRE implements fast adaptive uniformization (FAU), a direct numerical approximation algorithm for computing transient solutions of biochemical reaction networks. Biochemical reactions networks represent biological systems studied at a molecular level and these reactions can be modeled as transitions of a Markov chain. SABRE accepts as input the formalism of guarded commands, which it interprets either as continuous-time or as discrete-time Markov chains. Besides operating in a stochastic mode, SABRE may also perform a deterministic analysis by directly computing a mean-field approximation of the system under study. We illustrate the different functionalities of SABRE by means of biological case studies.

  8. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  9. The Development of a Biochemical Profile of Acacia Honey by Identifying Biochemical Determinants of its Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru MARGHITAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Codex Alimentarius Standard, EU Legislation and National Standards state honey authenticity. Authenticity in respect of production (to prevent adulteration and authenticity in respect of geographical and botanical origin are the two main aspects of general honey authenticity. Quality of honey depends on the plant source, the chemical composition of these plants as well, as on the climatic conditions and soil mineral composition. Romanian acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia honey that came from the most important Transylvanian massif (Valea lui Mihai, Bihor County, Romania was evaluated for authenticity by pollen-analysis, several physico-chemical analyses, including sugar profile and mineral content. As polyphenolic content could be also an important factor for botanical authentification, HPLC-DAD-MS analyses were performed to assess the fingerprint of this important secondary plant metabolite. Statistical data were processed in order to develop a biochemical profile of this type of honey and the main quality categories identification. The results of physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that the tested honey samples could be framed into monofloral type of acacia honeys. The analysis of acacia honeys originating from Valea lui Mihai, Romania, showed that polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids and flavonoids could be used as a complementary method for authenticity determination together with pollen analysis and other physico-chemical analysis.

  10. The responsibilities of engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  11. Physiological and biochemical basis of salmon young ifshes migratory behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    The review presents data on structural changes, physiological and biochemical reactions occurring at salmon young fishes during smoltification. It is shown, that young salmon fishes located in fresh water, in the process of smoltification undergo a complex of structural, physiological and biochemical changes directed on preparation of the organism for living in the sea. These changes cause stress reaction which excites young fishes to migrate down the river towards the sea. Measures to improve reproduction of young salmon fishes at fish farms are offered.

  12. The Biochemical Properties of Antibodies and Their Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnasko, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are powerful molecular recognition tools that can be used to identify minute quantities of a given target analyte. Their antigen-binding properties define both the sensitivity and selectivity of an immunoassay. Understanding the biochemical properties of this class of protein will provide users with the knowledge necessary to select the appropriate antibody composition to maximize immunoassay results. Here we define the general biochemical properties of antibodies and their similarities and differences, explain how these properties influence their functional relationship to an antigen target, and describe a method for the enzymatic fragmentation of antibodies into smaller functional parts.

  13. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  14. Towards Agile Language Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sadilek, Daniel A.; Scheidgen, Markus; Wachsmuth, Guido; Weißleder, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Language engineering is software engineering concerned with computer languages. Agile language engineering is the result of adapting agile principles to language engineering. An agile language engineering process is geared to ever changing requirements and fosters higher language quality, software quality, and developer productivity. It provides short iteration cycles, intensive user integration, control over frequent changes, and continuous delivery of valuable language tools. In this...

  15. Metabolic engineering in methanotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Puri, Aaron W; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    Methane, as natural gas or biogas, is the least expensive source of carbon for (bio)chemical synthesis. Scalable biological upgrading of this simple alkane to chemicals and fuels can bring new sustainable solutions to a number of industries with large environmental footprints, such as natural gas/petroleum production, landfills, wastewater treatment, and livestock. Microbial biocatalysis with methane as a feedstock has been pursued off and on for almost a half century, with little enduring success. Today, biological engineering and systems biology provide new opportunities for metabolic system modulation and give new optimism to the concept of a methane-based bio-industry. Here we present an overview of the most recent advances pertaining to metabolic engineering of microbial methane utilization. Some ideas concerning metabolic improvements for production of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, two main precursors for bioconversion, are presented. We also discuss main gaps in the current knowledge of aerobic methane utilization, which must be solved in order to release the full potential of methane-based biosystems. PMID:25825038

  16. Systematic Applications of Metabolomics in Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dromms

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of metabolic engineering are well-served by the biological information provided by metabolomics: information on how the cell is currently using its biochemical resources is perhaps one of the best ways to inform strategies to engineer a cell to produce a target compound. Using the analysis of extracellular or intracellular levels of the target compound (or a few closely related molecules to drive metabolic engineering is quite common. However, there is surprisingly little systematic use of metabolomics datasets, which simultaneously measure hundreds of metabolites rather than just a few, for that same purpose. Here, we review the most common systematic approaches to integrating metabolite data with metabolic engineering, with emphasis on existing efforts to use whole-metabolome datasets. We then review some of the most common approaches for computational modeling of cell-wide metabolism, including constraint-based models, and discuss current computational approaches that explicitly use metabolomics data. We conclude with discussion of the broader potential of computational approaches that systematically use metabolomics data to drive metabolic engineering.

  17. Requirements Engineering In Current Web Engineering Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jeyakarthik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Web engineering – the discipline concerned with the development of quality web applications has been receiving a lot of attention in the recent era with the increasing number of web projects being undertaken by many organizations. Many methodologies have been proposed in this regard. Requirements engineering – being an integral and crucial phase in traditional software engineering, also necessitates a careful consideration in web engineering as well. The present paper presents an overview of how well the available web engineering methodologies address requirements engineering. The types of requirements, techniques, activities and the level of detail supported by the web engineering methodologies available today are tabulated and this throws light on the need for new methodologies that address requirements engineering in a greater depth for web applications.

  18. Engineer named Loring Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2005-01-01

    Saifur Rahman, Virginia Tech professor of electrical and computer engineering (ECE) and the founding director of Virginia Tech's Northern Virginia Division of the College of Engineering, is the recipient of the Joseph R. Loring Professorship of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  19. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plants or animals) inserted into their genetic codes. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or bacteria ... have been genetically engineering plants since the 1990s. Genetic engineering allows scientists to speed this process up by ...

  20. Incorporating Reverse Engineering Methodology into Engineering Curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Wanamaker, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Wanamaker, Trevor W., M.S., Purdue University, May 2012. Incorporating Reverse Engineering Methodology into Engineering Curricula. Major Professor: Craig L. Miller. Using a qualitative research approach, this study investigated the thoughts and feelings of students regarding the question, “what factors need to be considered when Reverse Engineering (RE) methodology is incorporated into engineering curricula?” The participants in the study were from the Introduction to Graphics for Manufact...

  1. Requirements Engineering In Current Web Engineering Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jeyakarthik

    2011-01-01

    Web engineering – the discipline concerned with the development of quality web applications has been receiving a lot of attention in the recent era with the increasing number of web projects being undertaken by many organizations. Many methodologies have been proposed in this regard. Requirements engineering – being an integral and crucial phase in traditional software engineering, also necessitates a careful consideration in web engineering as well. The present paper presents an overview of ...

  2. Advanced Engineering Strategies for Periodontal Complex Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Ho Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration and integration of multiple tissue types is critical for efforts to restore the function of musculoskeletal complex. In particular, the neogenesis of periodontal constructs for systematic tooth-supporting functions is a current challenge due to micron-scaled tissue compartmentalization, oblique/perpendicular orientations of fibrous connective tissues to the tooth root surface and the orchestration of multiple regenerated tissues. Although there have been various biological and biochemical achievements, periodontal tissue regeneration remains limited and unpredictable. The purpose of this paper is to discuss current advanced engineering approaches for periodontal complex formations; computer-designed, customized scaffolding architectures; cell sheet technology-based multi-phasic approaches; and patient-specific constructs using bioresorbable polymeric material and 3-D printing technology for clinical application. The review covers various advanced technologies for periodontal complex regeneration and state-of-the-art therapeutic avenues in periodontal tissue engineering.

  3. The Complexification of Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Carlos Eduardo; Gómez-Cruz, Nelson Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the arrow of complexification of engineering. We claim that the complexification of engineering consists in (a) that shift throughout which engineering becomes a science; thus it ceases to be a (mere) praxis or profession; (b) becoming a science, engineering can be considered as one of the sciences of complexity. In reality, the complexification of engineering is the process by which engineering can be studied, achieved and understood in terms of knowledge, and not of go...

  4. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Biomedical Engineering is a comprehensive survey text for biomedical engineering courses. It is the most widely adopted text across the BME course spectrum, valued by instructors and students alike for its authority, clarity and encyclopedic coverage in a single volume. Biomedical engineers need to understand the wide range of topics that are covered in this text, including basic mathematical modeling; anatomy and physiology; electrical engineering, signal processing and instrumentation; biomechanics; biomaterials science and tissue engineering; and medical and engineering e

  5. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  6. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  7. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to explore the emerging field of software engineering from a variety of perspectives: university programs; industry training and definition; government development; and technology transfer. In doing this, the panel will address the issues of distinctions among software engineering, computer science, and computer hardware engineering as they relate to the challenges of large, complex systems.

  8. Spectral imaging for measuring biochemicals in plant material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.

    2004-01-01

    The demand for high quality fruits and other plant material is increasing. New consumer demands involve taste, ripeness, and health-promoting compounds. These criteria are often related to the presence, absence and spatial distribution patterns of specific biochemical compounds in the food. This the

  9. Advances in Biochemical Screening for Phaeochromocytoma using Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Malcolm J; Doogue, Matthew P

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical testing for phaeochromocytoma is performed in diagnostic laboratories using a variety of tests with plasma, serum or 24-hour urine collections. These tests include catecholamines and their methylated metabolites - the metanephrines, either individually or in combination with their sulfated metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) continues to be the dominant analytical method for biogenic amine quantitation. Chromatographic techniques are changing, with improveme...

  10. Biochemical aspects of pressure tolerance in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Michael A; Rivera, Patricia M; Castellini, Judith M

    2002-11-01

    Some marine mammals can dive to depths approaching 2000 m. At these hydrostatic pressures (200 atm), some fish species show alterations in enzyme structure and function that make them pressure-tolerant. Do marine mammals also possess biochemical adaptations to withstand such pressures? In theory, biochemical alterations might occur at the control of enzymatic pathways, by impacting cell membrane fluidity changes or at a higher level, such as cellular metabolism. Studies of marine mammal tissues show evidence of all of these changes, but the results are not consistent across species or diving depth. This review discusses whether the elevated body temperature of marine mammals imparts pressure tolerance at the biochemical level, whether there are cell membrane structural differences in marine mammals and whether whole, living cells from marine mammals alter their metabolism when pressure stressed. We conclude that temperature alone is probably not protective against pressure and that cell membrane composition data are not conclusive. Whole cell studies suggest that marine mammals either respond positively to pressure or are not impacted by pressure. However, the range of tissue types and enzyme systems that have been studied is extremely limited and needs to be expanded before more general conclusions about how these mammals tolerate elevated pressures on a biochemical level can be drawn.

  11. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  12. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids(VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones

  13. Polynomial analysis of canopy spectra and biochemical component content inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chunyan; LIU Qiang; NIU Zheng; WANG Jihua; HUANG Wenjiang; LIU Liangyun

    2005-01-01

    A polynomial expression model was developed in this paper to describe directional canopy spectra, and the decomposition of the polynomial expression was used as a tool for retrieving biochemical component content from canopy multi-angle spectra. First, the basic formula of the polynomial expression was introduced and the physical meaning of its terms and coefficients was discussed. Based on this analysis, a complete polynomial expression model and its decomposition method were given. By decomposing the canopy spectra simulated with SAILH model, it shows that the polynomial expression can not only fit well the canopy spectra, but also show the contribution of every order scattering to the whole reflectance. Taking the first scattering coefficients a10 and a01 for example, the test results show that the polynomial coefficients reflect very well the hot spot phenomenon and the effects of viewing angles, LAI and leaf inclination angle on canopy spectra. By coupling the polynomial expression with leaf model PROSPECT, a canopy biochemical component content inversion model was given. In the simulated test, the canopy multi-angle spectra were simulated by two different models, SAILH and 4-SCALE respectively, then the biochemical component content was retrieved by inverting the coupled polynomial expression + PROSPECT model. Results of the simulated test are promising, and when applying the algorithm to measured corn canopy multi-angle spectra, we also get relatively accurate chlorophyll content. It shows that the polynomial analysis provides a new method to get biochemical component content independent of any specific canopy model.

  14. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used as...

  15. Saliva as research material: Biochemical, physicochemical and practical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, R.G.; Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whole saliva is a complex mixture of proteins and other molecules which originate from several sources. The biochemical and physicochemical properties of saliva contribute to the numerous functions of saliva in, e.g., speech, maintaining oral and general health, and food processing. Interest in sali

  16. 40 CFR 798.5195 - Mouse biochemical specific locus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mouse biochemical specific locus test. 798.5195 Section 798.5195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5195...

  17. Biochemical correlates in an animal model of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A valid animal model of depression was used to explore specific adrenergic receptor differences between rats exhibiting aberrant behavior and control groups. Preliminary experiments revealed a distinct upregulation of hippocampal beta-receptors (as compared to other brain regions) in those animals acquiring a response deficit as a result of exposure to inescapable footshock. Concurrent studies using standard receptor binding techniques showed no large changes in the density of alpha-adrenergic, serotonergic, or dopaminergic receptor densities. This led to the hypothesis that the hippocampal beta-receptor in responses deficient animals could be correlated with the behavioral changes seen after exposure to the aversive stimulus. Normalization of the behavior through the administration of antidepressants could be expected to reverse the biochemical changes if these are related to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. This study makes three important points: (1) there is a relevant biochemical change in the hippocampus of response deficient rats which occurs in parallel to a well-defined behavior, (2) the biochemical and behavioral changes are normalized by antidepressant treatments exhibiting both serotonergic and adrenergic mechanisms of action, and (3) the mode of action of antidepressants in this model is probably a combination of serotonergic and adrenergic influences modulating the hippocampal beta-receptor. These results are discussed in relation to anatomical and biochemical aspects of antidepressant action

  18. Biochemical Characterization of Prion Strains in Bank Voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Nonno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prions exist as different strains exhibiting distinct disease phenotypes. Currently, the identification of prion strains is still based on biological strain typing in rodents. However, it has been shown that prion strains may be associated with distinct PrPSc biochemical types. Taking advantage of the availability of several prion strains adapted to a novel rodent model, the bank vole, we investigated if any prion strain was actually associated with distinctive PrPSc biochemical characteristics and if it was possible to univocally identify strains through PrPSc biochemical phenotypes. We selected six different vole-adapted strains (three human-derived and three animal-derived and analyzed PrPSc from individual voles by epitope mapping of protease resistant core of PrPSc (PrPres and by conformational stability and solubility assay. Overall, we discriminated five out of six prion strains, while two different scrapie strains showed identical PrPSc types. Our results suggest that the biochemical strain typing approach here proposed was highly discriminative, although by itself it did not allow us to identify all prion strains analyzed.

  19. Biochemical tests for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: urinary versus plasma determinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Plouin, P F; Duclos, J M; Menard, J; Comoy, E; Bohuon, C; Alexandre, J M

    1981-01-01

    Fifteen patients with hypertension due to phaeochromocytoma and 35 controls with essential hypertension were studied to assess the diagnostic value of urinary and plasma biochemical determinations in phaeochromocytoma. In every case of phaeochromocytoma the urinary concentration of vanillylmandelate, metanephrines, or adrenaline plus noradrenaline was diagnostic of the disease irrespective of whether the patient was normotensive or hypertensive at the time. Plasma determinations of adrenaline...

  20. Efficacy of engineered FVIII-producing skeletal muscle enhanced by growth factor-releasing co-axial electrospun fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, I-Chien; Leong, Kam W

    2010-01-01

    Co-axial electrospun fibers can offer both topographical and biochemical cues for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we demonstrate the sustained treatment of hemophilia through a non-viral, tissue engineering approach facilitated by growth factor-releasing co-axial electrospun fibers. FVIII-producing skeletal myotubes were first engineered on aligned electrospun fibers in vitro, followed by implantation in hemophilic mice with or without a layer of core-shell electrospun fibers ...

  1. Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for

  2. Biomechanical Models and Experi ments in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian; ODDOU; Julien; PIERRE; Karim; OUDINA; Hervé; PETITE

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe understanding of the interactions between convective and diffusive phenomena of fluid dynamics origin, on the one side, associate reactive effects of biochemical nature, on the other, is a fundamental challenge and key problem in the context of bone tissue engineering. From the mastering of the complex biological phenomena related to the substrate degradation and remodelling of the extra cellular matrix that take place during the in vitro tissue culturing processes using cell seeded implan...

  3. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  4. Advanced Metasearch Engine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    Among the search tools currently on the Web, search engines are the most well known thanks to the popularity of major search engines such as Google and Yahoo!. While extremely successful, these major search engines do have serious limitations. This book introduces large-scale metasearch engine technology, which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the major search engines. Essentially, a metasearch engine is a search system that supports unified access to multiple existing search engines by passing the queries it receives to its component search engines and aggregating the returned

  5. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  6. Genome scale engineering techniques for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongming; Bassalo, Marcelo C; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has expanded from a focus on designs requiring a small number of genetic modifications to increasingly complex designs driven by advances in genome-scale engineering technologies. Metabolic engineering has been generally defined by the use of iterative cycles of rational genome modifications, strain analysis and characterization, and a synthesis step that fuels additional hypothesis generation. This cycle mirrors the Design-Build-Test-Learn cycle followed throughout various engineering fields that has recently become a defining aspect of synthetic biology. This review will attempt to summarize recent genome-scale design, build, test, and learn technologies and relate their use to a range of metabolic engineering applications.

  7. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  8. Micro- and nanotechnology in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Xiao, Yun; Hsieh, Anne; Thavandiran, Nimalan; Radisic, Milica

    2011-12-01

    While in nature the formation of complex tissues is gradually shaped by the long journey of development, in tissue engineering constructing complex tissues relies heavily on our ability to directly manipulate and control the micro-cellular environment in vitro. Not surprisingly, advancements in both microfabrication and nanofabrication have powered the field of tissue engineering in many aspects. Focusing on cardiac tissue engineering, this paper highlights the applications of fabrication techniques in various aspects of tissue engineering research: (1) cell responses to micro- and nanopatterned topographical cues, (2) cell responses to patterned biochemical cues, (3) controlled 3D scaffolds, (4) patterned tissue vascularization and (5) electromechanical regulation of tissue assembly and function.

  9. Characterizing Strain Variation in Engineered E. coli Using a Multi-Omics-Based Workflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunk, Elizabeth; George, Kevin W.; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge;

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex interactions that occur between heterologous and native biochemical pathways represents a major challenge in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. We present a workflow that integrates metabolomics, proteomics, and genome-scale models of Escherichia coli metabolism...... to study the effects of introducing a heterologous pathway into a microbial host. This workflow incorporates complementary approaches from computational systems biology, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology; provides molecular insight into how the host organism microenvironment changes due...

  10. Reverse engineering and identification in systems biology: strategies, perspectives and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Villaverde, A. F.; Banga, Julio R.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay of mathematical modelling with experiments is one of the central elements in systems biology. The aim of reverse engineering is to infer, analyse and understand, through this interplay, the functional and regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. Reverse engineering is not exclusive of systems biology and has been studied in different areas, such as inverse problem theory, machine learning, nonlinear physics, (bio)chemical kinetics, control theory and optimization, among othe...

  11. Non-genetic engineering of cells for drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Cheng, Hao; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Hao; Li, Peter Y; Langer, Robert

    2015-08-30

    Cell-based therapy is a promising modality to address many unmet medical needs. In addition to genetic engineering, material-based, biochemical, and physical science-based approaches have emerged as novel approaches to modify cells. Non-genetic engineering of cells has been applied in delivering therapeutics to tissues, homing of cells to the bone marrow or inflammatory tissues, cancer imaging, immunotherapy, and remotely controlling cellular functions. This new strategy has unique advantages in disease therapy and is complementary to existing gene-based cell engineering approaches. A better understanding of cellular systems and different engineering methods will allow us to better exploit engineered cells in biomedicine. Here, we review non-genetic cell engineering techniques and applications of engineered cells, discuss the pros and cons of different methods, and provide our perspectives on future research directions.

  12. From multiscale modeling to meso-science a chemical engineering perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jinghai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Ning; Liu, Xinhua; Wang, Limin; He, Xianfeng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Junwu; Kwauk, Mooson

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale modeling is becoming essential for accurate, rapid simulation in science and engineering. This book presents the results of three decades of research on multiscale modeling in process engineering from principles to application, and its generalization for different fields. This book considers the universality of meso-scale phenomena for the first time, and provides insight into the emerging discipline that unifies them, meso-science, as well as new perspectives for virtual process engineering. Multiscale modeling is applied in areas including: multiphase flow and fluid dynamics chemical, biochemical and process engineering mineral processing and metallurgical engineering energy and resources materials science and engineering Jinghai Li is Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a professor at the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and leader of the EMMS (Energy-minimization multiscale) Group. Wei Ge, Wei Wang, Ning Yang and Junwu Wang are professors at the EMMS Group, part of th...

  13. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  14. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  15. Fostering Creative Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have argued a shift of thinking about engineering practice from a linear conception to a system understanding. The complexity of engineering practice has been thought of as the root of challenges for engineers. Moreover, creativity has been emphasised as one key capability that...... engineering students should master. This paper aims to illustrate deeply why engineering education needs to foster creative students to face the challenges of complex engineering work. So a literature review will be provided by focusing on the necessity of developing creativity in engineering education. As...... the literature demonstrates, this paper reveals the understanding of complexity in engineering practice and the roles of creativity in engineering practice. In addition, the barriers to creativity in current engineering education and some implications of pedagogic strategies will be discussed. So this...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical...

  18. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  19. SOLAR STIRLING ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Hiren Prajapati

    2015-01-01

    The following report presents the design selection process of Solar Stirling engine. A Stirling engine is the approximate the theoretical Carnot cycle engine and consists of rapid heating and cooling of a gas within piston/cylinder device. There is no exhaust or intake, therefore the Stirling engine consider as an external combustion engine, means the heat applied externally. We intended to utilize power of the sun to provide necessary...

  20. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  1. Software Engineering Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  2. Discourses of systems engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Akeel, U. U.; Bell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering is unique in being characterised by its methods rather than its artefacts. Consequently, the scope of systems engineering is difficult to define. While some systems engineers contend that systems engineering is capable of addressing sociotechnical problems, including climate change and terrorism, others argue that it is strictly a technical field. The paper presents the results of a discourse analysis of systems engineering textbooks, journal articles, and a...

  3. Mechanical engineer's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marghitu, Dan B

    2001-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineer's Handbook was developed and written specifically to fill a need for mechanical engineers and mechanical engineering students throughout the world. With over 1000 pages, 550 illustrations, and 26 tables the Mechanical Engineer's Handbook is very comprehensive, yet affordable, compact, and durable. The Handbook covers all major areas of mechanical engineering with succinct coverage of the definitions, formulas, examples, theory, proofs, and explanations of all principle subject areas. The Handbook is an essential, practical companion for all mechanic

  4. Mathematics in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Anindya

    2005-01-01

    I try to convey some of the variety and excitement involved in the application of mathematics to engineering problems; to provide a taste of some actual mathematical calculations that engineers do; and finally, to make clear the distinctions between the applied subject of engineering and its purer parents, which include mathematics and the physical sciences. Two main points of this article are that in engineering it is approximation, and not truth, that reigns; and that an engineer carries a ...

  5. Creative Engineering for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Khorbotly; Budnik, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    The United States National Academy of Engineering's seminal work, The Engineer of 2020 – Visions of Engineering in the New Century, was written to prepare industrial, governmental, and academic institutions for the future of engineering. The authors of the report state, "Emphasis on the creative process will allow more effective leadership in the development and application of next-generation technologies to problems of the future." In 2011, 2012, and 2013, engineering undergraduates from the...

  6. Towards document engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Quint, Vincent; Nanard, M.; André, Jacques

    1990-01-01

    This article compares methods and techniques used in software engineering with the ones used for handling electronic documents. It shows the common features in both domains, but also the differences and it proposes an approach which extends the field of document manipulation to document engineering. It shows also in what respect document engineering is different from software engineering. Therefore specific techniques must be developped for building integrated environments for document engine...

  7. Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Lima Pace Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

  8. The application of information theory to biochemical signaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre

    2012-08-01

    Cell signaling can be thought of fundamentally as an information transmission problem in which chemical messengers relay information about the external environment to the decision centers within a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of cellular signal transduction networks, molecular noise will inevitably limit the fidelity of any messages received and processed by a cell's signal transduction networks, leaving it with an imperfect impression of its environment. Fortunately, Shannon's information theory provides a mathematical framework independent of network complexity that can quantify the amount of information that can be transmitted despite biochemical noise. In particular, the channel capacity can be used to measure the maximum number of stimuli a cell can distinguish based upon the noisy responses of its signaling systems. Here, we provide a primer for quantitative biologists that covers fundamental concepts of information theory, highlights several key considerations when experimentally measuring channel capacity, and describes successful examples of the application of information theoretic analysis to biological signaling.

  9. Adult amphibian epidermal proteins: biochemical characterization and developmental appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, O R

    1975-08-01

    The keratin-like proteins (KLPs) from the epidermis of adult frogs of the species Xenopus laevis have been isolated and biochemically characterized by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, tryptic peptide mapping, amino-terminal end-group analysis and isoelectric focusing. One particular protein fraction of rather unusual amino acid composition found only in epidermal tissue was isolated in quantity by preparative gel electrophoresis and monospecific antibodies prepared against it. Using this anti-KLP antibody preparation it was possible to show that at least one kine of keratin-like protein characteristic of the adult epidermis first appears within the larval epidermis during metamorphosis. This is the first reported biochemical characterization of a tissue-specific protien from adult amphibian skin.

  10. Development of a biochemical switching device: mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    There are many examples of enzymes that share substrates or cofactors in a cyclic manner. Techniques have been developed that use cyclic enzyme systems to assay quantitatively small amounts of biochemical substances (cofactor, substrate), however, only a few studies of the control of these systems have been published. The author previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. A unique switching mechanism of cyclic enzyme systems (basic switching element) and the effects of excitatory stimuli on switching properties of the integrated biochemical switching system are demonstrated. PMID:2082931

  11. Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Ambipolar Frequency Multipliers for Biochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wangyang; Feng, Lingyan; Mayer, Dirk; Panaitov, Gregory; Kireev, Dmitry; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-13

    In this Letter, the ambipolar properties of an electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) have been explored to fabricate frequency-doubling biochemical sensor devices. By biasing the ambipolar GFETs in a common-source configuration, an input sinusoidal voltage at frequency f applied to the electrolyte gate can be rectified to a sinusoidal wave at frequency 2f at the drain electrode. The extraordinary high carrier mobility of graphene and the strong electrolyte gate coupling provide the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler an unprecedented unity gain, as well as a detection limit of ∼4 pM for 11-mer single strand DNA molecules in 1 mM PBS buffer solution. Combined with an improved drift characteristics and an enhanced low-frequency 1/f noise performance by sampling at doubled frequency, this good detection limit suggests the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler a highly promising biochemical sensing platform. PMID:26928906

  12. The Metabolic Syndrome and Biochemical Recurrence following Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Post

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome refers to a set of conditions that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, particularly among African American men. This study aimed to estimate the association of metabolic syndrome with biochemical recurrence (BCR in a racially diverse population. Among 383 radical prostatectomy patients, 67 patients had documented biochemical recurrence. Hypertension was significantly, positively associated with the rate of BCR (hazard ratio (HR = 2.1; 95%  CI = 1.1, 3.8. There were distinct racial differences in the prevalence of individual metabolic syndrome components; however, the observed associations with BCR did not differ appreciably by race. We conclude that hypertension may contribute to a poorer prognosis in surgically treated prostate cancer patients. Our findings suggest that targeting components of the metabolic syndrome which are potentially modifiable through lifestyle interventions may be a viable strategy to reduce risk of BCR in prostate cancer.

  13. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  14. The free energy cost of accurate biochemical oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yuansheng; Ouyang, Qi; Tu, Yuhai

    2015-01-01

    Oscillation is an important cellular process that regulates timing of different vital life cycles. However, in the noisy cellular environment, oscillations can be highly inaccurate due to phase fluctuations. It remains poorly understood how biochemical circuits suppress phase fluctuations and what is the incurred thermodynamic cost. Here, we study four different types of biochemical oscillations representing three basic oscillation motifs shared by all known oscillatory systems. We find that the phase diffusion constant follows the same inverse dependence on the free energy dissipation per period for all systems studied. This relationship between the phase diffusion and energy dissipation is shown analytically in a model of noisy oscillation. Microscopically, we find that the oscillation is driven by multiple irreversible cycles that hydrolyze the fuel molecules such as ATP; the number of phase coherent periods is proportional to the free energy consumed per period. Experimental evidence in support of this un...

  15. Handbook of diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschoeke, Helmut (eds.) [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mobile Systems; Mollenhauer, Klaus

    2010-07-01

    The diesel engine continues to be the most cost effective internal combustion engine for motor vehicles as well as mobile and stationary machines. Given the discussion of CO2, the diesel engine is superior to all other drive engines in terms of flexibility, performance, emissions and ruggedness. The intensive search for alternative drive concepts, e. g. hybrid or purely electric drives, has revealed the advantages of the diesel engine for cost effective long distance use wherever high energy densities of energy carriers are indispensible, i. e. storage capacities are low. This English edition of the Handbook of Diesel Engines provides a comprehensive overview of diesel engines of every size from small single cylinder engines up through large two-stroke marine engines. Fifty-eight well-known experts from industry and academia collaborated on this handbook. In addition to the fundamentals and design of diesel engines, it specifically treats in detail the increasingly important subjects of energy efficiency, exhaust emission, exhaust gas aftertreatment, injection systems, electronic engine management and conventional and alternative fuels. This handbook is an indispensable companion in the field of diesel engines. It is geared toward both experts working in research and development and the industry and students studying engineering, mechatronics, electrical engineering or electronics. Anyone interested in learning more about technology and understanding the function and interaction of the complex system of the diesel engine will also find their questions answered. (orig.)

  16. Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigle Bernie J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods

  17. Biochemical and antigenic properties of Streptococcus bovis isolated from pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F; DEVRIESE, L.A.; Ducatelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical and serological properties of 60 strains of Streptococcus bovis isolated from healthy pigeons and from pigeons that died from S. bovis septicemia were determined. On the basis of the hemolysis of bovine erythrocytes, the production of polysaccharides on saccharose-containing media, and the fermentation of mannitol, inulin, trehalose, and L-arabinose, the isolates were classified in five biotypes and two subbiotypes. Slide agglutination and microagglutination tests using monospecif...

  18. Morphologic and biochemical studies of canine mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    OpenAIRE

    Shull, R M; Helman, R. G.; Spellacy, E.; Constantopoulos, G.; Munger, R. J.; Neufeld, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the necropsy and biochemical findings on the first dog to die with alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency (mucopolysaccharidosis I, MPS I). Gross pathologic features, light- and electron-microscopic findings, and tissue enzyme, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and sphingolipid levels are compared with the human disease counterpart and the previously described feline model. Results lend further support for the similarities of the canine disease and human MPS I.

  19. Biochemical Analyses of Sorghum Varieties Reveal Differential Responses to Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuma C Ogbaga; Piotr Stepien; Dyson, Beth C.; Nicholas J W Rattray; Ellis, David I.; Royston Goodacre; Johnson, Giles N.

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical responses of two sorghum cultivars of differing drought tolerance, Samsorg 17 (more drought tolerant) and Samsorg 40 (less drought tolerant), to sustained drought. Plants were exposed to different degrees of drought and then maintained at that level for five days. Responses were examined in terms of metabolic changes and the expression of drought induced proteins - Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs). Generalised phenotypic changes were studied usi...

  20. Molecular and biochemical studies on bovine ephemeral fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Thabet; Emad W. Ghazy; Mohamed A. Nayel; Mohamed Abo-Elkhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF in cattle has been reported to be associated with a range of biochemical changes which are similar to those seen in milk fever. This study aimed to clarify the biochemical alterations that associate infection of cattle with BEF with special references to the mechanisms involved in the development of hypocalcemia. The study was conducted on 30 cases of cattle infected with BEF based on the characteristic clinical signs which were confirmed by isolation of virus and RT-PCR. Another 6 healthy cows were used in the study as control. The evaluated parameters included biochemical variables such as serum values of total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, glucose (Glu, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, inorganic phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Hormonal profile included parathyroid hormone (PTH, insulin (Ins, and cortisol (Cor. The results showed that BEF-infected animals demonstrated a significant decrease (P<0.05 in serum concentrations of TP, Glo, iCa, P, Na, K, BUN and ALP while the mean values of serum levels of Glu and Cl were significantly increased (P<0.05. The mean values of serum levels of PTH were significantly decreased (P<0.05 while serum concentrations of Ins and Cor showed a significant increase. It was concluded that the clinical signs of bovine ephemeral fever are related to the hypocalcemia resulting from suppression of parathyroid hormone which seems to be mediated by respiratory alkalosis caused by the disease. This explanation needs future studies to provide a direct link between measurement of blood indicators of acid-base status, blood biochemical parameters and urine analysis. However, this work can provide a good knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease that can lead to better management and proper treatment.

  1. Optical methods for monitoring physiological and biochemical variables

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, John; Rea, Philip; Dr. Philip Rea

    1986-01-01

    The use of optical methods for performing non-invasive physiological and biochemical monitoring has been investigated, with particular emphasis on the application of near-infrared spectrophotocetry for following changes in the redox state of cytochrome oxidase. Initial studies of the gross optical properties of in vivo tissue were made using an image intensifier. These demonstrated that some light is transmitted through biological tissues and that such material is very hi...

  2. Biochemical assays for the discovery of TDP1 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Christophe; Huang, Shar-yin N.; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Lea, Wendy A.; Mott, Bryan T.; Chergui, Adel; Naumova, Alena; Stephen, Andrew G.; Rosenthal, Andrew S.; Rai, Ganesha; Murai, Junko; Gao, Rui; Maloney, David J.; Jadhav, Ajit; Jorgensen, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Drug screening against novel targets is warranted to generate biochemical probes and new therapeutic drug leads. Tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterases 1 and 2 (TDP1 and TDP2) are two DNA repair enzymes that have yet to be successfully targeted. TDP1 repairs topoisomerase I-, alkylation-, and chain terminator-induced DNA damage, while TDP2 repairs topoisomerase II-induced DNA damage. Here we report the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Reposit...

  3. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. P. Sedlukho; Yu. O. Stankevich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation....

  4. Current diagnostic guidelines for biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, D; Resmini, E; Bocca, L; Giusti, M; Barreca, A; Minuto, F

    2004-12-01

    Acromegaly is a rare and chronic disease that, in the majority of cases, is due to the presence of a benign growth hormone (GH)-producing tumor of the pituitary. In the past, the diagnosis of acromegaly was established basically on physical changes, and only the patients with a severe clinical picture were brought to medical attention. The development of a radioimmunoassay for detecting GH allowed for the first time to confirm the diagnosis biochemically. Subsequently, methods for measuring insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) became available and added another important biochemical marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. Progressive improvements in assay methods have allowed for progressively better definitions of normality and, as a result, have permitted the diagnosis to be biochemically established in patients with only mild forms of the disease. Moreover, new potential markers of disease activity, such as other GH-dependent IGF system parameters, have been investigated and proposed in the diagnostic work-up and for monitoring the therapeutic outcome. Optimal assessment of disease activity, for both diagnostic and follow-up purposes, is mandatory. This subject has been strongly debated regarding proper cut-off values using highly sensitive GH assays as well as the problems linked to IGF system components measurement. Consequently, several consensus reports, as well as original studies, have been issued giving special attention to diagnostic procedures, cut-off revisions and definition of disease activity. The present review discuss principally the biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly based on these articles and on the experience collected in an endocrinological unit considered as reference center for pituitary diseases. PMID:15765030

  5. ADVANCES ON BILINEAR MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL BATCH PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This thesis is aimed to study the implications of the statistical modeling approaches proposed for the bilinear modeling of batch processes, develop new techniques to overcome some of the problems that have not been yet solved and apply them to data of biochemical processes. The study, discussion and development of the new methods revolve around the four steps of the modeling cycle, from the alignment, preprocessing and calibration of batch data to the monitoring of batches trajectories....

  6. CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT THE CIRRHOSIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bilalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. To carry out a comparative description of the clinical and biochemical parameters at patients with cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis (CP-HGA and cirrhosis of mixed etiologies — CP-HGM (HСV+ alcohol.Materials and methods. The study involved 62 patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies, who carries out clinical, immunogenetic and biochemical studies.Results. Patients with the 3d genotype and low viral load were registered with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies (HСV+ alcohol. At the cirrhosis Class B for Child-Pugh basic data biochemical parameters were similar in patients with CP-HGA and CP-HGM, but ALT and AST activity, which are significantly higher than observed in patients with CP-HGM. At dismissal, ALT and GGT activities were detected significantly higher in patients with CP-HGM than the CP-HGA. At the cirrhosis Class C for Child-Pugh the baseline, reflecting cholestasis — is total bilirubin, GGT and alkaline phosphatase and were detected significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM significantly reduced, and thore is no differences between the groups to be discharged from the hospital, in addition to the activity of GGT, which it remained significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM. Cytolytic activity of enzymes (ALT, AST during the entire period of the disease was observed significantly higher normal values and did not depend on the CP etiology.Conclusion decision. The maximum rate of change of the basic biochemical parameters is observed in patients with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies Class B for Child-Pugh and at the cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis — in patients with cirrhosis Class C.

  7. Novel Biochemical Markers of Psychosocial Stress in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Asberg; Ake Nygren; Rosario Leopardi; Gunnar Rylander; Ulla Peterson; Lukas Wilczek; Håkan Källmén; Mirjam Ekstedt; Torbjörn Akerstedt; Mats Lekander; Rolf Ekman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thyroid stimulating hormone (T...

  8. Biochemical Changes During Seed Germination of Sterculia urens Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Botcha SATYANARAYANA; Prattipati Subhashini DEVI; Atluru ARUNDATHI

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes biochemical changes taking place during seed germination of Sterculia urens. The levels of proteins, total amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and lipids were studied during various stages of seed germination (0-15 days). Total protein content was decreased in cotyledons during seed germination while free amino acid content increased to its maximum extent by 9th day of germination and reverse trend thereafter. The levels of reducing sugars and total ...

  9. Biological and biochemical properties in evaluation of forest soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Błońska Ewa; Lasota Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using biological and biochemical parameters in the evaluation of forest soil quality and changes caused by land use. The study attempted to determine a relationship between the enzymatic activity of soil, the number of earthworms and soil physico-chemical properties. The study was carried out in central Poland in adjoining Forest Districts (Przedbórz and Smardzewice). In soil samples taken from 12 research plots, basic physico-chem...

  10. Biochemical profile and outcome in normal and high risk subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayalaxmi, K. G.; Urooj, Asna

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the biochemical profile and outcome of pregnancy and study the adverse consequences if any, among normal and high risk pregnant women. The study group included 182 normal and 168 high risk cases attending to private and Government Hospitals in Bangalore. The high risk groups were: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), Adolescents and anemic cases. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced in PIH and GDM groups (5.56 nmol/m...

  11. BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN ZINC DEFICIENT SHEEP ASSOCIATED BY HYPERLACTATEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from diseased and clinically healthy Balady sheep of both sexes were collected and subjected for biochemical analysis of serum glucose, fructosamine, lactate, growth hormone, insulin, creatine phosphokinase, Lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase. The obtained results revealed a significant decrease in serum zinc and growth hormone were stated. In contrary, serum glucose and lactate, insulin, CPK, LDH and aldolase were significantly increased statically. While, fructosamine levels w...

  12. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise;

    2013-01-01

    healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL......- Cholesterol, Magnesium, Phosphate, Potassium, Protein, Sodium, Transferrin, Triglycerides and Urate). Samples were analyzed on a Roche-Modular-P/ISE-system. The NORIP reference material (NFKK Reference Serum X) was included in all the analytical runs. Reference values were recalculated according to the target...

  13. Biochemical functionalization of silicon dioxide surfaces for sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Römhildt, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to functionalize silicon dioxide surfaces with biochemical molecules in such a way that biorecognition of target molecules in solution will be possible. By introducing a tool set of different molecules and characterization methods, a more universal approach towards various biosensor setups is presented. This includes on the one hand preparation of the biosensor surfaces to allow further molecule attachment via their reactive functional groups. Secondly, the select...

  14. The role of configurational entropy in biochemical cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusuf, Sutjano; Loll, Patrick J; Axelsen, Paul H

    2002-04-10

    Cooperativity is a common biochemical phenomenon in which two or more otherwise independent processes are thermodynamically coupled. Because cooperative processes are usually attended by changes in molecular conformation, thermodynamic coupling is usually attributed to an enthalpy-driven mechanism. In the family of glycopeptide antibiotics that includes vancomycin, however, cooperative phenomena occur that cannot be explained by conformational change. In this communication, we demonstrate that cooperativity in these systems can arise solely from changes in vibrational activity. PMID:11929222

  15. Engineering and Engineering Education as Spiritual Vocations

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Julia D; Chua, Mel; Joslyn, Cole H

    2014-01-01

    Spirituality and engineering (education) are often kept in separate compartments in our lives. They may slip out occasionally for conversations during ethics classes or service learning projects, but speaking -- and living -- our spiritual/religious values as engineers and engineering educators/researchers is still uneasy territory for many. The spirit of free inquiry and reflection that permeates the liberal arts urges us to integrate our spirituality into the human and natural worlds we inh...

  16. Infusing Engineering Concepts: Teaching Engineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Daugherty, Jenny L.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering has gained considerable traction in many K-12 schools. However, there are several obstacles or challenges to an effective approach that leads to student learning. Questions such as where engineering best fits in the curriculum; how to include it authentically and appropriately; toward what educational end; and how best to prepare teachers need to be answered. Integration or infusion appears to be the most viable approach; instead of stand-alone engineering courses squeezing into t...

  17. Importance of Biochemical Markers in Postmenopausal and Senile Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Evcik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the biochemical markers are widely used in order to evaluate the bone turnover. This study was planned to investigate the role of biochemical markers and Bone Mineral Density(BMD in postmenopausal (PMO and senile osteoporosis (SO patients. A total of 86 patients( 44 PMO, 42 SO, ages ranged between 39-79 were included in this study. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and osteocalcin levels were determined from blood samples. Urinary deoxypyridinoline(Dpd and creatinine(cr concentration were examined and the ratio of Dpd/cr was calculated. Also BMD of the patients were measured from L1-L4 and proximal femur and t score were determined. There was no statistical difference in ALP levels between two groups. Osteocalcine and Dpd/cr levels were statistically increased in PMO group(p<0.001. According to BMD t score which was measured from proximal femur was significantly higher in SO patients(p<0.05. Our results show that biochemical markers are useful for the assessment of high-turnover osteoporosis.

  18. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  19. Weighting schemes in metabolic graphs for identifying biochemical routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Baloni, P; Vishveshwara, S; Chandra, N

    2014-03-01

    Metabolism forms an integral part of all cells and its study is important to understand the functioning of the system, to understand alterations that occur in disease state and hence for subsequent applications in drug discovery. Reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic graphs from genomics and other molecular or biochemical data is now feasible. Few methods have also been reported for inferring biochemical pathways from these networks. However, given the large scale and complex inter-connections in the networks, the problem of identifying biochemical routes is not trivial and some questions still remain open. In particular, how a given path is altered in perturbed conditions remains a difficult problem, warranting development of improved methods. Here we report a comparison of 6 different weighting schemes to derive node and edge weights for a metabolic graph, weights reflecting various kinetic, thermodynamic parameters as well as abundances inferred from transcriptome data. Using a network of 50 nodes and 107 edges of carbohydrate metabolism, we show that kinetic parameter derived weighting schemes [Formula: see text] fare best. However, these are limited by their extent of availability, highlighting the usefulness of omics data under such conditions. Interestingly, transcriptome derived weights yield paths with best scores, but are inadequate to discriminate the theoretical paths. The method is tested on a system of Escherichia coli stress response. The approach illustrated here is generic in nature and can be used in the analysis for metabolic network from any species and perhaps more importantly for comparing condition-specific networks.

  20. Considerations on the biochemical composition of some freshwater zooplankton species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta RICCARDI

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The mean elemental (C, H, N and biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins of some abundant crustacean zooplankton species of Italian insubric lakes has been estimated by the analysis of samples collected at different seasons from various environments (Lake Maggiore, Lake Varese, Lake Comabbio, Lake Monate. From each sample an adequate number of specimens of each abundant species was sorted and analyzed by a CHN elemental analyzer. The percentage of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and the calorific content were calculated from the elemental composition according to Gnaiger & Bitterlich (1984. Inter- and intraspecific variability of biochemical composition was quite high, while elemental composition and calorific content were less variable. An estimate of the mean elemental and biochemical composition of each species was obtained by pooling the data. These mean values have been used to estimate the pools of elements and compounds in the crustacean zooplankton of Lake Comabbio to provide an example of the importance of a multiple approach in zooplankton studies.

  1. Design of a biochemical circuit motif for learning linear functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Minnich, Amanda; Lane, Terran; Stefanovic, Darko

    2014-12-01

    Learning and adaptive behaviour are fundamental biological processes. A key goal in the field of bioengineering is to develop biochemical circuit architectures with the ability to adapt to dynamic chemical environments. Here, we present a novel design for a biomolecular circuit capable of supervised learning of linear functions, using a model based on chemical reactions catalysed by DNAzymes. To achieve this, we propose a novel mechanism of maintaining and modifying internal state in biochemical systems, thereby advancing the state of the art in biomolecular circuit architecture. We use simulations to demonstrate that the circuit is capable of learning behaviour and assess its asymptotic learning performance, scalability and robustness to noise. Such circuits show great potential for building autonomous in vivo nanomedical devices. While such a biochemical system can tell us a great deal about the fundamentals of learning in living systems and may have broad applications in biomedicine (e.g. autonomous and adaptive drugs), it also offers some intriguing challenges and surprising behaviours from a machine learning perspective. PMID:25401175

  2. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  3. Biochemical Characterization of Hypothetical Proteins from Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Pil Choi

    Full Text Available The functional characterization of Open Reading Frames (ORFs from sequenced genomes remains a bottleneck in our effort to understand microbial biology. In particular, the functional characterization of proteins with only remote sequence homology to known proteins can be challenging, as there may be few clues to guide initial experiments. Affinity enrichment of proteins from cell lysates, and a global perspective of protein function as provided by COMBREX, affords an approach to this problem. We present here the biochemical analysis of six proteins from Helicobacter pylori ATCC 26695, a focus organism in COMBREX. Initial hypotheses were based upon affinity capture of proteins from total cellular lysate using derivatized nano-particles, and subsequent identification by mass spectrometry. Candidate genes encoding these proteins were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified and characterized biochemically and their biochemical parameters compared with the native ones. These proteins include a guanosine triphosphate (GTP cyclohydrolase (HP0959, an ATPase (HP1079, an adenosine deaminase (HP0267, a phosphodiesterase (HP1042, an aminopeptidase (HP1037, and new substrates were characterized for a peptidoglycan deacetylase (HP0310. Generally, characterized enzymes were active at acidic to neutral pH (4.0-7.5 with temperature optima ranging from 35 to 55°C, although some exhibited outstanding characteristics.

  4. Relationship between cellular response models and biochemical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most cellular response experiments, survival reflects the kinetics of a variety of damage and repair processes. Unfortunately, biochemical studies of molecular repair deal with mechanisms which cannot be readily correlated with these kinetic observations. The difference in these approaches sometimes leads to confusion over terms such as potentially-lethal and sublethal damage. These terms were introduced with operation definitions, derived from kinetic studies of cell survival, but some researchers have since attempted to associate them with specific biochemical mechanisms. Consequently, the terms are often used in totally different ways be different investigators. The use of carefully constructed models originating either out of assumptions based on mechanisms, or on kinetics, can be used to design experiments to eliminate some alternative kinetic schemes. In turn, some mechanisms may also be eliminated, resulting in a reduction in the number of mechanisms which must be investigated biochemically. One must take advantage of a wide range of specialized radiation procedures in order to accomplish this. Examples of the use of such specialized experimental designs, which have led to a more detailed understanding of the kinetics of both algal and mammalian cell responses, are discussed

  5. ASSESMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PRAECITRULLUS FISTULOSUS TREATED WITH MUTAGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are well known to have certain primary and secondary metabolites collectively are known as biochemicals that plays an important role for human health as their medicinal properties. The aim of present study was to enhance and evaluate biochemical profile of Praecitrullus fistulosus by induced mutagenesis to cause genetic variations, plant leaves were treated with different chemical and physical mutagens. Colchicine and Ethidium bromide were used as chemical mutagens. While Ultraviolet (UV rays and X- rays were used as physical mutagens for the treatment of seeds. After the eleventh week of their growth, methanol extracts of dried leaves were prepared and further analyzed for the estimation of biochemicals. It was observed that total carbohydrates, total Proteins, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, reducing power, ascorbic Acid  and Chlorophyll a, were found significantly (p<0.05 higher in Colchicine 0.02% treated plants, while reducing sugars were significantly (p<0.05  increases in Colchicine 0.01% treated plants as compared to control plants. Total flavonoids, total flavonol, Chlorophyll b and Carotenoids were increases significantly (p<0.05 in plants treated with 0.05% Ethidium bromide while tannin content was increased significantly (p<0.05 in 0.10% Ethidium bromide treated plants as compared to the  control plants.

  6. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  7. Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This is the first handbook to cover comprehensively both software engineering and knowledge engineering - two important fields that have become interwoven in recent years. Over 60 international experts have contributed to the book. Each chapter has been written in such a way that a practitioner of software engineering and knowledge engineering can easily understand and obtain useful information. Each chapter covers one topic and can be read independently of other chapters, providing both a general survey of the topic and an in-depth exposition of the state of the art.

  8. Discovering Reliable Sources of Biochemical Thermodynamic Data to Aid Students' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Me´ndez, Eduardo; Cerda´, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Students of physical chemistry in biochemical disciplines need biochemical examples to capture the need, not always understood, of a difficult area in their studies. The use of thermodynamic data in the chemical reference state may lead to incorrect interpretations in the analysis of biochemical examples when the analysis does not include relevant…

  9. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General....

  10. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2060 Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1)...

  14. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  15. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  16. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  17. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  18. Teaching Professional Engineering Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2010-01-01

    is to discuss how to facilitate the teaching of professional skills in engineering education in parallel with the technical disciplines. The objective is to test and evaluate extensive role play simulation in which the students interact with professional engineers in a realistic, industrial context...... and the professional engineers act as a prime mover for the students to perform their best, which in turn strengthens the learning of the technical content. The study concludes that role play with participation of representatives from the industry can facilitate the teaching of professional skills in engineering......Engineering education aims at providing students with sufficient disciplinary knowledge of science and engineering principles in order for them to become successful engineers. However, to fulfil their roles as professional engineers, students also need to develop personal and interpersonal skills...

  19. Multidisciplinary Graduate Education in Bioprocess Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman

    2006-04-18

    graduate students in several engineering and science degree programs. Other significant developments have arisen as direct or indirect consequences of this project. The University of Georgia has established a B.S. Biochemical Engineering degree and an M.S. Biochemical Engineering degree. A strong component of these degree programs is education toward a biobased economy. We will integrate particularly positive components of this project (such as the distinguished lecture series) into these degree programs. The University of Georgia is establishing a Center for Biorefining and Carbon Cycling. This multidisciplinary Center houses a pilot scale biorefinery, comprising a pyrolysis unit and an ethanol plant. Together with new faculty positions that are currently being advertised, this project has encouraged the University of Georgia to assume a leadership role in the preparation of students in the biobased industries of the future.

  20. Mechanical engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering is defined nowadays as a discipline "which involves the application of principles of physics, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems". Recently, mechanical engineering has also focused on some cutting-edge subjects such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, as well as aspects related to sustainable mechanical engineering.This book covers mechanical engineering higher education with a particular emphasis on quality assurance and the improvement of academic

  1. English For Engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Sundar

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, engineering students need to enhance their English communication skills and other soft skills to cope with tough competition in the job market. Mere subject knowledge in the chosen field of engineering is not going to assure any engineering graduate to be placed in any organization or to perform well. English language skills are considered as life skills or survival skills in the twenty-first century. Engineering students need to be able to think critically, solve pr...

  2. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  3. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  4. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  5. REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna; Sanjay Kumar; Amita Dhankar

    2012-01-01

    Requirement Engineering acts as foundation for any software and is one of the most important tasks. Entire software is supported by four pillars of requirement engineering processes. Goal-oriented requirements engineering is concerned with the use of goals for eliciting, elaborating, structuring, specifying, analyzing, negotiating, documenting, and modifying requirements. This areahas received increasing attention over the past few years.The paper has highlighted requirement engineering chall...

  6. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  7. [Biochemical diagnostics in acute pancreatitis recognition and outcome predicition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczyk, Paweł; Kozma, Ewa M; Olczyk, Krystyna; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease associated with an improper activation of pancreatic zymogens leading to autodigestion of the gland and if excessive--to multiple organ dysfunction. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis manifested by 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis is a life threatening disorder requiring subsequent management in intensive care unit. Unfortunately, none of biochemical tests presently used for laboratory assessment of acute pancreatitis at the early stage of the disease is able to estimate accurately: diagnosis, etiology and severity. At present, diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on evaluation of serum amylase and lipase activity due to easy availability and simplicity of these enzymatic tests. Low specificity of the mentioned enzymes resulted in studies concerning pancreatic isoamylase, elastase-1, chymotrypsine, procarboxy-peptidase B, trypsinogen-2 and immunoreactive trypsinogen usefulness in the laboratory diagnosis of AP. The prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis using multifactorial scoring systems is cumbersome especially due to their complexity. On the other hand the biochemical method of choice, estimation of serum C reactive protein, is useless in the early phase of disease. Unfortunately, the computed tomography--the most accurate method in severity assessing--is not always available. Recent studies have brought some progress in severity predicting, such as phospholipase A2, cellular immunity markers, cytokines, activation peptides of trypsinogen and carboxypeptidase B, procalcitonine, pancreatitis associated protein and serum amyloid A. All these newly introduced biochemical methods allow to look optimistically into the future of laboratory diagnostics of the acute pancreatitis believing that the problem of diagnosing and predicting the AP severity will be solved. PMID:15850341

  8. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elhiblu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG, and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for

  9. Biochemical Models for S-Rnase-Based Self-Incompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Hua; Allison Fields; Teh-hui Kao

    2008-01-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically determined self/non-self-recognition process employed by many flowering plant species to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrosses.For the Plantaginaceae,Rosa-ceae and Solanaceae,it is now known that S-RNase and S-Iocu F-box(two multiple allelic genes at the S-locus)determine the female and male specificity,respectively,during SI interactions.However,how allelic products of these two genes interact inside pollen tubes to result in specific growth inhibition of self-pollen tubes remains to be investigated.Here,we review all the previously proposed biochemical models and discuss whether their predictions are consistent with all SI phenomena,including competitive jnteraction where SI breaks down in pollen that carries two different pollen 5-alleles.We also discuss these models in Iight of the recent findings of compartmentalization of S-RNases in both incompatible and compatible pollen tubes.Lastly,we summarize the results from our recent biochemical studies of PiSLF(Petunia inflata SLF)and S-RNase.and present a new model for the biochemical mechanism of SI in the Solanaceae.The tenet of this model is that a PiSLF preferentially interacts with its non-self S-RNases in the cytoplasm of a pollen tube to result in the assembly of an E3-like complex,which then mediates ubiquitination and degradation of non-self S-RNases through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway.This model can explain all SI phenomena and,at the same time,has raised new questions for further study.

  10. Hematologic and Biochemical Biologic Variation in Laboratory Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumel, Catherine; Monzali, Céline; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier V; Hourqueig, Louise; Braun, Jean-Pierre D; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie H

    2016-01-01

    The biologic variation associated with a clinical pathology result is important to consider before reference intervals (RI) are used. Most available RI are population-based RI, in which the analytical variability, interindividual variability, and intraindividual variability are confounded. In addition, when the intraindividual variability is considerably less than the interindividual variability, a population-based RI is insufficiently sensitive to detect changes in a subject over time. Here we determined the biologic variation and reference change value (RCV) of hematologic and biochemical variables in laboratory cats. Blood specimens from 14 (7 females and 7 males) overnight-fasted laboratory cats sampled 7 times (days 1, 2, 7, 14, 31, 42, and 100) were analyzed regarding hematology and biochemistry variables. For each variable, analytical, intraindividual, and interindividual coefficients of variation were estimated prior to calculation of the index of individuality and the RCV. RBC variables (count, Hgb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and RBC distribution width) and 5 biochemical analytes (cholesterol, creatinine, triglycerides, ALP, and calcium) exhibited marked individuality, therefore indicating that subject-based reference intervals or RCV would be preferable when monitoring these variables in laboratory cats. Population-based RI were shown to be adequate for glucose and sodium, and both types of population and individual RI were similarly efficient for albumin, total protein, urea, ALT, AST, creatine kinase, chloride, carbon dioxide, iron, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, and potassium and reticulocyte, WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and platelet counts. The RCV determined in the present study provide a valuable tool for monitoring hematologic and biochemical variables in healthy laboratory cats. PMID:27657703

  11. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepelev Leonid L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology

  12. Matlab in electrical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian MARINESCU; Gabriel CHEREGI; Marilena STANCULESCU

    2009-01-01

    Electrical Engineering education addresses to high technologies needs from industry and business offering academic curricula which include topics such as: integrated circuits, digital signal processing, microwaves, optical engineering, bioelectronics, propagation and radiation, power electronics, control systems, communications, circuit theory, robotics, nondestructive testing. Matlab is a widely used tool in electrical engineering. It can be used to enhance and accelerate some processes, suc...

  13. Software engineering: a roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, A.; Kramer, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a roadmap for software engineering. It identifies the principal research challenges being faced by the discipline and brings together the threads derived from the key research specialisations within software engineering. The paper draws heavily on the roadmaps covering specific areas of software engineering research collected in this volume.

  14. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  15. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  16. Kali Linux social engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide to learning and performing SET attacks with multiple examples.Kali Linux Social Engineering is for penetration testers who want to use BackTrack in order to test for social engineering vulnerabilities or for those who wish to master the art of social engineering attacks.

  17. Nuclear engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes nuclear engineering introducing nuclear energy and its utilization, nuclear engineering basics, nuclear reactor and nuclear reaction, nuclear steam system, thermal output and reactor physics, transient reactor, radiation management, safety in nuclear power plant and nuclear economy. It explains the technical terms of nuclear engineering in detail.

  18. Engineering Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Ken M.; Ahmed, Saeema; Bracewell, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The need to improve engineering knowledge management is driven by the current challenges facing manufacturing organisations in the emerging global economy and, in particular by the important role knowledge plays in the engineering design process. Industrial organisations are facing increasing...... international competition, and in response their engineering products are improving in terms of performance, reliability and cost of ownership....

  19. Engineers and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    and Bildung. In this chapter, this relation in investigated. In the first part, I present three engineers and their careers. In the second part, the concept of Bildung is analyzed, and in the third part, it is the conceptual relation between Bildung, engineers, and engineering work that is of concern....

  20. Advances in Medical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Buzug, Thorsten M

    2007-01-01

    Presents research and development trends of physics, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences in biomedical engineering. This work uses contributions from industry, clinics, universities and research labs with foci on medical imaging, computer-assisted surgery, and others to give insight to engineering, clinical and mathematical studies.

  1. Biochemical screening for inherited metabolic disorders in the mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, H E; Goodman, R; Schram, J; Diamond, E; Daneel, A

    1981-11-01

    A biochemical screening programme for the detection of inherited metabolic disease was carried out on urine and blood samples from inmates of the Alexandra Institute for the mentally retarded, Cape Town. Of the 1087 patients screened, positive results for phenylketonuria were obtained in 3, for cystinuria in 2 and for Hartnup disease in 1. The overall frequency of metabolic disorders was 0,6%. It is evident that genetic metabolic disease as detected by current screening procedures makes only a small contribution to the overall burden of mental retardation. PMID:6795726

  2. Biochemical and electrophysiological characteristics of mammalian GABA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enna, S J; Gallagher, J P

    1983-01-01

    The concept that GABA is a neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS is supported by both electrophysiological and biochemical data. Whereas the electrophysiological studies are essential for demonstrating a specific functional response to GABA, the biochemical approach is useful for characterizing the molecular properties of this site. As a result of these studies the concept of the GABA receptor has progressed from a simple model of a single recognition site associated with a chloride channel to a more complex structure having a variety of interacting components. Thus, both electrophysiological and biochemical data support the existence of at least two pharmacologically distinct types of GABA receptors, based on the sensitivity to bicuculline. Also, anatomically, there appear to be two different types of receptors, those located postsynaptically on the soma or dendrites of a neighboring cell and those found presynaptically on GABAergic and other neurotransmitter terminals. From biochemical studies it appears that the GABA receptor may be composed of at least three distinct interacting components. One of these, the recognition site, may exist in two conformations, with one preferring agonists and the other having a higher affinity for antagonists. Ion channels may be considered a second component, with some of these regulating the passage of chloride ion, whereas others may be associated with calcium transport. The third major element of GABA receptors appears to be a benzodiazepine recognition site, although only a certain population of GABA receptors may be endowed with this property. In addition to these, the GABA receptor complex appears to contain substances that modulate the recognition site by influencing the availability of higher affinity binding proteins. It would appear therefore that changes affecting any one of these constituents can influence the characteristics of the others. While increasing the complexity of the system, this arrangement makes for a

  3. Biochemical, Physiological and Morphological Responses of Sugar Beet to Salinization

    OpenAIRE

    Eisa, Sayed S.; Ali, Safwat H.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of sugar beet grown on sandy soil under three levels of NaCl salinity in irrigation water, i.e. control, 3000 & 6000 ppm was studied in pot experiment. Results showed that root fresh weight linearly decreased by increasing NaCl salinity levels up to 6000 ppm, but sucrose percentage in root was significantly increased. On the other hand, increasing NaCl levels resulted in significant increase of Na content in both of shoot and root Meanwhi...

  4. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes......BACKGROUND: To examine whether time of the day has an effect on the circulating levels of metabolism parameters. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained under standardized conditions from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 hours. The metabolic markers and melatonin were examined...

  5. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.;

    2004-01-01

    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive s...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin...

  6. Serological and biochemical identification of hybrid Ia antigens

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Ia specificities 22 and 23 were found to be determinants on hybrid Ia molecules by serological and biochemical studies. Lipopolysaccharide- stimulated splenic lymphocytes from (B10 X B10.D2)F1 expressed Ia.22 although both the parents were negative. Similarly [D2.GD X B10.A(5R)]F1 cells expressed Ia.23, whereas D2.GD and B10.A(5R) lacked it. Ia.22 can be generated by gene complementation of Ak-Ek, Ab-Ed, Ab- Ek, As-Ed, and As-Ek, whereas Ia.23 can be generated by Ad-Ed, Ad-Ek, and Ad-Ep. Othe...

  7. Two engineering faculty chosen for National Academy of Engineering symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Of the 82 of the nation's brightest young engineers selected to take part in the National Academy of Engineering's (NAE) 14th Annual U.S. Frontiers of Engineering symposium, two are from Virginia Tech's College of Engineering.

  8. Continuing engineering education for software engineering professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.I.

    1992-02-19

    Designers of software for safety-critical applications are impelled to supplement their education through continuing engineering studies in the areas of requirements analysis, hazard identification, risk analysis, fault tolerance, failure modes, and psychology. Today`s complex level of design is contributing to opportunities for catastrophic design errors in computer functions where failure of such functions is capable of causing injury and death. A syllabus of post-graduate, core studies within the curricula of five engineering specialties is suggested. Software Engineers are exhorted to undertake a professional, responsible role in safety-critical software design.

  9. Continuing engineering education for software engineering professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.I.

    1992-02-19

    Designers of software for safety-critical applications are impelled to supplement their education through continuing engineering studies in the areas of requirements analysis, hazard identification, risk analysis, fault tolerance, failure modes, and psychology. Today's complex level of design is contributing to opportunities for catastrophic design errors in computer functions where failure of such functions is capable of causing injury and death. A syllabus of post-graduate, core studies within the curricula of five engineering specialties is suggested. Software Engineers are exhorted to undertake a professional, responsible role in safety-critical software design.

  10. Computational approaches to metabolic engineering utilizing systems biology and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Stephen S

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic engineering modifies cellular function to address various biochemical applications. Underlying metabolic engineering efforts are a host of tools and knowledge that are integrated to enable successful outcomes. Concurrent development of computational and experimental tools has enabled different approaches to metabolic engineering. One approach is to leverage knowledge and computational tools to prospectively predict designs to achieve the desired outcome. An alternative approach is to utilize combinatorial experimental tools to empirically explore the range of cellular function and to screen for desired traits. This mini-review focuses on computational systems biology and synthetic biology tools that can be used in combination for prospective in silico strain design.

  11. Toward engineering functional organ modules by additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marga, Francoise; Jakab, Karoly; Khatiwala, Chirag; Shepherd, Benjamin; Dorfman, Scott; Hubbard, Bradley; Colbert, Stephen; Gabor, Forgacs

    2012-06-01

    Tissue engineering is emerging as a possible alternative to methods aimed at alleviating the growing demand for replacement tissues and organs. A major pillar of most tissue engineering approaches is the scaffold, a biocompatible network of synthetic or natural polymers, which serves as an extracellular matrix mimic for cells. When the scaffold is seeded with cells it is supposed to provide the appropriate biomechanical and biochemical conditions for cell proliferation and eventual tissue formation. Numerous approaches have been used to fabricate scaffolds with ever-growing complexity. Recently, novel approaches have been pursued that do not rely on artificial scaffolds. The most promising ones utilize matrices of decellularized organs or methods based on multicellular self-assembly, such as sheet-based and bioprinting-based technologies. We briefly overview some of the scaffold-free approaches and detail one that employs biological self-assembly and bioprinting. We describe the technology and its specific applications to engineer vascular and nerve grafts.

  12. Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies Reveal New Pathways Important for Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xu; Hong-Bin Li; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2007-01-01

    As one of the longest single-celled seed trichomes, fibers provide an excellent model for studying fundamental biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, and cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cotton functional genomic studies that characterize the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of fiber cells. Extensive expression profilings of cotton fiber transcriptomes have provided comprehensive information, as quite a number of transcription factors and enzyme-coding genes have been shown to express preferentially during the fiber elongation period. Biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene is found significantly upregulated during the fiber growth period as revealed by both microarray analysis and by biochemical and physiological studies. It is suggested that genetic engineering of the ethylene pathway may improve the quality and the productivity of cotton lint. Many metabolic pathways, such as biosynthesis of celiulose and matrix polysaccharides are preferentially expressed in actively growing fiber cells. Five gene families, including proline-rich proteins (PRP), arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are activated during early fiber development,indicating that they may also be needed for cell elongation. In conclusion, we identify a few areas of future research for cotton functional genomic studies.

  13. Biochemical Conversion Processes of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethauer, Simone; Studer, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass - such as wood, agricultural residues or dedicated energy crops - is a promising renewable feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals that is available at large scale at low cost without direct competition for food usage. Its biochemical conversion in a sugar platform biorefinery includes three main unit operations that are illustrated in this review: the physico-chemical pretreatment of the biomass, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates to a fermentable sugar stream by cellulases and finally the fermentation of the sugars by suitable microorganisms to the target molecules. Special emphasis in this review is put on the technology, commercial status and future prospects of the production of second-generation fuel ethanol, as this process has received most research and development efforts so far. Despite significant advances, high enzyme costs are still a hurdle for large scale competitive lignocellulosic ethanol production. This could be overcome by a strategy termed 'consolidated bioprocessing' (CBP), where enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is integrated in one step - either by utilizing one genetically engineered superior microorganism or by creating an artificial co-culture. Insight is provided on both CBP strategies for the production of ethanol as well as of advanced fuels and commodity chemicals. PMID:26598400

  14. Constrictor: Flux Balance Analysis Constraint Modification Provides Insight for Design of Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keesha; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    The use of in silico methods has become standard practice to correlate the structure of a biochemical network to the expression of a desired phenotype. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most prevalent techniques for modeling metabolism. FBA models have been successfully applied to obtain growth predictions, theoretical product yields from heterologous pathways, and genome engineering targets. We take inspiration from high-throughput recombineering techniques, which show that combinatorial exploration can reveal optimal mutants, and apply the advantages of computational techniques to analyze these combinations. We introduce Constrictor, an in silico tool for FBA that allows gene mutations to be analyzed in a combinatorial fashion, by applying simulated constraints accounting for regulation of gene expression. We apply this algorithm to study ethylene production in E. coli through the addition of the heterologous ethylene-forming enzyme from P. syringae. Targeting individual reactions as well as sets of reactions results in theoretical ethylene yields that are as much 65% greater than yields calculated using typical FBA. Constrictor is an adaptable technique that can be used to generate and analyze disparate populations of in silico mutants & select gene expression levels.

  15. Quantum mechanical Carnot engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, C M; Meister, B K

    2000-01-01

    A cyclic thermodynamic heat engine runs most efficiently if it is reversible. Carnot constructed such a reversible heat engine by combining adiabatic and isothermal processes for a system containing an ideal gas. Here, we present an example of a cyclic engine based on a single quantum-mechanical particle confined to a potential well. The efficiency of this engine is shown to equal the Carnot efficiency because quantum dynamics is reversible. The quantum heat engine has a cycle consisting of adiabatic and isothermal quantum processes that are close analogues of the corresponding classical processes.

  16. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  17. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  18. Integrative metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H McArthur IV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in experimental and computational synthetic biology are extremely useful for achieving metabolic engineering objectives. The integration of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering within an iterative design-build-test framework will improve the practice of metabolic engineering by relying more on efficient design strategies. Computational tools that aid in the design and in silico simulation of metabolic pathways are especially useful. However, software helpful for constructing, implementing, measuring and characterizing engineered pathways and networks should not be overlooked. In this review, we highlight computational synthetic biology tools relevant to metabolic engineering, organized in the context of the design-build-test cycle.

  19. Programming Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Dan

    2010-01-01

    As one of today's cloud computing services, Google App Engine does more than provide access to a large system of servers. It also offers you a simple model for building applications that scale automatically to accommodate millions of users. With Programming Google App Engine, you'll get expert practical guidance that will help you make the best use of this powerful platform. Google engineer Dan Sanderson shows you how to design your applications for scalability, including ways to perform common development tasks using App Engine's APIs and scalable services. You'll learn about App Engine's a

  20. Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica

  1. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2013-08-01

    This research sought to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate by examining the interactions between nanoparticles and leachate components. The primary foci of this paper are the effects of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag nanoparticles on biological landfill processes and the form of Zn, Ti, and Ag in leachate following the addition of nanoparticles. Insight into the behavior of nanoparticles in landfill leachate was gained from the observed increase in the aqueous concentrations over background for Zn, Ti, and Ag in some tested leachates attributed to leachate components interacting with the nanoparticle coatings resulting in dispersion, dissolution/dissociation, and/or agglomeration. Coated nanoparticles did not affect biological processes when added to leachate; five-day biochemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential results were not statistically different when exposed to nanoparticles, presumably due to the low concentration of dissolved free ionic forms of the associated metals resulting from the interaction with leachate components. Chemical speciation modeling predicted that dissolved Zn in leachate was primarily associated with dissolved organic matter, Ti with hydroxide, and Ag with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia; less than 1% of dissolved Zn and Ag was in the free ionic form, and free ionic Ti and Ag concentrations were negligible.

  2. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  3. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  4. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    emission requirements as well as attempting to minimise fuel expenses, the engine speed has been lowered together with an increase in the engine mean pressure which in terms lead to larger bearing loads. With worsened operating conditions from two sides, the encountered problems are understandable......Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...

  5. Culture in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Christensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    As engineers today often work in intercultural projects and contexts, intercultural competences must be part of the learning objectives in engineering educations. Cultural aspects of engineering education should not just be treated as a question of appropriate communication and teaching: cultural...... to cultural aspects in engineering education. Hence the key-question of this paper is how CDIO support the development of intercultural competences in engineering education. The paper explores the implementation of CDIO in an intercultural arctic engineering programme in Greenland that since 2001 has been...... the continuously development of CDIO, including the current discussion of a new principles [7]. Secondly it has practical relevance to the engineering education, which to a growing degree has to cope with the potentials and challenges of internationalisation of educations and thus intercultural classrooms. Thirdly...

  6. Systems Engineering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges proposed by the development of the new computer systems demand new guidance related to engineer´s education, because they will solve these problems. In the XXI century, system engineers must be able to integrate a number of topics and knowledge disciplines that complement that traditionally has been known as Computer Systems Engineering. We have enough software development engineers, today we need professional engineers for software integration, leaders and system architects that make the most of the technological development for the benefit of society, leaders that integrate sciences to the solutions they build and propose. In this article the current situation of Computer Systems Engineering is analyzed and is presented a theory proposing the need for modifying the approach Universities have given to these careers, to achieve the education of leader engineers according to the needs of this century.

  7. CORD SERUM FERRITIN AS BIOCHEMICAL MARKER IN IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is by far the most frequent type of anemia seen in pregnancy, accounting for 90% or more of all cases. Iron deficiency anemia has adverse consequences on infant development. Therefore maternal anemia should be prevented and treated. Serum ferritin is the single best non-invasive test and is a very useful and reliable index of iron stores especially during pregnancy, with low levels indicating iron deficiency. While infants born to anemic mother are themselves not anemic, they do not suffer from low iron stores. The main aim of the study is to establish cord serum ferritin as a biochemical marker in iron deficiency anemia. The specific objectives of this study is to estimate cord and maternal serum ferritin in the last trimester of pregnancy and to correlate it with hematological parameters. Cord serum ferritin levels were normal in the patients under study, even when the maternal serum ferritin levels were decreased. The mean level of cord serum ferritin was 134.06ng/ml and maternal serum ferritin was 41.65ng/ml and was statistically significant. The hematological parameters like hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and MCHC were also decreased in the patients with low serum ferritin and were found to be statistically significant. Hence estimation of cord serum ferritin can be used as a biochemical marker to assess iron deficiency in the early stages itself and thereby neurodevelopmental complications in children can be prevented.

  8. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  9. BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERN IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To study different biochemical parameters and serum agarose gel electrophoresis patterns of patients consistent with clinical symptoms of multiple myeloma. SETTING : The study was carried out at Apollo Hospitals, Bhubaneswar, the premier tertiary care C ent re in Orissa. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : A total of 1057 referred cases for protein electrophoresis were analysed and reviewed between March 2010 to July 2015. RESULTS : Out of 1057 cases of protein electrophoresis 94 were confirmed cases of Multiple Myeloma. T he mean age of detected cases of Multiple Myeloma was 64.8 years. There was a male prevalence. Anaemia was initially found in 85.0% cases . The mean protein concentration was 9.0gm/dL and albumin was 3.2gm/dL . Hypercalcemia was seen in 28.0% case. Serum Cre atinine level of >2.0mg/dL was seen in cases 38.0% case. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed a localized band in 99% of patients. Immuno fixation electrophoresis showed monoclonal band in 92 cases (98% and a biclonal pattern in 2 cases (2%. Light chain myeloma was detected in 11 cases (19.0%. CONCLUSION : Serum protein electrophoresis should be routinely used in all elderly patients with features of bone pain, anemia and hyperproteinemia . It is still the gold standard for diagnosing Multiple Myeloma and it collaborate well with the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings. The abnormal band can be well characterized by Immunofixation electrophoresis.

  10. Improved methods for the mathematically controlled comparison of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwacke John H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.

  11. Metabolic and biochemical changes caused by gamma irradiation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications involving radioisotopes and radiations reveal a great promise particularly for the welfare of the society. However, in the event of a nuclear accident, the direct and indirect effect of radionuclide and radiation transfers in soil-plant-air environment are envisaged on almost all the components of the food chain. It also assumes significance as we often overlook the fact that radiations, emitted by any radioisotope although cannot be seen or felt, interacts with matter and could alter its biochemical, biophysical and biological characteristics. The interaction of ionizing radiation with human body and consequent biological effects are well characterized and quantified using data derived from the radiation workers and/or the nuclear accidents around the world. However, radiation impact on agriculture viz a viz economic productivity are not well understood and available data is scanty, scattered and inconclusive. At the plant level the effects could be visualized at morphological, biochemical, physiological and/or biophysical levels, where the magnitude of the effected change depends heavily on the exposure dose, soil, farm management and other environmental variables. This review attempts to collate and critically analyze the available researches on how the ionizing radiation might interact with crops at the whole plant or tissue or cell level to affect economic yield under various edaphic variables where not only the productivity but also the quality of the agri-produce may become vulnerable. (author)

  12. Impact of flow velocity on biochemical processes - a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, A.; Roubinet, D.; Aquilina, L.; Bour, O.; Davy, P.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding and predicting hydraulic and chemical properties of natural environments are current crucial challenges. It requires considering hydraulic, chemical and biological processes and evaluating how hydrodynamic properties impact on biochemical reactions. In this context, an original laboratory experiment to study the impact of flow velocity on biochemical reactions along a one-dimensional flow streamline has been developed. Based on the example of nitrate reduction, nitrate-rich water passes through plastic tubes at several flow velocities (from 6.2 to 35 mm min-1), while nitrate concentration at the tube outlet is monitored for more than 500 h. This experimental setup allows assessing the biologically controlled reaction between a mobile electron acceptor (nitrate) and an electron donor (carbon) coming from an immobile phase (tube) that produces carbon during its degradation by microorganisms. It results in observing a dynamic of the nitrate transformation associated with biofilm development which is flow-velocity dependent. It is proposed that the main behaviors of the reaction rates are related to phases of biofilm development through a simple analytical model including assimilation. Experiment results and their interpretation demonstrate a significant impact of flow velocity on reaction performance and stability and highlight the relevance of dynamic experiments over static experiments for understanding biogeochemical processes.

  13. Coarse-graining stochastic biochemical networks: adiabaticity and fast simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.

  14. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics.Methods:Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study.

  15. Transient amplification limits noise suppression in biochemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John; Lindemann, Anika; McCoy, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    Cell physiology is orchestrated, on a molecular level, through complex networks of biochemical reactions. The propagation of random fluctuations through these networks can significantly impact cell behavior, raising challenging questions about how network design shapes the cell's ability to suppress or exploit these fluctuations. Here, drawing on insights from statistical physics, fluid dynamics, and systems biology, we explore how transient amplification phenomena arising from network connectivity naturally limit a biochemical system's ability to suppress small fluctuations around steady-state behaviors. We find that even a simple system consisting of two variables linked by a single interaction is capable of amplifying small fluctuations orders of magnitude beyond the levels predicted by linear stability theory. We also find that adding additional interactions can promote further amplification, even when these interactions implement classic design strategies known to suppress fluctuations. These results establish that transient amplification is an essential factor determining baseline noise levels in stable intracellular networks. Significantly, our analysis is not bound to specific systems or interaction mechanisms: we find that noise amplification is an emergent phenomenon found near steady states in any network containing sufficiently strong interactions, regardless of its form or function.

  16. Hepatic histological alterations and biochemical changes induced by sildenafil overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Bashir Mahmoud; Almansour, Mansour Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Sildenafil is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and is helping millions of men around the world to achieve and maintain a long lasting erection. Fifty healthy male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the present study and exposed daily to sildenafil (0, 1, 3, 6, 9 mg/kg) for 5 days per week for 7 weeks to investigate the biochemical changes and alterations in the hepatic tissues induced by this drug overdosing. In comparison with respective control rabbits, sildenafil overdoses elevated significantly (p-value<0.05, ANOVA test) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone and total protein, while creatinine and urea were lowered with no significant alteration was observed in uric acid and luteinizing hormone concentration. Also sildenafil provoked hepatocytes nuclear alterations, necrosis, hydropic degeneration, bile duct hyperplasia, Kupffer cells hyperplasia, inflammatory cells infiltration, hepatic vessels congestion and evident partial depletion of glycogen content. The results show that subchronic exposure to sildenafil overdoses exhibits significant biochemical and alterations in the hepatic tissues that might affect the functions of the liver and other vital organs. PMID:26639481

  17. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  18. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  19. Biochemical analysis of the crude extract of Momordica charantia (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Ume Kalsoom; Owais, Farah; Ahmad, Manzoor; Rizwani, Ghazala H

    2014-11-01

    Momordica charantia (L.) commonly referred as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. The study was conducted to find out the biochemical aspects of crude extract of whole fruit of M. charantia including seeds which includes blood test (Hemoglobin, RBC, Total leukocyte count, platelets count, HbA1C (Glycocylated heamoglobin Type A1C)), Lipid profile test and electrolyte balance. Hemoglobin (7.1±0.14), platelets count (827 ×109±1.95), Cholesterol level (111±2), HDL (high density lipoproteins) (20±1.22) at 10mg shows marked increase in values as compared to control. While 25 mg dose shows insignificant result. Electrolyte balance are found significant at 10mg and 25mg except bicarbonates (Na(+¬)=143±1.87, K-=3.45±0.35, Cl(-) =108±1.48). Another important property of M. charantia is the elevation of platelet counts, heamoglobin and specifically high-density lipoproteins (HDL). It also controls cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL at low dosage (10mg). Further studies can be conducted to find out which phytochemical components acts on specific biochemical activity. PMID:26045386

  20. Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bel, Golan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce specific complex structures from a large set of similar biochemical building blocks, many biochemical systems require high sensitivity to small molecular differences. The first and most common mqdel used to explain this high specificity is kinetic proofreading, which has been extended to a variety of systems from detection of DNA mismatch to cell signaling processes. While the specification properties of the kinetic proofreading model are well known and were studied in various contexts, very little is known about its temporal behavior. In this work, we study the dynamical properties of discrete stochastic two-branch kinetic proofreading schemes. Using the Laplace transform of the corresponding chemical master equation, we obtain an analytical solution for the completion time distribution. In particular we provide expressions for the specificity and the mean and the variance of the process completion times. We also show that, for a wide range of parameters a process distinguishing between two different products can be reduced to a much simpler three point process. Our results allow for the systematic study of the interplay between specificity and completion times as well as testing the validity of the kinetic proofreading model in biological systems.

  1. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) at a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Clinical and laboratory profile and outcome of children less than 15 years of age attending the Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of the Aga Khan University, Karachi with the diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis according to International League against Rheumatism were studied. These children were classified into different types of JIA; their clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to therapy and outcome was evaluated. Results: Sixty eight patients satisfying the criteria of International League against Rheumatism (ILAR) for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis were enrolled during the study period of four consecutive years, their age ranged from 9 months to 15 years. Mean age at onset was 6.45 +- 4.03 years while mean age at diagnosis was 7.60 +- 3.93 years. Polyarticular was the most predominant subtype with 37 (54%) patients, out of these, 9 (24%) were rheumatoid factor positive. An almost equal gender predisposition was observed. Fever and arthritis were the most common presenting symptoms, with only 2 patients presenting with uveitis. Conclusion: The clinico-biochemical characteristics of JIA at the study centre showed a pattern distinct with early onset of disease, high frequency of polyarticular type and a higher rheumatoid factor (QRA) and ANA positivity in girls. (author)

  2. Search Engine Optimization and Search Engine Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Stárek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses website optimization for search engines and their promotion through PPC ads. The theoretical part describes all of the important aspects and principles necessary for a correct optimization and combines them with principles related to search engine marketing. The practical part describes the whole process of optimization from the analysis of competition and link-building to the set up and evaluation of PPC ads. It is trying to find any important differences between the tw...

  3. Da "Search engines" a "Shop engines"

    OpenAIRE

    Lupi, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    The change occuring related to “search engines” is going towards e-commerce, transforming all the main search engines into information and commercial suggestion conveying means, basing their businnes on this activity. In a next future we will find two main series of search engines: from one side, the portals that will offer a general orientation guide being convoying means for services and to-buy products; from the other side, vertical portals able to offer information and products on specifi...

  4. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing number and increase in size of civil engineering works and the growing need for protection measures of the sandy coasts have led to an ever increasing risk of adverse effects on the nature and lan...

  5. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  6. A micro-perfusion bioreactor for on line investigation of ECM remodeling under hydrodynamic and biochemical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garziano, A; Urciuolo, F; Imparato, G; Martorina, F; Corrado, B; Netti, P

    2016-03-01

    Tissue-on-chip (TOC) systems aim at replicating complex biological dynamics in vitro with the potential either to improve the understanding of human biology or to develop more accurate therapeutic strategies. To replicate faithfully the intricate interrelationships between cells and their surrounding microenvironment, the three-dimensional (3D) tissue model must possess a responsive extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM remodeling plays a pivotal role in guiding cells and tissues functions and such aspect is somewhat denied during in vitro studies. For this purpose, we fabricated a micro-perfusion bioreactor capable to sustain the viability of 3D engineered tissue models recapitulating the process of the native ECM deposition and assembly. Engineered human dermis micro-tissue precursors (HD-μTP) were used as building blocks to generate a final tissue. HD-μTP were loaded in the perfusion space of the micro-perfusion bioreactor and, under the superimposition of different fluid dynamic regimes and biochemical stimulation, they synthesized new collagen proteins that were, then, assembled in the perfusion space forming a continuum of cells embedded in their own ECM. The micro-perfusion bioreactor was fabricated to allow the on-line monitoring of the oxygen consumption and the assembly of the newly formed collagen network via real time acquisition of the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal. The possibility to detect the collagen reorganization due to both fluid dynamic and biochemical stimulation, let us to define the optimal perfusion configuration in order to obtain a TOC system based on an endogenous and responsive ECM. PMID:26860053

  7. Systems Engineering Management and the Relationship of Systems Engineering to Project Management and Software Engineering (presentation)

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Barry; Conrow, Ed; Madachy, Ray; Nidiffer, Ken; Roedler, Garry

    2010-01-01

    Prepared for the 13th Annual NDIA Systems Engineering Conference October 28, 2010, “Achieving Acquisition Excellence Via Effective Systems Engineering”. Panel: Systems Engineering Management and the Relationship of Systems Engineering to Project Management and Software Engineering

  8. Microfluidics and microbial engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Songzi; Cheng, Danhui; Sun, Fei; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-02-01

    The combination of microbial engineering and microfluidics is synergistic in nature. For example, microfluidics is benefiting from the outcome of microbial engineering and many reported point-of-care microfluidic devices employ engineered microbes as functional parts for the microsystems. In addition, microbial engineering is facilitated by various microfluidic techniques, due to their inherent strength in high-throughput screening and miniaturization. In this review article, we firstly examine the applications of engineered microbes for toxicity detection, biosensing, and motion generation in microfluidic platforms. Secondly, we look into how microfluidic technologies facilitate the upstream and downstream processes of microbial engineering, including DNA recombination, transformation, target microbe selection, mutant characterization, and microbial function analysis. Thirdly, we highlight an emerging concept in microbial engineering, namely, microbial consortium engineering, where the behavior of a multicultural microbial community rather than that of a single cell/species is delineated. Integrating the disciplines of microfluidics and microbial engineering opens up many new opportunities, for example in diagnostics, engineering of microbial motors, development of portable devices for genetics, high throughput characterization of genetic mutants, isolation and identification of rare/unculturable microbial species, single-cell analysis with high spatio-temporal resolution, and exploration of natural microbial communities.

  9. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips using Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combin......Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves...... the biochemical application and consider that the biochip architecture is given. We model the architecture using a topology graph. We are interested in synthesizing an implementation, consisting of binding and scheduling of the biochemical operations onto the components of the architecture, such that the resource...

  10. Biochemical Mechanisms Controlling Terminal Electron Transfer in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, R.; Liermann, L. J.; Brantley, S. L.; Tien, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of Geobacter sulfurreducens to use a variety of metals as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) for cellular respiration makes it attractive for use in bioremediation and implies its importance to mineral cycling in the environment. This study is aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanisms that allow Geobacter sulfurreducens to use soluble and insoluble iron and manganese forms as TEAs for cellular respiration and is the first of its kind to address the kinetics of manganese use as a TEA by G. sulfurreducens. First, G. sulfurreducens was conditioned to grow on various soluble and insoluble iron and manganese forms. G. sulfurreducens demonstrated enhanced growth rates when cultured using soluble TEAs compared with insoluble TEAs. However, the lower growth rate on insoluble iron compared with soluble iron was observed concomitantly with a 1-2 log lower cell density in stationary phase in insoluble iron cultures and a lower growth yield per electron donor used in log growth phase. Furthermore, the growth yield per electron was similar with both soluble and insoluble iron. These results suggest that the net amount of energy available for biomass production achieved from reducing insoluble iron is lower than with soluble iron, which may be due to a different biochemical mechanism catalyzing the electron transfer to TEA dependent upon the solubility of the TEA. One scenario consistent with this notion is that protein(s) in the outer membrane of G. sulfurreducens that transfers electrons to insoluble TEAs does so in a manner that uncouples electron flow from the proton pump in the cellular membrane, similar to what we have observed with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Both the growth rate and growth yield of G. sulfurreducens on insoluble manganese were higher than on insoluble iron, indicating that there is a difference in the flow of electrons to the TEA in these two situations. While the different redox potentials of these elements may affect these values

  11. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Digital Microfluidic Biochips with Operation Execution Time Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul

    2015-01-01

    approaches have been proposed for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. Researchers have assumed......Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets. Several...

  12. Signal detection, modularity and the correlation between extrinsic and intrinsic noise in biochemical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanase-Nicola, Sorin; Warren, Patrick B.; Wolde, Pieter Rein ten

    2005-01-01

    Understanding cell function requires an accurate description of how noise is transmitted through biochemical networks. We present an analytical result for the power spectrum of the output signal of a biochemical network that takes into account the correlations between the noise in the input signal (the extrinsic noise) and the noise in the reactions that constitute the network (the intrinsic noise). These correlations arise from the fact that the reactions by which biochemical signals are det...

  13. Biochemical Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA Repair Enzymes – Nfo, XthA and Nei2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailau Abeldenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB is a human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. Treatment of TB requires long-term courses of multi-drug therapies to eliminate subpopulations of bacteria, which sometimes persist against antibiotics. Therefore, understanding of the mechanism of Mtb antibiotic-resistance is extremely important. During infection, Mtb overcomes a variety of body defense mechanisms, including treatment with the reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen. The bases in DNA molecule are susceptible to the damages caused by reactive forms of intermediate compounds of oxygen and nitrogen. Most of this damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER pathway. In this study, we aimed to biochemically characterize three Mtb DNA repair enzymes of BER pathway. Methods: XthA, nfo, and nei genes were identified in mycobacteria by homology search of genomic sequences available in the GenBank database. We used standard methods of genetic engineering  to clone and sequence Mtb genes, which coded Nfo, XthA and Nei2 repair enzymes. The protein products of Mtb genes were expressed and purified in Escherichia coli using affinity tags. The enzymatic activity of purified Nfo, XthA, and Nei2 proteins were measured using radioactively labeled DNA substrates containing various modified residues. Results: The genes end (Rv0670, xthA (Rv0427c, and nei (Rv3297 were PCR amplified using genomic DNA of Mtb H37Rv with primers that contain specific restriction sites. The amplified products were inserted into pET28c(+ expression vector in such a way that the recombinant proteins contain C-terminal histidine tags. The plasmid constructs were verified by sequencing and then transformed into the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 strain. Purification of recombinant proteins was performed using Ni2+ ions immobilized affinity column, coupled with the fast performance liquid chromatography machine AKTA. Identification of the isolated proteins was performed by

  14. Practical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    N Makarov, Sergey; Bitar, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors’ primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers. Provides a self-contained, fundamental textbook on electric circuits and basic electronic...

  15. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  16. Embedded engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Kaštelan, Ivan; Temerinac, Miodrag; Barak, Moshe; Sruk, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the outcome of the European research project “FP7-ICT-2011-8 / 317882: Embedded Engineering Learning Platform” E2LP. Additionally, some experiences and researches outside this project have been included. This book provides information about the achieved results of the E2LP project as well as some broader views about the embedded engineering education. It captures project results and applications, methodologies, and evaluations. It leads to the history of computer architectures, brings a touch of the future in education tools and provides a valuable resource for anyone interested in embedded engineering education concepts, experiences and material. The book contents 12 original contributions and will open a broader discussion about the necessary knowledge and appropriate learning methods for the new profile of embedded engineers. As a result, the proposed Embedded Computer Engineering Learning Platform will help to educate a sufficient number of future engineers in Europe, capable of d...

  17. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); O' Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  18. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  19. A general method for modeling biochemical and biomedical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Lerd Ng, Jia; Hughes, Tyler; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The impressive achievements of biomedical science have come mostly from experimental research with human subjects, animal models, and sophisticated laboratory techniques. Additionally, theoretical chemistry has been a major aid in designing new drugs. Here we introduce a method which is similar to others already well known in theoretical systems biology, but which specifically addresses biochemical changes as the human body responds to medical interventions. It is common in systems biology to use first-order differential equations to model the time evolution of various chemical concentrations, and we as physicists can make a significant impact through designing realistic models and then solving the resulting equations. Biomedical research is rapidly advancing, and the technique presented in this talk can be applied in arbitrarily large models containing tens, hundreds, or even thousands of interacting species, to determine what beneficial effects and side effects may result from pharmaceuticals or other medical interventions.

  20. Biochemical Investigation Is no Substitute for Clinical Examination!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn LA Rogers

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Toxic shock syndrome has been shown previously to be associated with hyperamylasaemia. However, serum amylase levels do not usually exceed three times upper limit of normal in these cases. Case report We report a case of a young girl of 17 years who presented with upper abdominal pain, severe shock and raised serum amylase level of 3,898 U/L, giving an impression of severe acute pancreatitis. It was only after finding a tampon in her vagina, and subsequently growing Staphylococcus aureus in her blood cultures, did the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome become apparent. She recovered fully with supportive treatment and appropriate antibiotics. Conclusions Toxic shock syndrome with such a high level of serum amylase has not been previously reported. This case exemplifies the importance of repeated clinical evaluation of patients in this era of multiple investigations, and not simply relying on biochemical values for diagnosis.

  1. Morphological, kinetic, membrane biochemical and genetic aspects of intestinal enteroplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; M Tom Clandinin; Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    The process of intestinal adaptation ("enteroplasticity") is complex and multifaceted. Although a number of trophic nutrients and non-nutritive factors have been identified in animal studies, successful, reproducible clinical trials in humans are awaited. Understanding mechanisms underlying this adaptive process may direct research toward strategies that maximize intestinal function and impart a true clinical benefit to patients with short bowel syndrome, or to persons in whom nutrient absorption needs to be maximized. In this review, we consider the morphological, kinetic and membrane biochemical aspects of enteroplasticity, focus on the importance of nutritional factors, provide an overview of the many hormones that may alter the adaptive process, and consider some of the possible molecular profiles. While most of the data is derived from rodent studies, wherever possible, the results of human studies of intestinal enteroplasticity are provided.

  2. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  3. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease: Hormonal and Biochemical Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Larrad-Mur, Luis; Kallen, Amanda; Chedraui, Peter; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by an increase in vascular wall thickness owing to the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix between the endothelium and the smooth muscle cell wall. There is evidence that females are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to males. This has led to an interest in examining the contribution of genetic background and sex hormones to the development of CVD. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of factors, including those related to gender, that influence CVD. Methods Evidence analysis from PubMed and individual searches concerning biochemical and endocrine influences and gender differences, which affect the origin and development of CVD. Results Although still controversial, evidence suggests that hormones including estradiol and androgens are responsible for subtle cardiovascular changes long before the development of overt atherosclerosis. Conclusion Exposure to sex hormones throughout an individual's lifespan modulates many endocrine factors involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:20460551

  4. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous.

  5. Biochemical switching device: how to turn on (off) the switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, M; Sakai, T; Hayashi, K

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. This characteristic is, however, a disadvantage for practical use of a switching device; we need to improve the system in order for the switching time to optionally be changed. We shall present here how to turn on (off) the switch independently of the modes of two inputs. By introducing pulse perturbation, we could optionally set up the switching time of a cyclic enzyme system (biochemical switching device). PMID:2720139

  6. Prediction of the preeclampsia: a view of biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sühha Bostancı

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a diverse, multiorgan group of related disease processes that occurs in up to 5%-8% of pregnancies after 20 weeks’ gestation and it is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Many molecular mechanisms are contributed to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Although it is unknown whether the mechanisms act independently or have synergistic effects. This review describes review of primary papers investigating blood based biomarker such as PAP-A, Inhibin A, sFlt1, and PP13 in general and first trimester biochemical markers and combinations of them specifically for preeclampsia.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i4.699

  7. [Cardiorenal syndrome: the role of new biochemical markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernuccio, Federica; Grutta, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Filippo; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome is a pathophysiological heart and kidney disorder, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ induces a damage in the other. It's a syndrome more and more often encountered in clinical practice and this implies the need to recognize the syndrome through biochemical markers with a good sensitivity and specificity, since its earliest stages in order to optimize therapy. In addition to widely validated biomarkers, such as BNP, pro BNP, creatinine, GFR and cystatin C, other promising molecules are available, like NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, KIM-1 (kidney injury molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic peptide), Netrin-1, interleuchin 18 and NAG (N-acetyl-β-glucosa-minidase). The role of these emerging biomarkers is still not completely clarified: hence the need of new clinical trials. PMID:23258238

  8. Biochemical Markers for Osteoarthritis: Is There any Promising Candidate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Aydın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common degenerative joint disease. OA affects millions of individuals each year and becoming the most important cause of pain in geriatric population. Progressive destruction of articular cartilage is one of the prominent features of the disease. The diagnosis of OA is generally based on clinical and radiographical findings, which are insufficient to determine early-stage OA and predict disease course. There is a need for biomarkers that help clinicians early diagnose, assess disease activity, predict prognosis and monitor response to therapy. There are a growing number of publications regarding candidate markers in this field. The aim of this paper was to review recent studies on biochemical markers that reflect cartilage, synovial and bone turnover and their clinical use in patients with OA.

  9. Biochemical changes in rats regenerating liver under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white female rats were hezato ectomized before irradiation to create conditions comparable with clinical. Rats front abdomen area was irradiated with 14 Gy. It was shown that changes by all indices took place in regenerating and weakly regenerating (irradiated) liver in 2, 4 and 15 days following hepatectomy. The process of irradiation accelerates lipid peroxide oxidation, decreases acid phosphatase activity in gredter degree than in regenerating liver and doesn't influence glucose-6-phosphatase activity in comparison with non-irradiated hepatectomized animals. The studied biochemical indices can be used in formation of test bit to diagnose local radiation injuries of various organs or to characterize modification action. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  10. Gadagi Magani Tea Is Detrimental Affects Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar A.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gadagi Magani tae is a herbal tea composed of many different herbs roots extracts shrubs and leaves prepared locally in form of tea consumed by many labourers youths tailors tricyclists and high way drivers in order to get extraordinary strength to endure hardship and overcome heavy duty within short period of time. The following biochemical parameters were routinely determined among consumers serum level of Aspartate aminotransaminases AST Alanine aminotransferase ALT activities were pragmatically higher than that of control increase in serum creatinine level lower sera urea and glucose levels and the sera levels of lipoproteins were also lower compared to controls. Hence Gadagi affects negatively the liver enzymes blood sugar level serum urea creatinine and carbonate positively as it lowers lipid profile.

  11. SIMULATING BIOCHEMICAL SIGNALING NETWORKS IN COMPLEX MOVING GEOMETRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychalski, Wanda; Adalsteinsson, David; Elston, Timothy C

    2010-01-01

    Signaling networks regulate cellular responses to environmental stimuli through cascades of protein interactions. External signals can trigger cells to polarize and move in a specific direction. During migration, spatially localized activity of proteins is maintained. To investigate the effects of morphological changes on intracellular signaling, we developed a numerical scheme consisting of a cut cell finite volume spatial discretization coupled with level set methods to simulate the resulting advection-reaction-diffusion system. We then apply the method to several biochemical reaction networks in changing geometries. We found that a Turing instability can develop exclusively by cell deformations that maintain constant area. For a Turing system with a geometry-dependent single or double peak solution, simulations in a dynamically changing geometry suggest that a single peak solution is the only stable one, independent of the oscillation frequency. The method is also applied to a model of a signaling network in a migrating fibroblast. PMID:24086102

  12. Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, H G; Rasco, B A

    2000-01-01

    Considerable amounts of fish processing byproducts are discarded each year. By developing enzyme technologies for protein recovery and modification, production of a broad spectrum of food ingredients and industrial products may be possible. Hydrolyzed vegetable and milk proteins are widely used food ingredients. There are few hydrolyzed fish protein foods with the exception of East Asian condiments and sauces. This review describes various manufacturing techniques for fish protein hydrolysates using acid, base, endogenous enzymes, and added bacterial or digestive proteases. The chemical and biochemical characteristics of hydrolyzed fish proteins are discussed. In addition, functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates are described, including solubility, water-holding capacity, emulsification, and foam-forming ability. Possible applications of fish protein hydrolysates in food systems are provided, and comparison with other food protein hydrolysates where pertinent. PMID:10674201

  13. Biochemical fundamentals of rational radurization technology of cooled meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the last few years to explore the possibility of prolonging the storage life of meat in a cooled state. These experiments have shown that a clearly promising approach is to use relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (300-600 Krad). Irradiation of meat and fowl with such doses strongly reduced microbial contamination while increasing 3- to 5-fold the storage life of the products at low above-zero C temperatures. An important consideration is that the organoleptic and nutritive properties remain largely unchanged. The present communication reports the main results of biochemical studies necessary before an irradiation scheme for semifinished meat products can be developed. (E.T.)

  14. Integration of biochemical sensors into wearable biomaterial platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sidhartha; Walper, Scott A.; Cargill, Allison A.; Ozual, Abigail; Daniele, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    With rapidly inflating healthcare costs, a limited supply of physicians and an alarming surge in lifestyle diseases, radical changes must be made to improve preventative medicine and ensure a sustainable healthcare system. A compelling solution is to equip the population with wearable health monitors to continuously record representative and actionable physiological data. Herein, we present a preliminary design and evaluation of a biochemical sensor node enabled by a substrate comprised of a nanocellulose thin-film that conforms to the skin and carries a printed sensor element. The nanocellulose layer ensures conformal and biocompatible contact with the skin, while a printed layer provides a high surface-area electrode. While the recognition/transduction element can be exchanged for many different sensing motifs, we utilize the general structure of an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  15. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...

  16. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J. [UMDI-Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  17. Biochemical profile and outcome in normal and high risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, K G; Urooj, Asna

    2009-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the biochemical profile and outcome of pregnancy and study the adverse consequences if any, among normal and high risk pregnant women. The study group included 182 normal and 168 high risk cases attending to private and Government Hospitals in Bangalore. The high risk groups were: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), Adolescents and anemic cases. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced in PIH and GDM groups (5.56 nmol/ml and 3.98 nmol/ml) MDA values as compared to other groups. Vitamin E levels were significantly (plow birth weight were observed more in PIH group. The study revealed occurrence of oxidative stress and adverse outcome among high risk pregnancy groups. PMID:23105848

  18. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YU-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones including ethylene,gibberellin,and brassinolide have been reported to be involved in this process.Here we first identified by proteomic analysis a cotton cytosolic APX1 (GhAPX1) that was specifically accumulated during cotton fiber elongation.GhAPX1 expression was up-regulated in response to cellular H2O2 and ethylene,and it was involved in modulating the stead-state level of H2O2.

  19. Methods for assessing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, S; Recoules, L; Durand, M J; Boukabache, A; Picot, V; Primault, Y; Lakel, A; Sengelin, M; Barillon, B; Thouand, G

    2014-02-01

    The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is one of the most widely used criteria for water quality assessment. It provides information about the ready biodegradable fraction of the organic load in water. However, this analytical method is time-consuming (generally 5 days, BOD5), and the results may vary according to the laboratory (20%), primarily due to fluctuations in the microbial diversity of the inoculum used. Work performed during the two last decades has resulted in several technologies that are less time-consuming and more reliable. This review is devoted to the analysis of the technical features of the principal methods described in the literature in order to compare their performances (measuring window, reliability, robustness) and to identify the pros and the cons of each method.

  20. Study of biochemical examination among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical findings were compared in 1003 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤1900 m from the hypocenter and 1003 age- and sex-matched A-bomb survivors exposed at ≥3,000 m. Mean and abnormal values for lung function, such as total protein, GOT and GPT, did not differ in two groups of both men and women. However, mean values of both total cholesterol and neutral fat were significantly higher in the ≤1900m group than in the ≥3000 m group, irrespective of sex. Similarly, the ≤1900 m group had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal values for these items than the ≥3000 m group. (N.K.)

  1. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous. PMID:27276935

  2. BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN ZINC DEFICIENT SHEEP ASSOCIATED BY HYPERLACTATEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from diseased and clinically healthy Balady sheep of both sexes were collected and subjected for biochemical analysis of serum glucose, fructosamine, lactate, growth hormone, insulin, creatine phosphokinase, Lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase. The obtained results revealed a significant decrease in serum zinc and growth hormone were stated. In contrary, serum glucose and lactate, insulin, CPK, LDH and aldolase were significantly increased statically. While, fructosamine levels were non-significantly increased. From these results can conclude that, in zinc deficient sheep the carbohydrate metabolism is directed toward the anaerobic one accompanied by hyperlactemia which induce muscle cramp and damages leading to increased CPK, LDH and aldolase which appear clinically as enlargement of knee joint, lameness and staggering gait. In addition, growth retardation and wool loss are the main clinical signs of reduction in growth hormone.

  3. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.

    2010-07-27

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wensvoort

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes during fasting or the withholding of feed for 5 day were studied in serum of camelids (dromedary camel, llama and ruminants (sheep, steers. Camels maintained low levels of 13-hydroxybutyrate (BHB and high levels of glucose but showed some increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and urea when fasting. Sheep and steers showed a rise in serum BHB and much higher increases of NEFA than camels and llamas. Sheep showed decreased serum glucose. The llama showed some increase in BHB but NEFA was lower than the other three species. The results indicate that camelids have a unique ability to control lipolytic and gluconeogenic activity to prevent or postpone the state of ketosis. Understanding and manipulation of these metabolic mechanisms in cattle and sheep could have great benefit to the livestock industry.

  5. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator–prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  6. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the barrier sterols and image the lipid structures in the matrix of acquired cholesteatoma and compare the distribution with that found in stratum corneum from normal skin, with the goal to resolve their potential influence on cholesteatoma growth. METHODS: High-performanc......OBJECTIVES: To quantify the barrier sterols and image the lipid structures in the matrix of acquired cholesteatoma and compare the distribution with that found in stratum corneum from normal skin, with the goal to resolve their potential influence on cholesteatoma growth. METHODS: High......-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used to achieve a quantitative biochemical determination of the sterols. The intercellular lipids were visualized by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, which enables label-free imaging of the lipids in intact tissue samples. RESULTS...

  7. The biochemical basis for thermoregulation in heat-producing flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekawa, Yui; Seymour, Roger S; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoregulation (homeothermy) in animals involves a complex mechanism involving thermal receptors throughout the body and integration in the hypothalamus that controls shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The flowers of some ancient families of seed plants show a similar degree of physiological thermoregulation, but by a different mechanism. Here, we show that respiratory control in homeothermic spadices of skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) is achieved by rate-determining biochemical reactions in which the overall thermodynamic activation energy exhibits a negative value. Moreover, NADPH production, catalyzed by mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase in a chemically endothermic reaction, plays a role in the pre-equilibrium reaction. We propose that a law of chemical equilibrium known as Le Châtelier's principle governs the homeothermic control in skunk cabbage. PMID:27095582

  8. A biochemical and genetic study of Leishmania donovani pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Will; Isea, Raúl; Rodriguez, Evelyn; Ramirez, Jose Luis

    2008-11-15

    Here we present a biochemical and molecular biology study of the enzyme pyruvate kinase (PYK) from the parasitic protozoa Leishmania donovani. The PYK gene was cloned, mutagenised and over expressed and its kinetic parameters determined. Like in other kinetoplastids, L. donovani PYK is allosterically stimulated by the effector fructose 2,6 biphosphate and not by fructose 1,6 biphosphate. When the putative effector binding site of L. donovani PYK was mutagenised, we obtained two mutants with extreme kinetic behavior: Lys453Leu, which retained a sigmoidal kinetics and was little affected by the effector; and His480Gln, which deployed a hyperbolic kinetics that was not changed by the addition of the effector. Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies revealed that the mutations not only altered the effector binding site of L. donovani PYK but also changed the folding of its domain C. PMID:18725273

  9. Metabolic Engineering of Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ravi R.; Prasad, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Yield and productivity are critical for the economics and viability of a bioprocess. In metabolic engineering the main objective is the increase of a target metabolite production through genetic engineering. Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the production of a certain substance. In the last years, the development of recombinant DNA technology and other related technologies has provided new tools for approaching yield...

  10. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi

    2013-01-01

    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  11. Game mechanics engine

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Lars V

    2011-01-01

    Game logic and game rules exists in all computer games, but they are created di erently for all game engines. This game engine dependency exists because of how the internal object model is implemented in the engine, as a place where game logic data is intermingled with the data needed by the low- level subsystems. This thesis propose a game object model design, based on existing theory, that removes this dependency and establish a general game logic framework. The thesis the...

  12. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific Reports | 5:12953 | DOI: 10.1038/srep12953 1 www.nature.com/scientificreports Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine Ali Ü. C. Hardal & Özgür E. Müstecaplıoğlu Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop eficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, ...

  13. Standing detonation wave engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan

    2015-10-08

    A detonation engine can detonate a mixture of fuel and oxidizer within a cylindrical detonation region to produce work. The detonation engine can have a first and a second inlet having ends fluidly connected from tanks to the detonation engine. The first and second inlets can be aligned along a common axis. The inlets can be connected to nozzles and a separator can be positioned between the nozzles and along the common axis.

  14. Engineering and War

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Nieusma; Ethan Blue

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how the connections between engineering and warfare/militarism are closer than is usually recognized. It investigates the nature of that relationship using theoretical perspectives from critical theory and social constructionism. We draw on historical research into the influence of military institutions and interests on the field of engineering, but also look broadly at cultures of warfare that extend beyond formalized military institutions. Focusing on engineering labor and ...

  15. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  16. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yuntao; Du, Shijun

    2013-01-01

    Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study

  17. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  18. Creative Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Clare J.; Millard, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Software engineering is traditionally seen as very structured and methodical. However, it often involves creative steps: consider requirements analysis, architecture engineering and GUI design. This poster describes three existing software engineering methods which include creative steps, alongside a method called 'experience deconstruction'. Deconstruction, which also includes a creative step, is used to help understand user experiences and re-provide these experiences in new contexts.

  19. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehere, P.; Robinson, H.; Han, Q.; Lemkul, J. A.; Vavricka, C. J.; Bevan, D. R.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  20. Tyrosine Aminotransferase: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Mehere; Q Han; J Lemkul; C Vavricka; H Robinson; D Bevan; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  1. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  2. POTENTIALITIES AND RISKS OF BIOCHEMICAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VIA INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Gomes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet is more and more present in worldwide education. There are innumerable projects thatstimulate its usage for aiding the teaching-learning process. This new trend modies the reality of thewhole school. However, many copies of identical information are found in several sites: graphs, gures,texts, links and even errors. The aim of this work is to analyse the biochemical issues photosynthesisand cellular respiration available in web pages, taking into account contents quality, trustworthinessand eectiveness. Firstly, 6th secondary level students were inquired by a questionnaire on their use ofinternet resources. More than 80 percent of them were regular users. The result conrms the alreadyknown potential of internet in education. Fourteen sites were analysed regarding to contents, presenceof bibliographical references, authorship, titles of responsibles and adequacy to the target public. Inrelation to contents, presence of conceptual errors, illustrations and other stimulant elements wereanalysed. None of the sites presented biblioghraphic references; less than half divulged responsiblenames and their graduation. The great majority do not mention intended public target. In general,the sites did not contained grave conceptual errors, except for two that mention estoma insteadestroma, cilica/acilica phosphorylation (for cyclic and acyclic, grama (for grana and place oxygenas essential for anaerobic respiration. However, one of these sites was the only one that mentionedenzymes and regulation steps of cellular respiration. Half of the sites presented identical texts andgures. None used livened up resources. The majority showed contents as virtual versions of printedbooks. Illustrations did not present necessary legends. None of the analysed sites, thus, was consideredexcellent. Trustworthiness is also questionable as much of the contents arte clearly copies of otherpages, recurrent even on the errors. Our data strengthen the need for

  3. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1 control (CK, without N added, (2 low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1, (3 medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1 year(-1, and (4 high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1 year(-1. Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+, NO3(-, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease and phosphorus (acid phosphatase and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities. Results suggest that (1 this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2 the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  4. Physical and Biochemical Characteristics of Sharhabiel Reservoir Water, NW Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem M. El-Radaideh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jordan relies heavily on rainwater stored in reservoirs because it has extremely limited alternative water resources. These reservoirs are essential for drinking water and irrigation, so monitoring their water quality is extremely important. Variations in physical and biochemical conditions were investigated at Sharhabiel Reservoir (Jordan. Water quality monitoring of Sharhabiel Dam, from January to December 2013 indicates that the dam is subject to agricultural runoff. It also revealed that mineral dissolution, sediment load, rainfall evaporation and pumping, are the major contributors to variations in water quality. The water chemistry of the impounded Sharnabiel Reservoir showed that Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3 , and Cl are the principal ions, reflecting the dominance of calcareous weathering, with some contribution of silicates. The pH values showed an irregular pattern with highest values observed in the spring months. Total dissolved solids (TDS, Ca, Mg, and HCO3 are primarily related to leaching and evaporation, with elevated levels that occurred in the winter months. In contrast, seasonal patterns in Na, K, Cl, and NH4–N contents showed decreased values in wet months. Peaks in NO3 –N observed in winter are strongly associated with agricultural runoff. Changes in chlorophyll-a level were coincided with low ratio of TN to TP. BOD5 and COD peaks in spring corresponding with high algal growth. No significant changes in most of physical and biochemical parameters with depth, probably due to shallow depth, high annual sedimentation rate and heavy pumping rate in dry months. No available recorded data for long-term monitoring of Sharhabiel reservoir water to emphasize the self-purification capacity of dam.

  5. Dietary intakes and some biochemical markers in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yassibas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intake of energy and some nutrients is frequently inadequate in dialysis patients because of eating and appetite disorders due to uremic syndrome. Inadequate energy and protein intake cause to malnutrition. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers and dietary intake records have great importance in determining the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD patients. Therefore this study was planned to determination of daily energy, nutrient intake and some biochemical markers of adult hemodialysis patients. Method and Material:  A hundred and thirty six (male = 73, female = 63 clinically stable HD patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were taken 24-hour dietary recall. The daily energy and nutrient intakes of patients were calculated by food consumption records and anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: The mean age was found 45.5±13.51 years. The ratio of patients with body mass index (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2 was 7.4% and 25 kg/m2 or upper was 16.9%. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total protein levels were below the normal levels. The daily dietary energy and protein intakes were found under the recommended level in the study period. A significant positive correlation was found between daily protein intake and serum albumin levels (r=0.210, p=0.014, daily protein intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.201, p=0.019, daily energy intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.178, p=0.039. Conclusions: HD patients often have low protein and energy intakes and most of them suffer from malnutrition. Therefore nutritional status of patients should be evaluated and periodically nutrition education should be given for improving eating habits and increasing dietary compliance is recommended.

  6. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  7. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehere, Prajwalini; Han, Qian; Lemkul, Justin A; Vavricka, Christopher J; Robinson, Howard; Bevan, David R; Li, Jianyong

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using α-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  8. Biochemical Hypermedia: Glucose as a Central Molecule in Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The technologies of information, together with education resources, have been pointed out as a solution to the improvement of teaching approach, but they still claim for programs to fulfill the demands of didactic materials. So, a biochemical software was developed aiming to contribute for the better understanding of the glycolysis. It was prepared with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. The introduction screen shows a teacher in a theater presenting glucose as a central molecule in the metabolism of animals, plants and many microorganisms. She invites for a better knowledge of glucose through a view of its discovery and its metabolism. A step by step animation process shows the interaction of glucose in aerobic conditions with the enzymes of the glycolytic pathways and its products. An explanation text of each enzyme catalytic process is provided by links. A static pathway is always available through a link. The fates of pyruvate yielding lactic acid and ethanol under anaerobic conditions are shown as well. The overall reactions of gluconeogenesis and the functional significance of this pathway are presented. The experimental treatment involved the presentation of this hypermedia for Nutrition undergraduate students (UFSC as a tool for better comprehension of the theme. The students revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in glycolysis. This suggests that there is a significant added value in employing the software as an instructional effort to enhance student’s abilities to understand biochemical pathways.

  9. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 yearsand older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories.Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husbandheaded households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had highersugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocyte counts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucoselevels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations.Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  10. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 years and older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories.Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husband-headed households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had higher sugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocytecounts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucose levels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations.Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  11. Micronutrient influence in Nannochloropsis sp. growth and biochemical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Rosado Correia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a heterogeneous group, which includes various and distinct taxa. However, few genera are actively used in aquaculture, due to the lack of specific requirements, like adequate size, shape and non-toxic. Nannochloropsis sp. is one of the main microalgae used in aquaculture, due to its nutritional profile and for being a fast-growing microalgae. Despite its characteristics, large-scale culture of Nannochloropsis sp. is in constant improvement, in order to accomplish the best productivity, combined with an adequate biochemical profile. In an attempt to achieve this, an experimental set-up was tested with microalgae grown in four different culture media: (1 NutriBloom [NB] (commercial medium used at Necton’s facilities, (2 NutriBloom without cobalt [NB w/Co], (3 Simplex [S] (no addition of iron or any micronutrient and (4 Sea Mineral Solution [SMS]. Nannochloropsis’s contents of protein, carbohydrates, total lipid and PUFA’s were controlled at logarithmic and stationary phases of growth, using classical techniques, as mentioned in Lowry (1951, Dubois (1956, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Lepage & Roy (1986. Higher productivity, dry weight and number of cells were achieved when cultured in NB and NB w/Co. In the logarithmic phase, NB w/Co presented the higher protein content, SMS showed the higher percentage of lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS. In the stationary phase, S medium showed higher lipid percentage; nevertheless, NB medium presented the higher content of protein and PUFAs. In both phases, NB medium had the higher sugar content. Differences between micronutrient concentrations explain the verified variations in the microalgae’s biochemical profile, particularly iron, copper, cobalt and molybdenium variations.

  12. Biochemical characterization of the maltokinase from Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamosa Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maltose-1-phosphate was detected in Mycobacterium bovis BCG extracts in the 1960's but a maltose-1-phosphate synthetase (maltokinase, Mak was only much later purified from Actinoplanes missouriensis, allowing the identification of the mak gene. Recently, this metabolite was proposed to be the intermediate in a pathway linking trehalose with the synthesis of glycogen in M. smegmatis. Although the M. tuberculosis H37Rv mak gene (Rv0127 was considered essential for growth, no mycobacterial Mak has, to date, been characterized. Results The sequence of the Mak from M. bovis BCG was identical to that from M. tuberculosis strains (99-100% amino acid identity. The enzyme was dependent on maltose and ATP, although GTP and UTP could be used to produce maltose-1-phosphate, which we identified by TLC and characterized by NMR. The Km for maltose was 2.52 ± 0.40 mM and 0.74 ± 0.12 mM for ATP; the Vmax was 21.05 ± 0.89 μmol/min.mg-1. Divalent cations were required for activity and Mg2+ was the best activator. The enzyme was a monomer in solution, had maximal activity at 60°C, between pH 7 and 9 (at 37°C and was unstable on ice and upon freeze/thawing. The addition of 50 mM NaCl markedly enhanced Mak stability. Conclusions The unknown role of maltokinases in mycobacterial metabolism and the lack of biochemical data led us to express the mak gene from M. bovis BCG for biochemical characterization. This is the first mycobacterial Mak to be characterized and its properties represent essential knowledge towards deeper understanding of mycobacterial physiology. Since Mak may be a potential drug target in M. tuberculosis, its high-level production and purification in bioactive form provide important tools for further functional and structural studies.

  13. Expression of Neurotransmitter Transporters for Structural and Biochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Yael; Danieli, Tsafi; Kanner, Baruch I.; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters play essential roles in the process of neurotransmission. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters mediate storage inside secretory vesicles in a process that involves the exchange of lumenal H+ for cytoplasmic transmitter. Retrieval of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft catalyzed by sodium-coupled transporters is critical for the termination of the synaptic actions of the released neurotransmitter. Our current understanding of the mechanism of these transporters is based on functional and biochemical characterization but is lacking high-resolution structural information. Very few structures of membrane transport systems from mammalian origin have been solved to atomic resolution, mainly because of the difficulty in obtaining large amounts of purified protein. Development of high yield heterologous expression systems suitable for mammalian neurotransmitter transporters is essential to enable the production of purified protein for structural studies. Such a system makes possible also the production of mutants that can be used in biochemical and biophysical studies. We describe here a screen for the expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in cell-free and baculovirus expression systems and discuss the expression of VMAT2 in other systems as well (bacterial, yeast and mammalian cell lines). After screening and optimization, we achieved high yield (2–2.5 mg/liter) expression of functional VMAT2 in insect cells. The system was also used for the expression of three additional plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters. All were functional and expressed to high levels. Our results demonstrate the advantages of the baculovirus expression system for the expression of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters in a functional state. PMID:20566324

  14. Biochemical alterations induced in Hediste diversicolor under seawater acidification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Pires, Adília; Moreira, Anthony; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-06-01

    Seawater pH is among the environmental factors controlling the performance of marine organisms, especially in calcifying marine invertebrates. However, changes in non-calcifying organisms (including polychaetes) may also occur due to pH decrease. Polychaetes are often the most abundant group of organisms in estuarine systems, representing an important ecological and economic resource. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of seawater acidification in the polychaete Hediste diversicolor, a species commonly used as bioindicator. For this, organisms were exposed to different pH levels (7.9, 7.6 and 7.3) during 28 days and several biochemical markers were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that pH decrease negatively affected osmotic regulation and polychaetes metabolism, with individuals under low pH (7.6 and 7.3) presenting higher carbonic anhydrase activity, lower energy reserves (protein and glycogen content) and higher metabolic rate (measured as Electron transport system activity). The increase on CA activity was associated to organisms osmoregulation capacity while the increase on ETS and decrease on energy reserves was associated to the polychaetes capacity to develop defense mechanisms (e.g. antioxidant defenses). In fact, despite having observed higher lipid peroxidation at pH 7.6, in polychaetes at the lowest tested pH (7.3) LPO levels were similar to values recorded in individuals under control pH (7.9). Such findings may result from higher antioxidant enzyme activity at the lowest tested pH, which prevented organisms from higher oxidative stress levels. Overall, our study demonstrated how polychaetes may respond to near-future ocean acidification conditions, exhibiting the capacity to develop biochemical strategies which will prevent organisms from lethal injuries. Such defense strategies will contribute for polychaetes populations maintenance and survival under predicted seawater acidification scenarios. PMID:27088614

  15. Biochemical profile of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis and its nutritional attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Asha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are highly esteemed sea food and considered a delicacy throughout the world. Yet this resource is not optimally utilised in several parts of the world. The aim of this study is to highlight its nutritional importance. Biochemical composition and nutritional attributes of oyster meat are discussed. Proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles and mineral content were determined in oysters (Crassostrea madrasensis. Moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents in the oyster were 82.64%, 9.41%, 3.25% 3.2% and 1.01%, respectively and it was rich in macro-minerals and trace elements especially selenium. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA were highest of the total lipids among which eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and linoleic acid were the prominent fatty acids. The n-3/n-6 index was high indicating a predominance of n-3 fatty acids in the species. Total amino acid content was 99.33 g/100 g crude protein, of which, essential amino acid lysine was the most abundant. Valine had the lowest essential amino acid score (EAAS (0.17 while threonine had the highest EAAS of 3.62. Chemical score was 17% and the lowest limiting amino acid was valine. Protein efficiency ratio, essential amino acid index and biological value of oyster were 3.92, 120.2 and 174.0, respectively which indicates that the protein is of superior quality. Data on biochemical composition, nutritional attributes and quality indices of C. madrasensis protein may prove important for future policies regarding exploitation of this species and for inducing favourable changes in consumer preferences.

  16. Simulation methods with extended stability for stiff biochemical Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rué Pau

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing computer power, simulating the dynamics of complex systems in chemistry and biology is becoming increasingly routine. The modelling of individual reactions in (biochemical systems involves a large number of random events that can be simulated by the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA. The key quantity is the step size, or waiting time, τ, whose value inversely depends on the size of the propensities of the different channel reactions and which needs to be re-evaluated after every firing event. Such a discrete event simulation may be extremely expensive, in particular for stiff systems where τ can be very short due to the fast kinetics of some of the channel reactions. Several alternative methods have been put forward to increase the integration step size. The so-called τ-leap approach takes a larger step size by allowing all the reactions to fire, from a Poisson or Binomial distribution, within that step. Although the expected value for the different species in the reactive system is maintained with respect to more precise methods, the variance at steady state can suffer from large errors as τ grows. Results In this paper we extend Poisson τ-leap methods to a general class of Runge-Kutta (RK τ-leap methods. We show that with the proper selection of the coefficients, the variance of the extended τ-leap can be well-behaved, leading to significantly larger step sizes. Conclusions The benefit of adapting the extended method to the use of RK frameworks is clear in terms of speed of calculation, as the number of evaluations of the Poisson distribution is still one set per time step, as in the original τ-leap method. The approach paves the way to explore new multiscale methods to simulate (biochemical systems.

  17. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  18. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  19. Mechanical engineers data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Carvill, James

    1994-01-01

    This text provides the student and professional mechanical engineer with a reference text of an essentially practical nature. It is uncluttered by text, and extensive use of illustrations and tables provide quick and clear access to information. It alsoincludes examples of detailed calculations on many of the applications of technology used by mechanical and production engineers, draughtsmen and engineering designers.Although mainly intended for those studying and practising mechanical engineering, a glance at the contents will show that it is also useful to those in related br

  20. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  1. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  2. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  3. Metallurgical process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ruiyu [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    ''Metallurgical Process Engineering'' discusses large-scale integrated theory on the level of manufacturing production processes, putting forward concepts for exploring non-equilibrium and irreversible complex system. It emphasizes the dynamic and orderly operation of the steel plant manufacturing process, the major elements of which are the flow, process network and program. The book aims at establishing a quasi-continuous and continuous process system for improving several techno-economic indices, minimizing dissipation and enhancing the market competitiveness and sustainability of steel plants. The book is intended for engineers, researchers and managers in the fields of metallurgical engineering, industrial design, and process engineering. (orig.)

  4. Evaluating web serch engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Every month, more than 130 billion queries worldwide are entered into the search boxes of general-purpose web search engines (ComScore, 2010). This enormous number shows that web searching is not only a large business, but also that many people rely on the search engines' results when researching information. A goal of all search engine evaluation efforts is to generate better systems. This goal is of major importance to the search engine vendors who can directly apply evaluation results to develop better ranking algorithms.

  5. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  6. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd-El-Kader SAHRAOUI; Dennis M. BUEDE; Andrew P. SAGE

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose selected research topics that are believed central to progress and growth in the application of systems engineering (SE). As a professional activity, and as an intellectual activity, systems engineering has strong links to such associated disciplines as decision analysis, operation research, project management, quality management, and systems design. When focussing on systems engineering research, we should distinguish between subjects that are of systems engineering essence and others that more closely correspond to those that are more relevant for related disciplines.

  7. Engineering and War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Nieusma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how the connections between engineering and warfare/militarism are closer than is usually recognized. It investigates the nature of that relationship using theoretical perspectives from critical theory and social constructionism. We draw on historical research into the influence of military institutions and interests on the field of engineering, but also look broadly at cultures of warfare that extend beyond formalized military institutions. Focusing on engineering labor and engineering epistemologies, we suggest that engineering today can be understood as a “war-built” discipline—even when practiced apart from military institutions and projects. We put forward “social justice” as an idealized alternative foundation for engineering. In addition to serving as a corrective to the inordinate influence of militarism on engineering, a social-justice-based approach could also sensitize engineers and others to the pervasive role of social context in shaping both what engineers do and how that is understood to serve broad public interests.

  8. Strain-engineered MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, CK

    2012-01-01

    Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale. This book focuses on recent developments in st

  9. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  10. Run-length encoding graphic rules, biochemically editable designs and steganographical numeric data embedment for DNA-based cryptographical coding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Tomonori

    2013-03-01

    There have been a wide variety of approaches for handling the pieces of DNA as the "unplugged" tools for digital information storage and processing, including a series of studies applied to the security-related area, such as DNA-based digital barcodes, water marks and cryptography. In the present article, novel designs of artificial genes as the media for storing the digitally compressed data for images are proposed for bio-computing purpose while natural genes principally encode for proteins. Furthermore, the proposed system allows cryptographical application of DNA through biochemically editable designs with capacity for steganographical numeric data embedment. As a model case of image-coding DNA technique application, numerically and biochemically combined protocols are employed for ciphering the given "passwords" and/or secret numbers using DNA sequences. The "passwords" of interest were decomposed into single letters and translated into the font image coded on the separate DNA chains with both the coding regions in which the images are encoded based on the novel run-length encoding rule, and the non-coding regions designed for biochemical editing and the remodeling processes revealing the hidden orientation of letters composing the original "passwords." The latter processes require the molecular biological tools for digestion and ligation of the fragmented DNA molecules targeting at the polymerase chain reaction-engineered termini of the chains. Lastly, additional protocols for steganographical overwriting of the numeric data of interests over the image-coding DNA are also discussed.

  11. Microsystem engineering of lab-on-a-chip devices

    CERN Document Server

    Geschke, Oliver; Telleman, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Written on a non-specialist level by an interdisciplinary team of chemists, biologists and engineers from one of Europe's leading centres for microsystem research, the Danish Mikroelektronik Centret (MIC), this is a concise practical introduction to the subject. As such, the book is the first to focus on analytical applications, providing life and analytical scientists, biotechnologists and pharmaceutists with an understanding of the principles behind the design and manufacture of chemical and biochemical microsystems. The text is backed by a chapter devoted to troubleshooting as well as a g

  12. Engineering System Theory--A New Engineering Meta-Discipline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes a new engineering discipline--Engineering System Theory. It discusses rendered background, research objects and contents of the engineering system theory briefly. Finally, the meta-discipline standing of the engineering system theory in the whole knowledge system of engineering science and its development potential are pointed out.

  13. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  14. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  15. Economics of Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Mohamed Al Hady

    2007-01-01

    An article about the economic aspects of software engineering, it discusses many important issues in this field, like; knowledge economics, history of software engineering, prosperities of software industry, and economics of software, then it discusses the methods followed to improvement of software economics

  16. Engineering for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Higgins, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards make it a priority for schools to focus more on the E in STEM, to help students learn the skills and practices of engineering. Schools that are doing so face a challenge, however: How to design educational experiences in engineering that engage all students--including girls and minorities, who are…

  17. Teaching Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be…

  18. Engineering of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Morten Emil; Salomonsen, Bo; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    -efficient methods for identification and validation of candidate genes are needed. This chapter covers the methodology we are using for gene discovery in glucosinolate engineering, namely, guilt-by-association-based in silico methods and fast proof-of-function screens by transient expression in Nicotiana...... here will be beneficial to elucidate and engineer other plant biosynthetic pathways....

  19. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in collecti

  20. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.