WorldWideScience

Sample records for biochemical engineering

  1. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-01-01

    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  2. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  3. Editorial: ESBES - European Society of Biochemical Engineering Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Guilherme; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-06-01

    The latest ESBES special issue on "Biochemical Engineering Sciences" is edited by Prof. Guilherme Ferreira (Chairman, ESBES) and Prof. Alois Jungbauer (co-Editor-in-Chief, Biotechnology Journal). This special issue comprises the latest research in biochemical engineering science presented at the 9(th) ESBES Conference held in Istanbul, Turkey in 2012.

  4. MATLAB-Based Teaching Modules in Biochemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilho; Comolli, Noelle K.; Kelly, William J.; Huang, Zuyi

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models play an important role in biochemical engineering. For example, the models developed in the field of systems biology have been used to identify drug targets to treat pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms. In addition, competitive binding models for chromatography processes have been developed to predict expanded…

  5. Metstoich--Teaching Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin W. W.; Barford, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Metstoich, a metabolic calculator developed for teaching, can provide a novel way to teach quantitative metabolism to biochemical engineering students. It can also introduce biochemistry/life science students to the quantitative aspects of life science subjects they have studied. Metstoich links traditional biochemistry-based metabolic approaches…

  6. A view on chemical and biochemical engineering: Where are they going?

    OpenAIRE

    Veljković Vlada B.

    2002-01-01

    A short history of chemical and biochemical engineering is presented, both industrial and educational aspects being considered. The most important trend in the future development of bio/chemical engineering - biological engineering - is pointed out. The current state and near future of biotechnology are described.

  7. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  8. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  9. Design and Implementation of Multi-Campus, Modular Master Classes in Biochemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Niek; Bruneel, Dorine; Meyers, Myriam; Van Hoof, Etienne; De Vos, Leander; Langie, Greet; Rediers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The Master of Science in engineering technology: biochemical engineering is organised in KU Leuven at four geographically dispersed campuses. To sustain the Master's programmes at all campuses, it is clear that a unique education profile at each campus is crucial. In addition, a rationalisation is required by increased cooperation, increased…

  10. The effect of tissue-engineered cartilage biomechanical and biochemical properties on its post-implantation mechanical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, C.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today's tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Focus has been on engineering cartilage with enhanced mechanical stiffness by reproducing native biochemical compositions. More recently, depth dependency of the biochemical content an

  11. Econophysics and bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics: The exergetic analysis of a municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Exergy is a fundamental quantity because it allows us to obtain information on the useful work obtainable in a process. The analyses of irreversibility are important not only in the design and development of the industrial devices, but also in fundamental thermodynamics and in the socio-economic analysis of municipality. Consequently, the link between entropy and exergy is discussed in order to link econophysics to the bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics. Last, this link holds to the fundamental role of fluxes and to the exergy exchanged in the interaction between the system and its environment. The result consists in a thermodynamic approach to the analysis of the unavailability of the economic, productive or social systems. The unavailability is what the system cannot use in relation to its internal processes. This quantity result is interesting also as a support to public manager for economic decisions. Here, the Alessandria Municipality is analyzed in order to highlight the application of the theoretical results.

  12. Biochemical and genetic engineering strategies to enhance hydrogen production in photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Kajan; Pyne, Michael E; Perry Chou, C

    2011-09-01

    As an energy carrier, hydrogen gas is a promising substitute to carbonaceous fuels owing to its superb conversion efficiency, non-polluting nature, and high energy content. At present, hydrogen is predominately synthesized via chemical reformation of fossil fuels. While various biological methods have been extensively explored, none of them is justified as economically feasible. A sustainable platform for biological production of hydrogen will certainly impact the biofuel market. Among a selection of biological systems, algae and cyanobacteria have garnered major interests as potential cell factories for hydrogen production. In conjunction with photosynthesis, these organisms utilize inexpensive inorganic substrates and solar energy for simultaneous biosynthesis and hydrogen evolution. However, the hydrogen yield associated with these organisms remains far too low to compete with the existing chemical systems. This article reviews recent advances of biochemical, bioprocess, and genetic engineering strategies in circumventing technological limitations to hopefully improve the applicative potential of these photosynthetic hydrogen production systems.

  13. Data on biochemical fluxes generated from biofabricated enzyme complexes assembled through engineered tags and microbial transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendranath Bhokisham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data presented is related to an article titled “Modular construction of multi-subunit protein complexes using engineered tags and microbial transglutaminase” (Bhokisham et al., 2016 [1]. In this article, we have presented western blot and flux data associated with assembly of Pfs–LuxS enzyme complexes on beads using uni-tagged and bi-tagged LuxS enzymes. We have also presented biochemical flux following changes in enzyme stoichiometries. We covalently coupled a Pfs-LuxS complex with Protein G, an antibody binding non-enzyme component and directed these complexes to the surfaces of bacterial cells via anti-Escherichia coli antibodies. Fluorescence microscopy images represented the altered behavior of bacterial cells in response to the autoinducer-2 that is synthesized by the Protein G-enzyme complexes.

  14. Mode of inheritance for biochemical traits in genetically engineered cotton under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad Ali; Malik, Waqas; Yasmeen, Azra; Qayyum, Abdul; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Chengzhen; Guo, Sandui; Ashraf, Javaria

    2016-02-02

    Drought is an abiotic environmental stress that can significantly reduce crop productivity. We examined the mode of inheritance for different biochemical traits including total soluble proteins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total phenolic contents and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), and their relationship with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin under control and drought conditions. Eight genetically diverse cotton genotypes were selfed for two generations to ensure homozygosity. Fifteen F1 hybrids were developed by crossing five non-Bt female lines with three Bt male testers. The F1 hybrids and eight parents were finally evaluated under control (100 % field capacity (FC)) and drought (50 % FC) conditions in 2013. The biochemical traits appeared to be controlled by non-additive gene action with low narrow sense heritability estimates. The estimates of general combining ability and specific combining ability for all biochemical traits were significant under control and drought conditions. The genotype-by-trait biplot analysis showed the better performance of Bt cotton hybrids when compared with their parental genotypes for various biochemical traits under control and drought conditions. The biplot and path coefficient analyses revealed the prevalence of different relationships between Cry1Ac toxin and biochemical traits in the control and drought conditions. In conclusion, biochemical traits could serve as potential biochemical markers for breeding Bt cotton genotypes without compromising the optimal level of Bt toxin.

  15. Engineering interpenetrating network hydrogels as biomimetic cell niche with independently tunable biochemical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels have been widely used as artificial cell niche to mimic extracellular matrix with tunable properties. However, changing biochemical cues in hydrogels developed-to-date would often induce simultaneous changes in mechanical properties, which do not support mechanistic studies on stem cell-niche interactions. Here we report the development of a PEG-based interpenetrating network (IPN), which is composed of two polymer networks that can independently and simultaneously crosslink to form hydrogels in a cell-friendly manner. The resulting IPN hydrogel allows independently tunable biochemical and mechanical properties, as well as stable and more homogeneous presentation of biochemical ligands in 3D than currently available methods. We demonstrate the potential of our IPN platform for elucidating stem cell-niche interactions by modulating osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. The versatility of such IPN hydrogels is further demonstrated using three distinct and widely used polymers to form the mechanical network while keeping the biochemical network constant.

  16. A structured approach for the engineering of biochemical network models, illustrated for signalling pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, Rainer; Gilbert, David; Heiner, Monika; Orton, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative models of biochemical networks (signal transduction cascades, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory circuits) are a central component of modern systems biology. Building and managing these complex models is a major challenge that can benefit from the application of formal methods adopted

  17. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops.

  18. Biochemical, mechanical, and spectroscopic analyses of genetically engineered flax fibers producing bioplastic (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Skórkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Maczka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The interest in biofibers has grown in recent years due to their expanding range of applications in fields as diverse as biomedical science and the automotive industry. Their low production costs, biodegradability, physical properties, and perceived eco-friendliness allow for their extensive use as composite components, a role in which they could replace petroleum-based synthetic polymers. We performed biochemical, mechanical, and structural analyses of flax stems and fibers derived from field-grown transgenic flax enriched with PHB (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate). The analyses of the plant stems revealed an increase in the cellulose content and a decrease in the lignin and pectin contents relative to the control plants. However, the contents of the fibers' major components (cellulose, lignin, pectin) remain unchanged. An FT-IR study confirmed the results of the biochemical analyses of the flax fibers. However, the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibers differed from that in the control, and a significant increase in the number of hydrogen bonds was detected. The mechanical properties of the transgenic flax stems were significantly improved, reflecting the cellulose content increase. However, the mechanical properties of the fibers did not change in comparison with the control, with the exception of the fibers from transgenic line M13. The generated transgenic flax plants, which produce both components of the flax/PHB composites (i.e., fibers and thermoplastic matrix in the same plant organ) are a source of an attractive and ecologically safe material for industry and medicine.

  19. Engineering the iron-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans for biochemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Timothy; Majumdar, Sudipta; Li, Xiaozheng; Guan, Jingyang; West, Alan C; Banta, Scott

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in developing non-photosynthetic routes for the conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. One underexplored approach is the transfer of energy to the metabolism of genetically modified chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an obligate chemolithoautotroph that derives its metabolic energy from the oxidation of iron or sulfur at low pH. Two heterologous biosynthetic pathways have been expressed in A. ferrooxidans to produce either isobutyric acid or heptadecane from CO2 and the oxidation of Fe(2+). A sevenfold improvement in productivity of isobutyric acid was obtained through improved media formulations in batch cultures. Steady-state efficiencies were lower in continuous cultures, likely due to ferric inhibition. If coupled to solar panels, the photon-to-fuel efficiency of this proof-of-principle process approaches estimates for agriculture-derived biofuels. These efforts lay the foundation for the utilization of this organism in the exploitation of electrical energy for biochemical synthesis.

  20. Engineering Escherichia coli coculture systems for the production of biochemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Pereira, Brian; Li, Zhengjun; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-07-07

    Engineering microbial consortia to express complex biosynthetic pathways efficiently for the production of valuable compounds is a promising approach for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Here, we report the design, optimization, and scale-up of an Escherichia coli-E. coli coculture that successfully overcomes fundamental microbial production limitations, such as high-level intermediate secretion and low-efficiency sugar mixture utilization. For the production of the important chemical cis,cis-muconic acid, we show that the coculture approach achieves a production yield of 0.35 g/g from a glucose/xylose mixture, which is significantly higher than reported in previous reports. By efficiently producing another compound, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, we also demonstrate that the approach is generally applicable for biosynthesis of other important industrial products.

  1. Review: Morphofunctional and biochemical markers of stress in sea urchin life stages exposed to engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Ferrando, Sara; Gatti, Antonietta M; Cataldi, Edoardo; Ramoino, Paola; Aluigi, Maria Grazia; Faimali, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Falugi, Carla

    2016-11-01

    We describe the use of different life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus for the assessment of the possible risk posed by nanoparticles (NPs) in the coastal water. A first screening for the presence of NPs in sea water may be obtained by checking their presence inside tissues of organisms taken from the wild. The ability of NPs to pass from gut to the coelomic fluid is demonstrated by accumulation in sea urchin coelomocytes; the toxicity on sperms can be measured by embryotoxicity markers after sperm exposure, whereas the transfer through the food chain can be observed by developmental anomalies in larvae fed with microalgae exposed to NPs. The most used spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity tests are described, as well as the biochemical and histochemical analyses of cholinesterase (ChE) activities, which are used to verify toxicity parameters such as inflammation, neurotoxicity, and interference in cell-to-cell communication. Morphological markers of toxicity, in particular skeletal anomalies, are described and classified. In addition, NPs may impair viability of the immune cells of adult specimens. Molecular similarity between echinoderm and human immune cells is shown and discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1552-1562, 2016.

  2. Genetic engineering: a promising tool to engender physiological, biochemical and molecular stress resilience in green microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy eGuiheneuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest towards a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric CO2 into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60–65% of dry weight, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors like nitrogen starvation , salinity, heat shock etc. can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests.

  3. Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here.

  4. Engineering Triterpene and Methylated Triterpene Production in Plants Provides Biochemical and Physiological Insights into Terpene Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Bush, Caroline J; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe

    2016-02-01

    Linear, branch-chained triterpenes, including squalene (C30), botryococcene (C30), and their methylated derivatives (C31-C37), generated by the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B have received significant attention because of their utility as chemical and biofuel feedstocks. However, the slow growth habit of B. braunii makes it impractical as a production system. In this study, we evaluated the potential of generating high levels of botryococcene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants by diverting carbon flux from the cytosolic mevalonate pathway or the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate pathway by the targeted overexpression of an avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase along with two versions of botryococcene synthases. Up to 544 µg g(-1) fresh weight of botryococcene was achieved when this metabolism was directed to the chloroplasts, which is approximately 90 times greater than that accumulating in plants engineered for cytosolic production. To test if methylated triterpenes could be produced in tobacco, we also engineered triterpene methyltransferases (TMTs) from B. braunii into wild-type plants and transgenic lines selected for high-level triterpene accumulation. Up to 91% of the total triterpene contents could be converted to methylated forms (C31 and C32) by cotargeting the TMTs and triterpene biosynthesis to the chloroplasts, whereas only 4% to 14% of total triterpenes were methylated when this metabolism was directed to the cytoplasm. When the TMTs were overexpressed in the cytoplasm of wild-type plants, up to 72% of the total squalene was methylated, and total triterpene (C30+C31+C32) content was elevated 7-fold. Altogether, these results point to innate mechanisms controlling metabolite fluxes, including a homeostatic role for squalene.

  5. Tissue engineering approaches for studying the effect of biochemical and physiological stimuli on cell behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Vergara, Andrea Carolina

    Tissue engineering (TE) approaches have emerged as an alternative to traditional tissue and organ replacements. The aim of this work was to contribute to the understanding of the effects of cell-material and endothelial cell (EC) paracrine signaling on cell responses using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels as a material platform. Three TE applications were explored. First, the effect of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) identity was evaluated for vocal fold restoration. Second, the influence of GAG identity was explored and a novel approach for stable endothelialization was developed for vascular graft applications. Finally, EC paracrine signaling in the presence of cyclic stretch, and hydrophobicity and inorganic content were studied for osteogenic applications. In terms of vocal fold restoration, it was found that vocal fold fibroblast (VFF) phenotype and extracellular matrix (ECM) production were impacted by GAG identity. VFF phenotype was preserved in long-term cultured hydrogels containing high molecular weight hyaluronan (HAHMW). Furthermore, collagen I deposition, fibronectin production and smooth muscle α-actin (SM-α-actin) expression in PEG-HA, PEG-chondroitin sulfate C and PEG-heparan sulfate (HS) gels suggest that CSC and HS may be undesirable for vocal fold implants. Regarding vascular graft applications, the impact of GAG identity on smooth muscle cell (SMC) foam cell formation was explored. Results support the increasing body of literature that suggests a critical role for dermatan sulfate (DS)-bearing proteoglycans in early atherosclerosis. In addition, an approach for fabricating bi-layered tissue engineering vascular grafts (TEVGs) with stable endothelialization was validated using PEGDA as an intercellular “cementing” agent between adjacent endothelial cells (ECs). Finally, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation toward osteogenic like cells was evaluated. ECM and cell phenotypic data showed that elevated scaffold inorganic

  6. From physiology to systems metabolic engineering for the production of biochemicals by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Paula; Carvalho, Ana L; Vinga, Susana; Santos, Helena; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-11-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a functionally related group of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria known essentially for their roles in bioprocessing of foods and animal feeds. Due to extensive industrial use and enormous economical value, LAB have been intensively studied and a large body of comprehensive data on their metabolism and genetics was generated throughout the years. This knowledge has been instrumental in the implementation of successful applications in the food industry, such as the selection of robust starter cultures with desired phenotypic traits. The advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput experimentation combined with powerful computational tools currently allows for a systems level understanding of these food industry workhorses. The technological developments in the last decade have provided the foundation for the use of LAB in applications beyond the classic food fermentations. Here we discuss recent metabolic engineering strategies to improve particular cellular traits of LAB and to design LAB cell factories for the bioproduction of added value chemicals.

  7. Biochemical Engineering Approaches for Increasing Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Thanh Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature presents a growing body of evidence demonstrating the positive effect of probiotics on health. Probiotic consumption levels are rising quickly in the world despite the fluctuation of their viability and functionality. Technological methods aiming at improving probiotic characteristics are thus highly wanted. However, microbial metabolic engineering toolbox is not available for this kind of application. On the other hand, basic microbiology teaches us that bacteria are able to exhibit adaptation to external stresses. It is known that adequately applied sub-lethal stress, i.e., controlled in amplitude and frequency at a given stage of the culture, is able to enhance microbial robustness. This property could be potentially used to improve the viability of probiotic bacteria, but some technical challenges still need to be overcome before any industrial implementation. This review paper investigates the different technical tools that can be used in order to define the proper condition for improving viability of probiotic bacteria and their implementation at the industrial scale. Based on the example of Bifidobacterium bifidum, potentialities for simultaneously improving viability, but also functionality of probiotics will be described.

  8. Systematic metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for high-yield production of fuel bio-chemical 2,3-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youqiang; Chu, Haipei; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Zhou, Zikang; Li, Kun; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-05-01

    The production of biofuels by recombinant Escherichia coli is restricted by the toxicity of the products. 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD), a platform and fuel bio-chemical with low toxicity to microbes, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production. However, the yield and productivity of 2,3-BD produced by recombinant E. coli strains are not sufficient for industrial scale fermentation. In this work, the production of 2,3-BD by recombinant E. coli strains was optimized by applying a systematic approach. 2,3-BD biosynthesis gene clusters were cloned from several native 2,3-BD producers, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae, inserted into the expression vector pET28a, and compared for 2,3-BD synthesis. The recombinant strain E. coli BL21/pETPT7-EcABC, carrying the 2,3-BD pathway gene cluster from Enterobacter cloacae, showed the best ability to synthesize 2,3-BD. Thereafter, expression of the most efficient gene cluster was optimized by using different promoters, including PT7, Ptac, Pc, and Pabc. E. coli BL21/pET-RABC with Pabc as promoter was superior in 2,3-BD synthesis. On the basis of the results of biomass and extracellular metabolite profiling analyses, fermentation conditions, including pH, agitation speed, and aeration rate, were optimized for the efficient production of 2,3-BD. After fed-batch fermentation under the optimized conditions, 73.8g/L of 2,3-BD was produced by using E. coli BL21/pET-RABC within 62h. The values of both yield and productivity of 2,3-BD obtained with the optimized biological system are the highest ever achieved with an engineered E. coli strain. In addition to the 2,3-BD production, the systematic approach might also be used in the production of other important chemicals through recombinant E. coli strains.

  9. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2004-07-14

    A regenerating biochemical mixture and organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, followed by approximately 140 barrels of a 2% KCl solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area and into the producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris which was immediately produced into the flowlines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. Next steps include larger treatments and tracer tests to better understand the fluid flow dynamics.

  10. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2005-04-29

    A combination of a regenerating biochemical mixture and an organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, with a 2% KCl carrier solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area adjacent to producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris, which was immediately produced into the flow lines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. In task 3 the permeability restrictions in a cylindrical area of 10 to 20 feet from the wellbore within the reservoir were treated with the biochemical solution. Fluid was forced into the producing horizon using the hydraulic head of the well filled with 2 % KCl solution, allowed to acclimate, and then withdrawn by pumping. The chloride content of the produce water was measured and production of oil and water monitored. The most significant effect in improving permeability and removing scale and high molecular weight hydrocarbons was accomplished in the wellbore perforations and near wellbore treatments of tasks 1 and 2. The effect the deeper insertion of solution in task 3 had minimal impact on production.

  11. A theoretical model of biochemical control engineering based on the relation between oestrogens/progestagens and prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, P H E

    2015-06-01

    A biological complex organism is involuntarily guided from all sides by measure and regulation systems. The human being is such a complex organism. Many cyclical processes are simultaneously at work, making it unclear how and why which process takes place at which moment. Noticeable examples are the 28-day menstrual cycle and the 40-week pregnancy. The time of activation in the middle of the menstrual is fairly clear. Hormonal changes also occur in this period. Why the hormonal changes occur, and what their relationship is with the activation of the processes is unclear. That is also the case during pregnancies. What is it that determines that a pregnancy should last an average of 40 weeks? What causes the changes in a complicated pregnancy? What are those changes? Prostaglandin concentrations have been found to have some relationship with these changes, but the activation of these changes and how to examine them is unknown. Using an example from practical experience, this article illustrates what Horrobin and Manku already reported in 1977, namely, the properties of prostaglandin E1 and 6-keto pgF1α: reversal effect with elevated concentration. The properties described is exceptionally suitable for the time of activation in a biochemically regulated measure and regulation system. These properties can help explain the occurrence of physiological cycles. The known electronic saw-tooth wave has a biochemical analogue with this. This paper describes the presumed relationship between hormones and the accompanying prostaglandins with the hormone effects based on what is known regarding their concentrations progress. This relationship reveals the practical consequences of the experimentally found sensitivity of biochemical effects with regard to the accompanying prostaglandins. This paper shows how the theoretical relationship between effects of oestrogens and progestagens result in a curve that comprise observable aspects of the Basal Body Temperature Curve. The

  12. Engineering the expression and biochemical characteristics of recombinant Candida rugosa LIP2 lipase by removing the additional N-terminal peptide and regional codon optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Li, Chia-Fang; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Yeh, Tzunuan; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2011-06-22

    Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), an important industrial enzyme, has been established, containing several different isoforms which were encoded by the high-identity lip gene family (lip1 to lip7). In this study, we compared the expression and biochemical characterization with three different engineered lip2 constructions in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Our results showed that lip2 (lip2) has an overall improvement of 50% higher production yield (1.446 U/mL) relative to that of nflip2 (0.964 U/mL) at 7 days of cultivation time. Codon-optimized lip2 (colip2) has a 2.3-fold higher production yield (2.182 U/mL) compared to that of lip2 (noncodon-optimized; 1.446 U/mL) and nflip2 (0.964 U/mL), with a cultivation time of 5 days. This finding demonstrated that the removal of the N-terminus and the regional codon optimization of the lip2 gene fragment at the 5' end can greatly increase the expression level of recombinant LIP2 in the P. pastoris system. The distinct biochemical properties of our purified recombinant nfLIP2 and LIP2 suggested that they are potentially useful for various industrial applications.

  13. Biochemical engineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acids alters the kinetics of a glycosylated potassium channel Kv3.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M Kristen; Reutter, Werner; Lindhorst, Thisbe; Schwalbe, Ruth A

    2011-10-20

    The sialic acid of complex N-glycans can be biochemically engineered by substituting the physiological precursor N-acetylmannosamine with non-natural N-acylmannosamines. The Kv3.1 glycoprotein, a neuronal voltage-gated potassium channel, contains sialic acid. Western blots of the Kv3.1 glycoprotein isolated from transfected B35 neuroblastoma cells incubated with N-acylmannosamines verified sialylated N-glycans attached to the Kv3.1 glycoprotein. Outward ionic currents of Kv3.1 transfected B35 cells treated with N-pentanoylmannosamine or N-propanoylmannosamine had slower activation and inactivation rates than those of untreated cells. Therefore, the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid is intimately connected with the activation and inactivation rates of this glycosylated potassium channel.

  14. Tissue Engineering of Ligament/tendon-Part II-Importance of Biochemical and Mechanical Factors on the Neogenesis of Ligament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvaine; Muller; Shalaw; Fawzi-Grancher; Said; Slimani

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionLigaments and tendons are bands of parallel fibers, made of dense connective tissue, that play an important role in mediating normal movement and stability of joints. Injury to these structures can cause significant joint instability, which may lead to injury of others tissues and the development of degenerative joint diseases. Tissue engineering offers the potential to improve the reconstruction of tendons and ligaments. The concept is based on the manipulation of cellular and molecular media...

  15. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  16. Engineering Triterpene and Methylated Triterpene Production in Plants Provides Biochemical and Physiological Insights into Terpene Metabolism1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Bush, Caroline J.; Nybo, S. Eric; Chappell, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Linear, branch-chained triterpenes, including squalene (C30), botryococcene (C30), and their methylated derivatives (C31–C37), generated by the green alga Botryococcus braunii race B have received significant attention because of their utility as chemical and biofuel feedstocks. However, the slow growth habit of B. braunii makes it impractical as a production system. In this study, we evaluated the potential of generating high levels of botryococcene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants by diverting carbon flux from the cytosolic mevalonate pathway or the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate pathway by the targeted overexpression of an avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase along with two versions of botryococcene synthases. Up to 544 µg g−1 fresh weight of botryococcene was achieved when this metabolism was directed to the chloroplasts, which is approximately 90 times greater than that accumulating in plants engineered for cytosolic production. To test if methylated triterpenes could be produced in tobacco, we also engineered triterpene methyltransferases (TMTs) from B. braunii into wild-type plants and transgenic lines selected for high-level triterpene accumulation. Up to 91% of the total triterpene contents could be converted to methylated forms (C31 and C32) by cotargeting the TMTs and triterpene biosynthesis to the chloroplasts, whereas only 4% to 14% of total triterpenes were methylated when this metabolism was directed to the cytoplasm. When the TMTs were overexpressed in the cytoplasm of wild-type plants, up to 72% of the total squalene was methylated, and total triterpene (C30+C31+C32) content was elevated 7-fold. Altogether, these results point to innate mechanisms controlling metabolite fluxes, including a homeostatic role for squalene. PMID:26603654

  17. Engineering an arginine catabolizing bioconjugate: Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of PEGylated derivatives of arginine deiminase from Mycoplasma arthritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maoliang; Basu, Amartya; Palm, Thomas; Hua, Jack; Youngster, Stephen; Hwang, Lisa; Liu, Hsien-Ching; Li, Xiguang; Peng, Ping; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Zhihua; Longley, Clifford; Mehlig, Mary; Borowski, Virna; Sai, Prakash; Viswanathan, Manickam; Jang, Eun; Petti, Gerald; Liu, Sam; Yang, Karen; Filpula, David

    2006-01-01

    Arginine is an important metabolite in the normal function of several biological systems, and arginine deprivation has been investigated in animal models and human clinical trials for its effects on inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, or nitric oxide synthesis. In order to design an optimal arginine-catabolizing enzyme bioconjugate, a novel recombinant arginine deiminase (ADI) from Mycoplasma arthritidis was prepared, and multi-PEGylated derivatives were examined for enzymatic and biochemical properties in vitro, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior in rats and mice. ADI bioconjugates constructed with 12 kDa or 20 kDa monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) polymers with linear succinimidyl carbonate linkers were investigated via intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous administration in rodents. The selected PEG-ADI compounds have 22 +/- 2 PEG strands per protein dimer, providing an additional molecular mass of about 0.2-0.5 x 10(6) Da and prolonging the plasma mean residence time of the enzyme over 30-fold in mice. Prolonged plasma arginine deprivation was demonstrated with each injection route for these bioconjugates. Pharmacokinetic analysis employed parallel measurement of enzyme activity in bioassays and enzyme assays and demonstrated a correlation with the pharmacodynamic analysis of plasma arginine concentrations. Either ADI bioconjugate depressed plasma arginine to undetectable levels for 10 days when administered intravenously at 5 IU per mouse, while the subcutaneous and intramuscular routes exhibited only slightly reduced potency. Both bioconjugates exhibited potent growth inhibition of several cultured tumor lines that are deficient in the anabolic enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase. Investigations of structure-activity optimization for PEGylated ADI compounds revealed a benefit to constraining the PEG size and number of attachments to both conserve catabolic activity and streamline manufacturing of the experimental therapeutics

  18. 磁场流化床在生化工程中的应用%Application of Magnetically Fluidized Beds in Biochemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀菊; 曲红波; 丛威; 欧阳藩

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a review of applications of the magnetically fluidized beds (MFB) in biochemical engineering. MFB is formed when introducing a magnetic field into a fluidized bed which is filled with magnetically susceptible particles as bed matrix. This enables MFB an extensive operating range and good adaptability. In particular, magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB), which is formed at certain magnetic strength and fluid velocity of MFB, provides good solid-liquid contact character of packed bed yet maintains fluidized bed virtue of low pressure drop and high efficiency of mass transfer and heat transfer. MFB has now been used in immobilized bioreactors, solid-liquid separation of fermentation, continuous affinity chromatography, cell separation in immunology and culture of plant cells and yeast. In this paper, the theory and characteristics of MFB are introduced. Emphasis is put on current achievements and applications in biochemical engineering of MFB. The prospects and difficulties for wide using of MFB are also described.%磁场流化床(Magnetically Fluidized Bed, 以下简称MFB)是将磁场引入普通流化床,采用磁敏性颗粒为床层介质的流固相处理系统。MFB利用磁场调节颗粒和流体的运动,使流化床具有更宽的操作范围和适应性。其中,在一定磁场和流动条件下形成的磁稳定流化床(Magnetically Stabilized Fluidized Bed,以下简称MSFB)更是兼有固定床的流固接触特性和流化床的压降低、传热传质效率高的优点,操作范围较普通流化床变宽。磁场流化床在生化工程领域已经应用于固定化生物反应器,发酵液固液分离,连续亲合色谱,细胞分离,以及植物细胞和酵母细胞培养等过程。本文介绍了磁场流化床的基本原理和特性及其在生化工程中的应用情况,并分析了该技术进一步应用所面临的困难和发展前景。

  19. Homogenous demineralized dentin matrix and platelet-rich plasma for bone tissue engineering in cranioplasty of diabetic rabbits: biochemical, radiographic, and histological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M F; Valva, V N; Vieira, E M M; Giannasi, L C; Salgado, M A C; Vilela-Goulart, M G

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of homogenous demineralized dentin matrix (HDDM) slices and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in surgical defects created in the parietal bones of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits, treated with a guided bone regeneration technique. Biochemical, radiographic, and histological analyses were performed. Sixty adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into five groups of 12: normoglycaemic (control, C), diabetic (D), diabetic with a PTFE membrane (DM), diabetic with a PTFE membrane and HDDM slices (DM-HDDM), and diabetic with PTFE membrane and PRP (DM-PRP). The quantity and quality of bone mass was greatest in the DM-HDDM group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days, 71.70 ± 16.50 and 50.80 ± 1.52; 30 days, 62.73 ± 16.51 and 54.20 ± 1.23; 60 days, 63.03 ± 11.04 and 59.91 ± 3.32; 90 days, 103.60 ± 24.86 and 78.99 ± 1.34), followed by the DM-PRP group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days 23.00 ± 2.74 and 20.66 ± 7.45; 30 days 31.92 ± 6.06 and 25.31 ± 5.59; 60 days 25.29 ± 16.30 and 46.73 ± 2.07; 90 days 38.10 ± 14.04 and 53.38 ± 9.20). PRP greatly enhanced vascularization during the bone repair process. Abnormal calcium metabolism was statistically significant in the DM-PRP group (P<0.001) for all four time intervals studied, especially when compared to the DM-HDDM group. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the DM-HDDM group (P<0.001) in comparison to the C, D, and DM-PRP groups, confirming the findings of intense osteoblastic activity and increased bone mineralization. Thus, HDDM promoted superior bone architectural microstructure in bone defects in diabetic rabbits due to its effective osteoinductive and osteoconductive activity, whereas PRP stimulated angiogenesis and red bone marrow formation.

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  1. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  2. Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M

    2013-10-14

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  3. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  4. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  5. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals.

  6. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  7. Model Based Monitoring and Control of Chemical and Biochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    This presentation will give an overview of the work performed at the department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering related to process control. A research vision is formulated and related to a number of active projects at the department. In more detail a project describing model estimation...

  8. Electronic modulation of biochemical signal generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordonov, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; Cheng, Yi; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Ghodssi, Reza; Rubloff, Gary; Yin, Jun-Jie; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.

    2014-08-01

    Microelectronic devices that contain biological components are typically used to interrogate biology rather than control biological function. Patterned assemblies of proteins and cells have, however, been used for in vitro metabolic engineering, where coordinated biochemical pathways allow cell metabolism to be characterized and potentially controlled on a chip. Such devices form part of technologies that attempt to recreate animal and human physiological functions on a chip and could be used to revolutionize drug development. These ambitious goals will, however, require new biofabrication methodologies that help connect microelectronics and biological systems and yield new approaches to device assembly and communication. Here, we report the electrically mediated assembly, interrogation and control of a multi-domain fusion protein that produces a bacterial signalling molecule. The biological system can be electrically tuned using a natural redox molecule, and its biochemical response is shown to provide the signalling cues to drive bacterial population behaviour. We show that the biochemical output of the system correlates with the electrical input charge, which suggests that electrical inputs could be used to control complex on-chip biological processes.

  9. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  10. Mathematical Models of Biochemical Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Emery David

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explain the mathematics involved in modeling biochemical oscillations. We first discuss several important biochemical concepts fundamental to the construction of descriptive mathematical models. We review the basic theory of differential equations and stability analysis as it relates to two-variable models exhibiting oscillatory behavior. The importance of the Hopf Bifurcation will be discussed in detail for the central role it plays in limit cycle behavior and...

  11. Genetic and metabolic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yang,Yea-Tyng; Bennett, George N.; San, Ka-yiu

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology techniques, analytical methods and mathematical tools have led to a growing interest in using metabolic engineering to redirect metabolic fluxes for industrial and medical purposes. Metabolic engineering is referred to as the directed improvement of cellular properties through the modification of specific biochemical reactions or the introduction of new ones, with the use of recombinant DNA technology (Stephanopoulos, 1999). This multidisciplinary field dr...

  12. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  13. Associative learning in biochemical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi, Nikhil; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    We develop a simple, chemostat-based model illustrating how a process analogous to associative learning can occur in a biochemical network. Associative learning is a form of learning whereby a system "learns" to associate two stimuli with one another. In our model, two types of replicating molecules, denoted A and B, are present in some initial concentration in the chemostat. Molecules A and B are stimulated to replicate by some growth factors, denoted GA and GB, respectively. It is also assu...

  14. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  15. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  16. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  17. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed.

  18. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail.

  19. Accurate atom-mapping computation for biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latendresse, Mario; Malerich, Jeremiah P; Travers, Mike; Karp, Peter D

    2012-11-26

    The complete atom mapping of a chemical reaction is a bijection of the reactant atoms to the product atoms that specifies the terminus of each reactant atom. Atom mapping of biochemical reactions is useful for many applications of systems biology, in particular for metabolic engineering where synthesizing new biochemical pathways has to take into account for the number of carbon atoms from a source compound that are conserved in the synthesis of a target compound. Rapid, accurate computation of the atom mapping(s) of a biochemical reaction remains elusive despite significant work on this topic. In particular, past researchers did not validate the accuracy of mapping algorithms. We introduce a new method for computing atom mappings called the minimum weighted edit-distance (MWED) metric. The metric is based on bond propensity to react and computes biochemically valid atom mappings for a large percentage of biochemical reactions. MWED models can be formulated efficiently as Mixed-Integer Linear Programs (MILPs). We have demonstrated this approach on 7501 reactions of the MetaCyc database for which 87% of the models could be solved in less than 10 s. For 2.1% of the reactions, we found multiple optimal atom mappings. We show that the error rate is 0.9% (22 reactions) by comparing these atom mappings to 2446 atom mappings of the manually curated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) RPAIR database. To our knowledge, our computational atom-mapping approach is the most accurate and among the fastest published to date. The atom-mapping data will be available in the MetaCyc database later in 2012; the atom-mapping software will be available within the Pathway Tools software later in 2012.

  20. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  1. Biochemical aspects of Huntington's chorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraceni, T; Calderini, G; Consolazione, A; Riva, E; Algeri, S; Girotti, F; Spreafico, R; Branciforti, A; Dall'olio, A; Morselli, P L

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients affected by Huntington's chorea were divided into two groups, 'slow' and 'fast', according to IQ scores on the Wechsler-Bellevue scale, and scores on some motor performance tests. A possible correlation was looked for between some biochemical data (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA) levels, plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), dopamine (DA) uptake by platelets), and clinical data (duration of illness, severity of symptoms, age of patients, IQ scores, 'slow' and 'fast' groups). The CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA levels were found to be significantly lowered in comparison with normal controls. DBH activity and DA uptake by platelets did not differ significantly from normal subjects. Treatment with haloperidol in all patients and with dipropylacetic acid in three patients did not appear to modify the CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA concentrations, the plasma DBH activity, or the DA uptake. There were no significant differences in the CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA contents between the two groups of patients, and there was no correlation between biochemical data and clinical features. PMID:143508

  2. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  3. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  4. Nonlinear Biochemical Signal Processing via Noise Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cell...

  5. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov;

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...... in whole blood. In normal human beings a connection was found between the erythrocyte selenium content and GSHPx activity assayed by cumene hydroperoxide as a peroxide donor....

  6. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  7. Consortia based production of biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Sukumara, Sumesh; Özdemir, Emre;

    -based modelling, and state-of-the art metabolic engineering tools to develop a consortium of cells capable of efficient valorization of synthetic hemicellulosic hydrolysate. Stable co-existence and effective covalorization was achieved through niche-differentiation, auxotrophy, and adaptive evolution. In another...... study, stable consortia based fermentation was achieved through niche partitioning, syntrophy (auxotrophy combined with removal of inhibitory side product), and CRISPRi mediated gene silencing. The achieved results demonstrate that consortium based approaches for valorizing complex biomass and waste...

  8. Associative learning in biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nikhil; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2007-11-07

    It has been recently suggested that there are likely generic features characterizing the emergence of systems constructed from the self-organization of self-replicating agents acting under one or more selection pressures. Therefore, structures and behaviors at one length scale may be used to infer analogous structures and behaviors at other length scales. Motivated by this suggestion, we seek to characterize various "animate" behaviors in biochemical networks, and the influence that these behaviors have on genomic evolution. Specifically, in this paper, we develop a simple, chemostat-based model illustrating how a process analogous to associative learning can occur in a biochemical network. Associative learning is a form of learning whereby a system "learns" to associate two stimuli with one another. Associative learning, also known as conditioning, is believed to be a powerful learning process at work in the brain (associative learning is essentially "learning by analogy"). In our model, two types of replicating molecules, denoted as A and B, are present in some initial concentration in the chemostat. Molecules A and B are stimulated to replicate by some growth factors, denoted as G(A) and G(B), respectively. It is also assumed that A and B can covalently link, and that the conjugated molecule can be stimulated by either the G(A) or G(B) growth factors (and can be degraded). We show that, if the chemostat is stimulated by both growth factors for a certain time, followed by a time gap during which the chemostat is not stimulated at all, and if the chemostat is then stimulated again by only one of the growth factors, then there will be a transient increase in the number of molecules activated by the other growth factor. Therefore, the chemostat bears the imprint of earlier, simultaneous stimulation with both growth factors, which is indicative of associative learning. It is interesting to note that the dynamics of our model is consistent with certain aspects of

  9. Programming Surface Chemistry with Engineered Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Heyde, Keith C; Scott, Felicia Y; Paek, Sung-Ho; Ruder, Warren C

    2016-09-16

    We have developed synthetic gene networks that enable engineered cells to selectively program surface chemistry. E. coli were engineered to upregulate biotin synthase, and therefore biotin synthesis, upon biochemical induction. Additionally, two different functionalized surfaces were developed that utilized binding between biotin and streptavidin to regulate enzyme assembly on programmable surfaces. When combined, the interactions between engineered cells and surfaces demonstrated that synthetic biology can be used to engineer cells that selectively control and modify molecular assembly by exploiting surface chemistry. Our system is highly modular and has the potential to influence fields ranging from tissue engineering to drug development and delivery.

  10. Biochemical genetic markers in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaszmann, J C; Fautret, A; Noyer, J L; Feldmann, P; Lanaud, C

    1989-10-01

    Isozyme variation was used to identify biochemical markers of potential utility in sugarcane genetics and breeding. Electrophoretic polymorphism was surveyed for nine enzymes among 39 wild and noble sugarcane clones, belonging to the species most closely related to modern varieties. Up to 114 distinct bands showing presence versus absence type of variation were revealed and used for qualitative characterization of the materials. Multivariate analysis of the data isolated the Erianthus clone sampled and separated the Saccharum spontaneum clones from the S. robustum and S. officinarum clones; the latter two were not differentiated from one another. The analysis of self-progenies of a 2n=112 S. spontaneum and of a commercial variety showed examples of mono- and polyfactorial segregations. Within the progeny of the variety, co-segregation of two isozymes frequent in S. spontaneum led to them being assigned to a single chromosome initially contributed by a S. spontaneum donor. This illustrates how combined survey of ancestral species and segregation analysis in modern breeding materials should permit using the lack of interspecific cross-over to establish linkage groups in a sugarcane genome.

  11. Rational and combinatorial engineering of the glucan synthesizing enzyme amylosucrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albenne, C.; Van Der Veen, B.A.; Potocki-Véronèse, G.;

    2003-01-01

    Rational engineering of amylosucrase required detailed investigations of the molecular basis of catalysis. Biochemical characterization of the enzyme coupled to structural analyses enabled the polymerization mechanism to be elucidated. This provided key information for successfully changing amylo...

  12. BIOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following- Persistent albuminuria (>300mg/d or >200μg/min, that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months apart diabetic, progressive decline in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR, elevated arterial blood pressure. The earliest biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is the presence of micro-albumin in the urine, which if left untreated will eventually lead to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD. Micro-albuminuria refers to the excretion of albumin in the urine at a rate that exceeds normal limits. The current study was conducted to establish the prevalence of micro-albuminuria in a sequential sample of diabetic patients attending hospital and OPD Clinic to determine its relationship with known and putative risk factors to identify micro- and normo-albuminuric patients in their sample for subsequent comparison in different age, sex, weight and creatinine clearance of the micro- and normo-albuminuric patients. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in one hundred patients at Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Anwarpur, Hapur, U. P. Patients having diabetes mellitus in different age group ranging from 30 to 70 years were selected. Data was analysed by SPSS software. Micro-albuminuria was observed in 35% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was observed that 65% patients were free from any type of albuminuria. Also micro-albuminuria was present in 10% of the patients less than 50 yrs. of age, while 15% of the patients more than 50 yrs. of age were having micro-albuminuria. There was a statistically significant correlation of micro-albuminuria with duration of diabetes. Incidence of micro-albuminuria increases with age as well as increased duration of diabetes mellitus. Our study shows that only 5% patients developed macro-albuminuria. Glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose was significantly raised among all these

  13. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  14. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  15. Simulation of Biochemical Pathway Adaptability Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosl, W J

    2005-01-26

    The systems approach to genomics seeks quantitative and predictive descriptions of cells and organisms. However, both the theoretical and experimental methods necessary for such studies still need to be developed. We are far from understanding even the simplest collective behavior of biomolecules, cells or organisms. A key aspect to all biological problems, including environmental microbiology, evolution of infectious diseases, and the adaptation of cancer cells is the evolvability of genomes. This is particularly important for Genomes to Life missions, which tend to focus on the prospect of engineering microorganisms to achieve desired goals in environmental remediation and climate change mitigation, and energy production. All of these will require quantitative tools for understanding the evolvability of organisms. Laboratory biodefense goals will need quantitative tools for predicting complicated host-pathogen interactions and finding counter-measures. In this project, we seek to develop methods to simulate how external and internal signals cause the genetic apparatus to adapt and organize to produce complex biochemical systems to achieve survival. This project is specifically directed toward building a computational methodology for simulating the adaptability of genomes. This project investigated the feasibility of using a novel quantitative approach to studying the adaptability of genomes and biochemical pathways. This effort was intended to be the preliminary part of a larger, long-term effort between key leaders in computational and systems biology at Harvard University and LLNL, with Dr. Bosl as the lead PI. Scientific goals for the long-term project include the development and testing of new hypotheses to explain the observed adaptability of yeast biochemical pathways when the myosin-II gene is deleted and the development of a novel data-driven evolutionary computation as a way to connect exploratory computational simulation with hypothesis

  16. Four Engineers...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are four engineers traveling in a car;a mechanical engineer,a chemical engi-neer,an electrical engineer and a comput-er engineer.The car breaks down.“Sounds to me as if the pistons have seized.We ll have to strip down the engine before we canget the car working again,”says the mechanical

  17. Estimating rare events in biochemical systems using conditional sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on development of variance reduction strategies to estimate rare events in biochemical systems. Obtaining this probability using brute force Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with the stochastic simulation algorithm (Gillespie's method) is computationally prohibitive. To circumvent this, important sampling tools such as the weighted stochastic simulation algorithm and the doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm have been proposed. However, these strategies require an additional step of determining the important region to sample from, which is not straightforward for most of the problems. In this paper, we apply the subset simulation method, developed as a variance reduction tool in the context of structural engineering, to the problem of rare event estimation in biochemical systems. The main idea is that the rare event probability is expressed as a product of more frequent conditional probabilities. These conditional probabilities are estimated with high accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations, specifically the Markov chain Monte Carlo method with the modified Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Generating sample realizations of the state vector using the stochastic simulation algorithm is viewed as mapping the discrete-state continuous-time random process to the standard normal random variable vector. This viewpoint opens up the possibility of applying more sophisticated and efficient sampling schemes developed elsewhere to problems in stochastic chemical kinetics. The results obtained using the subset simulation method are compared with existing variance reduction strategies for a few benchmark problems, and a satisfactory improvement in computational time is demonstrated.

  18. Engineering ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bengisu, Murat

    2001-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  19. Engineering and Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  20. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  1. eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

  2. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  3. Advances in Biochemical Indices of Zooplankton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra, L; Kobari, T; Sastri, A R; Gusmão, F; Hernández-León, S

    2017-01-01

    Several new approaches for measuring zooplankton growth and production rates have been developed since the publication of the ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) Zooplankton Methodology Manual (Harris et al., 2000). In this review, we summarize the advances in biochemical methods made in recent years. Our approach explores the rationale behind each method, the design of calibration experiments, the advantages and limitations of each method and their suitability as proxies for in situ rates of zooplankton community growth and production. We also provide detailed protocols for the existing methods and information relevant to scientists wanting to apply, calibrate or develop these biochemical indices for zooplankton production.

  4. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  5. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  6. Biochemical and Anatomical Characteristics of Dolphin Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    hexosamines. These data suggest a biochemical difference in dolphin and rat tendon, which may be of relevance to the unique myofascial design of the...glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains . The GAG chain is a polymer of repeating disaccharides, each disaccharide containing a hexosamine and either a

  7. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  8. Prosthetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview CoE for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering Menu Menu VA Center of Excellence for Limb ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Prosthetic Engineering - Overview Our aim is to improve prosthetic prescription ...

  9. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  10. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  11. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  12. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  13. Engineering Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  14. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  15. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  16. 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis: An Accurate Approach to Demystify Microbial Metabolism for Biochemical Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic engineering of various industrial microorganisms to produce chemicals, fuels, and drugs has raised interest since it is environmentally friendly, sustainable, and independent of nonrenewable resources. However, microbial metabolism is so complex that only a few metabolic engineering efforts have been able to achieve a satisfactory yield, titer or productivity of the target chemicals for industrial commercialization. In order to overcome this challenge, 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA has been continuously developed and widely applied to rigorously investigate cell metabolism and quantify the carbon flux distribution in central metabolic pathways. In the past decade, many 13C-MFA studies have been performed in academic labs and biotechnology industries to pinpoint key issues related to microbe-based chemical production. Insightful information about the metabolic rewiring has been provided to guide the development of the appropriate metabolic engineering strategies for improving the biochemical production. In this review, we will introduce the basics of 13C-MFA and illustrate how 13C-MFA has been applied via integration with metabolic engineering to identify and tackle the rate-limiting steps in biochemical production for various host microorganisms

  17. Achilles tendinosis: Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos, M. de; El, B. van; Groot, J. de; Jahr, H.; Schie, H.T.M. van; Arkel, E.R. van; Tol, H.; Heijboer, R.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Verhaar, J.A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design: Descript

  18. Achilles tendinosis - Changes in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mos, Marieke; van El, Benno; DeGroot, Jeroen; Jahr, Holger; van Schie, Hans T. M.; van Arkel, Ewoud R.; Tol, Hans; Heijboer, Rien; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding biochemical and structural changes of the extracellular matrix in Achilles tendinosis might be important for developing mechanism-based therapies. Hypothesis: In Achilles tendinosis, changes occur in biochemical composition and collagen turnover rate. Study Design: Descript

  19. Advancement in biochemical assays in andrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolf-BernhardSchill; RaftHenkel

    1999-01-01

    Determination of maikers of sperm function, accessory sex gland secretion and silent male genital tract inflammation is of considerable diagnostic value in the evaluation of male infertility. The introduction of biochemical tests into the analysis of male factor has the advantage that standardized assays with a coefficient of variafion characteristic of clinical chemistry are performed, in contrast to biological test systems with a large variability .Biochemical parameters may be used in clinical practice to evaluate the sperm fertitizing capacity (acrosin, aniline blue,ROS), to characterize male accessory sex gland secretinns (fructose, a-glucosidase, PSA), and to identify men with silent genital tract inflammation (elastase, C'3 complement component, coeruloplasmin, IgA, IgG, ROS). (As/an J Androl 1999 Jun; 1: 45-51)

  20. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  1. Biochemical changes in blood under Cr6+

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzenko E.V.; Romaniuk A.M.; Butko H.Yu.; Logvinova H.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background. For the manufacture of dentures many different alloys containing chromium are used. Interaction with oral fluid, organic acids and food, results in formation of Cr3+, Cr6+ ions, but their influence on the whole organism is poorly investigated. Objective. To analyze the biochemical changes in blood plasma during the influence of Cr6+ ions. Methods. 15 animals of experimental group were receiving drinking water with potassium dichromate in a dose of 0,2 mol/l. Rats of control group ...

  2. Haematological and biochemical analysis in canine enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Bhat

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation screened eighteen clinical cases of canine enteritis for haematological and biochemical analyses. Materials and Methods: Eighteen dogs suffering from enteritis were selected and detailed clinical manifestations were noted. Hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated by using various kits. Blood was also collected from twelve healthy dogs for establishing control values and data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The affected dogs showed anorexia, diarrhoea, depression, varying degree of dehydration and tachycardia. There were significant changes in packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Biochemical investigation revealed significant decrease in plasma glucose, total plasma protein, albumin and albumin:globulin ratio (A:G ratio. The level of potassium and chloride was markedly decreased. Significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN was observed. Conclusion: Packed Cell Volume (PCV and Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC remained almost similar between healthy dogs and dogs affected with diarrhoea. Mean Total Leukocyte Count (TLC value was significantly higher as compared to the control group. Hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia and increase in blood urea nitrogen was observed in dogs suffering from enteritis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 380-383

  3. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-12-01

    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered.

  4. [Basic biochemical processes in glaucoma progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thun und Hohenstein-Blaul, N; Kunst, S; Pfeiffer, N; Grus, F H

    2015-05-01

    The term glaucoma summarizes a group of eye diseases that are accompanied by impairments of the optic nerve and related visual field deficits. An early diagnosis of glaucoma is currently not possible due to a lack of diagnostic tests; therefore, in most cases the disease is diagnosed many years after onset, which prevents an early therapy. The known risk factors for the development and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy comprise elevated intraocular pressure and a broad range of pressure fluctuations as well as lipometabolic disorders, genetic factor and diabetes. The consequences include the induction of anti-inflammatory proteins, elevated levels of oxidative stress and the destruction of retinal ganglion cells. Changes in the autoantibody repertoire have also been observed in the course of the disease. Basic ophthalmological research therefore focuses on the investigation of basic biochemical processes in the course of the disease. A better understanding of physiological and biochemical events is sought in order to develop new and more sensitive diagnostic options and to allow more targeted therapeutic measures. The understanding of biochemical processes allows a better insight into glaucoma progression to be gained, which will lead to improvements in diagnosis and therapy.

  5. The Use of Item Analysis for Improvement of Biochemical Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    2004-01-01

    Item analysis was used to find out which biochemical explanations need to be improved in biochemical teaching, not which items are to be discarded, improved, or reusable in biochemical examinations. The analysis revealed the basic facts of which less able students had more misunderstanding than able students. Identifying these basic facts helps…

  6. ESCHERICHIA COLI REDOX MUTANTS AS MICROBIAL CELL FACTORIES FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF REDUCED BIOCHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena A. Ruiz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioprocesses conducted under conditions with restricted O2 supply are increasingly exploited for the synthesis of reduced biochemicals using different biocatalysts. The model facultative aerobe Escherichia coli, the microbial cell factory par excellence, has elaborate sensing and signal transduction mechanisms that respond to the availability of electron acceptors and alternative carbon sources in the surrounding environment. In particular, the ArcBA and CreBC two-component signal transduction systems are largely responsible for the metabolic regulation of redox control in response to O2 availability and carbon source utilization, respectively. Significant advances in the understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and physiological duties of these regulatory systems have been achieved in recent years. This situation allowed to rationally-design novel engineering approaches that ensure optimal carbon and energy flows within central metabolism, as well as to manipulate redox homeostasis, in order to optimize the production of industrially-relevant metabolites. In particular, metabolic flux analysis provided new clues to understand the metabolic regulation mediated by the ArcBA and CreBC systems. Genetic manipulation of these regulators proved useful for designing microbial cells factories tailored for the synthesis of reduced biochemicals with added value, such as poly(3-hydroxybutyrate, under conditions with restricted O2 supply. This network-wide strategy is in contrast with traditional metabolic engineering approaches, that entail direct modification of the pathway(s at stake, and opens new avenues for the targeted modulation of central catabolic pathways at the transcriptional level.

  7. Protein design for pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Dawn T; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-02-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds.

  8. Balanced biochemical reactions: a new approach to unify chemical and biochemical thermodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sabatini

    Full Text Available A novel procedure is presented which, by balancing elements and electric charge of biochemical reactions which occur at constant pH and pMg, allows assessing the thermodynamics properties of reaction Δ(rG'⁰, Δ(rH'⁰, Δ(rS'⁰ and the change in binding of hydrogen and magnesium ions of these reactions. This procedure of general applicability avoids the complex calculations required by the use of the Legendre transformed thermodynamic properties of formation Δ(fG'⁰, Δ(fH'⁰ and Δ(fS'⁰ hitherto considered an obligatory prerequisite to deal with the thermodynamics of biochemical reactions. As a consequence, the term "conditional" is proposed in substitution of "Legendre transformed" to indicate these thermodynamics properties. It is also shown that the thermodynamic potential G is fully adequate to give a criterion of spontaneous chemical change for all biochemical reactions and then that the use of the Legendre transformed G' is unnecessary. The procedure proposed can be applied to any biochemical reaction, making possible to re-unify the two worlds of chemical and biochemical thermodynamics, which so far have been treated separately.

  9. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  10. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  11. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  12. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  13. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  14. BNDB – The Biochemical Network Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmann Michael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances in high-throughput techniques and efficient data acquisition methods have resulted in a massive amount of life science data. The data is stored in numerous databases that have been established over the last decades and are essential resources for scientists nowadays. However, the diversity of the databases and the underlying data models make it difficult to combine this information for solving complex problems in systems biology. Currently, researchers typically have to browse several, often highly focused, databases to obtain the required information. Hence, there is a pressing need for more efficient systems for integrating, analyzing, and interpreting these data. The standardization and virtual consolidation of the databases is a major challenge resulting in a unified access to a variety of data sources. Description We present the Biochemical Network Database (BNDB, a powerful relational database platform, allowing a complete semantic integration of an extensive collection of external databases. BNDB is built upon a comprehensive and extensible object model called BioCore, which is powerful enough to model most known biochemical processes and at the same time easily extensible to be adapted to new biological concepts. Besides a web interface for the search and curation of the data, a Java-based viewer (BiNA provides a powerful platform-independent visualization and navigation of the data. BiNA uses sophisticated graph layout algorithms for an interactive visualization and navigation of BNDB. Conclusion BNDB allows a simple, unified access to a variety of external data sources. Its tight integration with the biochemical network library BN++ offers the possibility for import, integration, analysis, and visualization of the data. BNDB is freely accessible at http://www.bndb.org.

  15. [Chronic fatigue syndrome: biochemical examination of blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakariya, Yukiko; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2007-06-01

    Though patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have lots of complaints, abnormal findings cannot be detected by biochemical screening tests. However, some specialized blood tests have revealed neuroendocrine immune axis abnormalities, which is closely associated with each other. Recent studies indicate that CFS can be understood as a special condition based on abnormality of the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunological system, with the distinguishing feature of CFS seeming to be the secondary brain dysfunction caused by several cytokines and/or autoantibodies. In this paper, we summarize these abnormalities found in CFS and show the neuro-molecular mechanism leading to chronic fatigue.

  16. Azoospermia: clinical, hormonal, and biochemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimas, J; Papadopoulou, F; Ioannidis, S; Spanos, E; Tarlatzis, B; Bontis, J; Mantalenakis, S

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, hormonal and biochemical characteristics of infertile men with azoospermia. A total of 187 azoospermic out of 2610 infertile men (7.2%) were studied. Mean testicular volume and basal plasma levels of FSH were the most useful parameters concerning the evaluation of azoospermia. Basal plasma levels of LH and T were useful only in azoospermic men with hypogonadism, whereas plasma PRL levels, semen volume, and seminal plasma fructose levels were not found to be of common use except in selected cases.

  17. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  18. Biochemical Markers of Joint Tissue Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Sondergaard, Bodil Cecilie; Christiansen, Claus;

    2009-01-01

    Recent disappointments in late stage developments of anti-osteoarthritic drugs have reinforced efforts to develop better biomarkers for application in both the drug development process as well as in the routine management of these patients. Here we provide a brief review of biochemical tests...... available for the study of tissue turnover in each of the three compartments of the articular joint, that is the bone, the cartilage, and the synovium. Finally, we provide some perspective to future developments in biomarker discovery and discuss the potential impact such technologies could have on the drug...

  19. Biochemical composition of tangerine fruits under microfertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Belous; Yuliya Abilfazova

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the long-term research and its results in the field of biochemical composition and mechanical analysis of dwarf tangerine fruits ('Miagava-Vase') growing in the subtropical zone of the Black Sea coast, Krasnodar region. The given results have been obtained after treatments with the following micro fertilizers: H3BO3 (at a concentration of 0.06%), MnSO4 H2O (0.4%), ZnSO4 H2O (0.3%) and CuSO4 H2O (0.06%), an option with foliar water spraying served as a control. It is shown t...

  20. Plant nanobionics approach to augment photosynthesis and biochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Landry, Markita P.; Faltermeier, Sean M.; McNicholas, Thomas P.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Boghossian, Ardemis A.; Reuel, Nigel F.; Hilmer, Andrew J.; Sen, Fatih; Brew, Jacqueline A.; Strano, Michael S.

    2014-04-01

    The interface between plant organelles and non-biological nanostructures has the potential to impart organelles with new and enhanced functions. Here, we show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) passively transport and irreversibly localize within the lipid envelope of extracted plant chloroplasts, promote over three times higher photosynthetic activity than that of controls, and enhance maximum electron transport rates. The SWNT-chloroplast assemblies also enable higher rates of leaf electron transport in vivo through a mechanism consistent with augmented photoabsorption. Concentrations of reactive oxygen species inside extracted chloroplasts are significantly suppressed by delivering poly(acrylic acid)-nanoceria or SWNT-nanoceria complexes. Moreover, we show that SWNTs enable near-infrared fluorescence monitoring of nitric oxide both ex vivo and in vivo, thus demonstrating that a plant can be augmented to function as a photonic chemical sensor. Nanobionics engineering of plant function may contribute to the development of biomimetic materials for light-harvesting and biochemical detection with regenerative properties and enhanced efficiency.

  1. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  2. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  3. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142564Chen Mingxing(Beijing Research Institute of Survey and Design,China Hydropower Engineering Consulting Group Co.,Beijing 100024,China);Chen Baoguo Application of Drilling Deviation Correcting and Deflecting Techniques in Geological Exploration at Songta Hydropower Station(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,

  4. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  5. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  6. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged......The design professions have always been an amorphous phenomena difficult to merge under one label. New constellations continually emerge, questioning, stretching, and reconfiguring the understanding of design and the professional practices linked to it. In this paper the idea of architectural....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...

  7. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  8. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  9. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients.

  10. Biotin: biochemical, physiological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hamid M

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiological and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamin biotin (vitamin H). It is well know now that biotin plays important roles in a variety of critical metabolic reactions in the cell, and thus, is essential for normal human health, growth and development. This is underscored by the serious clinical abnormalities that occur in conditions of biotin deficiency, which include, among other things, growth retardation, neurological disorders, and dermatological abnormalities (reviewed in 1). Studies in animals have also shown that biotin deficiency during pregnancy leads to embryonic growth retardation, congenital malformation and death (Watanabe 1983; Cooper and Brown 1958; Mock et al. 2003; Zempleni and Mock 2000). The aim of this chapter is to provide coverage of current knowledge of the biochemical, physiological, and clinical aspects of biotin nutrition. Many sections of this chapter have been the subject of excellent recent reviews by others (Wolf 2001; McMahon 2002; Mock 2004; Rodriguez-Melendez and Zempleni 2003; Said 2004; Said et al. 2000; Said and Seetheram 2006), and thus, for more information the reader is advised to consider these additional sources.

  11. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  12. Biochemical Manifestation of HIV Lipodystrophy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ihenetu, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, including protease inhibitors (PI have led to dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of life in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. However, a significant number of AIDS patients on HAART develop characteristic changes in body fat redistribution referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS. Features of LDS include hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump, increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch, gynecomastia and loss of fat in the mid-face and extremities.Methods:The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding this syndrome. This article reviews the published investigations on biochemical manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome.Results:It is estimated that approximately 64% of patients treated with PI will experience this syndrome. Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides (Trig, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:It is hoped that awareness of this syndrome would aid in early diagnosis and better patient management, possibly leading to a lower incidence of cardiovascular complications among these patients.

  13. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  14. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  15. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  16. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  17. Engineering microbial electrocatalysis for chemical and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Henrich, Alexander W

    2014-10-01

    In many biotechnological areas, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have become core technologies for biocatalyst development. Microbial electrocatalysis for biochemical and fuel production is still in its infancy and reactions rates and the product spectrum are currently very low. Therefore, molecular engineering strategies will be crucial for the advancement and realization of many new bioproduction routes using electroactive microorganisms. The complex and unresolved biochemistry and physiology of extracellular electron transfer and the lack of molecular tools for these new non-model hosts for genetic engineering constitute the major challenges for this effort. This review is providing an insight into the current status, challenges and promising approaches of pathway engineering for microbial electrocatalysis.

  18. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  19. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112760 Dai Guozhong (College of Civil Engineering,Changzhou Institute of Tech- nology,Changzhou 213002,China);Zhang Yaxing Study on Solid-Free Drilling Fluid of PVM Polymer and Its Application (Geology

  20. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  1. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  2. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  3. Rehabilitation Engineering: What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Rehabilitation Engineering What is rehabilitation engineering? How can future rehabilitation ... the area of rehabilitation engineering? What is rehabilitation engineering? Powered prosthetic leg. Source : M. Goldfarb, Vanderbilt U. ...

  4. Hemoglobin variants: biochemical properties and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S; Dickson, Claire F; Gell, David A; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2013-03-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples.

  5. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...... techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...

  6. On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A water/salt system in an evaporative environment is both a physicochemical region and a biological one. All the parameters of the system, such as the salinity, temperature and CO2 partial pressure, are affected by halophilic bacteria. The system controls salt deposition but is modified by an accompanying ecological system; therefore it should be called a water/salt/biological system. Salt minerals result from accumulation of the remains of bacteria/algae, namely, bacteria/algae formation; whereas biological, biophysical and biochemical processes provide full evidence for organic involvement. Consequently, salt deposits should not be called purely chemical but biological/chemical ones. This new argument supplements and develops the traditional idea and helps perfect the mineralization theory of salts and even general deposits, thus giving guidance to prospecting for salt deposits.

  7. The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

  8. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  9. Dynamic analysis of biochemical network using complex network method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stochastic biochemical reaction model is proposed based on the law of mass action and complex network theory. The dynamics of biochemical reaction system is presented as a set of non-linear differential equations and analyzed at the molecular-scale. Given the initial state and the evolution rules of the biochemical reaction system, the system can achieve homeostasis. Compared with random graph, the biochemical reaction network has larger information capacity and is more efficient in information transmission. This is consistent with theory of evolution.

  10. Transcription fluctuation effects on biochemical oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nishino

    Full Text Available Some biochemical systems show oscillation. They often consist of feedback loops with repressive transcription regulation. Such biochemical systems have distinctive characteristics in comparison with ordinary chemical systems: i numbers of molecules involved are small, ii there are typically only a couple of genes in a cell with a finite regulation time. Due to the fluctuations caused by these features, the system behavior can be quite different from the one by deterministic rate equations, because the rate equations ignore molecular fluctuations and thus are exact only in the infinite molecular number limit. The molecular fluctuations on a free-running circadian system have been studied by Gonze et al. (2002 by introducing a scale parameter [Formula: see text] for the system size. They consider, however, only the first effect, assuming that the gene process is fast enough for the second effect to be ignored, but this has not been examined systematically yet. Here we study fluctuation effects due to the finite gene regulation time by introducing a new scale parameter [Formula: see text], which we take as the unbinding time of a nuclear protein from the gene. We focus on the case where the fluctuations due to small molecular numbers are negligible. In simulations on the same system studied by Gonze et al., we find the system is unexpectedly sensitive to the fluctuation in the transcription regulation; the period of oscillation fluctuates about 30 min even when the regulation time scale [Formula: see text] is around 30 s, that is even smaller than 1/1000 of its circadian period. We also demonstrate that the distribution width for the oscillation period and amplitude scales with [Formula: see text], and the correlation time scales with [Formula: see text] in the small [Formula: see text] regime. The relative fluctuations for the period are about half of that for the amplitude, namely, the periodicity is more stable than the amplitude.

  11. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  12. Overcoming Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, M J; Söll, D; Church, G M

    2016-02-27

    Withstanding 3.5 billion years of genetic drift, the canonical genetic code remains such a fundamental foundation for the complexity of life that it is highly conserved across all three phylogenetic domains. Genome engineering technologies are now making it possible to rationally change the genetic code, offering resistance to viruses, genetic isolation from horizontal gene transfer, and prevention of environmental escape by genetically modified organisms. We discuss the biochemical, genetic, and technological challenges that must be overcome in order to engineer the genetic code.

  13. [Chondrocyte mecanobiology. Application in cartilage tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Jean François; Netter, Patrick; Huselstein, Céline; de Isla, Natalia; Wei Yang, Jing; Muller, Sylvaine

    2005-11-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue that withstands and distributes mechanical forces within joints. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain cartilaginous tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Some mechanotransduction mechanisms are known, while many others no doubt remain to be discovered. Various aspects of chondrocyte mechanobiology have been applied to tissue engineering, with the creation of replacement tissue in vitro from bioresorbable or non-bioresorbable scaffolds and harvested cells. The tissues are maintained in a near-physiologic mechanical and biochemical environment. This paper is an overview of both chondrocyte mechanobiology and cartilage tissue engineering

  14. Engineering Annual Summary 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimolitsas, S

    1999-05-01

    mechanics and micro-instrumentation. For example, our DYNA code is widely used both by government and industry to model the behavior of structures under large deformation conditions, such as automobile and aircraft collisions. Today, our codes have expanded to run on the world's most powerful Tflop/s class computer, in the massively parallel, coupled/-multi-physics domain. More recently, in microtechnology, we have been designing and fabricating unique microinstruments using lithographic processing. Building on Engineering's pioneering work in precision engineering, we are now able to fabricate complete biomedical and biochemical instruments, often at far less than one-tenth size, with improved performance over current ''state-of-the-art'' laboratory instruments. These developments are helping us make unique contributions in the fields of proximal and remote sensing related to nonproliferation and counterproliferation of weapons of mass destruction (such as nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) and in biotechnology, where we actively support LLNL's significant involvement in human genome sequencing.

  15. Biochemical and mechanical characterization of Nereis worm jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomell, Christopher C.

    The ultimate goal of biomimetics is to elucidate the design principles governing performance in biological materials and apply them to engineering systems. Successful transfer of these principles will require a thorough understanding of the complex interplay between molecular composition, organization and mechanical properties of the material. This dissertation describes the mechanical and biochemical characterization of jaws from the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Nereid jaws possess remarkable mechanical properties considering their predominantly organic composition. Hardness and stiffness are comparable to human dentin. However, in stark contrast to dentin, in Nereis these properties are achieved without mineralization. The role of metal ions in jaw sclerotization is addressed. In the pristine state, Zn ions are concentrated at the tip and toothed-edge of the jaw and are critical for hardness and modulus; both properties are reduced by ˜70% following Zn removal by treatment with EDTA. Furthermore, metal content in the jaw can be manipulated by soaking Zn-depleted samples in metal solutions; the comparative effects of treatment with alternative transition metals under both dry and hydrated conditions are described. The molecular composition of the jaw is also addressed. Protein comprises ˜90% of the jaw mass; amino acid analysis indicates that histidine is increased in the hardened, Zn-rich tip. The major protein component in Nereid jaw extracts is purified and characterized by partial peptide mapping and isolation of a partial clone from a jaw pulp cDNA library. Nvjp-1 is a 38 kDa glycine- histidine-rich protein and is believed to be the principle structural protein in the hardened jaw tip. The effects of selected environmental factors on Nvjp-1 structure and assembly are described. Transition from low to high pH is accompanied by changes in secondary structure and a significant molecular elongation. Furthermore, exposure to transition metals, notably Zn and

  16. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics character......There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics...... characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity...... compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains...

  17. A Biochemical Approach to the Problem of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sidney McDonald

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents the case of a sixth-grade boy, labeled dyslexic, who responded positively to a biochemical approach. Remedy of iron, zinc, and Vitamin B-6 deficiencies as well as an imbalance of fatty acids resulted in improvements in hair and skin and also in reading. A biochemical approach to behavior problems is proposed. (Author/CL)

  18. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J, Pingel; Fredberg, Ulrich; K, Qvortrup;

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The ex...

  19. The physiological and biochemical bases of functional brain imaging

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Functional brain imaging is based on the display of computer-derived images of changes in physiological and/or biochemical functions altered by activation or depression of local functional activities in the brain. This article reviews the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved.

  20. Biochemical evaluation of phenylketonuria (PKU: from diagnosis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Belmont-Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Besides periodical Phe and Tyr testing, biochemical follow-up includes the measurement of necessary elements that guarantee normal physical and intellectual development such as selenium, zinc, B12 vitamin, folates, iron and long chain fatty acids. Clinical context is as important as biochemical status so periodic evaluation of nutritional, medical, social and psychological aspects should be included.

  1. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.W.M.; Pacak, K.; Walther, M.M.; Linehan, W.M.; Mannelli, M.; Friberg, P.; Keiser, H.R.; Goldstein, D.S.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. However, the best test to establish the diagnosis has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the biochemical test or combination of tests that provides the best method for diagnosis

  2. The Research Proposal in Biomechanical and Biological Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roger G.; Nollert, Matthias U.; Schmidtke, David W.; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I.

    2006-01-01

    Students in four biochemical and biological engineering courses for upper-­level undergraduates and graduate students were required to write a research proposal. Breaking the requirements down into segments (such as a summary with specific aims, rough draft, and final draft) due on different dates helped make the assignment more manageable for the…

  3. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091943 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China);Zhu Mingcheng Application of Pipe-Roof Curtain Grouting in Construction of Coal Mine Tunnel Crossing the Fractured Zone(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.79-81,3 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:curtain grouting20091944 Chen Changfu(Civil Engineering College,Hunan University,Changsha 410082,China);Xiao Shujun Application of Weighted Residual Method in Whole Internal Force Calculation of Anti-Slide Pile(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.75-79,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:slide-resistant

  4. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  5. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  6. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  7. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140498An Shize(Sichuan Institute of Geological Engineering Investigation,Chengdu610072,China);Liu Zongxiang On the Failure Mechanism of a Bedding Landslide in Northeast Sichuan(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.14-19,2illus.,9refs.)Key words:bedding faults,landslides The landslide was caused by excavation engineering.The failure mechanism is explored for slopes with soft interlayer in the red

  8. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  9. Lightwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokubun, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Suitable as either a student text or professional reference, Lightwave Engineering addresses the behavior of electromagnetic waves and the propagation of light, which forms the basis of the wide-ranging field of optoelectronics. Divided into two parts, the book first gives a comprehensive introduction to lightwave engineering using plane wave and then offers an in-depth analysis of lightwave propagation in terms of electromagnetic theory. Using the language of mathematics to explain natural phenomena, the book includes numerous illustrative figures that help readers develop an intuitive unders

  10. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  11. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckel Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at http://www.ball-project.org. Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  12. Robustness analysis of stochastic biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceska, Milan; Safránek, David; Dražan, Sven; Brim, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new framework for rigorous robustness analysis of stochastic biochemical systems that is based on probabilistic model checking techniques. We adapt the general definition of robustness introduced by Kitano to the class of stochastic systems modelled as continuous time Markov Chains in order to extensively analyse and compare robustness of biological models with uncertain parameters. The framework utilises novel computational methods that enable to effectively evaluate the robustness of models with respect to quantitative temporal properties and parameters such as reaction rate constants and initial conditions. We have applied the framework to gene regulation as an example of a central biological mechanism where intrinsic and extrinsic stochasticity plays crucial role due to low numbers of DNA and RNA molecules. Using our methods we have obtained a comprehensive and precise analysis of stochastic dynamics under parameter uncertainty. Furthermore, we apply our framework to compare several variants of two-component signalling networks from the perspective of robustness with respect to intrinsic noise caused by low populations of signalling components. We have successfully extended previous studies performed on deterministic models (ODE) and showed that stochasticity may significantly affect obtained predictions. Our case studies demonstrate that the framework can provide deeper insight into the role of key parameters in maintaining the system functionality and thus it significantly contributes to formal methods in computational systems biology.

  13. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: amartin@univap.br [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  14. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica...

  15. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20051144 Gu Jun (Petroleum University, Beijing); Gao Deli Analysis of Mechanic Characterstics for Coal Bed and Drilling Countermeasure in Tuha Basin, Xinjiang, China (Exploration Engineering (Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling), ISSN 1672 - 7428, CN11-5063/TD, 31(5), 2004, p. 51-52, 55, 3 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Key words: coal seams, drilling

  16. Photoreceptor engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eZiegler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory photoreceptors not only control diverse adaptive responses in Nature, but as light-regulated actuators they also provide the foundation for optogenetics, the non-invasive and spatiotemporally precise manipulation of cellular events by light. Novel photoreceptors have been engineered that establish control by light over manifold biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic intervention. Recently, photoreceptor engineering has witnessed a rapid development, and light-regulated actuators for the perturbation of a plethora of cellular events are now available. Here, we review fundamental principles of photoreceptors and light-regulated allostery. Photoreceptors dichotomize into associating receptors that alter their oligomeric state as part of light-regulated allostery and non-associating receptors that do not. A survey of engineered photoreceptors pinpoints light-regulated association reactions and order-disorder transitions as particularly powerful and versatile design principles. Photochromic photoreceptors that are bidirectionally toggled by two light colors augur enhanced spatiotemporal resolution and use as photoactivatable fluorophores. By identifying desirable traits in engineered photoreceptors, we provide pointers for the design of future, light-regulated actuators.

  17. Concurrent engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Leger, L.; Hunter, D.; Jones, C.; Sprague, R.; Berke, L.; Newell, J.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: issues (liquid rocket propulsion - current development approach, current certification process, and costs of engineering changes); state of the art (DICE information management system, key government participants, project development strategy, quality management, and numerical propulsion system simulation); needs identified; and proposed program.

  18. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  19. Engineering Ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Pim; Akkermans, Hans; Top, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the construction as well as the role of ontologies in knowledge sharing and reuse for complex industrial applications. In this article, the practical use of ontologies in large-scale applications not restricted to knowledge-based systems is demonstrated, for the domain of engineering syst

  20. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20161419Cao Baomin(Shaanxi Binchang Xiaozhuang Mining Co.Ltd,Binxian 7135000,China);Zhang Jianghao Application of Rotary Drilling Combination to Pile Foundation Engineering in Xiaozhuang Mine,Shaanxi Province(Geology of Shaanxi,ISSN1001-6996,CN61

  1. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  2. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  3. Engineering biomolecular microenvironments for cell instructive biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Catarina A; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2014-06-01

    Engineered cell instructive microenvironments with the ability to stimulate specific cellular responses are a topic of high interest in the fabrication and development of biomaterials for application in tissue engineering. Cells are inherently sensitive to the in vivo microenvironment that is often designed as the cell "niche." The cell "niche" comprising the extracellular matrix and adjacent cells, influences not only cell architecture and mechanics, but also cell polarity and function. Extensive research has been performed to establish new tools to fabricate biomimetic advanced materials for tissue engineering that incorporate structural, mechanical, and biochemical signals that interact with cells in a controlled manner and to recapitulate the in vivo dynamic microenvironment. Bioactive tunable microenvironments using micro and nanofabrication have been successfully developed and proven to be extremely powerful to control intracellular signaling and cell function. This Review is focused in the assortment of biochemical signals that have been explored to fabricate bioactive cell microenvironments and the main technologies and chemical strategies to encode them in engineered biomaterials with biological information.

  4. Engineering Cellulases for Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [Royal DSM, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-06-27

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  5. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  6. Biochemical effects of Calotropis procera on hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali Abd Alrheam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropis procera commonly known as Sodom apple is a 6-meter high shrub that belongs to the Aclepiadaceae plant family and is commonly found in West Africa and other tropical places. In Saudi Arabia the plant is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of diseases including fever, constipation, muscular spasm and joint pain. Aim: In the present study C. procera were investigated for the hepatoprotective activity. Material and Methods: Carbon tetrachloride is used to produce hepatotoxicity. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats. Carbon tetrachloride 2ml/kg was administered twice a week to all of the groups of animals except group I, which served as control and given the normal saline. Group II served as Carbon tetrachloirde control. Group III received Silymarin at 100 mg/kg/day dose, Group IV received aqueous leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group V received chloroform leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group VI received ethanol leaves extracts C. procera 200 mg/kg, Group VII received latex of C. procera 200mg/kg. The effect of aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera on biochemical parameters of liver was measured. Results: The results showed that the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera produced significant decrease in Acid phosphatase, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Total protein, Albumin and total bilirubin levels compared to the CCL4 treated group II. Conclusion: Calotropis procera appears to to have hepatoprotective activity and these may be due to enrich of the plant by phytoconstituents that activate and in hence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the plant. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(12.000: 446-453

  7. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  8. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092040 Chen Jing(College of Petroleum Engineering,Yangtze University,Jingzhou 434023,China);Xiong Qingshan Technology of Well Cementing with Expandable Tube and Its Application(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.19-21,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:cementingExpandable tube is a new technology and has been developed oversea.It can be applied in well drilling and completion for deep water,deep well,extended reach well and multilateral well,as well as in oil extraction and workover.This paper briefly introduces the technology of well cementing with

  9. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090712 Ge Mingjun(General Institution of Mineral Exploration & Development in Qiqihaer of Heilongjiang Province,Qiqihaer 161006,China) Application of Emulsified Diesel Oil Drilling Fluid in Under-Balanced Drilling(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,34(11),2007,p.43-45,1 illus.,2 tables,4 refs.)

  10. Heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekos, N. F., Jr.; Parsons, E. L., Jr.

    1989-09-01

    For the past decade, the Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored projects to develop diesel and gas turbine engines capable of operating on low-cost, coal-based fuels. Much of the current work addresses the use of coal-water fuel (CWF) in diesel and turbines, although there is some work with dry coal feed and other coal fuels. Both the diesel and gas turbine portions of the program include proof-of-concept and support projects. Specific highlights of the program include: engine tests and economic analyses have shown that CWF can replace 70 percent of the diesel oil used in the duty cycle of a typical main-line locomotive; A. D. Little and Cooper-Bessemer completed a system and economic study of coal-fueled diesel engines for modular power and industrial cogeneration markets. The coal-fueled diesel was found to be competitive at fuel oil prices of $5.50 per million British thermal units (MBtu); Over 200 hours of testing have been completed using CWF in full-scale, single-cylinder diesel engines. Combustion efficiencies have exceeded 99 percent; Both CWF and dry coal fuel forms can be burned in short residence time in-line combustors and in off-base combustors with a combustion efficiency of over 99 percent; Rich/lean combustion systems employed by the three major DOE contractors have demonstrated low NO(sub x) emissions levels; Contractors have also achieved promising results for controlling sulfur oxide (SO(sub x)) emissions using calcium-based sorbents; Slagging combustors have achieved between 65 and 95 percent slag capture, which will limit particulate loading on pre-turbine cleanup devices. For many of the gas turbine and diesel applications emission standards do not exist. Our goal is to develop coal-fueled diesels and gas turbines that not only meet all applicable emission standards that do exist, but also are capable of meeting possible future standards.

  11. Engineering Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Pim; Akkermans, Hans; Top, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the construction as well as the role of ontologies in knowledge sharing and reuse for complex industrial applications. In this article, the practical use of ontologies in large-scale applications not restricted to knowledge-based systems is demonstrated, for the domain of engineering systems modelling, simulation and design. A general and formal ontology, called PHYSSYS, for dynamic physical systems is presented and its structuring principles are discussed. We show how the PHYSSYS ...

  12. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072985 Bai Mingzhou(Beijing Jiaotong University,Beijing 100044,China);Du Yongqiang Study on Application Technology of Geology Horizontal Drilling in Qiyueshan Tunnel at Yiwan Railway(Exploration Engineering(Rock & Soil Drilling and Tunneling),ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,33(4),2006,p.59-61,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:tunnels,horizontal drilling

  13. Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.

  14. Metabolic engineering in methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnaya, MG; Puri, AW; Lidstrom, ME

    2015-05-01

    Methane, as natural gas or biogas, is the least expensive source of carbon for (bio)chemical synthesis. Scalable biological upgrading of this simple alkane to chemicals and fuels can bring new sustainable solutions to a number of industries with large environmental footprints, such as natural gas/petroleum production, landfills, wastewater treatment, and livestock. Microbial biocatalysis with methane as a feedstock has been pursued off and on for almost a half century, with little enduring success. Today, biological engineering and systems biology provide new opportunities for metabolic system modulation and give new optimism to the concept of a methane-based bio-industry. Here we present an overview of the most recent advances pertaining to metabolic engineering of microbial methane utilization. Some ideas concerning metabolic improvements for production of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, two main precursors for bioconversion, are presented. We also discuss main gaps in the current knowledge of aerobic methane utilization, which must be solved in order to release the full potential of methane-based biosystems. (C) 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzullo, Leslie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  16. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  17. Approaches to Chemical and Biochemical Information and Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    We outline models and approaches for error control required to prevent buildup of noise when ``gates'' and other ``network elements'' based on (bio)chemical reaction processes are utilized to realize stable, scalable networks for information and signal processing. We also survey challenges and possible future research. [4pt] [1] Control of Noise in Chemical and Biochemical Information Processing, V. Privman, Israel J. Chem. 51, 118-131 (2010).[0pt] [2] Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic, V. Privman, J. Halamek, M. A. Arugula, D. Melnikov, V. Bocharova and E. Katz, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 14103-14109 (2010).[0pt] [3] Towards Biosensing Strategies Based on Biochemical Logic Systems, E. Katz, V. Privman and J. Wang, in: Proc. Conf. ICQNM 2010 (IEEE Comp. Soc. Conf. Publ. Serv., Los Alamitos, California, 2010), pages 1-9.

  18. Assessment of biochemical concentrations of vegetation using remote sensing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main biochemicals (such as lignin, protein, cellulose, sugar, starch, chlorophyll and water) of vegetation are directly or indirectly involved in major ecological processes, such as the functions of terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., nutrient-cycling processes, primary production, and decomposition). Remote sensing techniques provide a very convenient way of data acquisition capable of covering a large area several times during one season, so it can play a unique and essential role provided that we can relate remote sensing measurements to the biochemical characteristics of the Earth surface in a reliable and operational way. The application of remote sensing techniques for the estimation of canopy biochemicals was reviewed. Three methods of estimating biochemical concentrations of vegetation were included in this paper: index, stepwise multiple linear regression, and stepwise multiple linear regression based on a model of the forest crown. In addition, the vitality and potential applying value are stressed.

  19. Serum biochemical parameters of farmed carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanţi Patriche

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in ichthyo-pathology of recent years, interpretation of fish serum biochemical parameters is often difficult by lack of reference values. That is why to know the value of the serum biochemical parameters can be a useful tool for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses and responses to therapy. This paper provides data concerning biochemical composition of carp serum (Cyprinus carpio bred at Brateş Farm of Institute of Research and Development for Aquatic Ecology, Fishing and Aquaculture from Galaţi and Pleaşa Farm from Ploieşti, Romania. In research conducted onCyprinus carpio were determined following serum biochemical parameters: glucose (GLU, total proteins (TP, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, cholesterol (CHOL, triglyceride (TRIG, sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, iron (Fe.

  20. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, A. [Univ. di Milano (Italy); Falini, A. [Univ. Vita e Salute (Italy). IRCCS; Ravasi, L.; Ottobrini, L.; Lucignani, G. [Univ. di Milano (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; De Marchis, D. [Univ. di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Bombardieri, E. [Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  1. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone marker...

  2. Toward metabolic engineering in the context of system biology and synthetic biology: advances and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic engineering facilitates the rational development of recombinant bacterial strains for metabolite overproduction. Building on enormous advances in system biology and synthetic biology, novel strategies have been established for multivariate optimization of metabolic networks in ensemble, spatial, and dynamic manners such as modular pathway engineering, compartmentalization metabolic engineering, and metabolic engineering guided by genome-scale metabolic models, in vitro reconstitution, and systems and synthetic biology. Herein, we summarize recent advances in novel metabolic engineering strategies. Combined with advancing kinetic models and synthetic biology tools, more efficient new strategies for improving cellular properties can be established and applied for industrially important biochemical production.

  3. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  4. Internet Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  5. [Fifty years of cooperation--FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This year, the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) celebrates its 50th anniversary. The Polish Biochemical Society, represented by the Society's President, Kazimierz Zakrzewski, was a founding member of the organization. The text presents a history of collaboration between FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society, the participation of Polish Biochemical Society members in different FEBS activities, as well as the role they played in running the Federation. Author describes FEBS Congresses which taken place in Warsaw, the first 3rd FEBS Meeting in 1966 and then 29th Congress in 2004. The profiles of Jakub Karol Parnas, the founding father of the Polish biochemistry and some crucial Presidents of the Society, are also presented. The text describes Parnas Conferences, organized jointly by Polish and Ukrainian Biochemical Societies from 1996, and growing from 2011 into three-nation event with participation of Ukrainian, Israeli and Polish scientists, largely due to significant help from FEBS. Summarizing the last few years, author judge the cooperation between the Federation and the Polish Biochemical Society as optimal.

  6. EXPLORATION ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122758 Chen Huiming ( No.8 Geology Team of Fujian Province,Longyan 364000,China ) Application Research on Drilling Technology Process Combination for Deep Explora-tion in an Iron Mine of Fujian Province ( Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063 / TD,38 ( 9 ), 2011,p.6-9,8ta-bles,6refs. ) Key words:drilling in complicated formation According to the drilling technical problems in deep complex formations of the ironmine surrounding Makeng of Fujian Province ,

  7. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  8. Security Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    attacks cannot be completely addressed by traditional perimeter security solutions [ Wulf and Jones, 2009], as they have been in the past. A new...the mainstay of the current cyber security solution space [ Wulf and Jones, 2009]. This has enabled the system engineering and security communities...Number: H98230-08-D-0171 DO 002 TO 002 RT 028 Report No. SERC-2012-TR-028 January 31, 2012 UNCLASSIFIED 37 W. A. Wulf and A. K. Jones, Reflections on cyber security, Science Magazine, vol. 326, 2009, pp. 943-944.

  9. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical responses inherent to antioxidant systems as well morphological and anatomical properties of photomorphogenic, hormonal and developmental tomato mutants were investigated. Compared to the non-mutant Micro-Tom (MT, we observed that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was enhanced in the diageotropica (dgt and lutescent (l mutants, whilst the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were observed in high pigment 1 (hp1 and aurea (au mutants. The analyses of antioxidant enzymes revealed that all mutants exhibited reduced catalase (CAT activity when compared to MT. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX was enhanced in both sitiens (sit and notabilis (not mutants, whereas in not mutant there was an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Based on PAGE analysis, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR isoforms III, IV, V and VI were increased in l leaves, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoform III was reduced in leaves of sit, epi, Never ripe (Nr and green flesh (gf mutants. Microscopic analyses revealed that hp1 and au showed an increase in leaf intercellular spaces, whereas sit exhibited a decrease. The au and hp1 mutants also exhibited a decreased in the number of leaf trichomes. The characterization of these mutants is essential for their future use in plant development and ecophysiology studies, such as abiotic and biotic stresses on the oxidative metabolism.Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT, observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt e lutescent (l, enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1 e aurea (au. Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT quando comparado a MT. A

  10. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON NIGERIAN MONODORA TENUIFOLIA SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeanyanwu Raphael Chukwuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive constituents of the seeds of Monodora tenuifolia were analyzed to augment the available information on Monodora tenuifolia research. Blood glucose and lipid profile were investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of M. tenuifolia in rats. The composition (gkg-1 of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins and flavonoids were 13.3±0.1, 21.2×10-2±0.6, 1.3±0.1, 1.7±0.1 and 11.7±1.1 respectively. The proximate composition (gkg-1 of M. tenuifolia seed were crude fibre (262.3±1.2, crude protein (82.6±1.0, crude fat (349.9±1.9, ash (49.9±0.6, moisture (190.0±0.00 and carbohydrate (65.5±4.7. Analysis of the minerals content (gkg-1 yielded calcium (864.0±29.38, sodium (2752.0±140.35, iron (3.34±0.06, zinc (5.26±0.08, potassium (326.4±13.06, magnesium (342.9±13.71 and phosphorus (9.52±0.17, while vitamin analysis yielded vitamin A (10.05±0.17 iu/100 g, C (56.40±0.14 gkg-1 and E (11.71±0.87 iu /100 g, thiamine (0.11±0.01 gkg-1, niacin (0.46±0.32 gkg-1 and riboflavin (0.04±0.01 gkg-1. The results of amino acid analysis showed the total amino acid of M. tenuifolia seed was 71.78 of crude protein. The total essential amino acid with Histidine was calculated to be 29.24 of the crude protein. The antinutrient analysis of M. tenuifolia shows it contained total phenol (0.8±0.0 gkg-1, oxalates (4.09±1.17 gkg-1, phytates (0.012±0.42 gkg-1 and trypsin inhibitor (0.230±0.42 iu/g. The main fatty acids of the seed oil are linoleic acid (401.7 g kg-1, oleic acid (346.1 g kg-1 and palmitic acid (122.61 g kg-1. The LD50 of the flavonoid-rich fraction was found to be above 5000 mg kg-1 b.w. After the day 14 study, biochemical markers such as triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein increased significantly (p0.05 effect was observed on the blood glucose and lipid profile of wistar albino rats compared with the control. The result shows that M. tenuifolia seed is rich

  11. A systematic molecular circuit design method for gene networks under biochemical time delays and molecular noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yu-Te

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene networks in nanoscale are of nonlinear stochastic process. Time delays are common and substantial in these biochemical processes due to gene transcription, translation, posttranslation protein modification and diffusion. Molecular noises in gene networks come from intrinsic fluctuations, transmitted noise from upstream genes, and the global noise affecting all genes. Knowledge of molecular noise filtering and biochemical process delay compensation in gene networks is crucial to understand the signal processing in gene networks and the design of noise-tolerant and delay-robust gene circuits for synthetic biology. Results A nonlinear stochastic dynamic model with multiple time delays is proposed for describing a gene network under process delays, intrinsic molecular fluctuations, and extrinsic molecular noises. Then, the stochastic biochemical processing scheme of gene regulatory networks for attenuating these molecular noises and compensating process delays is investigated from the nonlinear signal processing perspective. In order to improve the robust stability for delay toleration and noise filtering, a robust gene circuit for nonlinear stochastic time-delay gene networks is engineered based on the nonlinear robust H∞ stochastic filtering scheme. Further, in order to avoid solving these complicated noise-tolerant and delay-robust design problems, based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy time-delay model and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs technique, a systematic gene circuit design method is proposed to simplify the design procedure. Conclusion The proposed gene circuit design method has much potential for application to systems biology, synthetic biology and drug design when a gene regulatory network has to be designed for improving its robust stability and filtering ability of disease-perturbed gene network or when a synthetic gene network needs to perform robustly under process delays and molecular noises.

  12. The role of biochemical engineering in the production of biofuels from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2011-01-01

    Environmental changes that have occurred due to the use of fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative sources that have a lower environmental impact. First-generation biofuels were derived from crops such as sugar cane, corn and soybean, which contribute to water scarcity and deforestation. Second-generation biofuels originated from lignocellulose agriculture and forest residues, however these needed large areas of land that could be used for food production. Based on technology projections, the third generation of biofuels will be derived from microalgae. Microalgae are considered to be an alternative energy source without the drawbacks of the first- and second-generation biofuels. Depending upon the growing conditions, microalgae can produce biocompounds that are easily converted into biofuels. The biofuels from microalgae are an alternative that can keep the development of human activity in harmony with the environment. This study aimed to present the main biofuels that can be derived from microalgae.

  13. From physiology to systems metabolic engineering for the production of biochemicals by lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Paula; Carvalho, Ana L.; Vinga, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a functionally related group of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria known essentially for their roles in bioprocessing of foods and animal feeds. Due to extensive industrial use and enormous economical value, LAB have been intensively studied and a large body...

  14. Biothermodynamics of live cells: a tool for biotechnology and biochemical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stockar, Urs

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to review the application of thermodynamics to live cultures of microbial and other cells and to explore to what extent this may be put to practical use. A major focus is on energy dissipation effects in industrially relevant cultures, both in terms of heat and Gibbs energy dissipation. The experimental techniques for calorimetric measurements in live cultures are reviewed and their use for monitoring and control is discussed. A detailed analysis of the dissipation of Gibbs energy in chemotrophic growth shows that it reflects the entropy production by metabolic processes in the cells and thus also the driving force for growth and metabolism. By splitting metabolism conceptually up into catabolism and biosynthesis, it can be shown that this driving force decreases as the growth yield increases. This relationship is demonstrated by using experimental measurements on a variety of microbial strains. On the basis of these data, several literature correlations were tested as tools for biomass yield prediction. The prediction of other culture performance characteristics, including product yields for biorefinery planning, energy yields for biofuel manufacture, maximum growth rates, maintenance requirements, and threshold concentrations is also briefly reviewed.

  15. Nano surface engineering and remanufacture engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin-shi

    2004-01-01

    Nano surface engineering and remanufacture engineering are introduced, and the relationship between them is set forth. It points out the superiority of nano surface engineering to the traditional one, and reveals the advantages of remanufacture engineering. Taking some nano surface techniques as samples, such as nano-materials brush electroplating, nano-materials thermal spraying and nano-materials self-repairing antifriction additive technology, it shows the applications of nano surface engineering technology to remanufacturing mechanical parts.

  16. Synthesizing Configurable Biochemical Implementation of Linear Systems from Their Transfer Function Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tai-Yin; Chiang, Hui-Ju K; Huang, Ruei-Yang; Jiang, Jie-Hong R; Fages, François

    2015-01-01

    The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow.

  17. Synthesizing Configurable Biochemical Implementation of Linear Systems from Their Transfer Function Specifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yin Chiu

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer synthetic systems in the biochemical context is constantly being improved and has a profound societal impact. Linear system design is one of the most pervasive methods applied in control tasks, and its biochemical realization has been proposed by Oishi and Klavins and advanced further in recent years. However, several technical issues remain unsolved. Specifically, the design process is not fully automated from specification at the transfer function level, systems once designed often lack dynamic adaptivity to environmental changes, matching rate constants of reactions is not always possible, and implementation may be approximative and greatly deviate from the specifications. Building upon the work of Oishi and Klavins, this paper overcomes these issues by introducing a design flow that transforms a transfer-function specification of a linear system into a set of chemical reactions, whose input-output response precisely conforms to the specification. This system is implementable using the DNA strand displacement technique. The underlying configurability is embedded into primitive components and template modules, and thus the entire system is adaptive. Simulation of DNA strand displacement implementation confirmed the feasibility and superiority of the proposed synthesis flow.

  18. Nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided signal amplification strategy for biochemical analysis: status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Taiping; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Wen, Li; Shangguan, Jingfang; Mao, Zhengui; Lei, Yanli

    2016-04-01

    Owing to their highly efficient catalytic effects and substrate specificity, the nucleic acid tool enzymes are applied as 'nano-tools' for manipulating different nucleic acid substrates both in the test-tube and in living organisms. In addition to the function as molecular scissors and molecular glue in genetic engineering, the application of nucleic acid tool enzymes in biochemical analysis has also been extensively developed in the past few decades. Used as amplifying labels for biorecognition events, the nucleic acid tool enzymes are mainly applied in nucleic acids amplification sensing, as well as the amplification sensing of biorelated variations of nucleic acids. With the introduction of aptamers, which can bind different target molecules, the nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided signal amplification strategies can also be used to sense non-nucleic targets (e.g., ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells). This review describes and discusses the amplification strategies of nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided biosensors for biochemical analysis applications. Various analytes, including nucleic acids, ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells, are reviewed briefly. This work also addresses the future trends and outlooks for signal amplification in nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided biosensors.

  19. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  20. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  1. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  2. Identification of biochemical network modules based on shortest retroactive distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Vivek Sridharan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modularity analysis offers a route to better understand the organization of cellular biochemical networks as well as to derive practically useful, simplified models of these complex systems. While there is general agreement regarding the qualitative properties of a biochemical module, there is no clear consensus on the quantitative criteria that may be used to systematically derive these modules. In this work, we investigate cyclical interactions as the defining characteristic of a biochemical module. We utilize a round trip distance metric, termed Shortest Retroactive Distance (ShReD, to characterize the retroactive connectivity between any two reactions in a biochemical network and to group together network components that mutually influence each other. We evaluate the metric on two types of networks that feature feedback interactions: (i epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling and (ii liver metabolism supporting drug transformation. For both networks, the ShReD partitions found hierarchically arranged modules that confirm biological intuition. In addition, the partitions also revealed modules that are less intuitive. In particular, ShReD-based partition of the metabolic network identified a 'redox' module that couples reactions of glucose, pyruvate, lipid and drug metabolism through shared production and consumption of NADPH. Our results suggest that retroactive interactions arising from feedback loops and metabolic cycles significantly contribute to the modularity of biochemical networks. For metabolic networks, cofactors play an important role as allosteric effectors that mediate the retroactive interactions.

  3. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  4. The responsibilities of engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  5. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  6. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications.

  7. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  8. SABRE: A Tool for Stochastic Analysis of Biochemical Reaction Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Didier, Frederic; Mateescu, Maria; Wolf, Verena

    2010-01-01

    The importance of stochasticity within biological systems has been shown repeatedly during the last years and has raised the need for efficient stochastic tools. We present SABRE, a tool for stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks. SABRE implements fast adaptive uniformization (FAU), a direct numerical approximation algorithm for computing transient solutions of biochemical reaction networks. Biochemical reactions networks represent biological systems studied at a molecular level and these reactions can be modeled as transitions of a Markov chain. SABRE accepts as input the formalism of guarded commands, which it interprets either as continuous-time or as discrete-time Markov chains. Besides operating in a stochastic mode, SABRE may also perform a deterministic analysis by directly computing a mean-field approximation of the system under study. We illustrate the different functionalities of SABRE by means of biological case studies.

  9. The Development of a Biochemical Profile of Acacia Honey by Identifying Biochemical Determinants of its Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru MARGHITAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Codex Alimentarius Standard, EU Legislation and National Standards state honey authenticity. Authenticity in respect of production (to prevent adulteration and authenticity in respect of geographical and botanical origin are the two main aspects of general honey authenticity. Quality of honey depends on the plant source, the chemical composition of these plants as well, as on the climatic conditions and soil mineral composition. Romanian acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia honey that came from the most important Transylvanian massif (Valea lui Mihai, Bihor County, Romania was evaluated for authenticity by pollen-analysis, several physico-chemical analyses, including sugar profile and mineral content. As polyphenolic content could be also an important factor for botanical authentification, HPLC-DAD-MS analyses were performed to assess the fingerprint of this important secondary plant metabolite. Statistical data were processed in order to develop a biochemical profile of this type of honey and the main quality categories identification. The results of physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that the tested honey samples could be framed into monofloral type of acacia honeys. The analysis of acacia honeys originating from Valea lui Mihai, Romania, showed that polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids and flavonoids could be used as a complementary method for authenticity determination together with pollen analysis and other physico-chemical analysis.

  10. Systematic Applications of Metabolomics in Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dromms

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of metabolic engineering are well-served by the biological information provided by metabolomics: information on how the cell is currently using its biochemical resources is perhaps one of the best ways to inform strategies to engineer a cell to produce a target compound. Using the analysis of extracellular or intracellular levels of the target compound (or a few closely related molecules to drive metabolic engineering is quite common. However, there is surprisingly little systematic use of metabolomics datasets, which simultaneously measure hundreds of metabolites rather than just a few, for that same purpose. Here, we review the most common systematic approaches to integrating metabolite data with metabolic engineering, with emphasis on existing efforts to use whole-metabolome datasets. We then review some of the most common approaches for computational modeling of cell-wide metabolism, including constraint-based models, and discuss current computational approaches that explicitly use metabolomics data. We conclude with discussion of the broader potential of computational approaches that systematically use metabolomics data to drive metabolic engineering.

  11. Physiological and biochemical basis of salmon young ifshes migratory behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    The review presents data on structural changes, physiological and biochemical reactions occurring at salmon young fishes during smoltification. It is shown, that young salmon fishes located in fresh water, in the process of smoltification undergo a complex of structural, physiological and biochemical changes directed on preparation of the organism for living in the sea. These changes cause stress reaction which excites young fishes to migrate down the river towards the sea. Measures to improve reproduction of young salmon fishes at fish farms are offered.

  12. The Biochemical Properties of Antibodies and Their Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnasko, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are powerful molecular recognition tools that can be used to identify minute quantities of a given target analyte. Their antigen-binding properties define both the sensitivity and selectivity of an immunoassay. Understanding the biochemical properties of this class of protein will provide users with the knowledge necessary to select the appropriate antibody composition to maximize immunoassay results. Here we define the general biochemical properties of antibodies and their similarities and differences, explain how these properties influence their functional relationship to an antigen target, and describe a method for the enzymatic fragmentation of antibodies into smaller functional parts.

  13. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to explore the emerging field of software engineering from a variety of perspectives: university programs; industry training and definition; government development; and technology transfer. In doing this, the panel will address the issues of distinctions among software engineering, computer science, and computer hardware engineering as they relate to the challenges of large, complex systems.

  14. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  15. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as…

  16. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  17. Engineering the niche for stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shawna; Barker, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    Much has been made about the potential for stem cells in regenerative medicine but the reality is that the development of actual therapies has been slow. Adult stem cells rely heavily on the assortment of biochemical and biophysical elements that constitute the local microenvironment in which they exist. One goal of biomedicine is to create an artificial yet biofunctional niche to support multipotency, differentiation and proliferation. Such tools would facilitate more conclusive experimentation by biologists, pharmaceutical scientists and tissue engineers. While many bioengineering techniques and platforms are already in use, technological innovations now allow this to be done at a higher resolution and specificity. Ultimately, the multidisciplinary integration of engineering and biology will allow the niche to be generated at a scale that can be clinically exploited. Using the systems that constitute the intestinal, hematopoietic and epidermal tissues, this article summarizes the various approaches and tools currently employed to recreate stem cell niches and also explores recent advances in the field.

  18. Advanced Engineering Strategies for Periodontal Complex Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Ho Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration and integration of multiple tissue types is critical for efforts to restore the function of musculoskeletal complex. In particular, the neogenesis of periodontal constructs for systematic tooth-supporting functions is a current challenge due to micron-scaled tissue compartmentalization, oblique/perpendicular orientations of fibrous connective tissues to the tooth root surface and the orchestration of multiple regenerated tissues. Although there have been various biological and biochemical achievements, periodontal tissue regeneration remains limited and unpredictable. The purpose of this paper is to discuss current advanced engineering approaches for periodontal complex formations; computer-designed, customized scaffolding architectures; cell sheet technology-based multi-phasic approaches; and patient-specific constructs using bioresorbable polymeric material and 3-D printing technology for clinical application. The review covers various advanced technologies for periodontal complex regeneration and state-of-the-art therapeutic avenues in periodontal tissue engineering.

  19. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  20. Advanced Metasearch Engine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    Among the search tools currently on the Web, search engines are the most well known thanks to the popularity of major search engines such as Google and Yahoo!. While extremely successful, these major search engines do have serious limitations. This book introduces large-scale metasearch engine technology, which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the major search engines. Essentially, a metasearch engine is a search system that supports unified access to multiple existing search engines by passing the queries it receives to its component search engines and aggregating the returned

  1. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  2. Designing a 'neotissue' using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannaparaju, Madhusudhan; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim S

    2012-01-01

    The traditional methods of treating musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are not completely effective and have several limitations. Tissue engineering involves using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering to design a 'neotissue' that augments a malfunctioning in vivo tissue. The main requirements for functional engineered tissue include reparative cellular components that proliferate on a scaffold grown within a bioreactor that provides specific biochemical and physical signals to regulate cell differentiation and tissue assembly. In this review we provide an overview of the biology of common musculoskeletal tissue and discuss their common pathologies. We also describe the commonly used stem cells, scaffolds and bioreactors and evaluate their role in issue engineering.

  3. Biomechanical Models and Experi ments in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian; ODDOU; Julien; PIERRE; Karim; OUDINA; Hervé; PETITE

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe understanding of the interactions between convective and diffusive phenomena of fluid dynamics origin, on the one side, associate reactive effects of biochemical nature, on the other, is a fundamental challenge and key problem in the context of bone tissue engineering. From the mastering of the complex biological phenomena related to the substrate degradation and remodelling of the extra cellular matrix that take place during the in vitro tissue culturing processes using cell seeded implan...

  4. Abstracts of the 48. Canadian chemical engineering conference : technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The conference was organized into six concurrent sessions devoted to fluidized bed technology, multi-phase reactors, catalysis, environmental technology, new developments, and biotechnology. A total of 491 papers were presented. Papers of particular interest to energy technology emphasized new technologies and chemical engineering techniques involved in processing petroleum products. Fluidized beds for hydro-treatment and biochemical processing, conversion of biomass to bio-oils and strategies for reducing emissions from Canadian energy facilities were some of the topics addressed.

  5. Biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone for portable biochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Diming; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-01-15

    Smartphone has been widely integrated with sensors, such as test strips, sensor chips, and hand-held detectors, for biochemical detections due to its portability and ubiquitous availability. Utilizing built-in function modules, smartphone is often employed as controller, analyzer, and displayer for rapid, real-time, and point-of-care monitoring, which can significantly simplify design and reduce cost of the detecting systems. This paper presents a review of biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone for portable biochemical detections. The biosensors and bioelectronics based on smartphone can mainly be classified into biosensors using optics, surface plasmon resonance, electrochemistry, and near-field communication. The developments of these biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone are reviewed along with typical biochemical detecting cases. Sensor strategies, detector attachments, and coupling methods are highlighted to show designs of the compact, lightweight, and low-cost sensor systems. The performances and advantages of these designs are introduced with their applications in healthcare diagnosis, environment monitoring, and food evaluation. With advances in micro-manufacture, sensor technology, and miniaturized electronics, biosensor and bioelectronic devices on smartphone can be used to perform biochemical detections as common and convenient as electronic tag readout in foreseeable future.

  6. Polynomial analysis of canopy spectra and biochemical component content inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chunyan; LIU Qiang; NIU Zheng; WANG Jihua; HUANG Wenjiang; LIU Liangyun

    2005-01-01

    A polynomial expression model was developed in this paper to describe directional canopy spectra, and the decomposition of the polynomial expression was used as a tool for retrieving biochemical component content from canopy multi-angle spectra. First, the basic formula of the polynomial expression was introduced and the physical meaning of its terms and coefficients was discussed. Based on this analysis, a complete polynomial expression model and its decomposition method were given. By decomposing the canopy spectra simulated with SAILH model, it shows that the polynomial expression can not only fit well the canopy spectra, but also show the contribution of every order scattering to the whole reflectance. Taking the first scattering coefficients a10 and a01 for example, the test results show that the polynomial coefficients reflect very well the hot spot phenomenon and the effects of viewing angles, LAI and leaf inclination angle on canopy spectra. By coupling the polynomial expression with leaf model PROSPECT, a canopy biochemical component content inversion model was given. In the simulated test, the canopy multi-angle spectra were simulated by two different models, SAILH and 4-SCALE respectively, then the biochemical component content was retrieved by inverting the coupled polynomial expression + PROSPECT model. Results of the simulated test are promising, and when applying the algorithm to measured corn canopy multi-angle spectra, we also get relatively accurate chlorophyll content. It shows that the polynomial analysis provides a new method to get biochemical component content independent of any specific canopy model.

  7. Saliva as research material: Biochemical, physicochemical and practical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, R.G.; Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whole saliva is a complex mixture of proteins and other molecules which originate from several sources. The biochemical and physicochemical properties of saliva contribute to the numerous functions of saliva in, e.g., speech, maintaining oral and general health, and food processing. Interest in sali

  8. Biochemical aspects of pressure tolerance in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Michael A; Rivera, Patricia M; Castellini, Judith M

    2002-11-01

    Some marine mammals can dive to depths approaching 2000 m. At these hydrostatic pressures (200 atm), some fish species show alterations in enzyme structure and function that make them pressure-tolerant. Do marine mammals also possess biochemical adaptations to withstand such pressures? In theory, biochemical alterations might occur at the control of enzymatic pathways, by impacting cell membrane fluidity changes or at a higher level, such as cellular metabolism. Studies of marine mammal tissues show evidence of all of these changes, but the results are not consistent across species or diving depth. This review discusses whether the elevated body temperature of marine mammals imparts pressure tolerance at the biochemical level, whether there are cell membrane structural differences in marine mammals and whether whole, living cells from marine mammals alter their metabolism when pressure stressed. We conclude that temperature alone is probably not protective against pressure and that cell membrane composition data are not conclusive. Whole cell studies suggest that marine mammals either respond positively to pressure or are not impacted by pressure. However, the range of tissue types and enzyme systems that have been studied is extremely limited and needs to be expanded before more general conclusions about how these mammals tolerate elevated pressures on a biochemical level can be drawn.

  9. The Stereochemistry of Biochemical Molecules: A Subject to Revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centelles, Josep J.; Imperial, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Although Fischer's convention for stereoisomers is useful for simple molecules, the stereochemistry of complex biochemical molecules is often poorly indicated in textbooks. This article reports on errors in stereochemistry of complex hydrosoluble vitamin B12 molecule. Twenty-five popular biochemistry textbooks were examined for their treatment of…

  10. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes.

  11. Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikan, Vladimir; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…

  12. Evaluation of biological and biochemical quality of whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Fabiano Kenji; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; Paula, Heberth de; Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso dos; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio

    2010-12-01

    Nutritional and biochemical properties of noncommercial whey protein have been described since 1950. However, comparisons between commercial whey protein for human consumption and casein are rarely found. The aim of this study was to compare biological quality of a commercial whey protein with casein and its effect on biochemical parameters of rats. Thirty-two weanling Fisher rats were divided into three groups and given the following diets: casein group, standard diet (AOAC); whey protein group, modified AOAC diet with whey protein instead of casein; and casein:whey group, modified AOAC diet with 70%:30% casein:whey. A protein-free group was used for determination of endogenous nitrogen losses. Net protein ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and true digestibility were determined, and blood was collected for biochemical analysis. When compared with casein, whey protein showed significant differences for all biological parameters evaluated, as well as for albumin, total protein, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations. Replacing 30% of casein with whey protein did not affect these parameters. A positive relation among whey protein, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and paraoxonase activity was found. Hepatic or renal dysfunctions were not observed. In conclusion, in comparison with casein, commercial whey protein had higher values of biological parameters, and biochemical evaluation revealed it improved glycemic homeostasis, lipid status, and paraoxonase activity in rats.

  13. Development of a new first-aid biochemical detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingfei; Liao, Haiyang; Su, Shilin; Ding, Hao; Liu, Suquan

    2016-10-01

    The traditional biochemical detector exhibits poor adaptability, inconvenient carrying and slow detection, which can't meet the needs of first-aid under field condition like natural or man-made disasters etc. Therefore a scheme of first-aid biochemical detector based on MOMES Micro Spectrometer, UV LED and Photodiode was proposed. An optical detection structure combined continuous spectrum sweep with fixed wavelength measurement was designed, which adopted mobile detection optical path consisting of Micro Spectrometer and Halogen Lamp to detect Chloride (Cl-), Creatinine (Cre), Glucose (Glu), Hemoglobin (Hb). The UV LED and Photodiode were designed to detect Potassium (K-), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Sodium (Na+). According to the field diagnosis and treatment requirements, we designed the embedded control hardware circuit and software system, the prototype of first-aid biochemical detector was developed and the clinical trials were conducted. Experimental results show that the sample's absorbance repeatability is less than 2%, the max coefficient of variation (CV) in the batch repeatability test of all 7 biochemical parameters in blood samples is 4.68%, less than the clinical requirements 10%, the correlation coefficient (R2) in the clinical contrast test with AU5800 is almost greater than 0.97. To sum up, the prototype meets the requirements of clinical application.

  14. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used...

  15. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of biosurfactants released by Lactobacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velraeds, MMC; vanderMei, HC; Reid, G; Busscher, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Biosurfactants from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54 and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were isolated from bacteria in their mid-exponential (4-5 h) and stationary growth phases (18 h) and physicochemical and biochemical properties of the freeze-drie

  16. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  17. Genome scale engineering techniques for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongming; Bassalo, Marcelo C; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has expanded from a focus on designs requiring a small number of genetic modifications to increasingly complex designs driven by advances in genome-scale engineering technologies. Metabolic engineering has been generally defined by the use of iterative cycles of rational genome modifications, strain analysis and characterization, and a synthesis step that fuels additional hypothesis generation. This cycle mirrors the Design-Build-Test-Learn cycle followed throughout various engineering fields that has recently become a defining aspect of synthetic biology. This review will attempt to summarize recent genome-scale design, build, test, and learn technologies and relate their use to a range of metabolic engineering applications.

  18. Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for

  19. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  20. Micro- and nanotechnology in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Xiao, Yun; Hsieh, Anne; Thavandiran, Nimalan; Radisic, Milica

    2011-12-09

    While in nature the formation of complex tissues is gradually shaped by the long journey of development, in tissue engineering constructing complex tissues relies heavily on our ability to directly manipulate and control the micro-cellular environment in vitro. Not surprisingly, advancements in both microfabrication and nanofabrication have powered the field of tissue engineering in many aspects. Focusing on cardiac tissue engineering, this paper highlights the applications of fabrication techniques in various aspects of tissue engineering research: (1) cell responses to micro- and nanopatterned topographical cues, (2) cell responses to patterned biochemical cues, (3) controlled 3D scaffolds, (4) patterned tissue vascularization and (5) electromechanical regulation of tissue assembly and function.

  1. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF BIOCHEMICAL RELAPSE FREE SURVIVAL FOLLOWING SALVAGE RADIOTHERAPY IN MEN WITH BIOCHEMICAL RECURRENCE AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Demeshko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate influence of clinical, biochemical and histological factors to biochemical relapse free survival (BRFS following salvage radiotherapy (RT in men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.Material and methods. 77 patients with newly diagnosed biochemical recurrence (BR after RPE were included into retrospective study. All of them underwent local salvage RT. Сlinical variables (age, serum prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level and PSA kinetics, time RPE-BR, Gleason grade, stage after RPE and clinical findings were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.Results. The median, 1- and 3-year BRFS were 19,9 months, 63,8 ± 6,5 % and 24,7 ± 8,5 % respectively. Significant variables in the multivariable model were age, PSA level before RT, prostatectomy T3b stage, PSA doubling time and positive digital rectal examination findings (p < 0,05. Several clinical parameters help predict the outcomes of men with PSA elevation after radical prostatectomy. These data may be useful in counseling men regarding the timing of administration of adjuvant therapies.

  2. Non-genetic engineering of cells for drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Cheng, Hao; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Hao; Li, Peter Y; Langer, Robert

    2015-08-30

    Cell-based therapy is a promising modality to address many unmet medical needs. In addition to genetic engineering, material-based, biochemical, and physical science-based approaches have emerged as novel approaches to modify cells. Non-genetic engineering of cells has been applied in delivering therapeutics to tissues, homing of cells to the bone marrow or inflammatory tissues, cancer imaging, immunotherapy, and remotely controlling cellular functions. This new strategy has unique advantages in disease therapy and is complementary to existing gene-based cell engineering approaches. A better understanding of cellular systems and different engineering methods will allow us to better exploit engineered cells in biomedicine. Here, we review non-genetic cell engineering techniques and applications of engineered cells, discuss the pros and cons of different methods, and provide our perspectives on future research directions.

  3. Integrating the protein and metabolic engineering toolkits for next-generation chemical biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, Christopher M; De Mey, Marjan; Jones Prather, Kristala L; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2013-04-19

    Through microbial engineering, biosynthesis has the potential to produce thousands of chemicals used in everyday life. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are fields driven by the manipulation of genes, genetic regulatory systems, and enzymatic pathways for developing highly productive microbial strains. Fundamentally, it is the biochemical characteristics of the enzymes themselves that dictate flux through a biosynthetic pathway toward the product of interest. As metabolic engineers target sophisticated secondary metabolites, there has been little recognition of the reduced catalytic activity and increased substrate/product promiscuity of the corresponding enzymes compared to those of central metabolism. Thus, fine-tuning these enzymatic characteristics through protein engineering is paramount for developing high-productivity microbial strains for secondary metabolites. Here, we describe the importance of protein engineering for advancing metabolic engineering of secondary metabolism pathways. This pathway integrated enzyme optimization can enhance the collective toolkit of microbial engineering to shape the future of chemical manufacturing.

  4. From multiscale modeling to meso-science a chemical engineering perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jinghai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Ning; Liu, Xinhua; Wang, Limin; He, Xianfeng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Junwu; Kwauk, Mooson

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale modeling is becoming essential for accurate, rapid simulation in science and engineering. This book presents the results of three decades of research on multiscale modeling in process engineering from principles to application, and its generalization for different fields. This book considers the universality of meso-scale phenomena for the first time, and provides insight into the emerging discipline that unifies them, meso-science, as well as new perspectives for virtual process engineering. Multiscale modeling is applied in areas including: multiphase flow and fluid dynamics chemical, biochemical and process engineering mineral processing and metallurgical engineering energy and resources materials science and engineering Jinghai Li is Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a professor at the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and leader of the EMMS (Energy-minimization multiscale) Group. Wei Ge, Wei Wang, Ning Yang and Junwu Wang are professors at the EMMS Group, part of th...

  5. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  6. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  7. Reverse engineering and identification in systems biology: strategies, perspectives and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Villaverde, A. F.; Julio R Banga

    2014-01-01

    The interplay of mathematical modelling with experiments is one of the central elements in systems biology. The aim of reverse engineering is to infer, analyse and understand, through this interplay, the functional and regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. Reverse engineering is not exclusive of systems biology and has been studied in different areas, such as inverse problem theory, machine learning, nonlinear physics, (bio)chemical kinetics, control theory and optimization, among othe...

  8. Fostering Creative Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have argued a shift of thinking about engineering practice from a linear conception to a system understanding. The complexity of engineering practice has been thought of as the root of challenges for engineers. Moreover, creativity has been emphasised as one key capability...... that engineering students should master. This paper aims to illustrate deeply why engineering education needs to foster creative students to face the challenges of complex engineering work. So a literature review will be provided by focusing on the necessity of developing creativity in engineering education....... As the literature demonstrates, this paper reveals the understanding of complexity in engineering practice and the roles of creativity in engineering practice. In addition, the barriers to creativity in current engineering education and some implications of pedagogic strategies will be discussed. So this paper...

  9. Engine Cold Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    14. ABSTRACT These fuels were used for testing a GEP 6.5L turbocharged V-8 diesel engine operation in a cold box. This engine architecture is... engines . The U.S. military currently uses petroleum-based jet fuels in diesel engine -powered ground vehicles and is studying the use of alternative jet...to identify a window, or range, of cetane number which would be acceptable to ensure the reliable operation of diesel engine -powered military ground

  10. Mechanical engineer's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marghitu, Dan B

    2001-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineer's Handbook was developed and written specifically to fill a need for mechanical engineers and mechanical engineering students throughout the world. With over 1000 pages, 550 illustrations, and 26 tables the Mechanical Engineer's Handbook is very comprehensive, yet affordable, compact, and durable. The Handbook covers all major areas of mechanical engineering with succinct coverage of the definitions, formulas, examples, theory, proofs, and explanations of all principle subject areas. The Handbook is an essential, practical companion for all mechanic

  11. Software Engineering Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  12. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  13. RL-10 Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The RL-10 engines were developed by Pratt Whitney and tested by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Pictured are MSFC engineers working on the mechanics of the RL-10 engines. Originally developed in 1963 as the first liquid hydrogen-fueled engine to operate successfully in space, the RL-10 engines were used on the second stage (S-IV stage) of the Saturn I launch vehicle.

  14. Handbook of diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschoeke, Helmut (eds.) [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Mobile Systems; Mollenhauer, Klaus

    2010-07-01

    The diesel engine continues to be the most cost effective internal combustion engine for motor vehicles as well as mobile and stationary machines. Given the discussion of CO2, the diesel engine is superior to all other drive engines in terms of flexibility, performance, emissions and ruggedness. The intensive search for alternative drive concepts, e. g. hybrid or purely electric drives, has revealed the advantages of the diesel engine for cost effective long distance use wherever high energy densities of energy carriers are indispensible, i. e. storage capacities are low. This English edition of the Handbook of Diesel Engines provides a comprehensive overview of diesel engines of every size from small single cylinder engines up through large two-stroke marine engines. Fifty-eight well-known experts from industry and academia collaborated on this handbook. In addition to the fundamentals and design of diesel engines, it specifically treats in detail the increasingly important subjects of energy efficiency, exhaust emission, exhaust gas aftertreatment, injection systems, electronic engine management and conventional and alternative fuels. This handbook is an indispensable companion in the field of diesel engines. It is geared toward both experts working in research and development and the industry and students studying engineering, mechatronics, electrical engineering or electronics. Anyone interested in learning more about technology and understanding the function and interaction of the complex system of the diesel engine will also find their questions answered. (orig.)

  15. Engineering Bacteria to Catabolize the Carbonaceous Component of Sarin: Teaching E. coli to Eat Isopropanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Margaret E.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    conversion with a key reaction performed by the acetone carboxylase complex (ACX). We engineered the heterologous expression of the ACX complex from Xanthobacter autotrophicus PY2 to match the naturally occurring subunit stoichiometry and purified the recombinant complex from E. coli for biochemical analysis...

  16. Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This is the first handbook to cover comprehensively both software engineering and knowledge engineering - two important fields that have become interwoven in recent years. Over 60 international experts have contributed to the book. Each chapter has been written in such a way that a practitioner of software engineering and knowledge engineering can easily understand and obtain useful information. Each chapter covers one topic and can be read independently of other chapters, providing both a general survey of the topic and an in-depth exposition of the state of the art.

  17. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  18. Biomedical engineering education through global engineering teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, C; Blanckenberg, M; Garth-Davis, B; Eisenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    Most industrial projects require a team of engineers from a variety of disciplines. The team members are often culturally diverse and geographically dispersed. Many students do not acquire sufficient skills from typical university courses to function efficiently in such an environment. The Global Engineering Teams (GET) programme was designed to prepare students such a scenario in industry. This paper discusses five biomedical engineering themed projects completed by GET students. The benefits and success of the programme in educating students in the field of biomedical engineering are discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical...

  20. Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Lima Pace Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

  1. The application of information theory to biochemical signaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre

    2012-08-01

    Cell signaling can be thought of fundamentally as an information transmission problem in which chemical messengers relay information about the external environment to the decision centers within a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of cellular signal transduction networks, molecular noise will inevitably limit the fidelity of any messages received and processed by a cell's signal transduction networks, leaving it with an imperfect impression of its environment. Fortunately, Shannon's information theory provides a mathematical framework independent of network complexity that can quantify the amount of information that can be transmitted despite biochemical noise. In particular, the channel capacity can be used to measure the maximum number of stimuli a cell can distinguish based upon the noisy responses of its signaling systems. Here, we provide a primer for quantitative biologists that covers fundamental concepts of information theory, highlights several key considerations when experimentally measuring channel capacity, and describes successful examples of the application of information theoretic analysis to biological signaling.

  2. The free energy cost of accurate biochemical oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yuansheng; Ouyang, Qi; Tu, Yuhai

    2015-01-01

    Oscillation is an important cellular process that regulates timing of different vital life cycles. However, in the noisy cellular environment, oscillations can be highly inaccurate due to phase fluctuations. It remains poorly understood how biochemical circuits suppress phase fluctuations and what is the incurred thermodynamic cost. Here, we study four different types of biochemical oscillations representing three basic oscillation motifs shared by all known oscillatory systems. We find that the phase diffusion constant follows the same inverse dependence on the free energy dissipation per period for all systems studied. This relationship between the phase diffusion and energy dissipation is shown analytically in a model of noisy oscillation. Microscopically, we find that the oscillation is driven by multiple irreversible cycles that hydrolyze the fuel molecules such as ATP; the number of phase coherent periods is proportional to the free energy consumed per period. Experimental evidence in support of this un...

  3. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  4. Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Ambipolar Frequency Multipliers for Biochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wangyang; Feng, Lingyan; Mayer, Dirk; Panaitov, Gregory; Kireev, Dmitry; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-13

    In this Letter, the ambipolar properties of an electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) have been explored to fabricate frequency-doubling biochemical sensor devices. By biasing the ambipolar GFETs in a common-source configuration, an input sinusoidal voltage at frequency f applied to the electrolyte gate can be rectified to a sinusoidal wave at frequency 2f at the drain electrode. The extraordinary high carrier mobility of graphene and the strong electrolyte gate coupling provide the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler an unprecedented unity gain, as well as a detection limit of ∼4 pM for 11-mer single strand DNA molecules in 1 mM PBS buffer solution. Combined with an improved drift characteristics and an enhanced low-frequency 1/f noise performance by sampling at doubled frequency, this good detection limit suggests the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler a highly promising biochemical sensing platform.

  5. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  6. The Metabolic Syndrome and Biochemical Recurrence following Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Post

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome refers to a set of conditions that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, particularly among African American men. This study aimed to estimate the association of metabolic syndrome with biochemical recurrence (BCR in a racially diverse population. Among 383 radical prostatectomy patients, 67 patients had documented biochemical recurrence. Hypertension was significantly, positively associated with the rate of BCR (hazard ratio (HR = 2.1; 95%  CI = 1.1, 3.8. There were distinct racial differences in the prevalence of individual metabolic syndrome components; however, the observed associations with BCR did not differ appreciably by race. We conclude that hypertension may contribute to a poorer prognosis in surgically treated prostate cancer patients. Our findings suggest that targeting components of the metabolic syndrome which are potentially modifiable through lifestyle interventions may be a viable strategy to reduce risk of BCR in prostate cancer.

  7. THE SYNTHESIS OF HEMOPROTEIDS IN THE LIGHT OF BIOCHEMICAL EVOLUTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    the light of biochemical evolution , hemoproteids - resp. the porphyrin compounds they are based upon - must have existed on earth as early as... the CO2-assimilation, which means that the porphyrin catalyse of oxydative metabolism consequently derived from the second period of the early atmosphere. This aspect is discussed. (Author)...biological organisms with oxydative metabolism occurred. Since the primitive early atmosphere was followed by a CO2-containing

  8. Biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: the controversial recognition and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shu-jie; JING Yi-feng

    2011-01-01

    @@ Over the past decaade, more and more patients diagnosed as prostate cancer have received radical management attributing to the advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based medical screening.Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiation therapy (RT) are the most commonly used forms of definitive therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.However, despite these technique advances, biochemical recurrence (BCR),as determined by subsequent rises in the serum PSA level,is still a challenge that urologists face.

  9. Biochemical Changes During Seed Germination of Sterculia urens Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Botcha SATYANARAYANA; Prattipati Subhashini DEVI; Atluru ARUNDATHI

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes biochemical changes taking place during seed germination of Sterculia urens. The levels of proteins, total amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and lipids were studied during various stages of seed germination (0-15 days). Total protein content was decreased in cotyledons during seed germination while free amino acid content increased to its maximum extent by 9th day of germination and reverse trend thereafter. The levels of reducing sugars and total ...

  10. Biological and biochemical properties in evaluation of forest soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Błońska Ewa; Lasota Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using biological and biochemical parameters in the evaluation of forest soil quality and changes caused by land use. The study attempted to determine a relationship between the enzymatic activity of soil, the number of earthworms and soil physico-chemical properties. The study was carried out in central Poland in adjoining Forest Districts (Przedbórz and Smardzewice). In soil samples taken from 12 research plots, basic physico-chemical pr...

  11. Biological and biochemical properties in evaluation of forest soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using biological and biochemical parameters in the evaluation of forest soil quality and changes caused by land use. The study attempted to determine a relationship between the enzymatic activity of soil, the number of earthworms and soil physico-chemical properties. The study was carried out in central Poland in adjoining Forest Districts (Przedbórz and Smardzewice). In soil samples taken from 12 research plots, basic physico-chem...

  12. Molecular and biochemical studies on bovine ephemeral fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Thabet; Emad W. Ghazy; Mohamed A. Nayel; Mohamed Abo-Elkhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF in cattle has been reported to be associated with a range of biochemical changes which are similar to those seen in milk fever. This study aimed to clarify the biochemical alterations that associate infection of cattle with BEF with special references to the mechanisms involved in the development of hypocalcemia. The study was conducted on 30 cases of cattle infected with BEF based on the characteristic clinical signs which were confirmed by isolation of virus and RT-PCR. Another 6 healthy cows were used in the study as control. The evaluated parameters included biochemical variables such as serum values of total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, glucose (Glu, total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa, inorganic phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chloride (Cl, creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Hormonal profile included parathyroid hormone (PTH, insulin (Ins, and cortisol (Cor. The results showed that BEF-infected animals demonstrated a significant decrease (P<0.05 in serum concentrations of TP, Glo, iCa, P, Na, K, BUN and ALP while the mean values of serum levels of Glu and Cl were significantly increased (P<0.05. The mean values of serum levels of PTH were significantly decreased (P<0.05 while serum concentrations of Ins and Cor showed a significant increase. It was concluded that the clinical signs of bovine ephemeral fever are related to the hypocalcemia resulting from suppression of parathyroid hormone which seems to be mediated by respiratory alkalosis caused by the disease. This explanation needs future studies to provide a direct link between measurement of blood indicators of acid-base status, blood biochemical parameters and urine analysis. However, this work can provide a good knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease that can lead to better management and proper treatment.

  13. Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigle Bernie J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods

  14. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss: a biochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a molecule involved in transporting activated fatty acids among different cellular compartments, which is mostlikely present in all animal species, and in numerous microorganisms and plants. Recently the trend in the field of weightcontrol is to include carnitine in the diet as an agent responsible for weight loss. In the present review, some findings arediscussed from a biochemical point of view to illustrate if the use of carnitine for weight loss can be considered fiction orreality.

  15. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss: a biochemical approach

    OpenAIRE

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-01-01

    Carnitine is a molecule involved in transporting activated fatty acids among different cellular compartments, which is mostlikely present in all animal species, and in numerous microorganisms and plants. Recently the trend in the field of weightcontrol is to include carnitine in the diet as an agent responsible for weight loss. In the present review, some findings arediscussed from a biochemical point of view to illustrate if the use of carnitine for weight loss can be considered fiction orre...

  16. CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT THE CIRRHOSIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bilalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. To carry out a comparative description of the clinical and biochemical parameters at patients with cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis (CP-HGA and cirrhosis of mixed etiologies — CP-HGM (HСV+ alcohol.Materials and methods. The study involved 62 patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies, who carries out clinical, immunogenetic and biochemical studies.Results. Patients with the 3d genotype and low viral load were registered with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies (HСV+ alcohol. At the cirrhosis Class B for Child-Pugh basic data biochemical parameters were similar in patients with CP-HGA and CP-HGM, but ALT and AST activity, which are significantly higher than observed in patients with CP-HGM. At dismissal, ALT and GGT activities were detected significantly higher in patients with CP-HGM than the CP-HGA. At the cirrhosis Class C for Child-Pugh the baseline, reflecting cholestasis — is total bilirubin, GGT and alkaline phosphatase and were detected significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM significantly reduced, and thore is no differences between the groups to be discharged from the hospital, in addition to the activity of GGT, which it remained significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM. Cytolytic activity of enzymes (ALT, AST during the entire period of the disease was observed significantly higher normal values and did not depend on the CP etiology.Conclusion decision. The maximum rate of change of the basic biochemical parameters is observed in patients with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies Class B for Child-Pugh and at the cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis — in patients with cirrhosis Class C.

  17. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  18. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling - based on spin systems - has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis-Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy - based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs - which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions.

  19. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  20. BIOCHEMICAL NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF LIVER CIRRHOSIS PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zanatta PORT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver cirrhosis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present nutritional alterations and metabolic disorders that negatively impact the prognosis. Objective The objective is to identify alterations in the metabolism of macro and micronutrients among liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma and their relation to the Child-Turcote-Pugh score and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Methods Analytical transversal study, with 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 48 liver cirrhosis patients. Laboratorial exams were carried out. The existence of an association between the biochemical parameters and the disease severity as well as the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was assessed. Results The metabolic-nutritional profile of liver cirrhosis patients caused by the hepatitis C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma showed alterations, specifically the lipid (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, protein (albumin, creatinine and uric acid, iron (transferrin, iron and ferritin saturation, hematocrit and hemoglobin, zinc and B12 vitamin profiles. There is a relation between nutritional biochemical markers and the Child-Turcote-Pugh, as well as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging. Conclusions Considering the existence of alterations in the metabolism of nutrients in liver cirrhosis patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma, and also that conventional nutritional assessment methods present limitations for this population, the biochemical laboratorial exams are valid to complement the diagnosis of the nutritional state in a quick and practical manner.

  1. Ethylmalonic encephalopathy: application of improved biochemical and molecular diagnostic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drousiotou, A; DiMeo, I; Mineri, R; Georgiou, Th; Stylianidou, G; Tiranti, V

    2011-04-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE, OMIM # 602473) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of infancy affecting the brain, the gastrointestinal tract and peripheral vessels. It is caused by a defect in the ETHE1 gene product, which was recently shown to be part of a metabolic pathway devoted to sulphide detoxification. We report the application of improved biochemical and molecular approaches to the diagnosis of three cases of EE from two unrelated Cypriot families. The children presented all the typical biochemical hallmarks of the disease including elevated lactate and butyrylcarnitine in blood and elevated urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid, 2-methylsuccinate, isobutyrylglycine and isovalerylglycine. We also detected an elevated level of thiosulphate in urine, which we propose as an additional biochemical marker of the disease. The proband of the first family was shown to be a compound heterozygote for a missense mutation in exon 5, L185R, and a deletion of exon 4. The deletion was identified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Using the same technique, the proband of the second family was found to be homozygous for the exon 4 deletion. A prenatal diagnosis was performed for the second family using qRT-PCR, thus establishing the usefulness of RT-PCR in prenatal diagnosis.

  2. Importance of Biochemical Markers in Postmenopausal and Senile Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Evcik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the biochemical markers are widely used in order to evaluate the bone turnover. This study was planned to investigate the role of biochemical markers and Bone Mineral Density(BMD in postmenopausal (PMO and senile osteoporosis (SO patients. A total of 86 patients( 44 PMO, 42 SO, ages ranged between 39-79 were included in this study. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and osteocalcin levels were determined from blood samples. Urinary deoxypyridinoline(Dpd and creatinine(cr concentration were examined and the ratio of Dpd/cr was calculated. Also BMD of the patients were measured from L1-L4 and proximal femur and t score were determined. There was no statistical difference in ALP levels between two groups. Osteocalcine and Dpd/cr levels were statistically increased in PMO group(p<0.001. According to BMD t score which was measured from proximal femur was significantly higher in SO patients(p<0.05. Our results show that biochemical markers are useful for the assessment of high-turnover osteoporosis.

  3. ASSESMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PRAECITRULLUS FISTULOSUS TREATED WITH MUTAGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are well known to have certain primary and secondary metabolites collectively are known as biochemicals that plays an important role for human health as their medicinal properties. The aim of present study was to enhance and evaluate biochemical profile of Praecitrullus fistulosus by induced mutagenesis to cause genetic variations, plant leaves were treated with different chemical and physical mutagens. Colchicine and Ethidium bromide were used as chemical mutagens. While Ultraviolet (UV rays and X- rays were used as physical mutagens for the treatment of seeds. After the eleventh week of their growth, methanol extracts of dried leaves were prepared and further analyzed for the estimation of biochemicals. It was observed that total carbohydrates, total Proteins, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, reducing power, ascorbic Acid  and Chlorophyll a, were found significantly (p<0.05 higher in Colchicine 0.02% treated plants, while reducing sugars were significantly (p<0.05  increases in Colchicine 0.01% treated plants as compared to control plants. Total flavonoids, total flavonol, Chlorophyll b and Carotenoids were increases significantly (p<0.05 in plants treated with 0.05% Ethidium bromide while tannin content was increased significantly (p<0.05 in 0.10% Ethidium bromide treated plants as compared to the  control plants.

  4. Human choline dehydrogenase: medical promises and biochemical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Francesca; Gadda, Giovanni

    2013-09-15

    Human choline dehydrogenase (CHD) is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria primarily in liver and kidney and catalyzes the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine. Its physiological role is to regulate the concentrations of choline and glycine betaine in the blood and cells. Choline is important for regulation of gene expression, the biosynthesis of lipoproteins and membrane phospholipids and for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine; glycine betaine plays important roles as a primary intracellular osmoprotectant and as methyl donor for the biosynthesis of methionine from homocysteine, a required step for the synthesis of the ubiquitous methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine. Recently, CHD has generated considerable medical attention due to its association with various human pathologies, including male infertility, homocysteinuria, breast cancer and metabolic syndrome. Despite the renewed interest, the biochemical characterization of the enzyme has lagged behind due to difficulties in the obtainment of purified, active and stable enzyme. This review article summarizes the medical relevance and the physiological roles of human CHD, highlights the biochemical knowledge on the enzyme, and provides an analysis based on the comparison of the protein sequence with that of bacterial choline oxidase, for which structural and biochemical information is available.

  5. Weighting schemes in metabolic graphs for identifying biochemical routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Baloni, P; Vishveshwara, S; Chandra, N

    2014-03-01

    Metabolism forms an integral part of all cells and its study is important to understand the functioning of the system, to understand alterations that occur in disease state and hence for subsequent applications in drug discovery. Reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic graphs from genomics and other molecular or biochemical data is now feasible. Few methods have also been reported for inferring biochemical pathways from these networks. However, given the large scale and complex inter-connections in the networks, the problem of identifying biochemical routes is not trivial and some questions still remain open. In particular, how a given path is altered in perturbed conditions remains a difficult problem, warranting development of improved methods. Here we report a comparison of 6 different weighting schemes to derive node and edge weights for a metabolic graph, weights reflecting various kinetic, thermodynamic parameters as well as abundances inferred from transcriptome data. Using a network of 50 nodes and 107 edges of carbohydrate metabolism, we show that kinetic parameter derived weighting schemes [Formula: see text] fare best. However, these are limited by their extent of availability, highlighting the usefulness of omics data under such conditions. Interestingly, transcriptome derived weights yield paths with best scores, but are inadequate to discriminate the theoretical paths. The method is tested on a system of Escherichia coli stress response. The approach illustrated here is generic in nature and can be used in the analysis for metabolic network from any species and perhaps more importantly for comparing condition-specific networks.

  6. Considerations on the biochemical composition of some freshwater zooplankton species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta RICCARDI

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The mean elemental (C, H, N and biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins of some abundant crustacean zooplankton species of Italian insubric lakes has been estimated by the analysis of samples collected at different seasons from various environments (Lake Maggiore, Lake Varese, Lake Comabbio, Lake Monate. From each sample an adequate number of specimens of each abundant species was sorted and analyzed by a CHN elemental analyzer. The percentage of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and the calorific content were calculated from the elemental composition according to Gnaiger & Bitterlich (1984. Inter- and intraspecific variability of biochemical composition was quite high, while elemental composition and calorific content were less variable. An estimate of the mean elemental and biochemical composition of each species was obtained by pooling the data. These mean values have been used to estimate the pools of elements and compounds in the crustacean zooplankton of Lake Comabbio to provide an example of the importance of a multiple approach in zooplankton studies.

  7. Modelling biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-07

    In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach.

  8. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  9. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2060 Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...

  11. Service Cart For Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  12. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  13. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  14. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  15. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a)...

  16. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  17. Mechanical engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering is defined nowadays as a discipline "which involves the application of principles of physics, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems". Recently, mechanical engineering has also focused on some cutting-edge subjects such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, as well as aspects related to sustainable mechanical engineering.This book covers mechanical engineering higher education with a particular emphasis on quality assurance and the improvement of academic

  18. Unified Engineering Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  19. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  20. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  1. Biomedical Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The Masters of Engineering program with concentration in Biomedical Engineering at Tennessee State University was established in fall 2000. Under... biomedical engineering . The lab is fully equipped with 10 Pentium5-based, 2 Pentium4-based laptops for mobile experiments at remote locations, 8 Biopac...students (prospective graduate students in biomedical engineering ) are regularly using this lab. This summer, 8 new prospective graduate students

  2. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  3. Earthquake engineering research: 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate chapters of the report: Applications of Past Research, Assessment of Earthquake Hazard, Earthquake Ground Motion, Soil Mechanics and Earth Structures, Analytical and Experimental Structural Dynamics, Earthquake Design of Structures, Seismic Interaction of Structures and Fluids, Social and Economic Aspects, Earthquake Engineering Education, Research in Japan.

  4. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  5. Engineers and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    and Bildung. In this chapter, this relation in investigated. In the first part, I present three engineers and their careers. In the second part, the concept of Bildung is analyzed, and in the third part, it is the conceptual relation between Bildung, engineers, and engineering work that is of concern....

  6. Business Engineering Model

    OpenAIRE

    Österle, Hubert; Blessing, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Business Engineering bedeutet systematische Entwicklung neuer Geschäftslösungen. Business Engineering zerlegt die Transformation von Unternehmen in beherrschbare Schritte, gibt Anleitung zur Bearbeitung dieser Schritte und verbindet diese in Vorgehensmodellen für Projekte. Der Aufsatz erklärt die Arbeitsweise des Business Engineering anhand eines durchgängigen Beispiels und beschreibt die Grundprinzipien dieser neuen Disziplin.

  7. Vascularization in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; Rivron, Nicolas C.; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been an active field of research for several decades now. However, the amount of clinical applications in the field of tissue engineering is still limited. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is its inability to provide sufficient blood supply in the initial p

  8. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  9. Matlab in electrical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian MARINESCU; Gabriel CHEREGI; Marilena STANCULESCU

    2009-01-01

    Electrical Engineering education addresses to high technologies needs from industry and business offering academic curricula which include topics such as: integrated circuits, digital signal processing, microwaves, optical engineering, bioelectronics, propagation and radiation, power electronics, control systems, communications, circuit theory, robotics, nondestructive testing. Matlab is a widely used tool in electrical engineering. It can be used to enhance and accelerate some processes, suc...

  10. Engineering Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Ken M.; Ahmed, Saeema; Bracewell, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The need to improve engineering knowledge management is driven by the current challenges facing manufacturing organisations in the emerging global economy and, in particular by the important role knowledge plays in the engineering design process. Industrial organisations are facing increasing...... international competition, and in response their engineering products are improving in terms of performance, reliability and cost of ownership....

  11. Kali Linux social engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide to learning and performing SET attacks with multiple examples.Kali Linux Social Engineering is for penetration testers who want to use BackTrack in order to test for social engineering vulnerabilities or for those who wish to master the art of social engineering attacks.

  12. RL-10 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    RL-10 engine characteristics. The RL-10 engine was developed under the management of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to power the Saturn I upper stage (S-IV stage). The six RL-10 engines, which used liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as propellants, were arranged in a circle on the aft end of the S-IV stage.

  13. Advances in Medical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Buzug, Thorsten M

    2007-01-01

    Presents research and development trends of physics, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences in biomedical engineering. This work uses contributions from industry, clinics, universities and research labs with foci on medical imaging, computer-assisted surgery, and others to give insight to engineering, clinical and mathematical studies.

  14. Multidisciplinary Graduate Education in Bioprocess Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman

    2006-04-18

    graduate students in several engineering and science degree programs. Other significant developments have arisen as direct or indirect consequences of this project. The University of Georgia has established a B.S. Biochemical Engineering degree and an M.S. Biochemical Engineering degree. A strong component of these degree programs is education toward a biobased economy. We will integrate particularly positive components of this project (such as the distinguished lecture series) into these degree programs. The University of Georgia is establishing a Center for Biorefining and Carbon Cycling. This multidisciplinary Center houses a pilot scale biorefinery, comprising a pyrolysis unit and an ethanol plant. Together with new faculty positions that are currently being advertised, this project has encouraged the University of Georgia to assume a leadership role in the preparation of students in the biobased industries of the future.

  15. Computational approaches to metabolic engineering utilizing systems biology and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Stephen S

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic engineering modifies cellular function to address various biochemical applications. Underlying metabolic engineering efforts are a host of tools and knowledge that are integrated to enable successful outcomes. Concurrent development of computational and experimental tools has enabled different approaches to metabolic engineering. One approach is to leverage knowledge and computational tools to prospectively predict designs to achieve the desired outcome. An alternative approach is to utilize combinatorial experimental tools to empirically explore the range of cellular function and to screen for desired traits. This mini-review focuses on computational systems biology and synthetic biology tools that can be used in combination for prospective in silico strain design.

  16. Continuing engineering education for software engineering professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.I.

    1992-02-19

    Designers of software for safety-critical applications are impelled to supplement their education through continuing engineering studies in the areas of requirements analysis, hazard identification, risk analysis, fault tolerance, failure modes, and psychology. Today`s complex level of design is contributing to opportunities for catastrophic design errors in computer functions where failure of such functions is capable of causing injury and death. A syllabus of post-graduate, core studies within the curricula of five engineering specialties is suggested. Software Engineers are exhorted to undertake a professional, responsible role in safety-critical software design.

  17. Continuing engineering education for software engineering professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.I.

    1992-02-19

    Designers of software for safety-critical applications are impelled to supplement their education through continuing engineering studies in the areas of requirements analysis, hazard identification, risk analysis, fault tolerance, failure modes, and psychology. Today's complex level of design is contributing to opportunities for catastrophic design errors in computer functions where failure of such functions is capable of causing injury and death. A syllabus of post-graduate, core studies within the curricula of five engineering specialties is suggested. Software Engineers are exhorted to undertake a professional, responsible role in safety-critical software design.

  18. Histological and biochemical characteristics of the rabbit anterior cruciate ligament in comparison to potential autografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Mariann; Meier, Carola; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Kokozidou, Maria; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2016-08-01

    Tissue engineering of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) implant with ACL cells requires detailed analysis of the tissue characteristics that should be mimicked. Therefore, we studied the histological and biochemical properties of rabbit derived ACLs in comparison to other knee-associated tendons that are used as autografts in men. Rabbit derived ACLs and Musculus (M.) semimembranosus, M. semitendinosus tendons and patellar ligaments were explanted from adult New Zealand white rabbits and analyzed histologically for tissue organization (e.g. cellularity, nuclear shapes, elastic fibers), total collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) contents. Gene expression analysis was performed for the main extracellular matrix (ECM) components type I collagen, decorin and the glycoprotein tenomodulin. The ACLs had a dimension of 1.39x0.39x0.1 cm in situ. They were characterized by high sGAG content in comparison to the other tendons/ligaments, whereas the total collagen content did not differ. ACLs possessed higher cellularity and lower feret diameter of the cell nuclei compared with the investigated rabbit-derived tendons. In ACLs long elastic fibers were observed. Concerning the gene expression level, lower transcription of tenomodulin was detected in the ACL compared with the other tendons, without significant difference in the decorin gene expression. The M. semitendinosus tendon had a significantly higher type I collagen expression than the ACL and the other investigated tendons. This phenotypical characterization of the lapine ACL presented in this study provides some key standards to evaluate tissue engineered ACL constructs to be tested in the rabbit model.

  19. Toward engineering functional organ modules by additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marga, Francoise; Jakab, Karoly; Khatiwala, Chirag; Shepherd, Benjamin; Dorfman, Scott; Hubbard, Bradley; Colbert, Stephen; Gabor, Forgacs

    2012-06-01

    Tissue engineering is emerging as a possible alternative to methods aimed at alleviating the growing demand for replacement tissues and organs. A major pillar of most tissue engineering approaches is the scaffold, a biocompatible network of synthetic or natural polymers, which serves as an extracellular matrix mimic for cells. When the scaffold is seeded with cells it is supposed to provide the appropriate biomechanical and biochemical conditions for cell proliferation and eventual tissue formation. Numerous approaches have been used to fabricate scaffolds with ever-growing complexity. Recently, novel approaches have been pursued that do not rely on artificial scaffolds. The most promising ones utilize matrices of decellularized organs or methods based on multicellular self-assembly, such as sheet-based and bioprinting-based technologies. We briefly overview some of the scaffold-free approaches and detail one that employs biological self-assembly and bioprinting. We describe the technology and its specific applications to engineer vascular and nerve grafts.

  20. Biochemical Models for S-Rnase-Based Self-Incompatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Hua; Allison Fields; Teh-hui Kao

    2008-01-01

    S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically determined self/non-self-recognition process employed by many flowering plant species to prevent inbreeding and promote outcrosses.For the Plantaginaceae,Rosa-ceae and Solanaceae,it is now known that S-RNase and S-Iocu F-box(two multiple allelic genes at the S-locus)determine the female and male specificity,respectively,during SI interactions.However,how allelic products of these two genes interact inside pollen tubes to result in specific growth inhibition of self-pollen tubes remains to be investigated.Here,we review all the previously proposed biochemical models and discuss whether their predictions are consistent with all SI phenomena,including competitive jnteraction where SI breaks down in pollen that carries two different pollen 5-alleles.We also discuss these models in Iight of the recent findings of compartmentalization of S-RNases in both incompatible and compatible pollen tubes.Lastly,we summarize the results from our recent biochemical studies of PiSLF(Petunia inflata SLF)and S-RNase.and present a new model for the biochemical mechanism of SI in the Solanaceae.The tenet of this model is that a PiSLF preferentially interacts with its non-self S-RNases in the cytoplasm of a pollen tube to result in the assembly of an E3-like complex,which then mediates ubiquitination and degradation of non-self S-RNases through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway.This model can explain all SI phenomena and,at the same time,has raised new questions for further study.

  1. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elhiblu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG, and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for

  2. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiblu, M. A.; Dua, K.; Mohindroo, J.; Mahajan, S. K.; Sood, N. K.; Dhaliwal, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG), and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for liver cirrhosis

  3. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepelev Leonid L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology

  4. Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Jensen, Jesper Bo; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2006-01-01

    We present experimental results showing that long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers can be used as sensitive biochemical sensors. A layer of biomolecules was immobilized on the sides of the holes of the photonic crystal fiber and by observing the shift in the resonant wavelength of a long......-period grating it was possible to measure the thickness of the layer. The long-period gratings were inscribed in a large-mode area silica photonic crystal fiber with a CO2 laser. The thicknesses of a monolayer of poly-L-lysine and double-stranded DNA was measured using the device. We find that the grating has...

  5. Gas Fermentation using Thermophilic Moorella Species for production of Biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna

    fermentation processes that are nearly on commercial level, mesophilic acetogens are used to mainly produce ethanol and butanediol. However, thermophilic acetogens, such as Moorella thermoacetica would allow for easy downstream processing when producing volatile products such as acetone. This thesis starts...... with a review of the feedstock potential for gas fermentation and how thermophilic production strains as well as unconventional fermentation processes such as mixotrophy can help to exploit this potential. I analyzed a process with respect to thermodynamic and economic considerations, in which acetone......, this thesis describes several projects which help to pave the way for biochemical production with the thermophile M. thermoacetica on in an economically competitive way....

  6. Diurnal changes of biochemical metabolic markers in healthy young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2015-01-01

    .06 mmol/L) did not show significant oscillations. CONCLUSIONS: When diagnosing and monitoring metabolic disorders compensation for the 24-h variation of the biochemical metabolic markers is needed especially C-peptide, triglyceride and glucose. Furthermore, the stable HbA1c level through 24 h makes......BACKGROUND: To examine whether time of the day has an effect on the circulating levels of metabolism parameters. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained under standardized conditions from 24 healthy young men every third hour through 24 hours. The metabolic markers and melatonin were examined...

  7. "Bicellar" lipid mixtures as used in biochemical and biophysical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad A; Pencer, Jeremy; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2005-08-01

    Over the past decade "bicellar" lipid mixtures composed of the long-chain dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and the short-chain dihexanoyl PC (DHPC) molecules have emerged as a powerful medium for studying membrane associated, biologically relevant macromolecules and assemblies. Depending on temperature, lipid concentration and composition these lipid mixtures can assume a variety of morphologies, some of them alignable in the presence of a magnetic field. This article will examine the biophysical studies that have elucidated the various morphologies assumed by these lipid mixtures, and their use in the biochemical studies of biomolecules.

  8. ``Bicellar'' Lipid Mixtures as used in Biochemical and Biophysical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad A.; Pencer, Jeremy; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2005-08-01

    Over the past decade “bicellar” lipid mixtures composed of the long-chain dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and the short-chain dihexanoyl PC (DHPC) molecules have emerged as a powerful medium for studying membrane associated, biologically relevant macromolecules and assemblies. Depending on temperature, lipid concentration and composition these lipid mixtures can assume a variety of morphologies, some of them alignable in the presence of a magnetic field. This article will examine the biophysical studies that have elucidated the various morphologies assumed by these lipid mixtures, and their use in the biochemical studies of biomolecules.

  9. Cyanoacrylic tissue glues: Biochemical properties and their usage in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Tissue adhesives are being used in medical and cosmetic industries and first aid for a long time. But their everyday usage has not been widespread. Only case report information is available about their usage. Despite good and meaningful results after they were used, there is lack of standard information that gives idea of about in which cases they could be helpful. Nowadays, cyanoacrylates are used in the surgery more frequently. In this review, we wanted to oversee the biochemical properties and the urological utilisation areas of cyanoacrylates. PMID:28270946

  10. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin......-streptavidin interactions, DNA-hybridization and DNA-triplex formation. The system is simple, fast, reproducible, flexible, and has small sample requirements....

  11. Fibre optic system for biochemical and microbiological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penwill, L A; Slater, J H; Hayes, N W; Tremlett, C J [Evanes Co Ltd, 4 and 5 Forde Court, Newton Abbot, Devon, TQ12 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    This poster will discuss state-of-the-art fibre optic sensors based on evanescent wave technology emphasising chemophotonic sensors for biochemical reactions and microbe detection. Devices based on antibody specificity and unique DNA sequences will be described. The development of simple sensor devices with disposable single use sensor probes will be illustrated with a view to providing cost effective field based or point of care analysis of major themes such as hospital acquired infections or bioterrorism events. This presentation will discuss the nature and detection thresholds required, the optical detection techniques investigated, results of sensor trials and the potential for wider commercial application.

  12. Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica

  13. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  14. Quantum mechanical Carnot engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, C M; Meister, B K

    2000-01-01

    A cyclic thermodynamic heat engine runs most efficiently if it is reversible. Carnot constructed such a reversible heat engine by combining adiabatic and isothermal processes for a system containing an ideal gas. Here, we present an example of a cyclic engine based on a single quantum-mechanical particle confined to a potential well. The efficiency of this engine is shown to equal the Carnot efficiency because quantum dynamics is reversible. The quantum heat engine has a cycle consisting of adiabatic and isothermal quantum processes that are close analogues of the corresponding classical processes.

  15. Programming Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Dan

    2010-01-01

    As one of today's cloud computing services, Google App Engine does more than provide access to a large system of servers. It also offers you a simple model for building applications that scale automatically to accommodate millions of users. With Programming Google App Engine, you'll get expert practical guidance that will help you make the best use of this powerful platform. Google engineer Dan Sanderson shows you how to design your applications for scalability, including ways to perform common development tasks using App Engine's APIs and scalable services. You'll learn about App Engine's a

  16. Constrictor: Flux Balance Analysis Constraint Modification Provides Insight for Design of Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keesha; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    The use of in silico methods has become standard practice to correlate the structure of a biochemical network to the expression of a desired phenotype. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most prevalent techniques for modeling metabolism. FBA models have been successfully applied to obtain growth predictions, theoretical product yields from heterologous pathways, and genome engineering targets. We take inspiration from high-throughput recombineering techniques, which show that combinatorial exploration can reveal optimal mutants, and apply the advantages of computational techniques to analyze these combinations. We introduce Constrictor, an in silico tool for FBA that allows gene mutations to be analyzed in a combinatorial fashion, by applying simulated constraints accounting for regulation of gene expression. We apply this algorithm to study ethylene production in E. coli through the addition of the heterologous ethylene-forming enzyme from P. syringae. Targeting individual reactions as well as sets of reactions results in theoretical ethylene yields that are as much 65% greater than yields calculated using typical FBA. Constrictor is an adaptable technique that can be used to generate and analyze disparate populations of in silico mutants & select gene expression levels.

  17. Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies Reveal New Pathways Important for Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xu; Hong-Bin Li; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2007-01-01

    As one of the longest single-celled seed trichomes, fibers provide an excellent model for studying fundamental biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, and cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cotton functional genomic studies that characterize the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of fiber cells. Extensive expression profilings of cotton fiber transcriptomes have provided comprehensive information, as quite a number of transcription factors and enzyme-coding genes have been shown to express preferentially during the fiber elongation period. Biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene is found significantly upregulated during the fiber growth period as revealed by both microarray analysis and by biochemical and physiological studies. It is suggested that genetic engineering of the ethylene pathway may improve the quality and the productivity of cotton lint. Many metabolic pathways, such as biosynthesis of celiulose and matrix polysaccharides are preferentially expressed in actively growing fiber cells. Five gene families, including proline-rich proteins (PRP), arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are activated during early fiber development,indicating that they may also be needed for cell elongation. In conclusion, we identify a few areas of future research for cotton functional genomic studies.

  18. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  19. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  20. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  1. Systems Engineering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges proposed by the development of the new computer systems demand new guidance related to engineer´s education, because they will solve these problems. In the XXI century, system engineers must be able to integrate a number of topics and knowledge disciplines that complement that traditionally has been known as Computer Systems Engineering. We have enough software development engineers, today we need professional engineers for software integration, leaders and system architects that make the most of the technological development for the benefit of society, leaders that integrate sciences to the solutions they build and propose. In this article the current situation of Computer Systems Engineering is analyzed and is presented a theory proposing the need for modifying the approach Universities have given to these careers, to achieve the education of leader engineers according to the needs of this century.

  2. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  3. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...... emission requirements as well as attempting to minimise fuel expenses, the engine speed has been lowered together with an increase in the engine mean pressure which in terms lead to larger bearing loads. With worsened operating conditions from two sides, the encountered problems are understandable...

  4. Engineering Science, Skills, and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    The background for the book is a quest for a thorough analysis of engineering, engineering science, and engineering education. Focusing on the concepts of engineering science, skills, and Bildung, the book investigates the real challenges that are confronting engineering today, and discusses how...... to respond to these. Thereby, the book offers a complex and nuanced basis for debates on the actual status and the future directions of engineering science, engineering education, and the everyday practice of engineers....

  5. An Engineering Context for Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    by Simon Wright, supplemented by the many insights from Robert Florman and Henry Petroski [Wri89], [Flo87], [Pet85], along with many other... Petroski , Henry , Invention by Design; How Engineers Get from Thought to Thing, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996. [Pet85] Petroski ...prevention of failure. This theme runs throughout the work of Petroski in his discussions of the design of a mechanical pencil, the engineering of

  6. Da "Search engines" a "Shop engines"

    OpenAIRE

    Lupi, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    The change occuring related to “search engines” is going towards e-commerce, transforming all the main search engines into information and commercial suggestion conveying means, basing their businnes on this activity. In a next future we will find two main series of search engines: from one side, the portals that will offer a general orientation guide being convoying means for services and to-buy products; from the other side, vertical portals able to offer information and products on specifi...

  7. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2013-08-01

    This research sought to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate by examining the interactions between nanoparticles and leachate components. The primary foci of this paper are the effects of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag nanoparticles on biological landfill processes and the form of Zn, Ti, and Ag in leachate following the addition of nanoparticles. Insight into the behavior of nanoparticles in landfill leachate was gained from the observed increase in the aqueous concentrations over background for Zn, Ti, and Ag in some tested leachates attributed to leachate components interacting with the nanoparticle coatings resulting in dispersion, dissolution/dissociation, and/or agglomeration. Coated nanoparticles did not affect biological processes when added to leachate; five-day biochemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential results were not statistically different when exposed to nanoparticles, presumably due to the low concentration of dissolved free ionic forms of the associated metals resulting from the interaction with leachate components. Chemical speciation modeling predicted that dissolved Zn in leachate was primarily associated with dissolved organic matter, Ti with hydroxide, and Ag with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia; less than 1% of dissolved Zn and Ag was in the free ionic form, and free ionic Ti and Ag concentrations were negligible.

  8. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  9. BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE AND ELECTROPHORETIC PATTERN IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To study different biochemical parameters and serum agarose gel electrophoresis patterns of patients consistent with clinical symptoms of multiple myeloma. SETTING : The study was carried out at Apollo Hospitals, Bhubaneswar, the premier tertiary care C ent re in Orissa. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : A total of 1057 referred cases for protein electrophoresis were analysed and reviewed between March 2010 to July 2015. RESULTS : Out of 1057 cases of protein electrophoresis 94 were confirmed cases of Multiple Myeloma. T he mean age of detected cases of Multiple Myeloma was 64.8 years. There was a male prevalence. Anaemia was initially found in 85.0% cases . The mean protein concentration was 9.0gm/dL and albumin was 3.2gm/dL . Hypercalcemia was seen in 28.0% case. Serum Cre atinine level of >2.0mg/dL was seen in cases 38.0% case. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed a localized band in 99% of patients. Immuno fixation electrophoresis showed monoclonal band in 92 cases (98% and a biclonal pattern in 2 cases (2%. Light chain myeloma was detected in 11 cases (19.0%. CONCLUSION : Serum protein electrophoresis should be routinely used in all elderly patients with features of bone pain, anemia and hyperproteinemia . It is still the gold standard for diagnosing Multiple Myeloma and it collaborate well with the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings. The abnormal band can be well characterized by Immunofixation electrophoresis.

  10. Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality.

  11. Model building and model checking for biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniotti, Marco; Policriti, Alberto; Ugel, Nadia; Mishra, Bud

    2003-01-01

    A central claim of computational systems biology is that, by drawing on mathematical approaches developed in the context of dynamic systems, kinetic analysis, computational theory and logic, it is possible to create powerful simulation, analysis, and reasoning tools for working biologists to decipher existing data, devise new experiments, and ultimately to understand functional properties of genomes, proteomes, cells, organs, and organisms. In this article, a novel computational tool is described that achieves many of the goals of this new discipline. The novelty of this system involves an automaton-based semantics of the temporal evolution of complex biochemical reactions starting from the representation given as a set of differential equations. The related tools also provide ability to qualitatively reason about the systems using a propositional temporal logic that can express an ordered sequence of events succinctly and unambiguously. The implementation of mathematical and computational models in the Simpathica and XSSYS systems is described briefly. Several example applications of these systems to cellular and biochemical processes are presented: the two most prominent are Leibler et al.'s repressilator (an artificial synthesized oscillatory network), and Curto- Voit-Sorribas-Cascante's purine metabolism reaction model.

  12. Coarse-graining stochastic biochemical networks: adiabaticity and fast simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.

  13. Characterizing Autism Spectrum Disorders by Key Biochemical Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha eSubramanian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD presents a substantial challenge for diagnosis, classification, research, and treatment. Investigations into the underlying molecular etiology of ASD have often yielded mixed and at times opposing findings. Defining the molecular and biochemical underpinnings of heterogeneity in ASD is crucial to our understanding of the pathophysiological development of the disorder, and has the potential to assist in diagnosis and the rational design of clinical trials. In this review, we propose that genetically diverse forms of ASD may be usefully parsed into entities resulting from converse patterns of growth regulation at the molecular level, which lead to the correlates of general synaptic and neural overgrowth or undergrowth. Abnormal brain growth during development is a characteristic feature that has been observed both in children with autism and in mouse models of autism. We review evidence from syndromic and non-syndromic ASD to suggest that entities currently classified as autism may fundamentally differ by underlying pro- or anti-growth abnormalities in key biochemical pathways, giving rise to either excessive or reduced synaptic connectivity in affected brain regions. We posit that this classification strategy has the potential not only to aid research efforts, but also to ultimately facilitate early diagnosis and direct appropriate therapeutic interventions.

  14. Characterizing autism spectrum disorders by key biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Megha; Timmerman, Christina K; Schwartz, Joshua L; Pham, Daniel L; Meffert, Mollie K

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) presents a substantial challenge for diagnosis, classification, research, and treatment. Investigations into the underlying molecular etiology of ASD have often yielded mixed and at times opposing findings. Defining the molecular and biochemical underpinnings of heterogeneity in ASD is crucial to our understanding of the pathophysiological development of the disorder, and has the potential to assist in diagnosis and the rational design of clinical trials. In this review, we propose that genetically diverse forms of ASD may be usefully parsed into entities resulting from converse patterns of growth regulation at the molecular level, which lead to the correlates of general synaptic and neural overgrowth or undergrowth. Abnormal brain growth during development is a characteristic feature that has been observed both in children with autism and in mouse models of autism. We review evidence from syndromic and non-syndromic ASD to suggest that entities currently classified as autism may fundamentally differ by underlying pro- or anti-growth abnormalities in key biochemical pathways, giving rise to either excessive or reduced synaptic connectivity in affected brain regions. We posit that this classification strategy has the potential not only to aid research efforts, but also to ultimately facilitate early diagnosis and direct appropriate therapeutic interventions.

  15. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  16. Phosphine-induced physiological and biochemical responses in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Lina; Niu, Xiaojun; Lu, Meiqing; Ma, Jinling; Wu, Jiandong; Zhou, Xingqiu

    2014-04-01

    Paddy fields have been demonstrated to be one of the major resources of atmospheric phosphine and may have both positive and negative effects on rice plants. To elucidate the physiological and biochemical responses of rice plants to phosphine, rice seedlings (30 d old) were selected as a model plant and were treated with different concentrations of phosphine (0, 1.4, 4.2, and 7.0 mg m(-3)). Antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined as indicators of the physiological and biochemical responses of the rice seedlings to phosphine exposure. Increasing concentrations of phosphine treatment enhanced the activity of SOD, POD, and CAT. In addition, the MDA content increased with increasing concentrations of phosphine. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes played important roles in protecting rice seedlings from ROS damage. Moreover, rice seedlings were able to cope with the oxidative stress induced by low concentrations of phosphine via an increase in antioxidant enzymatic activities. However, oxidative stress may not fully be prevented when the plants were exposed to higher concentrations of phosphine.

  17. Diazinon toxicity affects histophysiological and biochemical parameters in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Mona A H; El-Banna, Sabah G; Okab, Aly B

    2007-11-01

    Diazinon is a widely used pesticide in agriculture. So, the current work aimed to investigate the effects of diazinon exposure on some physiological and biochemical parameters, as well as, histopathological changes and histochemical acetyl-cholinesterase activity (AChE). The red Baladi rabbits were dipped into water (Control Group), diazinon at low concentrations of 0.6 mg diazinon low concentration (DLC) or high concentration of 3mg diazinon high concentration (DHC) dissolved in 1l of water for 10s. Treatment was repeated after 10 days and animals were sacrificed between 0 and 21 days after the second treatment. Blood analysis revealed that Red blood cells (RBC's), hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma total protein (TP) were significantly decreased in both diazinon concentrations (Pliver/ body weight and cytochrome P-450 were decreased in both concentrations (Pliver, kidney and brain were observed after DHC dipping. Glycogen content was decreased in liver and increased in kidney Bowman's capsule. Furthermore, AChE activity was inhibited in brain tissue, decreased in liver cells, but gradually increased in kidney glomerular cells. Therefore, kidney and brain were highly affected by diazinon exposure compared with the liver. Exposure of animals to diazinon caused extensive changes in physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters as well as histochemical AChE. So, contact exposure of diazinon leads to negative response on animal health.

  18. Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bel, Golan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce specific complex structures from a large set of similar biochemical building blocks, many biochemical systems require high sensitivity to small molecular differences. The first and most common mqdel used to explain this high specificity is kinetic proofreading, which has been extended to a variety of systems from detection of DNA mismatch to cell signaling processes. While the specification properties of the kinetic proofreading model are well known and were studied in various contexts, very little is known about its temporal behavior. In this work, we study the dynamical properties of discrete stochastic two-branch kinetic proofreading schemes. Using the Laplace transform of the corresponding chemical master equation, we obtain an analytical solution for the completion time distribution. In particular we provide expressions for the specificity and the mean and the variance of the process completion times. We also show that, for a wide range of parameters a process distinguishing between two different products can be reduced to a much simpler three point process. Our results allow for the systematic study of the interplay between specificity and completion times as well as testing the validity of the kinetic proofreading model in biological systems.

  19. Efficient Parallel Statistical Model Checking of Biochemical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ballarini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of verifying stochastic models of biochemical networks against behavioral properties expressed in temporal logic terms. Exact probabilistic verification approaches such as, for example, CSL/PCTL model checking, are undermined by a huge computational demand which rule them out for most real case studies. Less demanding approaches, such as statistical model checking, estimate the likelihood that a property is satisfied by sampling executions out of the stochastic model. We propose a methodology for efficiently estimating the likelihood that a LTL property P holds of a stochastic model of a biochemical network. As with other statistical verification techniques, the methodology we propose uses a stochastic simulation algorithm for generating execution samples, however there are three key aspects that improve the efficiency: first, the sample generation is driven by on-the-fly verification of P which results in optimal overall simulation time. Second, the confidence interval estimation for the probability of P to hold is based on an efficient variant of the Wilson method which ensures a faster convergence. Third, the whole methodology is designed according to a parallel fashion and a prototype software tool has been implemented that performs the sampling/verification process in parallel over an HPC architecture.

  20. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics.Methods:Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study.

  1. In vitro reparative dentin: a biochemical and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Teti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a  synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1 and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP, as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I  collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. 

  2. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: a clinical and biochemical conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Peter

    2003-04-11

    Pyridoxine-dependent seizures have been recognised for 40 years, but the clinical and biochemical features are still not understood. It is a rare recessively inherited condition where classically a baby starts convulsing in utero and continues to do so after birth, until given pyridoxine. Many of these early onset cases also have an acute encephalopathy and other clinical features. Late onset cases are now recognised with a less severe form of the condition. Seizures can break through with intercurrent illness but otherwise remain controlled on pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine. The long-term outcome is affected by several factors including whether onset is early or late and how soon pyridoxine is given. Biochemical studies have been sparse, on very small numbers. There does not appear to be any defect in the uptake or metabolism of pyridoxine or pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). For a long time glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a pyridoxal-dependent enzyme, has been suspected to be the abnormal gene product, but glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) studies on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been contradictory and recent genetic studies have not found any linkage to the two brain isoforms. A recent report describes raised pipecolic acid levels in patients but how this ties in is unexplained.

  3. Biochemical responses to fibropapilloma and captivity in the green turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimmer, J Y

    2000-01-01

    Blood biochemical parameters were compared for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP) from both captive and wild populations in Hawaii (USA) and from a captive population from California (USA), during the period between 1994 and 1996. Statistical analysis did not detect an influence of disease in any of the blood parameters for free-ranging turtles; however, captive turtles in Hawaii with GTFP had significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase and significantly lower levels of lactate compared to non-tumored captive turtles. Multivariate analysis found that biochemical profiles could be used to accurately predict if turtles were healthy or afflicted with GTFP. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified turtles as being with or without GTFP in 89% of cases, suggesting that diseased animals had a distinct signature of plasma biochemistries. Measurements of blood parameters identified numerous differences between captive and wild green turtles in Hawaii. Levels of corticosterone, lactate, triglyceride, glucose, and calcium were significantly higher in wild green turtles as compared to captive turtles, while uric acid levels were significantly lower in wild turtles as compared to captive turtles. Additionally, turtles from Sea World of California (San Diego, California, USA), which had been in captivity the longest, had higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides as compared to nearly all other groups. Differences in diet, sampling methods, environmental conditions, and turtle size, help to interpret these results.

  4. The application of information theory to biochemical signaling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Cell signaling can be thought of fundamentally as an information transmission problem in which chemical messengers relay information about the external environment to the decision centers within a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of cellular signal transduction networks, molecular noise will inevitably limit the fidelity of any messages received and processed by a cell’s signal transduction networks, leaving it with an imperfect impression of its environment. Fortunately, Shannon’s information theory provides a mathematical framework independent of network complexity that can quantify the amount of information that can be transmitted despite biochemical noise. In particular, the channel capacity can be used to measure the maximum number of stimuli a cell can distinguish based upon the noisy responses of its signaling systems. Here, we provide a primer for quantitative biologists that covers fundamental concepts of information theory, highlights several key considerations when experimentally measuring channel capacity, and describes successful examples of the application of information theoretic analysis to biological signaling. PMID:22872091

  5. Dynamic biochemical reaction process analysis and pathway modification predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejeros, R; Vassiliadis, V S

    2000-05-05

    Recently, the area of model predictive modification of biochemical pathways has received attention with the aim to increase the productivity of microbial systems. In this study, we present a generalization of previous work, where, using a sensitivity study over the fermentation as a dynamic system, the optimal selection of reaction steps for modification (amplification or attenuation) is determined. The influence of metabolites in the activity of enzymes has also been considered (through activation or inhibition). We further introduce a new concept in the dynamic modeling of biochemical reaction systems including a generalized continuous superstructure in which two artificial multiplicative terms are included to account for: (a) enzyme overexpression or underexpression (attenuation or amplification) for the whole enzyme pool; and (b) modification of the apparent order of a kinetic expression with respect to the concentration of a metabolite or any subset of metabolites participating in the pathway. This new formulation allows the prediction of the sensitivity of the pathway performance index (objective function) with respect to the concentration of the enzyme, as well as the interaction of the enzyme with other metabolites. Using this framework, a case study for the production of penicillin V is analyzed, obtaining the most sensitive reaction steps (or bottlenecks) and the most significant regulations of the system, due to the effect of concentration of intracellular metabolites on the activity of each enzyme.

  6. Biochemical characterization of exercise-trained porcine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M H; Hale, C C; Novela, L; Gute, D; Hamilton, N; Ianuzzo, C D

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cardiac biochemical adaptations are induced by chronic exercise training (ET) of miniature swine. Female Yucatan miniature swine were trained on a treadmill or were cage confined (C) for 16-22 wk. After training, the ET pigs had increased exercise tolerance, lower heart rates during exercise at submaximal intensities, moderate cardiac hypertrophy, increased coronary blood flow capacity, and increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Myosin from both the C and ET hearts was 100% of the V3 isozyme, and there were no differences between the myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or myofibrillar ATPase activities of C and ET hearts. Also, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange activity of sarcolemmal vesicles were the same in cardiac muscle of C and ET hearts. Finally, the glycolytic and oxidative capacity of ET cardiac muscle was not different from control, since phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were the same in cardiac tissue from ET and C pigs. We conclude that endurance exercise training does not provide sufficient stress on the heart of a large mammal to induce changes in any of the three major cardiac biochemical systems of the porcine myocardium: the contractile system, the Ca2+ regulatory systems, or the metabolic system.

  7. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  8. Data requirements of reverse-engineering algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Winfried

    2007-12-01

    Data Sets used in reverse engineering of biochemical networks contain usually relatively few high-dimensional data points, which makes the problem in general vastly underdetermined. It is therefore important to estimate the probability that a given algorithm will return a model of acceptable quality when run on a data set of small size but high dimension. We propose a mathematical framework for investigating such questions. We then demonstrate that without assuming any prior biological knowledge, in general no theoretical distinction between the performance of different algorithms can be made. We also give an example of how expected algorithm performance can in principle be altered by utilizing certain features of the data collection protocol. We conclude with some examples of theorems that were proven within the proposed framework.

  9. From dirt to industrial applications: Pseudomonas putida as a Synthetic Biology chassis for hosting harsh biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikel, Pablo I; Chavarría, Max; Danchin, Antoine; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-10-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida is endowed with a central carbon metabolic network capable of fulfilling high demands of reducing power. This situation arises from a unique metabolic architecture that encompasses the partial recycling of triose phosphates to hexose phosphates-the so-called EDEMP cycle. In this article, the value of P. putida as a bacterial chassis of choice for contemporary, industrially-oriented metabolic engineering is addressed. The biochemical properties that make this bacterium adequate for hosting biotransformations involving redox reactions as well as toxic compounds and intermediates are discussed. Finally, novel developments and open questions in the continuous quest for an optimal microbial cell factory are presented at the light of current and future needs in the area of biocatalysis.

  10. Microfluidics and microbial engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Songzi; Cheng, Danhui; Sun, Fei; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-02-01

    The combination of microbial engineering and microfluidics is synergistic in nature. For example, microfluidics is benefiting from the outcome of microbial engineering and many reported point-of-care microfluidic devices employ engineered microbes as functional parts for the microsystems. In addition, microbial engineering is facilitated by various microfluidic techniques, due to their inherent strength in high-throughput screening and miniaturization. In this review article, we firstly examine the applications of engineered microbes for toxicity detection, biosensing, and motion generation in microfluidic platforms. Secondly, we look into how microfluidic technologies facilitate the upstream and downstream processes of microbial engineering, including DNA recombination, transformation, target microbe selection, mutant characterization, and microbial function analysis. Thirdly, we highlight an emerging concept in microbial engineering, namely, microbial consortium engineering, where the behavior of a multicultural microbial community rather than that of a single cell/species is delineated. Integrating the disciplines of microfluidics and microbial engineering opens up many new opportunities, for example in diagnostics, engineering of microbial motors, development of portable devices for genetics, high throughput characterization of genetic mutants, isolation and identification of rare/unculturable microbial species, single-cell analysis with high spatio-temporal resolution, and exploration of natural microbial communities.

  11. A micro-perfusion bioreactor for on line investigation of ECM remodeling under hydrodynamic and biochemical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garziano, A; Urciuolo, F; Imparato, G; Martorina, F; Corrado, B; Netti, P

    2016-03-07

    Tissue-on-chip (TOC) systems aim at replicating complex biological dynamics in vitro with the potential either to improve the understanding of human biology or to develop more accurate therapeutic strategies. To replicate faithfully the intricate interrelationships between cells and their surrounding microenvironment, the three-dimensional (3D) tissue model must possess a responsive extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM remodeling plays a pivotal role in guiding cells and tissues functions and such aspect is somewhat denied during in vitro studies. For this purpose, we fabricated a micro-perfusion bioreactor capable to sustain the viability of 3D engineered tissue models recapitulating the process of the native ECM deposition and assembly. Engineered human dermis micro-tissue precursors (HD-μTP) were used as building blocks to generate a final tissue. HD-μTP were loaded in the perfusion space of the micro-perfusion bioreactor and, under the superimposition of different fluid dynamic regimes and biochemical stimulation, they synthesized new collagen proteins that were, then, assembled in the perfusion space forming a continuum of cells embedded in their own ECM. The micro-perfusion bioreactor was fabricated to allow the on-line monitoring of the oxygen consumption and the assembly of the newly formed collagen network via real time acquisition of the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal. The possibility to detect the collagen reorganization due to both fluid dynamic and biochemical stimulation, let us to define the optimal perfusion configuration in order to obtain a TOC system based on an endogenous and responsive ECM.

  12. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); O' Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  13. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  14. Culture in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Christensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    As engineers today often work in intercultural projects and contexts, intercultural competences must be part of the learning objectives in engineering educations. Cultural aspects of engineering education should not just be treated as a question of appropriate communication and teaching: cultural...... aspects are basically part of engineering discipli¬nes, work challenges as well as the contextual elements in engineering curriculum [1,2]. This is reflected in the aims of the CDIO programme [3,4]; however, the programme, as well as the teaching practises, undoubtedly needs to further develop approaches...... the continuously development of CDIO, including the current discussion of a new principles [7]. Secondly it has practical relevance to the engineering education, which to a growing degree has to cope with the potentials and challenges of internationalisation of educations and thus intercultural classrooms. Thirdly...

  15. Embedded engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Kaštelan, Ivan; Temerinac, Miodrag; Barak, Moshe; Sruk, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the outcome of the European research project “FP7-ICT-2011-8 / 317882: Embedded Engineering Learning Platform” E2LP. Additionally, some experiences and researches outside this project have been included. This book provides information about the achieved results of the E2LP project as well as some broader views about the embedded engineering education. It captures project results and applications, methodologies, and evaluations. It leads to the history of computer architectures, brings a touch of the future in education tools and provides a valuable resource for anyone interested in embedded engineering education concepts, experiences and material. The book contents 12 original contributions and will open a broader discussion about the necessary knowledge and appropriate learning methods for the new profile of embedded engineers. As a result, the proposed Embedded Computer Engineering Learning Platform will help to educate a sufficient number of future engineers in Europe, capable of d...

  16. Practical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    N Makarov, Sergey; Bitar, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors’ primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers. Provides a self-contained, fundamental textbook on electric circuits and basic electronic...

  17. Teaching Professional Engineering Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2010-01-01

    Engineering education aims at providing students with sufficient disciplinary knowledge of science and engineering principles in order for them to become successful engineers. However, to fulfil their roles as professional engineers, students also need to develop personal and interpersonal skills......, as well as professional skills, in order to implement and apply their theoretical and technical knowledge in a real context. CDIO constitutes a comprehensive approach to engineering education in which these additional skills represent fundamental principles besides the predominant technical knowledge....... The implementation of professional skills as well as personal and interpersonal skills in engineering teaching must be done, however, without reducing the existing curriculum of technical disciplines and still allow for the continuous acquisition of new technical knowledge. The general purpose of this study...

  18. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  19. Shift for engineering horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Ciampi, M. M.; Brito, C. da R.; Vasconcelos, Rosa; Amaral, Luís; Barros, V. F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Science, Engineering and Technology cross nearly every facet of modern life and, as problem solvers, engineers are perfectly capable of managing entrepreneurial activities, mastering innovative ways of business development, when they spend time and efforts understanding and acting in the field. Engineers rely on science and methods for analysis to ensure the quality and liability of design; nevertheless a pinch of creativity is required in order to find innovative solutions for economic and e...

  20. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yuntao; Du, Shijun

    2013-01-01

    Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study

  1. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  2. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ü. C. Hardal; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific Reports | 5:12953 | DOI: 10.1038/srep12953 1 www.nature.com/scientificreports Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine Ali Ü. C. Hardal & Özgür E. Müstecaplıoğlu Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop eficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, ...

  3. Standing detonation wave engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan

    2015-10-08

    A detonation engine can detonate a mixture of fuel and oxidizer within a cylindrical detonation region to produce work. The detonation engine can have a first and a second inlet having ends fluidly connected from tanks to the detonation engine. The first and second inlets can be aligned along a common axis. The inlets can be connected to nozzles and a separator can be positioned between the nozzles and along the common axis.

  4. Biochemical Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA Repair Enzymes – Nfo, XthA and Nei2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailau Abeldenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB is a human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. Treatment of TB requires long-term courses of multi-drug therapies to eliminate subpopulations of bacteria, which sometimes persist against antibiotics. Therefore, understanding of the mechanism of Mtb antibiotic-resistance is extremely important. During infection, Mtb overcomes a variety of body defense mechanisms, including treatment with the reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen. The bases in DNA molecule are susceptible to the damages caused by reactive forms of intermediate compounds of oxygen and nitrogen. Most of this damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER pathway. In this study, we aimed to biochemically characterize three Mtb DNA repair enzymes of BER pathway. Methods: XthA, nfo, and nei genes were identified in mycobacteria by homology search of genomic sequences available in the GenBank database. We used standard methods of genetic engineering  to clone and sequence Mtb genes, which coded Nfo, XthA and Nei2 repair enzymes. The protein products of Mtb genes were expressed and purified in Escherichia coli using affinity tags. The enzymatic activity of purified Nfo, XthA, and Nei2 proteins were measured using radioactively labeled DNA substrates containing various modified residues. Results: The genes end (Rv0670, xthA (Rv0427c, and nei (Rv3297 were PCR amplified using genomic DNA of Mtb H37Rv with primers that contain specific restriction sites. The amplified products were inserted into pET28c(+ expression vector in such a way that the recombinant proteins contain C-terminal histidine tags. The plasmid constructs were verified by sequencing and then transformed into the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 strain. Purification of recombinant proteins was performed using Ni2+ ions immobilized affinity column, coupled with the fast performance liquid chromatography machine AKTA. Identification of the isolated proteins was performed by

  5. 'Enzyme Test Bench': A biochemical application of the multi-rate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinskiy, K.; Schultze, H.; Boy, M.; Büchs, J.

    2008-11-01

    : the enzyme screening with regard to the long term stability and the choice of the optimal process temperature. The presented article gives a successful example for the application of multi-rate modeling, experimental design and parameter estimation within biochemical engineering. At the same time, it shows the limitations of the methods at the state of the art and addresses the current problems to the applied mathematics community.

  6. 'Enzyme Test Bench': A biochemical application of the multi-rate modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachinskiy, K; Buechs, J [Department of Biochemical Engineering, Sammelbau Biologie, RWTH-Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Schultze, H; Boy, M [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen (Germany)], E-mail: buechs@biovt.rwth-aachen.de

    2008-11-01

    technique allows for both: the enzyme screening with regard to the long term stability and the choice of the optimal process temperature. The presented article gives a successful example for the application of multi-rate modeling, experimental design and parameter estimation within biochemical engineering. At the same time, it shows the limitations of the methods at the state of the art and addresses the current problems to the applied mathematics community.

  7. Assessment of gold nanoparticle effects in a marine teleost (Sparus aurata) using molecular and biochemical biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, M., E-mail: mteles0@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Fierro-Castro, C. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Na-Phatthalung, P. [Department of Microbiology and Excellent Research Laboratory on Natural Products, Faculty of Science and Natural Product Research Center of Excellence, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Tvarijonaviciute, A. [Department of Medicine and Animal Surgery, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Trindade, T. [Department of Chemistry & CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M. [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Tort, L. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, M. [Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AuNP effects were investigated at molecular and biochemical levels in Sparus aurata. • AuNP coated with PVP exerts more effects than AuNP coated with citrate. • AuNP-PVP induced changes in antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related-genes mRNA levels. • The increase in plasma TOS indicates that AuNP-PVP generates oxidative stress. • AuNP-PVP induced in S. aurata a non-monotonic response pattern. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are increasingly employed in a variety of applications and are likely to be increasing in the environment, posing a potential emerging environmental threat. Information on possible hazardous effects of engineered nanoparticles is urgently required to ensure human and environmental safety and promote the safe use of novel nanotechnologies. Nevertheless, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge on AuNP effects in marine species. The present study aimed to assess AuNP effects in a marine teleost, Sparus aurata, by combining endpoints at different biological levels (molecular and biochemical). For that purpose, fish were exposed via water for 96 h to 4, 80 and 1600 μg L{sup −1} of AuNP (∼40 nm) coated with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Results revealed a significant impact of AuNP-PVP in the hepatic expression of antioxidant, immune and apoptosis related genes. Total oxidative status was increased in plasma after exposure to the lowest concentration of AuNP-PVP, although without altering the total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, AuNP did not induce significant damage in the liver since the activity of neither hepatic indicator (aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) increased. Overall, the present study demonstrated that AuNP, even with a biocompatible coating is able to alter oxidative status and expression of relevant target genes in marine fish. Another important finding is that effects are mainly induced by the lowest and intermediate concentrations of the PVP coated AuNP revealing

  8. Evaluating web serch engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Every month, more than 130 billion queries worldwide are entered into the search boxes of general-purpose web search engines (ComScore, 2010). This enormous number shows that web searching is not only a large business, but also that many people rely on the search engines' results when researching information. A goal of all search engine evaluation efforts is to generate better systems. This goal is of major importance to the search engine vendors who can directly apply evaluation results to develop better ranking algorithms.

  9. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  10. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  11. Metallurgical process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ruiyu [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    ''Metallurgical Process Engineering'' discusses large-scale integrated theory on the level of manufacturing production processes, putting forward concepts for exploring non-equilibrium and irreversible complex system. It emphasizes the dynamic and orderly operation of the steel plant manufacturing process, the major elements of which are the flow, process network and program. The book aims at establishing a quasi-continuous and continuous process system for improving several techno-economic indices, minimizing dissipation and enhancing the market competitiveness and sustainability of steel plants. The book is intended for engineers, researchers and managers in the fields of metallurgical engineering, industrial design, and process engineering. (orig.)

  12. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  13. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  14. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  15. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-07-01

    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  16. Mechanical engineers data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Carvill, James

    1994-01-01

    This text provides the student and professional mechanical engineer with a reference text of an essentially practical nature. It is uncluttered by text, and extensive use of illustrations and tables provide quick and clear access to information. It alsoincludes examples of detailed calculations on many of the applications of technology used by mechanical and production engineers, draughtsmen and engineering designers.Although mainly intended for those studying and practising mechanical engineering, a glance at the contents will show that it is also useful to those in related br

  17. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  18. Strain-engineered MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, CK

    2012-01-01

    Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale. This book focuses on recent developments in st

  19. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  20. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd-El-Kader SAHRAOUI; Dennis M. BUEDE; Andrew P. SAGE

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose selected research topics that are believed central to progress and growth in the application of systems engineering (SE). As a professional activity, and as an intellectual activity, systems engineering has strong links to such associated disciplines as decision analysis, operation research, project management, quality management, and systems design. When focussing on systems engineering research, we should distinguish between subjects that are of systems engineering essence and others that more closely correspond to those that are more relevant for related disciplines.

  1. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Digital Microfluidic Biochips with Operation Execution Time Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets. Several...... approaches have been proposed for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. Researchers have assumed...

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  3. Engine and method for operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh; Gong, Weidong

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  4. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  5. Morphological, kinetic, membrane biochemical and genetic aspects of intestinal enteroplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; M Tom Clandinin; Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    The process of intestinal adaptation ("enteroplasticity") is complex and multifaceted. Although a number of trophic nutrients and non-nutritive factors have been identified in animal studies, successful, reproducible clinical trials in humans are awaited. Understanding mechanisms underlying this adaptive process may direct research toward strategies that maximize intestinal function and impart a true clinical benefit to patients with short bowel syndrome, or to persons in whom nutrient absorption needs to be maximized. In this review, we consider the morphological, kinetic and membrane biochemical aspects of enteroplasticity, focus on the importance of nutritional factors, provide an overview of the many hormones that may alter the adaptive process, and consider some of the possible molecular profiles. While most of the data is derived from rodent studies, wherever possible, the results of human studies of intestinal enteroplasticity are provided.

  6. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations.

  7. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.

    2010-07-27

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS...... classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...

  9. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  10. Modeling isotopomer distributions in biochemical networks using isotopomer mapping matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Karsten; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    must be estimated by nonlinear least squares analysis, in which experimental labeling data is compared with simulated steady state isotopomer distributions. Hence, mathematical models are required to compute the steady state isotopomer distribution as a function of a given set of steady state fluxes......Within the last decades NMR spectroscopy has undergone tremendous development and has become a powerful analytical tool for the investigation of intracellular flux distributions in biochemical networks using C-13-labeled substrates. Not only are the experiments much easier to conduct than...... of the isotopomer distribution in metabolite pools can be obtained. The isotopomer distribution is the maximum amount of information that in theory can be obtained from C-13-tracer studies. The wealth of information contained in NMR spectra frequently leads to overdetermined algebraic systems. Consequently, fluxes...

  11. Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindorf, Lars; Jensen, Jesper B; Dufva, Martin; Pedersen, Lars Hagsholm; Høiby, Poul Erik; Bang, Ole

    2006-09-04

    We present experimental results showing that long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers can be used as sensitive biochemical sensors. A layer of biomolecules was immobilized on the sides of the holes of the photonic crystal fiber and by observing the shift in the resonant wavelength of a long-period grating it was possible to measure the thickness of the layer. The long-period gratings were inscribed in a large-mode area silica photonic crystal fiber with a CO2 laser. The thicknesses of a monolayer of poly-L-lysine and double-stranded DNA was measured using the device. We find that the grating has a sensitivity of approximately 1.4nm/1nm in terms of the shift in resonance wavelength in nm per nm thickness of biomolecule layer.

  12. Hematological, biochemical, and behavioral responses of Oncorhynchus mykiss to dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Demet; Can, Canan

    2011-12-01

    The effects of dimethoate on hematological, biochemical parameters, and behavior were investigated in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.0735, 0.3675, and 0.7350 mg/l for 5, 15, and 30 days. Significant decrease was determined in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and MCH, which was pronounced after prolonged exposure indicating the appearance of microcytic hypochromic anemia. There were no prominent changes in thrombocyte and MCHC. The glucose concentration showed an ascending pattern that proved to be positively correlated with duration. The protein concentration declined in higher dimethoate concentrations following 15 and 30 days. Negative and significant correlation was detected between glucose and protein concentrations. The fish showed remarkable behavioral abnormality such as loss of balance, erratic swimming, and convulsion. Present findings revealed that dimethoate exerts its toxic action even in sublethal concentrations and hematological parameters and abnormal behavior may be sensitive indicators to evaluate pesticide intoxication.

  13. Biochemical Changes During Seed Germination of Sterculia urens Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botcha SATYANARAYANA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes biochemical changes taking place during seed germination of Sterculia urens. The levels of proteins, total amino acids, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and lipids were studied during various stages of seed germination (0-15 days. Total protein content was decreased in cotyledons during seed germination while free amino acid content increased to its maximum extent by 9th day of germination and reverse trend thereafter. The levels of reducing sugars and total soluble sugars increased till 6th day of germination and decreased thereafter. The lipid content was high at initial stages of germination (0-6 days but gradually decreased by 15th day of germination.

  14. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous.

  15. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Paediatric reference intervals based on samples from healthy children are difficult to establish and consequently data are often from hospitalized children. Furthermore, biases may present in published data due to differences in the analytical methods employed. Blood samples from 1429...... healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL...... values of X for the properties and statistical calculations carried out as performed in the NORIP study. Thus commutable (regarding analytical method) reference intervals for 20 properties were established and for LDL-Cholesterol reference intervals were reported for the specific analytical method...

  16. Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wensvoort

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes during fasting or the withholding of feed for 5 day were studied in serum of camelids (dromedary camel, llama and ruminants (sheep, steers. Camels maintained low levels of 13-hydroxybutyrate (BHB and high levels of glucose but showed some increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and urea when fasting. Sheep and steers showed a rise in serum BHB and much higher increases of NEFA than camels and llamas. Sheep showed decreased serum glucose. The llama showed some increase in BHB but NEFA was lower than the other three species. The results indicate that camelids have a unique ability to control lipolytic and gluconeogenic activity to prevent or postpone the state of ketosis. Understanding and manipulation of these metabolic mechanisms in cattle and sheep could have great benefit to the livestock industry.

  17. Dynamics of biochemical parameters of blood serum in kidney injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Podgainiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Annually injuries of varying severity are registered in more than 4,5 million people (up to 10% of the population in Ukraine; renal injury in polytrauma is detected in 26,4% of cases and takes 2 – 3 place of injury of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. In order to study the kidney function and other vital organs systems 108 patients were examined. Methods and results. Laboratory methods (clinical and biochemical parameters of blood and urine tests, ultrasound and CT scans of the kidneys and abdominal organs were used. Conclusion. It was established that polytrauma often occurs in males (73,5% of middle-age. 42% of patients presented renal function violation - nitrogen excretion and 84% of patients had activated blood coagulation in the first 7 – 10 days of injury.

  18. Isolation of Clostridium absonum and its cultural and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, M; Mitsui, N; Tamai, K; Nakamura, S; Nishida, S

    1974-01-01

    A new procedure for isolation of Clostridium absonum was devised. Sixtyseven strains of C. absonum were isolated from 135 soil samples, but no strain of C. absonum could be found from human fecal samples. The lecithinase, hemolysin, and lethal toxin in the culture filtrates of this species exhibited low avidity for C. perfringens type A antitoxin. The three activities were inseparable by the present method of purification. A reinvestigation of biochemical properties revealed that incomplete suppression of lecithinase reaction by C. perfringens type A antitoxin and no fermentation of raffinose, melibiose, and starch are useful criteria to differentiate C. absonum from C. perfringens, and that positive, although weak, gelatin liquefaction and fermentation of trehalose are useful to differentiate it from C. paraperfringens.

  19. Prediction of the preeclampsia: a view of biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sühha Bostancı

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a diverse, multiorgan group of related disease processes that occurs in up to 5%-8% of pregnancies after 20 weeks’ gestation and it is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Many molecular mechanisms are contributed to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Although it is unknown whether the mechanisms act independently or have synergistic effects. This review describes review of primary papers investigating blood based biomarker such as PAP-A, Inhibin A, sFlt1, and PP13 in general and first trimester biochemical markers and combinations of them specifically for preeclampsia.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i4.699

  20. Statistical physics approaches to subnetwork dynamics in biochemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bravi, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We apply a Gaussian variational approximation to model reduction in large biochemical networks of unary and binary reactions. We focus on a small subset of variables (subnetwork) of interest, e.g. because they are accessible experimentally, embedded in a larger network (bulk). The key goal is to write dynamical equations reduced to the subnetwork but still retaining the effects of the bulk. As a result, the subnetwork-reduced dynamics contains a memory term and an extrinsic noise term with non-trivial temporal correlations. We first derive expressions for this memory and noise in the linearized (Gaussian) dynamics and then use a perturbative power expansion to obtain first order nonlinear corrections. For the case of vanishing intrinsic noise, our description is explicitly shown to be equivalent to projection methods up to quadratic terms, but it is applicable also in the presence of stochastic fluctuations in the original dynamics. An example from the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signalling pathwa...

  1. Methods for assessing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, S; Recoules, L; Durand, M J; Boukabache, A; Picot, V; Primault, Y; Lakel, A; Sengelin, M; Barillon, B; Thouand, G

    2014-02-01

    The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is one of the most widely used criteria for water quality assessment. It provides information about the ready biodegradable fraction of the organic load in water. However, this analytical method is time-consuming (generally 5 days, BOD5), and the results may vary according to the laboratory (20%), primarily due to fluctuations in the microbial diversity of the inoculum used. Work performed during the two last decades has resulted in several technologies that are less time-consuming and more reliable. This review is devoted to the analysis of the technical features of the principal methods described in the literature in order to compare their performances (measuring window, reliability, robustness) and to identify the pros and the cons of each method.

  2. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  3. Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: Biochemical Background and Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberecht, Harry; Hermans, Nina

    2016-03-01

    Biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome are divided into four subgroups. Although dividing them in groups has some limitations, it can be used to draw some conclusions. In a first part, the dyslipidemias and markers of oxidative stress are discussed, while inflammatory markers and cardiometabolic biomarkers are reviewed in a second part. For most of them, the biochemical background and clinical significance are discussed, although here also a well-cut separation cannot always be made. Altered levels cannot always be claimed as the cause, risk, or consequence of the syndrome. Several factors are interrelated to each other and act in a concerted, antagonistic, synergistic, or modulating way. Most important conclusions are summarized at the end of every reviewed subgroup. Genetic biomarkers or influences of various food components on concentration levels are not included in this review article.

  4. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YU-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones including ethylene,gibberellin,and brassinolide have been reported to be involved in this process.Here we first identified by proteomic analysis a cotton cytosolic APX1 (GhAPX1) that was specifically accumulated during cotton fiber elongation.GhAPX1 expression was up-regulated in response to cellular H2O2 and ethylene,and it was involved in modulating the stead-state level of H2O2.

  5. A general method for modeling biochemical and biomedical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Lerd Ng, Jia; Hughes, Tyler; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The impressive achievements of biomedical science have come mostly from experimental research with human subjects, animal models, and sophisticated laboratory techniques. Additionally, theoretical chemistry has been a major aid in designing new drugs. Here we introduce a method which is similar to others already well known in theoretical systems biology, but which specifically addresses biochemical changes as the human body responds to medical interventions. It is common in systems biology to use first-order differential equations to model the time evolution of various chemical concentrations, and we as physicists can make a significant impact through designing realistic models and then solving the resulting equations. Biomedical research is rapidly advancing, and the technique presented in this talk can be applied in arbitrarily large models containing tens, hundreds, or even thousands of interacting species, to determine what beneficial effects and side effects may result from pharmaceuticals or other medical interventions.

  6. Early Biochemical Screening for Fetal Aneuploidy in the First Trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening for fetal trisomy 21 in the first trimester includes analysis of the serological markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta human choriogonadotropin (free βhCG). With the recent launch of the PAPP-A free βhCG and assays on the Roche Cobas and Elecsys...... platforms, we investigated their clinical and analytical performance in samples from gestaional weeks 8+0 to 14+0. Methods. We conducted a multicenter study based on serum samples from 5397 pregnancies including 107 samples from cases of verified fetal trisomy 21 at 8 to 14 weeks of gestation. A technical...... with the standards for biochemical assays for prenatal screening set by the Fetal Medicine Foundation, with low assay imprecision, and a high clinical performance of prenatal screening for fetal trisomy in the first trimester....

  7. Integration of biochemical sensors into wearable biomaterial platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sidhartha; Walper, Scott A.; Cargill, Allison A.; Ozual, Abigail; Daniele, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    With rapidly inflating healthcare costs, a limited supply of physicians and an alarming surge in lifestyle diseases, radical changes must be made to improve preventative medicine and ensure a sustainable healthcare system. A compelling solution is to equip the population with wearable health monitors to continuously record representative and actionable physiological data. Herein, we present a preliminary design and evaluation of a biochemical sensor node enabled by a substrate comprised of a nanocellulose thin-film that conforms to the skin and carries a printed sensor element. The nanocellulose layer ensures conformal and biocompatible contact with the skin, while a printed layer provides a high surface-area electrode. While the recognition/transduction element can be exchanged for many different sensing motifs, we utilize the general structure of an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  8. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J. [UMDI-Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  9. Decoupling of Growth from Production of Biochemicals and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Songyuan

    problem for these cell factories is the un-controlled accumulation of biomass during fermentation, which significantly reduces the fraction of substrate that can be converted into products. Therefore, a method for controlling cell growth during production becomes desirable in order to improve...... the production of a range of interesting molecules. This thesis has aimed at developing various methods for controlling cell growth as well as to maintain their capacity for production, in order to improving the performance of microbial cell factories. Using the popular cell factory organism, E. coli, as our...... tyrosine and mevalonate, was achieved through this type of growth limitation. Second, rationally designed genetic growth switches, based on CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) systems, have been developed. By switching off cell growth during production, the production of biochemicals and proteins, exemplified...

  10. Biochemical and molecular characterization of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) seed lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santino, Angelo; De Paolis, Angelo; Gallo, Antonia; Quarta, Angela; Casey, Rod; Mita, Giovanni

    2003-11-01

    Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of dioxygenases which display diverse functions in several physiological processes such as growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Even though LOXs have been characterized from several plant species, the physiological role of seed LOXs is still unclear. With the aim to better clarify the occurrence of LOXs and their influence on hazelnut seed quality, we carried out the biochemical and molecular characterization of the main LOX isoforms expressed during seed development. A genomic clone containing a complete LOX gene was isolated and fully characterized. The 9887 bp sequence reported contains an open reading frame of 5334 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 99 kDa. Semiquantitative RT-PCR carried out from RNAs extracted from seeds at different maturation stages showed that LOXs are mainly expressed at early developmental stages. These results were confirmed by LOX activity assays. Biochemical characterization of the reaction products of the hazelnut LOX indicated that it is a 9-LOX. Two cDNAs were isolated by RT-PCR carried out on total RNA from immature hazelnut seeds. Sequence analysis indicated that the two cDNAs are highly homologous (91.9% degree of identity) and one of these corresponded exactly to the genomic clone. The deduced amino acid sequences of the hazelnut LOXs showed that they are closely related to a previously reported almond LOX (79.5% identity) and, to a lesser extent, to some LOXs involved in plant responses to pathogens (cotton and tobacco LOXs, 75.5 and 74.6% identity, respectively). The physiological role of hazelnut LOXs and their role in influencing seed quality are also discussed.

  11. Simulation methods with extended stability for stiff biochemical Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rué Pau

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing computer power, simulating the dynamics of complex systems in chemistry and biology is becoming increasingly routine. The modelling of individual reactions in (biochemical systems involves a large number of random events that can be simulated by the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA. The key quantity is the step size, or waiting time, τ, whose value inversely depends on the size of the propensities of the different channel reactions and which needs to be re-evaluated after every firing event. Such a discrete event simulation may be extremely expensive, in particular for stiff systems where τ can be very short due to the fast kinetics of some of the channel reactions. Several alternative methods have been put forward to increase the integration step size. The so-called τ-leap approach takes a larger step size by allowing all the reactions to fire, from a Poisson or Binomial distribution, within that step. Although the expected value for the different species in the reactive system is maintained with respect to more precise methods, the variance at steady state can suffer from large errors as τ grows. Results In this paper we extend Poisson τ-leap methods to a general class of Runge-Kutta (RK τ-leap methods. We show that with the proper selection of the coefficients, the variance of the extended τ-leap can be well-behaved, leading to significantly larger step sizes. Conclusions The benefit of adapting the extended method to the use of RK frameworks is clear in terms of speed of calculation, as the number of evaluations of the Poisson distribution is still one set per time step, as in the original τ-leap method. The approach paves the way to explore new multiscale methods to simulate (biochemical systems.

  12. Biochemical and radiological predictors of malignant biliary strictures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim A. Al-Mofleh; Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen; Saleh M. Al-Amri; Rashed S. Al-Rashed; Faleh Z. Al-Faleh; Hussein M. Al-Freihi; Ayman A. Abdo; Arthur C. Isnani

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Differentiation of benign biliary strictures (BBS) from malignant biliary strictures (MBS) remains difficult despite improvement in imaging and endoscopic techniques. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical, biochemical and or radiological predictors of malignant biliary strictures.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all charts of patients who had biliary strictures (BS) on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous cholangiography (PTC) in case of unsuccessful ERCP from March 1998 to August 2002. Patient characteristics, clinical features, biochemical, radiological and biopsy results were all recorded. Stricture etiology was determined based on cytology,biopsy or clinical follow-up. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to determine the optimal laboratory diagnostic criterion threshold in predicting MBS.RESULTS: One hundred twenty six patients with biliary strictures were enrolled, of which 72 were malignant. The mean age for BBS was 53 years compared to 62.4 years for MBS (P=0.0006). Distal bile duct stricture was mainly due to a malignant process 48.6% vs 9% (P=0.001). Alkaline phosphates and AST levels were more significantly elevated in MBS (P=0.0002). R OC curve showed that a bilirubin level of 84 pmol/L or more was the most predictive of MBS with a sensitivity of 98.6%, specificity of 59.3% and a positive likelihood ratio of 2.42 (95% CI=0.649-0.8L0). Proximal biliary dilatation was more frequently encountered in MBS compared to BBS, 73.8% vs39.5% (P=0.0001). Majority of BBS (87%) and MBS (78%) were managed endoscopically.CONCLUSION: A serum bilirubin level of 84 μmol/L or greater is the best predictor of MBS. Older age, proximal biliary dilatation, higher levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, ALT and AST are all associated with MBS. ERCP is necessary to diagnose and treat benign and malignant biliary strictures.

  13. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of chickens to hydric stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikumba, N; Swatson, H; Chimonyo, M

    2013-09-01

    Dehydration can be extremely damaging to the performance and welfare of indigenous chickens. The effect of water restriction on haematological and biochemical parameters was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens. A total of 54 8-week-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641 ± 10 g/bird were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments with three replications, each having six birds. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of 3.3 m2 per strain were used. Feed was provided ad libitum. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total leucocyte count (WBC), and biochemical parameters (uric acid (UA)), creatinine (CREAT), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), triglyceride (TGA), total cholesterol (TC), high- (HDLC) and low- (LDLC) density lipoprotein cholesterol and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined from blood collected after 60 days of water restriction. PCV was higher (P chickens offered water ad libitum, but similar in birds offered 70% and 40% of ad libitum. There were no differences in RBC and MCV values between strains, but MCV was higher in birds on 40% than 70% of ad libitum water intake, irrespective of strain. Naked neck chickens had higher (P chickens. The opposite was observed for UA. ALT activity indicated that liver function was not affected by water restriction. It was concluded that the two strains can withstand up to 40% of ad libitum water restriction, but NNK tolerated water stress better than OVB chickens.

  14. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehere, Prajwalini; Han, Qian; Lemkul, Justin A; Vavricka, Christopher J; Robinson, Howard; Bevan, David R; Li, Jianyong

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using α-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  15. Biochemical and structural properties of mouse kynurenine aminotransferase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Cai, Tao; Tagle, Danilo A; Li, Jianyong

    2009-02-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60 degrees C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  16. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Cai, Tao; Tagle, Danilo A.; Li, Jianyong

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60°C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain. PMID:19029248

  17. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  18. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  19. POTENTIALITIES AND RISKS OF BIOCHEMICAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VIA INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Gomes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet is more and more present in worldwide education. There are innumerable projects thatstimulate its usage for aiding the teaching-learning process. This new trend modies the reality of thewhole school. However, many copies of identical information are found in several sites: graphs, gures,texts, links and even errors. The aim of this work is to analyse the biochemical issues photosynthesisand cellular respiration available in web pages, taking into account contents quality, trustworthinessand eectiveness. Firstly, 6th secondary level students were inquired by a questionnaire on their use ofinternet resources. More than 80 percent of them were regular users. The result conrms the alreadyknown potential of internet in education. Fourteen sites were analysed regarding to contents, presenceof bibliographical references, authorship, titles of responsibles and adequacy to the target public. Inrelation to contents, presence of conceptual errors, illustrations and other stimulant elements wereanalysed. None of the sites presented biblioghraphic references; less than half divulged responsiblenames and their graduation. The great majority do not mention intended public target. In general,the sites did not contained grave conceptual errors, except for two that mention estoma insteadestroma, cilica/acilica phosphorylation (for cyclic and acyclic, grama (for grana and place oxygenas essential for anaerobic respiration. However, one of these sites was the only one that mentionedenzymes and regulation steps of cellular respiration. Half of the sites presented identical texts andgures. None used livened up resources. The majority showed contents as virtual versions of printedbooks. Illustrations did not present necessary legends. None of the analysed sites, thus, was consideredexcellent. Trustworthiness is also questionable as much of the contents arte clearly copies of otherpages, recurrent even on the errors. Our data strengthen the need for

  20. Clinical and biochemical significance of toxin production by Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindschuh, M; Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Ruiz-Palacios, G

    1987-05-01

    Production of cytotoxin and enterotoxin by Aeromonas strains obtained from stools of 50 children in Mexico and Texas and from blood of 9 children with sepsis was determined. Results were correlated with clinical features of infected children as well as with biochemical traits of Aeromonas strains. Cytotoxin was produced by 40 of 42 Aeromonas strains (95%) isolated from stools of children with diarrhea, by all 8 isolates from stools of well children, and by all 9 isolates from children with sepsis. There was no difference in the quantities (amount of cytotoxin per milligram of protein required to kill 50% of the cells) of cytotoxin produced and in clinical manifestations among the groups. None of the isolates produced a toxin that could be neutralized by antiserum raised against Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae 1 60R. Heat-labile-like enterotoxin (LT) was produced by 26 of 42 stool isolates (62%), while only 1 of the 42 isolates (2%) produced enterotoxinlike activity in suckling mice; 65% of the cytotoxin-producing strains also produced an LT-like material. All strains from blood produced LT-like material, and 2 of 6 (33%) produced activity in suckling mice. All strains produced hemolysin; 37 of 57 (65%) were Voges-Proskauer positive; 27 of 57 (47%) were lysine decarboxylase positive by API 20E strips, none were positive for lysine decarboxylose production by lysin-iron agar slants at 24 h, but 17 of 54 (31%) were positive at 48 h. There was no correlation between biochemical reactions and enterotoxin or cytotoxin production. There appears to be no correlation between toxin production by Aeromonas spp. and gastroenteritis.

  1. Dietary intakes and some biochemical markers in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Yassibas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intake of energy and some nutrients is frequently inadequate in dialysis patients because of eating and appetite disorders due to uremic syndrome. Inadequate energy and protein intake cause to malnutrition. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers and dietary intake records have great importance in determining the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD patients. Therefore this study was planned to determination of daily energy, nutrient intake and some biochemical markers of adult hemodialysis patients. Method and Material:  A hundred and thirty six (male = 73, female = 63 clinically stable HD patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were taken 24-hour dietary recall. The daily energy and nutrient intakes of patients were calculated by food consumption records and anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: The mean age was found 45.5±13.51 years. The ratio of patients with body mass index (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2 was 7.4% and 25 kg/m2 or upper was 16.9%. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total protein levels were below the normal levels. The daily dietary energy and protein intakes were found under the recommended level in the study period. A significant positive correlation was found between daily protein intake and serum albumin levels (r=0.210, p=0.014, daily protein intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.201, p=0.019, daily energy intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.178, p=0.039. Conclusions: HD patients often have low protein and energy intakes and most of them suffer from malnutrition. Therefore nutritional status of patients should be evaluated and periodically nutrition education should be given for improving eating habits and increasing dietary compliance is recommended.

  2. LucidDraw: Efficiently visualizing complex biochemical networks within MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Guiyang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemical networks play an essential role in systems biology. Rapidly growing network data and versatile research activities call for convenient visualization tools to aid intuitively perceiving abstract structures of networks and gaining insights into the functional implications of networks. There are various kinds of network visualization software, but they are usually not adequate for visual analysis of complex biological networks mainly because of the two reasons: 1 most existing drawing methods suitable for biochemical networks have high computation loads and can hardly achieve near real-time visualization; 2 available network visualization tools are designed for working in certain network modeling platforms, so they are not convenient for general analyses due to lack of broader range of readily accessible numerical utilities. Results We present LucidDraw as a visual analysis tool, which features (a speed: typical biological networks with several hundreds of nodes can be drawn in a few seconds through a new layout algorithm; (b ease of use: working within MATLAB makes it convenient to manipulate and analyze the network data using a broad spectrum of sophisticated numerical functions; (c flexibility: layout styles and incorporation of other available information about functional modules can be controlled by users with little effort, and the output drawings are interactively modifiable. Conclusions Equipped with a new grid layout algorithm proposed here, LucidDraw serves as an auxiliary network analysis tool capable of visualizing complex biological networks in near real-time with controllable layout styles and drawing details. The framework of the algorithm enables easy incorporation of extra biological information, if available, to influence the output layouts with predefined node grouping features.

  3. [Renal lithiasis. Biochemical changes in the follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivacow, Francisco R; del Valle, Elisa E; Zancheta, José R

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if biochemical changes occur in the follow up of patients with renal lithiasis, 237 patients were studied (115 women and 122 men, mean age 39 +/- 8 and 42 +/- 7 years, respectively) and controlled during 27.3 +/- 19.3 months. All of them had previously undergone metabolic evaluations at baseline and one or more than one control studies afterwards. Patients with a diagnosis of sponge kidney, renal tubular acidosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, anatomical malformations of the urinary tract, or urinary infections were not included. Two populations were identified: those who presented changes in the baseline diagnosis (139 patients, Group I) and those who presented no changes (98 patients, Group II). In these groups, no differences were observed in baseline metabolic diagnoses or in the follow-up period. Hypocitraturia was the additional diagnosis most frequently observed (43.1%), followed by Idiopatic hypercalciuria (20.8%) and abnormalities of uric acid (16.5%). In the group of 110 patients followed up for more than 3 years, 37 patients recurred (33%). Among the latter, 25 (23%) changed the baseline metabolic diagnosis vs. 12 (11%) that maintained the same diagnosis (p < 0.002). Changes in metabolic disorders were frequently observed in the follow up of patients with nephrolithiasis. These changes are not necessarily associated with the diet indicated or drug treatment. Hypocitraturia was the additional metabolic disorder most frequently found. In general, there is a higher recurrence rate in those patients who present changes in their biochemical parameters and undergo no treatment.

  4. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-ling; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii) plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1) control (CK, without N added), (2) low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), (3) medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), and (4) high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+), NO3(-), microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease) and phosphorus (acid phosphatase) and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase) activities. Results suggest that (1) this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2) the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  5. Biochemical composition of the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaye, Sushant Vilas; Pawar, Ashwini Pandurang; Rivonker, Chandrasheker Umanath; Sreepada, Rayadurga Anantha; Ansari, Zakir Ali; Ram, Anirudh

    2016-12-01

    Considering the economic importance in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and lack of baseline information, we evaluated the proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, trace element content and C:N ratio in the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus. Amongst proximate principals, a crude protein formed the major biochemical component ((58.9±2.2)% dry weight). Mean percent concentrations (dry weight) of other components such as a total lipid (TL), ash and nitrogen-free extract measured were, (1.8±0.2)%, (19.2±2.2)% and (20.1±0.45)%, respectively. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of 27 saturated fatty acids (SFA) with 13 straight-chained and 14 branched-chained, 28 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) with 14 monounsaturated and 14 polyunsaturated and nine other minor fatty acids. Mean percent contributions of total SFAs and UFAs to TL were found to be (55.41±0.24)% and (44.05±0.25)%, respectively. Altogether, 16 different amino acids with an equal number of essential (EAA) and non-essential (NAA) ones were identified. Percent contributions by EAA and NAA to the total amino acid content were 38.11% and 61.89%, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in S. biaculeatus were generally low and their distribution followed the order, Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Hg>Co. The C:N ratio was (4.37±0.04)%. The profile of major biochemical constituents in alligator pipefish, S. biaculeatus revealed its potential use in TCM as well as a nutritional diet for human consumption. The results of the study would also form the basis for formulation and optimization of diets for the culture of S. biaculeatus.

  6. Physical and Biochemical Characteristics of Sharhabiel Reservoir Water, NW Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem M. El-Radaideh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jordan relies heavily on rainwater stored in reservoirs because it has extremely limited alternative water resources. These reservoirs are essential for drinking water and irrigation, so monitoring their water quality is extremely important. Variations in physical and biochemical conditions were investigated at Sharhabiel Reservoir (Jordan. Water quality monitoring of Sharhabiel Dam, from January to December 2013 indicates that the dam is subject to agricultural runoff. It also revealed that mineral dissolution, sediment load, rainfall evaporation and pumping, are the major contributors to variations in water quality. The water chemistry of the impounded Sharnabiel Reservoir showed that Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3 , and Cl are the principal ions, reflecting the dominance of calcareous weathering, with some contribution of silicates. The pH values showed an irregular pattern with highest values observed in the spring months. Total dissolved solids (TDS, Ca, Mg, and HCO3 are primarily related to leaching and evaporation, with elevated levels that occurred in the winter months. In contrast, seasonal patterns in Na, K, Cl, and NH4–N contents showed decreased values in wet months. Peaks in NO3 –N observed in winter are strongly associated with agricultural runoff. Changes in chlorophyll-a level were coincided with low ratio of TN to TP. BOD5 and COD peaks in spring corresponding with high algal growth. No significant changes in most of physical and biochemical parameters with depth, probably due to shallow depth, high annual sedimentation rate and heavy pumping rate in dry months. No available recorded data for long-term monitoring of Sharhabiel reservoir water to emphasize the self-purification capacity of dam.

  7. Tyrosine Aminotransferase: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Mehere; Q Han; J Lemkul; C Vavricka; H Robinson; D Bevan; J Li

    2011-12-31

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  8. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehere, P.; Robinson, H.; Han, Q.; Lemkul, J. A.; Vavricka, C. J.; Bevan, D. R.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using {alpha}-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  9. Biochemical profile of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis and its nutritional attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Asha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are highly esteemed sea food and considered a delicacy throughout the world. Yet this resource is not optimally utilised in several parts of the world. The aim of this study is to highlight its nutritional importance. Biochemical composition and nutritional attributes of oyster meat are discussed. Proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles and mineral content were determined in oysters (Crassostrea madrasensis. Moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash contents in the oyster were 82.64%, 9.41%, 3.25% 3.2% and 1.01%, respectively and it was rich in macro-minerals and trace elements especially selenium. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA were highest of the total lipids among which eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and linoleic acid were the prominent fatty acids. The n-3/n-6 index was high indicating a predominance of n-3 fatty acids in the species. Total amino acid content was 99.33 g/100 g crude protein, of which, essential amino acid lysine was the most abundant. Valine had the lowest essential amino acid score (EAAS (0.17 while threonine had the highest EAAS of 3.62. Chemical score was 17% and the lowest limiting amino acid was valine. Protein efficiency ratio, essential amino acid index and biological value of oyster were 3.92, 120.2 and 174.0, respectively which indicates that the protein is of superior quality. Data on biochemical composition, nutritional attributes and quality indices of C. madrasensis protein may prove important for future policies regarding exploitation of this species and for inducing favourable changes in consumer preferences.

  10. Engineering System Theory--A New Engineering Meta-Discipline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes a new engineering discipline--Engineering System Theory. It discusses rendered background, research objects and contents of the engineering system theory briefly. Finally, the meta-discipline standing of the engineering system theory in the whole knowledge system of engineering science and its development potential are pointed out.

  11. Microsystem engineering of lab-on-a-chip devices

    CERN Document Server

    Geschke, Oliver; Telleman, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Written on a non-specialist level by an interdisciplinary team of chemists, biologists and engineers from one of Europe's leading centres for microsystem research, the Danish Mikroelektronik Centret (MIC), this is a concise practical introduction to the subject. As such, the book is the first to focus on analytical applications, providing life and analytical scientists, biotechnologists and pharmaceutists with an understanding of the principles behind the design and manufacture of chemical and biochemical microsystems. The text is backed by a chapter devoted to troubleshooting as well as a g

  12. Dialectical thinking in engineering management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shanlint; Huang Zhibin; Ren Xueping

    2012-01-01

    Modem engineering management activities have all become more complex, being far beyond the economic and technological areas, due to their growing grand scales, increasingly complex structures and integrated systems. Therefore, we need focus our attention on engineering management activities by resorting to dialectical thinking and take full account of them based on the height of the new era. This paper described and analyzed engineering management activities from the following 5 aspects : the cyclic promotion between engineering management theory and engineering management practice, the in-depth integration of engineering management concepts with engineering management methods, the coordinated harmonization of engineering management system with engineering management details, the mutual promotion between engineering management standardization and engineering management innovation, the common enhancement between engineering management team and engineering management system.

  13. Run-length encoding graphic rules, biochemically editable designs and steganographical numeric data embedment for DNA-based cryptographical coding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Tomonori

    2013-03-01

    There have been a wide variety of approaches for handling the pieces of DNA as the "unplugged" tools for digital information storage and processing, including a series of studies applied to the security-related area, such as DNA-based digital barcodes, water marks and cryptography. In the present article, novel designs of artificial genes as the media for storing the digitally compressed data for images are proposed for bio-computing purpose while natural genes principally encode for proteins. Furthermore, the proposed system allows cryptographical application of DNA through biochemically editable designs with capacity for steganographical numeric data embedment. As a model case of image-coding DNA technique application, numerically and biochemically combined protocols are employed for ciphering the given "passwords" and/or secret numbers using DNA sequences. The "passwords" of interest were decomposed into single letters and translated into the font image coded on the separate DNA chains with both the coding regions in which the images are encoded based on the novel run-length encoding rule, and the non-coding regions designed for biochemical editing and the remodeling processes revealing the hidden orientation of letters composing the original "passwords." The latter processes require the molecular biological tools for digestion and ligation of the fragmented DNA molecules targeting at the polymerase chain reaction-engineered termini of the chains. Lastly, additional protocols for steganographical overwriting of the numeric data of interests over the image-coding DNA are also discussed.

  14. Thinking the Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Díaz Caballero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article engineering is analyzed in its interrelation with science, technique, and technology at the light to logic and dialectic theory. Engineering is heuristically approached as the state of "knowto-do" development in which the technical reasoning, the social humanistic, organizational, economical, scientific, esthetical, ecological and technological dimensions are organically integrated.

  15. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  16. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  17. Concurrent Software Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Nenad; Tillo, Tammam

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent engineering or overlapping activities is a business strategy for schedule compression on large development projects. Design parameters and tasks from every aspect of a product's development process and their interdependencies are overlapped and worked on in parallel. Concurrent engineering suffers from negative effects such as excessive…

  18. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  19. Prevascularized bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwkema, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been an active field of research for several decades now. However, the number of successful clinical applications in the field of tissue engineering are limited and can mainly be found in thin or avascular tissues like skin and cartilage. One of the current limitations of tiss

  20. Emerging Engine Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work published by the author and co-authors, a dynamic model called a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) was developed. This model is physically based and is intended mainly for control applications. It is especially well suited to embedded model applications in engine controllers, susch...

  1. Engineering for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Higgins, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards make it a priority for schools to focus more on the E in STEM, to help students learn the skills and practices of engineering. Schools that are doing so face a challenge, however: How to design educational experiences in engineering that engage all students--including girls and minorities, who are…

  2. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  3. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.; Voss, Linda D.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2017-01-01

    The update of this handbook continues the methodology of the previous revision: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. This approach provides the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering processes and to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. Material used for updating this handbook has been drawn from many sources, including NPRs, Center systems engineering handbooks and processes, other Agency best practices, and external systems engineering textbooks and guides. This handbook consists of six chapters: (1) an introduction, (2) a systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (3) the NASA program project life cycles, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (5) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, and (6) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering. The chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the chapters.

  4. Teaching Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be…

  5. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in collecti

  6. Value Engineering and Service Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    provides provisions for a mandatory VE program requirement. VE is implemented by approval of either a Value Engineering Proposal ( VEP ) (an internal...Engineering T&M time and material VE Value Engineering VECP Value Engineering Change Proposal VEP Value Engineering Proposal Standard Form 298 (Rev

  7. MATHEMATICS EDUCATION FOR LOGISTICS ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    BÉLA ILLÉS; GABRIELLA BOGNÁR

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is a crucial language in all engineering courses and researches where mathematical modeling, simulation and manipulation are commonly used. Engineering Mathematics courses are considered difficult courses in engineering curricula. This is reflected in engineering students’ performance at the end of each semester for these courses. Our goal is to overview a few questions on mathematics as a core subject of engineering.

  8. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  9. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  10. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...

  11. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  12. Systems engineering management plans.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Tamara S.

    2009-10-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each section must be tailored to the specific effort. A model outline and example SEMP are provided. The target audience is those who are familiar with the systems engineering approach and who have an interest in employing the SEMP as a tool for systems management. The goal of this document is to provide the reader with an appreciation for the use and importance of the SEMP, as well as provide a framework that can be used to create the management plan.

  13. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  14. application to engine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. George Zhu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The q-Markov COVariance Equivalent Realization (q-Markov Cover method for identification uses either pulse, white noise or PRBS (Pseudo-Random Binary Signal as test excitation. This paper extended the q-Markov Cover using PRBS to the weighted multirate case, that is, the sample rate of the PRBS signal is different from the system output one. Then, the multirate PRBS q-Markov Cover is applied to identify a diesel engine model from the fuel command input to the engine speed output. The identified engine model has order of two and approximates the pure fuel system time delay using a first-order transfer function with a non-minimum phase numerator. Finally, the identified engine model was successfully used for designing engine idle speed governor and obtained satisfactory performance in the first try.

  15. Holographic Heat Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  16. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  17. Information Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan; International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011 will be held on October 21-24, 2011, in Chongqing, China. It is organized by Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Nanyang Technological University, the University of Michigan, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, and sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The objective of IEA 2011 is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of information engineering and intelligence applications, which mainly includes computer science and engineering, informatics, communications and control, electrical engineering, information computing, business intelligence and management. IEA 2011 will provide a forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges, social and economic issues, and to present and disc...

  18. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  19. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  20. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention......-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental Engineering, thus, in essence...... comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual disciplines, within each...