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Sample records for biochemical disorders induced

  1. Efficacy of Clove Oil in Modulating Radiation-Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the possible modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of clove oil against gamma irradiation-induced some biochemical disorders in male rats. Clove oil was orally administrated in a concentration of 200 mg/kg body wt daily for 21 days before irradiation at a single dose of 7 Gy and for 7 days post exposure. Transaminases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipid profile; cholesterol, triglycerides (T.G) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as serum glucose level were determined. Also, liver reduced glutathione (GSH) content and lipid peroxidation were estimated in addition to the hepatic concentration levels of some trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation revealed transaminases disorders, lipid abnormalities, elevation in serum glucose, ALP activity as well as liver TBARS. A sharp drop in glutathione was recorded. Also, radiation induced alteration in hepatic trace element contents. The obtained data show that rats treated with clove oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation exhibited significant amelioration in liver marker enzymes, serum glucose and lipids as well as noticeable improvement in liver glutathione contents. Clove oil was also effective in minimizing lipid pr oxidation and trace element alteration induced by irradiation. It could be concluded that clove oil exerts a beneficial protective role against gamma irradiation

  2. Rhubarb extract ameliorates some biochemical disorders induced by gamma irradiation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the possible modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of rhubarb extract against gamma irradiation induced some biochemical disorders in male rats. Rhubarb extract was orally administrated at a concentration of 100 mg/kg body wt daily for 21 days before irradiation at a single dose of 7 Gy and for 7 days post exposure. Transaminases (AST and ALT), urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipid profile; cholesterol, triglycerides (T.G.) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as serum glucose level were determined. Also, liver reduced glutathione (GSH) content and lipid peroxidation were estimated. Rats exposed to ionizing radiation revealed transaminases disorders, lipid abnormalities, elevation in serum glucose, ALP activity as well as liver TBARS. Whereas a sharp drop in glutathione was recorded. The obtained data showed that rats treated with rhubarb extract before and after whole body gamma irradiation exhibited a significant amelioration in liver and renal marker enzymes, serum glucose and lipids as well as noticeable improvement in liver glutathione contents. Rhubarb extract was also effective in minimizing lipid peroxidation induced by irradiation. It could be concluded that rhubarb extract exerts a beneficial protective role against gamma irradiation

  3. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  4. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  5. Improving Hematological and Biochemical Disorders Induced by Administration of Repeated Used Frying Oil in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed on 100 male albino rats arranged into 5 equal groups to evaluate the effect of adding Lettuce and/for cabbage to rat diet on some hematological and biochemical disorders induced by administration of repeated used frying oil in the diet of rats for one and two months. The results indicated that used frying oil caused significant decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Hct), Red blood corpuscles (RBCs), Vitamin (B12) and Folic acid with significant increase in total leukocitic count, (WBCs) Platelets body weight, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). The disturbances in the tested parameters were almost improved by vegetables intake denoting the beneficial effect of adding fresh green vegetables to fried food on blood picture and intestinal absorption

  6. Green Tea attenuates some biochemical disorders induced by γ- irradiation in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiation hazards, due to free radical generation, present an enormous challenge for biological and medical safety, green tea extract is a potent scavenger of a variety of free radicals. This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of green tea against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in the liver and kidney in male rats using vitamin E as a reference drug. Green tea aqueous extract (300 mg/Kg body weighty) or vitamin E (40 mg/ Kg body weighty) were administered to male albino rats via gavages during 21 successive days before whole body exposure to gamma rays (6.5 Gy), from cesium-137 source, and during 7 days after irradiation. The animals were sacrificed the 7th day post-irradiation. The levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, and creatinine, as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Moreover, radiation induced disturbances in liver and kidney content of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn). Treatment with green tea extract and or vitamin E before and post irradiation were significantly ameliorated the levels of cholesterol, TG, creatinine, and urea, as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP in serum. Also, green tea extract and or vitamin E achieved significant amelioration liver and kidney contents of Ca, Mg and Mn. In conclusion, green tea extract and or vitamin E show a radioprotective impact against ionizing-radiation-induced liver and kidney injury

  7. Effect of Caffeine and Folic Acid on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Disorders In Adult Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of caffeine-rich drinks on human health indicate that certain controversial issues are still unresolved. On the other hand, folic acid has similar effect as beta-carotene, which exerted a beneficial radioprotective role as natural antioxidant agent. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-oxidant and protective roles of caffeine, folic acid or their combination orally administrated four weeks before exposure of adult male Spraque Dawely rats to whole body irradiation (4.5 Gy). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), malondialdhyde (MDA), total protein, albumin (A), globulin (G) and A/G ratio were investigated 1,3 and 7 days post irradiation. The results revealed significant decrease in T3, T4 total protein and globulin due to radiation exposure. While, the levels of MDA, albumin and A/G ratio were significantly increased. Administration of caffeine and /or folic before irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration of the radiation induced changes in thyroid hormones, T3 T4, lipid peroxides (MDA), total protein, albumin (A) and globulin (G)

  8. Possible Impact of Antioxidant Properties of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Against Irradiation - Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man is exposed to natural radiations either from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation of animals induce biochemical alterations which depend mostly on oxidative stress. This work aimed at evaluating the radioprotective efficiency of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) against whole body γ-irradiation of rats. The virtue of cocoa aqueous extract (CAE) was given to rats at a dose of 1 g/ kg for 6 weeks to determine changes in hepatic marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The animals exposed to γ-rays exhibited a pronounced increment in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decline was demonstrated in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was sustained. The CAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings revealed that cocoa would exert radio-protective properties

  9. Biochemical diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a diagnosis in patients with a suspected mitochondrial disorder is often a challenge. Both knowledge of the clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disorders and the number of identified disease-causing molecular genetic defects are continuously expanding. The diagnostic examination of patie

  10. Ameliorating role of chromium ingestion on biochemical, histological and trigluconate disorders induced by diabetes and / or gamma irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium is an essential trace element in human nutrition for the regulation of insulin action thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chromium intake on radiation-induced damage in diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female rats by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received chromium (20 mg/kg) from the 1st up to the 19 th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.3 Gy gamma radiation on the 6th and the 12 th day of gestation. Chromium treatment of diabetic mothers ameliorated radiation-induced damage, which was obvious by diminishing the increase of glucose, malonaldehyde (MDA), total cholesterol levels and by ameliorating the decrease of glutathione level in blood serum. In addition,chromium treatment ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in cholesterol levels of the fetuses. Moreover, chromium treatment led to the regeneration of the normal architecture of maternal hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that chromium supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical, histopathological and teratological disorders. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that chromium administration caused a significant protection to diabetic pregnant females against radiation-induced spontaneous abortion and embryo malformations

  11. ROLE OF FLAXSEED OIL IN MODULATING HEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DISORDERS INDUCED BY ALLURA DYE IN RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important problems in the human nutrition field is the use of food colours. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the use of flaxseed oil (FSO) against allura dye-induced disorders. The current results revealed that the application of allura dye for 5 weeks led to a decrease in body weight gain (BWG), organs weights, red blood cells (RBCs), total leucocytes (WBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit % (Hct) total protein (T.P) and albumin (Alb). High significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, total cholesterol (T.ch) and triglycerides (TG) were also observed. The supplementation of FSO with allura dye caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this dye. Histological investigation of kidney and heart also sustained the negative effect of allura and the beneficial effect of flaxseed oil addition. To eliminate the deleterious effects of these food colours, the use of flaxseed oil is recommended

  12. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities indicating oxidative stress. In addition, radiation caused inflammatory, fibrotic and cellular damage to the intestine and stomach. A demonstration of caffeine and aspirin resulted in significant improvement in hepatic and renal functions associated with reduction in oxidative stress and amelioration of the histological changes caused by gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that the antioxidant properties of caffeine and aspirin might modulate γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress and histological disorders

  13. Influence of turmeric on biochemical disorders induced by exposure to gamma- rays or chloropyrifos pesticide on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity of Chloropyrifos and gamma-radiation exposure on rats were examined in the presence or absence of Turmeric (200 mg/ kg/ b.wt.). Effects chloropyrifos when administrated orally to rats at a dose 9 mg/ kg b .wt (1/ 4 LD 50) for 7 and 28 days showed increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) concomitant with depletion in the levels of glutathion (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).gamma- radiation exposure effect on rats was examined in the presence or absence of turmeric . Exposure of rats to gamma-radiation (8 Gy) at a fractionated dose levels (2 Gy/ week for 4 weeks) exhibited an elevated level of MDA and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT. Administration of Turmeric to animals which were previously treated with Chloropyrifos or gamma-rays showed an amelioration response to the antioxidant regime. Treatment of rats with Chloropyrifos for 7 and 28 days or gamma- radiation induced an elevated serum transaminases level(ALT and AST),Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Acid phosphatase activity (ACP), creatinine concentration, blood urea and uric acid.Also treatment of rats with Chloropyrifos for 7 and 28 days or gamma-radiation induced a decline in the testosterone level associated with alteration in the levels of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH),Iuetinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL).Results observed due to Chloropyrifos pesticide or radiation-exposure have been ameliorated by turmeric administration. It could be concluded that turmeric might protect from oxidative stress

  14. Synergistic effect of ellagic acid and certain trace element on some biochemical disorders induced by gamma-irradiation in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation has been found to produce deleterious effects on the biological system. The cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation is predominantly mediated through generation of ROS which when present in excess can react with certain components of the cell and cause serious system damage to various organs, tissues, cellular and subcellular structures (Ward, 1988; Nelson, 2003). Under normal conditions, there is a balance between the generation of ROS and the cellular antioxidant system. Antioxidant enzymes are part of this system responsible for removal and detoxification of free radicals and their products formed by ionizing radiation (Kilciksiz et al., 2008). Most of these enzymes are affected by trace elements which act as essential activators or cofactors for them to exert their action. So, any disturbances in trace elements level post-irradiation will in turn affect the level of these enzymes (Sorenson, 2002). Essential trace elements of the human body include zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, manganese and molybdenum although these elements account for only 0.02 % of the total body weight they play significant roles, e.g. as active centers of enzymes or as trace bioactive substances (Kodama, 1996). They involved in many biochemical processes supporting life; the most important of these processes are cellular respiration, cellular utilization of oxygen, DNA and RNA reproduction, maintenance of cell membrane integrity, and sequestration of free radicals so they act as antioxidant (Chan et al., 1998). Polyphenols are a broad family of natural compounds widely found in plant foods, they are nutritionally important for their antioxidant activities and protective functions against disease risk caused by oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown that some phenolic compounds have antiinflammatory, anticancer, anti carcinogenic or antimutagenic activities (Maciel et al., 2011). Ellagic acid is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound

  15. Biochemical screening for inherited metabolic disorders in the mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, H E; Goodman, R; Schram, J; Diamond, E; Daneel, A

    1981-11-01

    A biochemical screening programme for the detection of inherited metabolic disease was carried out on urine and blood samples from inmates of the Alexandra Institute for the mentally retarded, Cape Town. Of the 1087 patients screened, positive results for phenylketonuria were obtained in 3, for cystinuria in 2 and for Hartnup disease in 1. The overall frequency of metabolic disorders was 0,6%. It is evident that genetic metabolic disease as detected by current screening procedures makes only a small contribution to the overall burden of mental retardation. PMID:6795726

  16. EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT, BARLEY AND CORN BRAN TREATED WITH GAMMA RAYS IMPROVING BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS OXIDIZED OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of adding 3 different dietary fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran) to normal balanced diet after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 20 kGy before adding cotton seed oils and boiled oil. The experimental diet was fed for 4 weeks. This study was designed to throw more light on certain biochemical and histological changes in liver of male albino rats. Rats were classified into 8 groups; control group fed on diet fibers free, group 2 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran), group 3 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers, group 4 fed on diet supplemented with 15% boiled oil, group 5 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fiber and 15% boiled oil, group 6 fed on diet supplemented with fibers and cotton seed oil 15%, group 7 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and boiled oil 15% and group 8 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and cotton seed oil 15%. Experimental investigations were carried out after 4 weeks. The results obtained revealed that extended administration of fibers and cotton seed oil has significantly minimized the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and significantly ameliorated the glutathion content. Superoxide dismutas and catalase enzymes were assayed in blood, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were detected. In addition, modulations of cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed through all the experiments. In rats fed on boiled oil, the data showed histological changes in liver such as tissue degeneration, lymphocyte infiltration, hepatic cell necrosis and dilation of portal spaces and blood vessels.

  17. Induced biochemical conversions of heavy crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products formed during multiple interactions of microorganisms with oils fall into two major categories: those formed due to the action of indigenous microorganisms under reservoir conditions over geological periods of time and those products which are generated by the action of introduced organisms. The extreme end product of the first category is the production of heavy 'biodegraded' crudes. The extreme end product of the second category is the production of reduced sulfates due to the introduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria which may lead to the souring of a field. There is, however, a select group of microorganisms whose action on the crudes is beneficial. The interactions between such microorganisms and different crude oils occur through complex biochemical and chemical reactions. These reactions depend on multiple variables within and at the interface of a multicomponent system consisting of organic, aqueous, and inorganic components. Studies, carried out in this laboratory (BNL) of biochemical and chemical reactions in crude oils which involve extremophilic organisms (organisms which thrive in extreme environments), have shown that the reactions are not random and follow distinct trends. These trends can be categorized. The use of a group of characteristic chemical markers, such as mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of light and heavy hydrocarbons, heterocyclic and organometallic compounds, as well as total trace metal and heteroatom contents of crude oils before and after the biochemical treatment allows to follow the type and the extent of chemical changes which occur during the biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils by microorganisms. The bioconversion involves multiple, simultaneous, and/or concurrent chemical reactions in which the microorganisms serve as biocatalysts. In this sense, the biocatalysts are active in a reaction medium which depends on the chemical composition of the crude and the selectivity of the biocatalyst. Thus, the

  18. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

  19. Sucralose induces biochemical responses in Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Eriksson Wiklund

    Full Text Available The intense artificial sweetener sucralose has no bioconcentration properties, and no adverse acute toxic effects have been observed in standard ecotoxicity tests, suggesting negligible environmental risk. However, significant feeding and behavioural alterations have been reported in non-standard tests using aquatic crustaceans, indicating possible sublethal effects. We hypothesized that these effects are related to alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE and oxidative status in the exposed animals and investigated changes in AChE and oxidative biomarkers (oxygen radical absorbing capacity, ORAC, and lipid peroxidation, TBARS in the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to sucralose (0.0001-5 mg L(-1. The sucralose concentration was a significant positive predictor for ORAC, TBARS and AChE in the daphnids. Moreover, the AChE response was linked to both oxidative biomarkers, with positive and negative relationships for TBARS and ORAC, respectively. These joint responses support our hypothesis and suggest that exposure to sucralose may induce neurological and oxidative mechanisms with potentially important consequences for animal behaviour and physiology.

  20. Brief Report: Biochemical correlates of clinical impairment in high functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger’s disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure n-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cre), choline/choline containing compounds (Cho), and Myoinosito...

  1. Grape powder prevents cognitive, behavioral and biochemical impairments in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Naimesh; Alkadhi, Isam; Atrooz, Fatin; Patki, Gaurav; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder, we reported that moderate treadmill exercise, via modulation of oxidative stress related mechanisms, rescued anxiety and depression-like behaviors and reversed SPS-induced memory impairment. In this study using the SPS model (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, and 1–2 min diethyl ether exposure), we hypothesized that antioxidant rich grape powder (GP) prevents SPS-induced behavioral and memory impairment in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into: Control (CON; provided tap water), SPS (provided tap water), GP-SPS (provided 15 g/L GP in tap water for 3 wk followed by SPS), or GP-CON (3 wk of GP followed by control exposure). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were significantly greater in SPS rats when compared to CON or GP treated rats and GP reversed these behavioral deficits. SPS rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared to CON or GP treated rats, which were prevented in GP-SPS rats. GP prevented SPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone level. Furthermore, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly decreased in amygdala of SPS rats but not in GP-SPS rats compared to CON or GP-CON rats. Additionally, GP significantly increased acetylated Histone3, Histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC 5) in hippocampus and amygdala of SPS rats as compared to CON or GP-CON rats. In conclusion, we suggest protective role of GP in SPS-induced behavioral, cognitive and biochemical impairments in rats. Perhaps, epigenetic regulation of BDNF enables GP-mediated prevention of SPS-induced deficits in rats. PMID:25533441

  2. A limit cycle oscillator model for cycling mood variations of bipolar disorder patients derived from cellular biochemical reaction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.

    2013-08-01

    We derive a nonlinear limit cycle model for oscillatory mood variations as observed in patients with cycling bipolar disorder. To this end, we consider two signaling pathways leading to the activation of two enzymes that play a key role for cellular and neural processes. We model pathway cross-talk in terms of an inhibitory impact of the first pathway on the second and an excitatory impact of the second on the first. The model also involves a negative feedback loop (inhibitory self-regulation) for the first pathway and a positive feedback loop (excitatory self-regulation) for the second pathway. We demonstrate that due to the cross-talk the biochemical dynamics is described by an oscillator equation. Under disease-free conditions the oscillatory system exhibits a stable fixed point. The breakdown of the self-inhibition of the first pathway at higher concentration levels is studied by means of a scalar control parameter ξ, where ξ equal to zero refers to intact self-inhibition at all concentration levels. Under certain conditions, stable limit cycle solutions emerge at critical parameter values of ξ larger than zero. These oscillations mimic pathological cycling mood variations that emerge due to a disease-induced bifurcation. Consequently, our modeling analysis supports the notion of bipolar disorder as a dynamical disease. In addition, our study establishes a connection between mechanistic biochemical modeling of bipolar disorder and phenomenological nonlinear oscillator approaches to bipolar disorder suggested in the literature.

  3. Drug-induced renal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane Shahrbaf, Fatemeh; Assadi, Farahnak

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in patients with intravascular volume depletion, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and sepsis. Therefore, early detection of drugs adverse effects is important to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Preventive measures requires knowledge of mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, understanding patients and drug-related risk factors coupled with therapeutic intervention by correcting risk factors, assessing baseline renal function before initiation of therapy, adjusting the drug dosage and avoiding use of nephrotoxic drug combinations. PMID:26468475

  4. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  5. Serological and biochemical genetic markers and their associations with psychiatric disorders : a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgir, R S

    1983-10-01

    The studies pertaining to associations of serological and biochemical genetic markers (blood groups in particular and scrum proteins and enzymes in general) with the psychiatric disorders such as psychoses in general, Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis including unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and neuroses have been critically examined. The reasons for inconsistent findings of various investigators have been pointed out to assist the future researchers to overcome the previous drawbacks. Implications of associations of genetic markers with the psychiatric disorders have been discussed and future areas of research suggested. PMID:21847304

  6. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in mouse kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, adult male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Group I (sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with CdCl2 solution 20 ppm), Group III (irradiated with 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (both irradiated with 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy gamma rays and treated with CdCl2 solution). The animals were autopsied after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The kidney was taken out and different biochemical parameters, such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA were estimated. Results: In irradiated animals, the values of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased continuously up to day-7 and decreased thereafter up to day-28. The changes were dose dependent. In CdCl2 treated animals, the values of glycogen and total proteins decreased during the early intervals and increased thereafter whereas the values of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased during early Intervals and decreased thereafter, The values of cholesterol and DNA showed decrease in all the experimental groups (except group I) up to day-7 and increase thereafter up to day-28. After combined treatment also, the parameters followed the same pattern of increase and decrease, but the changes were more pronounced indicating their synergistic effect. The biochemical parameters showed highly significant values (P<0.001) as compared to normal ones. Conclusion: These results indicate that combined treatment of cadmium and gamma radiations causes synergistic or additive effect

  7. Biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans: associated disorders and biochemical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasarman, Florin; Maftei, Catalina; Campeau, Philippe M; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A; Allard, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are long, unbranched heteropolymers with repeating disaccharide units that make up the carbohydrate moiety of proteoglycans. Six distinct classes of GAGs are recognized. Their synthesis follows one of three biosynthetic pathways, depending on the type of oligosaccharide linker they contain. Chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, and heparin sulfate contain a common tetrasaccharide linker that is O-linked to specific serine residues in core proteins. Keratan sulfate can contain three different linkers, either N-linked to asparagine or O-linked to serine/threonine residues in core proteins. Finally, hyaluronic acid does not contain a linker and is not covalently attached to a core protein. Most inborn errors of GAG biosynthesis are reported in small numbers of patients. To date, in 20 diseases, convincing evidence for pathogenicity has been presented for mutations in a total of 16 genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, epimerases or transporters. GAG synthesis defects should be suspected in patients with a combination of characteristic clinical features in more than one connective tissue compartment: bone and cartilage (short long bones with or without scoliosis), ligaments (joint laxity/dislocations), and subepithelial (skin, sclerae). Some produce distinct clinical syndromes. The commonest laboratory tests used for this group of diseases are analysis of GAGs, enzyme assays, and molecular testing. In principle, GAG analysis has potential as a general first-line diagnostic test for GAG biosynthesis disorders. PMID:26689402

  8. Modulation Of Acrylamide-Induced Biochemical Alterations In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial neurotoxic chemical that has been recently found in carbohydrate rich foods cooked at high temperature. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of rosemary extract against ACR-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental rats were divided into four groups included a control group, a group treated orally with rosemary extract by supercritical fluid extractor (150 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, a group treated orally with ACR (50 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and a group treated orally with rosemary extract + acrylamide for 14 days. The results indicated that treatment with ACR alone resulted in a significant decrease in the haematological parameters, triglycerides, insulin, creatine kinase and choline esterase while the concentrations of urea, creatinine, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were increased. Treatment with rosemary extract during ACR treatment reduced the effects induced by ACR. It could be concluded that rosemary extract exhibited a protective action against ACR-induced biochemical alterations in rats. For this reason, rosemary is recommended to be used in cooked food due to its palatable taste and prophylactic effect.

  9. Biochemical properties of the bromodeoxyuridine-induced guinea pig virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalides, R; Schlom, J; Dahlberg, J; Perk, K

    1975-10-01

    The biophysical and biochemical properties of the virus particles released by guinea pig embryo cells treated with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BUdR) have been compared to those of the B-type mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and the C-type Rauscher murine leukemia virus. The high-molecular-weight (60 to 70S) RNA of the BUdR-induced guinea pig virus (GPV) has a molecular weight of 8 X 106 when measred by mixed agarose polyacylamide gel electrophoresis. The virus particles isolated from the tissue culture medium of BUdR-induced guniea pig cells have the following properties in common with MMTV: (i) a buoyant density of 1.18 g/ml in sucrose and 1.21 g/ml in CsCl, and (ii) a DNA polymerase that prefers Mg2+ over Mn2+ in an assay using the synthetic template poly(rC):oligo(dG). No nucleic acid sequence homology between GPV RNA and the viral RNAs of the MMTV, murine leukemia virus, hamster sarcoma virus, or Mason-Pfizer monkey virus could be observed in a competition hybridization assay using the radioactive-labeled GPV 60 to 70S RNA. By this same competition by hybridization assay the frequency of GPV proviral sequences was estimated to be at least 83 per haploid cellular genome of guniea pig cells. No nucleic acid sequences related to be GPV RNA were detected in the DNA of normal tissues of mice, rats, cats, dogs, baboons, or humans by direct RNA-DNA hybridization using radioactive GPV60 to 70S RNA. PMID:51933

  10. Clinical and biochemical monitoring of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Skovby, Flemming; Vestergaard, Helle; Christensen, Mette; Christensen, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    carnitine transporter deficiencies. Eye examination is done in all, and liver ultrasonography in some patients with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase/tri-functional protein (LCHAD/TFP) deficiencies. Biochemical follow-up includes determination of free carnitine and acylcarnitines. Free...... carnitine is measured to monitor carnitine supplementation in patients with multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) and carnitine transporter deficiency (CTD) and to follow metabolic control and disclose deficiency states in other FAO disorders. We are evaluating long-chain acylcarnitines...

  11. Deviation of Biochemical Variables in Dairy Cows with Reproductive Disorders - Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jožica Ježek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of biochemical profiles of cows from farms with reproductive disorders. The results of blood examinations collected from 205 dairy cows, which originated from 72 Slovenian farms, were analysed. In blood samples total serum protein (TSP, albumin (Alb, urea, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphate (iP, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorine (Cl and betacarotene concentration were measured. Data were compared with normal reference values for cattle. The results were evaluated regarding the normal values for cattle. The descriptive statistics and percentage of cows deviating from normal values for investigated variables were calculated. The mean values of investigated variables were inside reference intervals for cattle. The results of biochemical examination show deviation from reference interval in 52.3% of cows for TSP, 70.8% for urea, 39.8% for iP, 27.5% for Na, 36.2% for K, 1.1% for Cl, 37.6% for beta carotene and 6.8% for Ca. The results of biochemical investigations revealed the greatest deviations in concentrations of TSP, urea, Na, K and carotene which can be affected by different factors (nutrition, health status, stage of lactation and season. Taking into account all of these factors may be blood biochemistry a useful tool also in identifying deficiencies in the diet.

  12. Germline KRAS mutations cause aberrant biochemical and physical properties leading to developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremer, Lothar; Merbitz-Zahradnik, Torsten; Dvorsky, Radovan; Cirstea, Ion C; Kratz, Christian Peter; Zenker, Martin; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    The KRAS gene is the most common locus for somatic gain-of-function mutations in human cancer. Germline KRAS mutations were shown recently to be associated with developmental disorders, including Noonan syndrome (NS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS), and Costello syndrome (CS). The molecular basis of this broad phenotypic variability has in part remained elusive so far. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the biochemical and structural features of ten germline KRAS mutations using physical and cellular biochemistry. According to their distinct biochemical and structural alterations, the mutants can be grouped into five distinct classes, four of which markedly differ from RAS oncoproteins. Investigated functional alterations comprise the enhancement of intrinsic and guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) catalyzed nucleotide exchange, which is alternatively accompanied by an impaired GTPase-activating protein (GAP) stimulated GTP hydrolysis, an overall loss of functional properties, and a deficiency in effector interaction. In conclusion, our data underscore the important role of RAS in the pathogenesis of the group of related disorders including NS, CFCS, and CS, and provide clues to the high phenotypic variability of patients with germline KRAS mutations. PMID:20949621

  13. Prevalence and assessment of biochemical parameters of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Chowdhury Mohammad Monirul; Islam, Mohammad Monirul; Mahib, Muhammad Mamunur Rashid; Arju, Mahmud Ahmed Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate some new biochemical parameters that help ensuring the early and precise diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in blood plasma. Design and Settings: A prospective study conducted with patients scheduled for some new biochemical parameters that help ensuring the early and precise diagnosis of ADHD in blood plasma in a Child Development Center of the Chittagong, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at two levels. The first level was questionnaire on personal data and disease history while the second was on biochemical examination of the plasma ammonia and lactate status. A total of 100 children (age range 2 years 4 months to 12 years 6 months, mean age 7 years 5 months) were investigated in this study among 75 were male and 25 were female. This study was conducted in Chittagong Maa-O-Shishu General Hospital, Bangladesh. Results: We observed that the level of plasma ammonia and lactate were higher in ADHD children (36-60 μmol/L; P < 0.05 and 22-30 μmol/L; P < 0.05, respectively) compare to a reference value. The prevalence of ADHD is higher in male (75%) than in female (25%) with a ratio of 3:1. Consanguinity increases the risk of having ADHD in the next generation. Conclusion: This study concludes that there might be a correlation between ADHD and increased level of plasma ammonia and lactate level, and those might be an important parameter in the diagnosis of ADHD patients. PMID:27330258

  14. Possible protective and curative role of thiamine pyrophosphate against radiation induced biochemical and histological changes in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in minimizing the radiation-induced changes in certain biochemical and histological parameters in the liver and kidney of rats. The activity of liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and g-glutamyl transferase (g-GT) as well as kidney creatinine and urea concentrations were measured. In addition, histological changes in the liver and kidney tissues were examined.The results obtained revealed that whole body g-irradiation of rats at 5 Gy (single dose) induced significant increase in the activity of liver g-GT, ALT and AST and also significant increase in the concentration of creatinine and urea in the kidney at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-irradiation. Exposure to radiation induced also distortion in the architecture pattern of the liver as well as degenerative changes of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney.The intraperitoneal administration of TPP at a concentration of 2mg/Kg body weight to unirradiated rats for 5 consecutive days did not induce any significant changes in biochemical and histological parameters studied at all the experimental periods. TPP given to rats for 5 consecutive days either before or after irradiation ameliorated the intensity of changes induced due to radiation exposure. Accordingly, it was concluded that TPP could exert a beneficial protective and curative role against some radiation-induced biochemical and histological disorders in liver and kidney. Extrapolation of the results obtained in the present study to patients who need such treatments and undergoing radiotherapy requires further investigations

  15. Role of Rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya Garima S.; Goyal Pradeep K.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice. The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total...

  16. Biochemical alterations induced in Hediste diversicolor under seawater acidification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Pires, Adília; Moreira, Anthony; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-06-01

    Seawater pH is among the environmental factors controlling the performance of marine organisms, especially in calcifying marine invertebrates. However, changes in non-calcifying organisms (including polychaetes) may also occur due to pH decrease. Polychaetes are often the most abundant group of organisms in estuarine systems, representing an important ecological and economic resource. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of seawater acidification in the polychaete Hediste diversicolor, a species commonly used as bioindicator. For this, organisms were exposed to different pH levels (7.9, 7.6 and 7.3) during 28 days and several biochemical markers were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that pH decrease negatively affected osmotic regulation and polychaetes metabolism, with individuals under low pH (7.6 and 7.3) presenting higher carbonic anhydrase activity, lower energy reserves (protein and glycogen content) and higher metabolic rate (measured as Electron transport system activity). The increase on CA activity was associated to organisms osmoregulation capacity while the increase on ETS and decrease on energy reserves was associated to the polychaetes capacity to develop defense mechanisms (e.g. antioxidant defenses). In fact, despite having observed higher lipid peroxidation at pH 7.6, in polychaetes at the lowest tested pH (7.3) LPO levels were similar to values recorded in individuals under control pH (7.9). Such findings may result from higher antioxidant enzyme activity at the lowest tested pH, which prevented organisms from higher oxidative stress levels. Overall, our study demonstrated how polychaetes may respond to near-future ocean acidification conditions, exhibiting the capacity to develop biochemical strategies which will prevent organisms from lethal injuries. Such defense strategies will contribute for polychaetes populations maintenance and survival under predicted seawater acidification scenarios. PMID:27088614

  17. INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE AND BIODEGRADED HEAVY CRUDE OILS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed

  18. Induced biochemical interactions in immature and biodegraded heavy crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Shelenkova, L.; Zhou, W.M.

    1998-11-01

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  19. INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE AND BIODEGRADED HEAVY CRUDE OILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; SHELENKOVA,L.; ZHOU,W.M.

    1998-10-27

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  20. Metabolic correction for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A biochemical-physiological therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikirova NA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective: This investigation was undertaken to determine the reference values of specific biochemical markers that have been have been associated with behavior typical of ADHD in a group of patients before and after metabolic correction.Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD affects approximately two million American children, and this condition has grown to become the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, the cause of the condition, once called hyperkinesis, is not known.The cause of ADHD is generally acknowledged to be multifactorial, involving both biological and environmental influence. Molecular, genetic, and pharmacological studies suggest the involvement of the neurotransmitter systems in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Polymorphic variants in several genes involved in regulation of dopamine have been identified, and related neurotransmitter pathways alterations are reported to be associated with the disease.Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in fatty acids (EPA, DHA, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Materials/Methods: This study was based on data extracted from our patient history database covering a period of over ten years. We performed laboratory tests in 116 patients 2.7-25 years old with a diagnosis of ADHD. Sixty-six percent (66% of patients were males. Patients were followed from 3 month to 3 years. We compared the distributions of fatty acids, essential metals, and the levels of metabolic stress factors with established reference ranges before and after interventions. In addition, we analyzed the association between toxic metal concentrations and the levels of essential metals.Results: This study was based

  1. Biochemical Effects of Plumbagin on Fibrosarcoma Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Jayamathi,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural products from plants are used for treating a number of diseases. Many of the pharmacological principles of the currently used anticancer agents have been initially isolated from plants. Plumbagin, a napthaquinone derivative from Plumbago zeylanica and has been claimed to possess antitumor effect. The tumor weight was found to be reduced in methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma rats after plumbagin treatment. Elevated levels of proteins, lipid profile and also in the activities of pathophysiological enzymes such as gammaglutamyl trans peptidase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, lutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, in plasma, liver and kidney extracts of fibrosarcoma rats decreased significantly after Plumbagin treatment. These observations clearly suggested the antitumor potency of plumbagin in experimentally induced fibrosarcoma in rats.

  2. Biochemical Effects of Plumbagin on Fibrosarcoma Induced Rats

    OpenAIRE

    P.Jayamathi,; Vishnupriya V; Surapaneni Krishna Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Natural products from plants are used for treating a number of diseases. Many of the pharmacological principles of the currently used anticancer agents have been initially isolated from plants. Plumbagin, a napthaquinone derivative from Plumbago zeylanica and has been claimed to possess antitumor effect. The tumor weight was found to be reduced in methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma rats after plumbagin treatment. Elevated levels of proteins, lipid profile and also in the activities of pa...

  3. Role of Rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Garima S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice. The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total erythrocyte count, total leucocytes count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in the experimental group were found to be elevated as compared to the control group of mice. Furthermore, the Rosemary extract treatment enhanced reduced glutathione content in the liver and blood against radiation-induced depletion. Treatment with the plant extract brought a significant fall in the lipid peroxidation level, suggesting rosemary's role in protection against radiation-induced membrane and cellular damage. The results from the present study suggest a radio-protective effect of the Rosemary extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice.

  4. Evaluation of the radioprotective and curative role of a natural antioxidant against biochemical and histological hazards induced in rats by gamma radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to evaluate the possible curative and protective role of Nigella saliva in minimizing the radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological parameters in the liver of rats. The crude oil was supplemented to rats by gavage at a dose of 30 mg/100 g body weight either during 10 days before or 10 days after whole body gamma irradiation at 7 Gy (single dose). The data showed that radiation exposure caused significant changes in the activity of liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and also significant increase in cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin and globulin at 7, 14 and 21 day post-irradiation. Exposure to radiation induced also distortion in the architecture of the liver. Administration of Nigella sativa at a concentration of 30 mg/100 g body weight to rats for 10 days induced non-significant changes in biochemical and histological parameters at all the experimental periods. Nigella sativa given to rats for 10 consecutive days either before or after irradiation ameliorated the changes induced due to radiation exposure. It might be concluded that Nigella sativa could exert a beneficial protective and curative role against some radiation induced biochemical and histological disorders in the liver

  5. Antivenom reversal of biochemical alterations induced by black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Heterometrus fastigiousus venom (HFV was employed as antigen to produce species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV in albino mice (NIH strain. To determine SAV efficacy, it was pre-incubated with 10 LD50 of HFV and then injected subcutaneously into mice. Subsequently, mortality was observed after 24 hours. Minimum effective dose (MED was 12.5 LD50 of HFV/mL of SAV. SAV effectiveness to reverse HFV-induced biochemical alterations in mice was analyzed by challenge method. Simultaneously, mice received subcutaneously 40% of 24-hour-LD50 of HFV and intravenously SAV. After four hours, changes in serum glucose, free amino acids, uric acids, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase enzyme level were determined. Treatment with species-specific SAV resulted in the reversal of HFV-induced biochemical alterations.

  6. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  7. Modelling toxicity induced Neurological disorders in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benin Joseph

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders have become more common and prevalent. Cellular pathology and behavioural symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases although connected are still a mystery to solve with no complete cure available yet. Central pathways in neurodegeneration involves impaired ubiquitin-proteasome machinery, autophagy and mitochondrial oxidative stress. In the case of neurodevlopmental disorders, environmental toxins and genetic factors are main causative agents. We aim to create a toxicity induced zebrafish model of neurological disease focussing on cognition, movement and hyperactivity disorders. Zebra fish embryos at 48 hr post fertilization were treated with different doses of lead, cholesterol and acetyl choline and by 7 days post fertilization pectoral fin movement, swimming behaviour and touch response were compromised in parallel with apoptosis identified in the brain by acridine orange fluorescent staining. A marked window is observed, therefore promising for a drug screening platform. Further characterization of pathology associated protein expression and specific behavioural studies could render this as a simple promising toxic model for preclinical drug screening.

  8. Role of ethanol on aluminum induced biochemical changes on rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Parsunpriya; Kumar Das, Subir; Vasudevan, D M

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum and alcohol, both are well-accepted neurotoxin. The plausible mechanisms for their neurotoxicity are also common. Therefore, the effect of ethanol on aluminum induced biochemical changes in rat brain is being studied. In the present study, ethanol exposure significantly affected the aluminum and protein content of brain. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were also changed. Aluminum exposure, on the other hand, contributed significantly in the alterations of ...

  9. Training induced changes on physiological and biochemical variables of young indian field hockey players

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, I.; GL Khanna; PC Dhara

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the training induced changes on different physiological and biochemical parameters in young Indian field hockey players. A total of 30 Indian male field hockey players (age range 14-16 yrs) regularly playing competitive field hockey were selected; a training programme consist of aerobic and anaerobic exercise were followed for 6 wks and 12 wks respectively. Results showed a significant decrease (P

  10. Modification of mercury-induced biochemical alterations by Triticum Aestivum Linn in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Nireesha, G

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate role of Wheat grass extract in modifying mercury-induced biochemical alterations in albino rats. Mercuric chloride 5 mg/kg body weight i.p. was given on 11, 13 & 15th day of the experiment. Wheat grass extract (400 mg/kg) and Quercetin (10 mg/kg) were administered 10 days before mercuric chloride administration and continued up to 30 days after mercuric chloride administration. The animals were sacrificed on 1, 15 and 30 days, the activity of serum alkaline and acid phosphatase and the iron, calcium, BUN, creatinine, SGPT, SGOT, total bilirubin, total protein levels were measured. Tissue lipid peroxidation content, glutathione (GSH) level, anti-oxidant enzymes- CAT and GR were measured. Hematological indices were also estimated. Mercury intoxication causes significant increase (P extract pre- and post-treatment ameliorated mercury-induced alterations in terms of biochemical and hematological parameters. Concomitant treatment of Wheatgrass extract with Mercury showed prominent recovery and normal architecture with mild residual degeneration in the tissues. Thus from present investigation, it can be concluded that Wheat grass extract pre- and post-treatment with HgCl2 significantly modulate or modify mercury-induced biochemical alteration in albino rats. PMID:26215012

  11. Olmesartan Attenuates Tacrolimus-Induced Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Kidney Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif O. Al-Harbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.

  12. Metabolomics analysis reveals insights into biochemical mechanisms of mental stress-induced left ventricular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Stephen H.; Matson, Wayne R.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Samad, Zainab; Williams, Redford B.; Sharma, Swati; Thomas, Beena; Wilson, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mental stress induced left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) has been associated with a greater risk of adverse events in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients independent of conventional risk indicators. The underlying biochemical mechanisms of this cardiovascular condition are poorly understood. Our objective was to use metabolomics technology to identify biochemical changes that co-occur with mental stress-induced LVD in patients with clinically stable CHD. Participants were adult CHD patients who were recruited for mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia screening. For this study, we randomly selected 30 patients representing the extremes of the mental stress-induced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) change distribution; 15 who showed LVD (i.e. LVEF reduction ≥5) and 15 who showed a normal left ventricular response (NLVR; i.e. a LVEF increase of ≥5) to three mental stressors. An electrochemistry based metabolomics platform was used to profile pre- and post-stress serum samples yielding data for 22 known compounds, primarily within the tyrosine, tryptophan, purine and methionine pathways. There were significant stress-induced changes in several compounds. A comparison between the NLVR and LVD groups showed significant effects for kynurenine (p = .036, N-acetylserotonin (p = .054), uric acid (p = .015), tyrosine (p = .019) and a trend for methionine (p = .065); the NLVR group showed a significantly greater stress-induced reduction in all of those compounds compared to the LVD group. Many of these biochemicals have been implicated in other stress-related phenomena and are plausible candidates for mechanisms underlying LVD in response to mental stress. PMID:25983674

  13. Antipsychotic drug-induced hematologic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Kyziridis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century after the discovery of chlorpromazine and haloperidol, antipsychotic drugs showed a true evolutionary revolution. The knowledge of their adverse effects is of outmost importance as it may contribute to the prevention of unwanted sequelae, to the decrease of the duration and cost of hospitalization, it may improve the quality of life of patients, minimize the problems and maximize the therapeutic gain. Aim: The aim of this review was the presentation of the hematologic side-effects of antipsychotic drugs, and most particularly their frequency and association with the different classes of these drugs, their clinical picture and their pathophysiologic mechanisms. Material-method: This paper is a review of the literature (mainly articles from journals, PubMed, as well as books and monographs of the period 1978-2012. Key-words used included antipsychotics, hematologic adverse effects, drug-induced adverse effects. Results: Antipsychotic-drug induced hematologic side-effects are not particularly highly prevalent, while many of them are found in case reports. For this reason they have not drawn much of attention. These hematologic dyscrasias may concern all the blood cell series as well as the coagulation mechanism. Excluded from this rule is the case of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis, which demands increased clinical vigilance. In fact, agranulocytosis was the reason why the drug was drawn away from circulation approximately 35 years ago. Conclusions: In any case the appearance of a hematologic disorder in a patient receiving antipsychotic medications should prompt careful evaluation.

  14. The Potential Efficacy of Hesperidin (a Citrus Bioflavonoid) in Modulating Gamma Radiation- induced Biochemical Alterations in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the possible modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of hesperidin against gamma irradiation - induced some biochemical disorders in male rats.Serum total scavenger capacity “TSC”, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin, total proteins, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipid profile (cholesterol, triacylglycerols, high density lipoprotein “HDL-c” and low density lipoprotein “LDL-c”) as well as glucose level were determined. Moreover, we were estimated glutathione content “GSH”, malondialdehyde “MDA” and certain mineral content in liver and kidney homogenate. Also the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase “SOD”, glutathione peroxidase “GPx” were determined. Irradiated rats (6.5 Gy) revealed transaminases disorders, lipid abnormalities, elevation in serum glucose, ALP activities as well as urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, LDL-c and MDA. Whereas a sharp drop in TSC, albumin, total proteins, HDL-c and liver and kidney antioxidant enzyme parameters were observed. Also, there was a disturbance in certain minerals such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Se, Ca, Mg and Mn. Notably, hesperidin administration before and after gamma irradiation (orally 200 mg/kg b.wt., three times a week for 4 weeks) ameliorates the above mentioned parameters. It could be concluded that hesperidin exerts a beneficial protective role against oxidative stress of gamma radiation.

  15. Effect of Root Kudzu on Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Rashidi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes, characterized by high blood glucose levels, is a serious chronic disease and antioxidant play an important role in the pathophysiology, complications, and management of the disease. Kudzu root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a long history of use for the treatment of headaches, cough, edema and extracts are a rich source of isoflavones and antioxidants property. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the kudzu root on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=32 including: Control, diabetic, diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg kudzu root extract, and diabetic rats treated with 50mg/kg kudzu root extract. Diabetes was induced by STZ intraperitoneally administration (50 mg/kg and kudzu root extract was gavaged at the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg for five weeks. Blood biochemical factors and insulin serum levels were also assessed. Results: The results show that in STZ induced diabetic rats, the serum levels of FBS, total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG increased whiles the levels of HDL and Insulin were decreased. Moreover in diabetic kudzu treatment groups, the serum levels of of FBS, total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride(TG decreased (P≤0.001 whiles the serum level of HDL and Insulin were increased. Conclusion: In addition the antioxidant effects, Kudzu root extract produced a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  16. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Role on the Biochemical, Histological and Teratological Changes Induced in Diabetic Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 called Cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal function of the brain, nervous system, cell division and for the formation of blood. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vitamin B12 intake on radiation induced damage in diabetic mothers.Diabetes was induced in female rats by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg b.wt. dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received vitamin B12 0.1 mg/100 g b.wt. from the 1st up to 19th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.6 Gy on the 7th and the 14th days of gestation. The increased incidence of malformations in diabetic pregnancy with an excess of free oxygen radicals in the embryos was recorded .Vitamin B12 supplementation to diabetic mother ameliorated radiation-induced damage which was obvious by diminishing the increase in glucose level, improving serum insulin level, glycogen content in the liver and ameliorating the decrease in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver of pregnant rats and their fetuses.In addition, vitamin B12 treatment improved the decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) of fetuses and DNA content in the liver tissues. Moreover, vitamin B12 treatment lead to the regeneration of normal architecture of maternal and fetuses hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that vitamin B12 supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation effect which induced biochemical, histochemical, histological and teratological disorders.Furthermore, the results obtained showed that vitamin B12 administration caused a protection to diabetic pregnant rats against embryo malformations induced by gamma rays

  17. Cyto-palynological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Original and Induced Mutants of Garden Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of new somatic flower color/type mutants have been evolved by induced mutations in different ornamental plants. Few reports are available on the systematic work being done on the comparative analysis of the original and mutant cultivars. This paper reports the result of comparative analysis on cyto-palynological, biochemical and molecular characters of original and mutant cultivars for a better understanding of the exact mechanism involved in the origin and evolution of flower color mutations. Cultivar identification and cultivar relatedness are important issues for horticultural breeders. Proper characterization and identification of new mutant cultivars is extremely important to protect plant breeder's rights for commercial exploitation. (author)

  18. Minocycline Rescues from Zinc-Induced Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration: Biochemical and Molecular Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Singh, Deepali; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Chetna

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of zinc (Zn) in dopaminergic neurons is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and microglial activation plays a critical role in toxin-induced Parkinsonism. Oxidative stress is accused in Zn-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration; however, its connection with microglial activation is still not known. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role and underlying mechanism of microglial activation in Zn-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with/without zinc sulphate (20 mg/kg) in the presence/absence of minocycline (30 mg/kg), a microglial activation inhibitor, for 2-12 weeks. While neurobehavioral and biochemical indexes of PD and number of dopaminergic neurons were reduced, the number of microglial cells was increased in the substantia nigra of the Zn-exposed animals. Similarly, Zn elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; however, catalase activity was reduced. Besides, Zn increased an association of NADPH oxidase subunit p67(phox) with membrane, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and cleavage of pro-caspase 3. Zn attenuated the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) while augmented the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Minocycline alleviated Zn-induced behavioural impairments, loss of TH-positive neurons, activated microglial cells and biochemical indexes and modulated the expression of studied genes/proteins towards normalcy. The results demonstrate that minocycline reduces the number of activated microglial cells and oxidative stress, which rescue from Zn-induced changes in the expression of monoamine transporter and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:25764516

  19. Effect of Ginger on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Changes in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty six female albino rats arranged equally into six groups were used in the present study for one month to evaluate the role of ginger intake on radiation induced biochemical and histological changes and to assess the role of ginger as hypocholesterolemic agent in rats fed high fat diet as well. These six groups are: control, ginger (2%.), irradiated (4.5 Gy), irradiated plus ginger, high fat diet and high fat diet plus ginger. Irradiation caused high significant decrease in T4 and high significant increase in cholesterol, total protein, albumin, fasting blood sugar. A/G ratio with loss of lobular architecture of liver and lymphocytic aggregation in the lung, On the other hand high fat diet caused high significant decrease of T4 and total globulins, significant increase of T3, blood sugar, A/G ratio and cholesterol with vacuolar degeneration changes of hepatic cells and moderate changes of peri bronchiolar area, ginger intake was able to bring most of irradiation induced biochemical and histological changes to non irradiated control level in female rats. It also had a hypocholesterolemic effect on animal fed high fat diet

  20. Clinical and biochemical monitoring of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Skovby, Flemming; Vestergaard, Helle;

    2010-01-01

    carnitine is measured to monitor carnitine supplementation in patients with multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) and carnitine transporter deficiency (CTD) and to follow metabolic control and disclose deficiency states in other FAO disorders. We are evaluating long-chain acylcarnitines...... creatine kinase is helpful in long-chain disorders. Ongoing follow-up and education of the patient is important throughout life to prevent disease morbidity or death from metabolic crises....

  1. Multivariate modeling of chromium-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in plants of Pistia stratiotes L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sarita; Basant, Ankita; Malik, Amrita; Singh, Kunwar P.

    2009-01-01

    Biochemical changes in the plants of Pistia stratiotes L., a free floating macrophyte exposed to different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (0, 10, 40, 60, 80 and 160 μM) for 48, 96 and 144 h were studied. Chromium-induced oxidative stress in macrophyte was investigated using the multivariate modeling approaches. Cluster analysis rendered two fairly distinct clusters (roots and shoots) of similar characteristics in terms of their biochemical responses. Discriminant analysis identified as...

  2. Phase coherence induced by correlated disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyunsuk; O'Keeffe, Kevin P.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-02-01

    We consider a mean-field model of coupled phase oscillators with quenched disorder in the coupling strengths and natural frequencies. When these two kinds of disorder are uncorrelated (and when the positive and negative couplings are equal in number and strength), it is known that phase coherence cannot occur and synchronization is absent. Here we explore the effects of correlating the disorder. Specifically, we assume that any given oscillator either attracts or repels all the others, and that the sign of the interaction is deterministically correlated with the given oscillator's natural frequency. For symmetrically correlated disorder with zero mean, we find that the system spontaneously synchronizes, once the width of the frequency distribution falls below a critical value. For asymmetrically correlated disorder, the model displays coherent traveling waves: the complex order parameter becomes nonzero and rotates with constant frequency different from the system's mean natural frequency. Thus, in both cases, correlated disorder can trigger phase coherence.

  3. Microarray and Biochemical Analysis of Lovastatin-induced Apoptosis of Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dimitroulakos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, as a potential therapeutic target of the head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC and cervical carcinomas (CC. The products of this complex biochemical pathway, including de novo cholesterol, are vital for a variety of key cellular functions affecting membrane integrity, cell signaling, protein synthesis, and cell cycle progression. Lovastatin, a specific inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, induces a pronounced apoptotic response in a specific subset of tumor types, including HNSCC and CC. The mediators of this response are not well established. Identification of differentially expressed genes represents a feasible approach to delineate these mediators as lovastatin has the potential to modulate transcription indirectly by perturbing levels of sterols and other mevalonate metabolites. Expression analysis following treatment of the HNSCC cell lines SCC9 or SCC25 with 10 μM lovastatin for 1 day showed that less than 2% (9 cDNAs of the 588 cDNAs on this microarray were affected in both cell lines. These included diazepam-binding inhibitor/acyl-CoA-binding protein, the activated transcription factor 4 and rhoA. Because the biosynthesis of mevalonate leads to its incorporation into more than a dozen classes of end products, their role in lovastatin-induced apoptosis was also evaluated. Addition of the metabolites of all the major branches of the mevalonate pathway indicated that only the nonsterol moiety, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP, significantly inhibited the apoptotic effects of lovastatin in HNSCC and CC cells. Because rhoA requires GGPP for its function, this links the microarray and biochemical data and identifies rhoA as a potential mediator of the anticancer properties of lovastatin. Our data suggest that the depletion of nonsterol mevalonate metabolites, particularly GGPP, can be potential mediators of

  4. Disorder-induced neutral solitons in degenerate ground state polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figge, M. T.; Mostovoy, M. V.; Knöster, J.

    1999-01-01

    Submitted to: Synth. Met. Abstract: In this letter, we study the effects of weak off-diagonal disorder on conjugated polymers with a doubly degenerate ground-state. We find that disorder induces a finite density of neutral solitons in the lattice dimerization of a polymer chain. Interchain interacti

  5. Disorder-induced soliton transmission in nonlinear photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

    2011-01-01

    We address soliton transmission and reflection in nonlinear photonic lattices embedded into uniform Kerr nonlinear media. We show that by introducing disorder into the guiding lattice channels, one may achieve soliton transmission even under conditions where regular lattices reflect the input beam completely. In contrast, in the parameter range where the lattice is almost transparent for incoming solitons, disorder may induce a significant reflection.

  6. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy;

    2014-01-01

    .5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting on...... ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases the...

  7. L-Carnitine Modulates Gamma Rays-Induced Biochemical and Physiological Toxicities in Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and therapeutic efficiency of L-carnitine (LC) before and after gamma irradiation exposure. The study include estimation of haematological parameters such as white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (Plt), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrite (Htc) levels as well as biochemical estimations. Non-enzymatic parameters in plasma such as malondialdehyde (MDA), as index of lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO), and enzymatic antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT) were estimated. The results obtained from this study demonstrated that gamma irradiation causes decrease in WBC and thrombocytes and did not cause any alternation in RBC, Hb and Htc levels. In addition, radiation exposure significantly increased MDA level and decreased GSH, NO, SOD, GSHPx and CAT levels. LC administration either before or after gamma irradiation caused improvement in the tested parameters, so, it could be concluded that LC has beneficial potential role against gamma rays-induced biochemical and physiological alternation in rat model.

  8. Effects of Salvadora persica Extract on the Hematological and Biochemical Alterations against Immobilization-Induced Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Kholoud S.; Alshamrani, Salha A.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, stress, extract alone, and stress + extract (n = 6 each), for total 21 days of treatment. The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting them in 20 cm × 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were postorally treated with Salvadora persica at a dose of 900 mg/kg body weight via intragastric intubations. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. The vital organ weights were not significantly affected in stressed rats as compared to control rats. Compared to the control group, the stress treated group showed significances in several hematological parameters, including decreases in WBC, RBC, and PLT counts. Furthermore, in comparison to the control group, the stress group showed significantly increased blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerols levels and decreased HDL-cholesterol level. The hematological and biochemical parameters in the stress + extract treated group were approximately similar to control group. The SP extract restored the changes observed following stress treatment. PMID:26221565

  9. Haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Suradkar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in 48 Wistar rats of either sex, divided uniformly into four different groups. The rats of group I received only deionised water as control while, group II, III and IV were given lead acetate @ 1 PPM, 100 PPM and 1000 PPM, in drinking deionised water respectively for 28 days. In group III and IV dose dependant significant (P<0.05 reductions in TEC, Hb, PCV and TLC were observed. No significant change was observed in neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte count in any treatment groups, whereas the lymphocyte count decreased significantly (P<0.05 in group III and IV. A dose dependant significant (P<0.05 increase in AST, ALP, AKP, GGT, BUN and creatinine was experiential while TP and albumin levels were decreased in group III and IV. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 429-431

  10. Effect of induced epilepsy on some biochemical parameters in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. H. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of cholinesterase and some biochemical parameters of blood such as glucose, cholesterol and phospholipids were estimated in 52 epilepsy induced females of Wister albino rats. Animals of this experiment were divided into two groups, group (I regarded as control and group (II administrated subcutaneously by pentylenetetrazole 100mg/kg and divided in to three sub-groups according to the time of samples collection 3 hrs, 24 hrs and 1 week. The results revealed that epilepsy induction caused a significant inhibition of serum cholinesterase activity 3 hrs after induction while in the brain, the activity of cholinesterase was significantly increased after 24 hrs Serum glucose level was significantly elevated after 3 hrs and 24 hrs of induction, total cholesterol and phospholipids were not changed. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that epilepsy caused significant changes in cholinesterase activity in brain and serum in addition to the glucose level in the serum.

  11. Modularity of Biochemical Filtering for Inducing Sigmoid Response in Both Inputs in an Enzymatic AND Gate

    CERN Document Server

    Bakshi, Saira; Halamek, Jan; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    We report the first systematic study of designed two-input biochemical systems as information processing gates with favorable noise-transmission properties accomplished by modifying the gate's response from convex shape to sigmoid in both inputs. This is realized by an added chemical "filter" process which recycles some of the output back into one of the inputs. We study a system involving the biocatalytic function of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase, functioning as an AND gate. We consider modularity properties, such as the use of three different input chromogens that, when oxidized yield signal-detection outputs for various ranges of the primary input, hydrogen peroxide. We also examine possible uses of different filter-effect chemicals (reducing agents) to induce the sigmoid-response. A modeling approach is developed and applied to our data, allowing us to describe the enzymatic kinetics in the framework of a formulation suitable for evaluating the noise-handling properties of the studied systems as logic...

  12. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Musleh, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%-70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. PMID:26929626

  13. Cyto-palynological, biochemical and molecular characterization of original and induced mutants of garden chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of new somatic flower color/type mutants have been evolved by induced mutations in different ornamentals. Few reports are available on the systematic work being done on comparative analysis of the original and the mutant cultivars. Attempt has been made for the comparative analysis of original cultivars and their respective induced mutants on cyto-palynological, biochemical and molecular characters for better and clear understanding of the exact mechanism involved in the origin and evolution of flower color mutations. Proper characterization and identification of new mutant cultivars is extremely important to protect plant breeder's rights for commercial exploitation. Chrysanthemum original varieties and their gamma ray induced mutants were selected as the materials for the present analysis. Critical cytological analysis with special reference to chromosome number, chromosomal aberrations, ICV, INV and DNA content showed no differences. The karyotypes were reasonably symmetrical. No mutant specific chromosomal aberrations could be detected. Thin layer chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of floret pigments indicated that somatic flower color changes in chrysanthemum are due to both qualitative and/or quantitative changes in pigments as a result of mutation induced by gamma rays in pigment biosynthesis pathway. Significant increase in pollen grain sterility was found in all the mutants. The pollen grains of all the cultivars and their mutants are basically 3(-4) zonocolporate with tectate spinose exine having perforations. No appreciable variation in pollen apertural character was noticed in any of the mutants. Significant changes in pollen exine surface pattern were found in 4 mutant varieties. The changes are inconsistent and do not correspond to the intensity of radiation. The similarity among the cultivars and mutants varied from 0.17 to 0.90 using RAPD analyses. Cultivars with different flower colors could be clearly distinguished. But

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic, pharmacogenetic and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, C; Faraone, S V; Scassellati, C

    2016-07-01

    The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug. Finally some peripheral biomarkers were identified in ADHD adult patients. We believe this work is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies, pharmacogenetic and biochemical (metabolomics) studies performed in adults with ADHD to identify potential genetic, predictive and peripheral markers linked specifically to ADHD in adults. After screening 5129 records, we selected 87 studies of which 61 were available for candidate gene association studies, 5 for pharmacogenetics and 21 for biochemical studies. Of these, 15 genetic, 2 pharmacogenetic and 6 biochemical studies were included in the meta-analyses. We obtained an association between adult ADHD and the gene BAIAP2 (brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), even after Bonferroni correction, with any heterogeneity in effect size and no publication bias. If we did not apply the Bonferroni correction, a trend was found for the carriers allele 9R of dopamine transporter SLC6A3 40 bp variable tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) and for 6/6 homozygotes of SLC6A3 30 bp VNTR. Negative results were obtained for the 9-6 haplotype, the dopamine receptor DRD4 48 bp VNTR, and the enzyme COMT SNP rs4680. Concerning pharmacogenetic studies, no association was found for the SLC6A3 40 bp and response to MPH with only two studies selected. For the metabolomics studies, no differences between ADHD adults and controls were

  15. Biochemical and topological analysis of bovine sperm cells induced by low power laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, T. R.; Siqueira, A. F. P.; Magrini, T. D.; Fiorito, P. A.; Assumpção, M. E. O. A.; Nichi, M.; Martinho, H. S.; Milazzotto, M. P.

    2011-07-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) increases ATP production and energy supply to the cell which could increase sperm motility, acrossomal reaction and consequently the fertilizing potential. The aim of this study was to characterize the biochemical and topological changes induced by low power laser irradiation on bull sperm cells. Post-thawing sperm were irradiated with a 633nm laser with fluence rates of 30, 150 and 300mJ.cm-2 (power of 5mW for 1, 5 and 10minutes, respectively); 45, 230, and 450mJ.cm-2 (7.5mW for 1, 5 and 10 minutes); and 60, 300 and 600mJ.cm-2 (10mW for 1, 5 and 10 minutes). Biochemical and metabolical changes were analyzed by FTIR and flow cytometry; oxygen reactive species production was assessed by TBARS and the morphological changes were evaluated by AFM. Motility had no difference among times or powers of irradiation. Increasing in ROS generation was observed with power of 5mW compared to 7.5 and 10mW, and with 10min of irradiation in comparison with 5 and 1min of irradiation. This higher ROS generation was related to an increase in acrossomal and plasma membrane damage. FTIR results showed that the amount of lipids was inversely proportional to the quantity of ROS generated. AFM images showed morphological differences in plasma/acrossomal membrane, mainly on the equatorial region. We conclude that LLLI is an effective method to induce changes on sperm cell metabolism but more studies are necessary to establish an optimal dose to increase the fertility potential of these cells.

  16. Inducible viral inoculation system with cultured plant cells facilitates a biochemical approach for virus-induced RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Atsushi; Dohi, Koji; Mori, Masasi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2010-03-01

    An inducible virus infection system was demonstrated to be an efficient protein expression system for inducing synchronous virus vector multiplication in suspension-cultured plant cells. A GFP-tagged tomato mosaic virus (ToMV-GFP) derivative that has a defect in its 130 K protein, a silencing suppressor of ToMV, was synchronously infected to tobacco BY2 cultured cells using this system. In the infection-induced cells, viral RNA was degraded rapidly, and a cytosol extract prepared from the infected cells showed RNA degradation activity specific for ToMV- or GFP-related sequences. In lysate prepared from cells infected by ToMV-GFP carrying the wild-type 130 K protein, sequence-specific RNA degradation activity was suppressed, although siRNA derived from the virus was generated. Furthermore, the 130 K protein interfered with 3'-end methylation of siRNA. The inducible virus infection system may provide a method for biochemical analysis of antiviral RNA silencing and silencing suppression by ToMV. PMID:20035436

  17. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola-Saltzman M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mari Viola-Saltzman, Camelia Musleh Department of Neurology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA Abstract: Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%–70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. Keywords: traumatic brain injury, insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep apnea, periodic limb movement disorder, fatigue

  18. Amelioration of radiation induced biochemical damage by Rosemerinus officinalis (Rosemary) extract in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A majority of potential radioprotective synthetic compounds have demonstrated limited clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, therefore, the seeking of naturally occurring herbal products for their radioprotective potential has become an attractive alternative. The herb rosemary has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. An attempt has been made in the present study to explore radiation-induced biochemical alterations and their modulation by Rosemary leaves extract. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were whole-body exposed to gamma rays (6 Gy) in the absence (Irradiated Control) or presence (Experimental) of ROE, orally 1000 mg/kg b. wt., once daily for 5 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine was removed from the mice and histological study was performed at different autopsy intervals from 12 hrs to 30 days. In irradiated control animals an elevation in acid and alkaline phosphatase activities was found till day 3rd , but thereafter decreased at successive intervals without returning to normal. Proteins and cholesterol levels were found to be lower than the normal at 24 hrs, then increased up to 20th day but later declined without restoring to normal. A similar trend of variation in these biochemical parameters was observed in the experimental group (ROE pretreated irradiated) also but to a lower extent as ROE significantly delayed and inhibited the rise in their values. Further, almost normal values of such constituents were regained by day 30th in experimental animals; whereas in control animals, normal values were not ever attained. Irradiation of animals resulted in an elevation of lipid per oxidation and a reduction in glutathione in the intestine at 1 hr. post irradiation. In contrast, ROE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid per oxidation and an elevation in glutathione level. The results from the present study suggest the protective activity of Rosemary leaves extract

  19. Effect of α-Ketoglutarate on Cyanide-induced Biochemical Alterations in Rat Brain and Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biochemical changes in rat brain and liver following acute exposure to a lethal dose of cyanide, and its response to treatment of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) in the absence or presence of sodium thiosulfate (STS). Methods Female rats were administered 2.0 LD50 potassium cyanide (KCN; oral) in the absence or presence of pre-treatment (-10 min), simultaneous treatment (0 min) or post-treatment (+2-3 min) of α-KG (2.0 g/kg, oral) and/or STS (1.0 g/kg,intraperitoneal, -15 min, 0 min or + 2-3 min). At the time of onset of signs and symptoms of KCN toxicity (2-4 min) and at the time of death (5-15 min), various parameters particularly akin to oxidative stress viz. Cytochrome oxidase (CYTOX),superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in brain, and CYTOX, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), GSH and GSSG in liver homogenate were measured. Results At both time intervals brain CYTOX, SOD, GPx, and GSH significantly reduced (percent inhibition compared to control) to 24%, 56%, 77%, and 65%, and 44%, 46%, 78%, and 57%, respectively. At the corresponding time points liver CYTOX and GSH reduced to 74% and 63%, and 44% and 68%, respectively. The levels of GSSG in the brain and liver, and hepatic ALP and SDH were unchanged. Pre-treatment and simultaneous treatment of α-KG alone or with STS conferred significant protection on above variables. Post-treatment was effective in restoring the changes in liver but failed to normalize the changes in the brain. Conclusions Oral treatment with α-KG alone or in combination with STS has protective effects on cyanide-induced biochemical alterations in rat brain and liver.

  20. Associations of prenatally detected choroid plexus cysts with biochemical risk for congenital disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielius Serapinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: C horoid plexus cysts are one of the foetus ultrasonography findings that raise parents’ concerns about their child’s health. Usually cysts are found in an estimated 1% all performed ultrasonographies. Aim of the research: To evaluate the risk of Down syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and neural tube defect when choroid plexus cysts are found. Material and methods : The risks of Down syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and neural tube defect were calculated by using second-trimester biomarkers (a-fetoprotein, human choriongonadotropin, unconjugated estriol for patients with choroid plexus cysts. A control group was selected randomly with calculated risks and without any abnormal ultrasonography findings. These risks were compared between the two groups. Results: Twelve pregnancies with diagnosed choroid plexus cysts were included in this study during the year 2012. Choroid plexus cyst findings during this case/control study have shown that only one case from the test group had progressed to more serious foetal aberrations (Edward’s syndrome; nonetheless, this progression did not influence statistically significant changes in the test and control groups. No statistically significant changes between the risks of disorders according the PRISCA method were observed in the appearance of Down syndrome or neural tube defect.  Conclusions : There is no data that choroid plexus cysts increase the risk of Down syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and neural tube defect.

  1. Statins induce biochemical changes in the Achilles tendon after chronic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letícia Prado; Vieira, Cristiano Pedrozo; Da Ré Guerra, Flávia; de Almeida, Marcos dos Santos; Pimentel, Edson Rosa

    2013-09-15

    Statins have been widely prescribed as lipid-lowering drugs and are associated with tendon rupture. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the possible biochemical changes in the Achilles tendon of rats after chronic treatment with statins. Dosages of statins were calculated using allometric scaling with reference to the 80mg/day and 20mg/day, doses recommended for humans. The rats were divided into the following groups: treated with simvastatin (S-20 and S-80), treated with atorvastatin (A-20 and A-80), and the control group that received no treatment (C). Measurements of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the plasma were performed. The levels of non-collagenous proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and hydroxyproline were quantified. Western blotting for collagen I was performed, and the presence of metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 was investigated through zymography. The concentration of non-collagenous proteins in S-20 was less than the C group. There was a significant increase in pro-MMP-2 activity in A-80 group and in active MMP-2 in S-20 group compared to the C group. A significant increase in latent MMP-9 activity was observed in both the A-80 and S-20 groups when compared to C group. In the A-20 group, there was a lower amount of collagen I in relation to C group. In addition, a higher concentration of hydroxyproline was found in the S-20 group than the C group. The analysis of GAGs showed a significant increase in the A-20 group when compared to C group. The treatment induced remarkable alterations in the Achilles tendon and the response of the tissue seems to depend of the used statin dosage. The presence of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is evidence of the degradation and remodeling processes in the extracellular matrix of the tendons. Our results show that statins induce imbalance of extracellular matrix components and possibly induce microdamage in tendons. PMID:23831763

  2. Biochemical histological and histochemical changes induced in pregnant albino rats as affected by SILYMARIN treatment and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin that are displaying estrogenic effects. Silybum marianum has been traditionally used in Egypt for its antifertility effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of silymarin administration and / or exposure to gamma radiation in pregnant rats. Silymarin at a dose level 75.6 mg/kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) as fractionated dose; 0.75 Gy on the 6th day and 0.75 Gy on 12th day of pregnancy. Experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition have demonstrated that silymarin intake throughout the whole gestational period induced biochemical, histopathological and histochemical disorders in irradiated mothers. The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant elevation in levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in pregnant rats.Moreover, the histopathological results showed different distortions which varied from hyperemic blood vessels, fibroblasts in the ovary, degenerated uterine glands, erosion in the lining epithelia of the uterus and degenerated epithelial cells, necrosis in trophospongium, necrosis in the giant cells, massive blood in the labyrinth and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the placenta. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed various diminutions in each of the polysaccharides, total protein and DNA content. Conclusively, these findings proved that radiation exposure and/or silymarin intake could exert deleterious effect, therefore, it is recommended that radiation occupational workers especially females have to be careful toward

  3. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeng Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC/norepinephrine (NE system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty. The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear, but also for fight (anger. Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  4. Structural and Biochemical Studies of TIGAR (TP53-induced Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Jogl, G

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor by cellular stress leads to variable responses ranging from growth inhibition to apoptosis. TIGAR is a novel p53-inducible gene that inhibits glycolysis by reducing cellular levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of glycolysis and inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies of TIGAR from Danio rerio. The overall structure forms a histidine phosphatase fold with a phosphate molecule coordinated to the catalytic histidine residue and a second phosphate molecule in a position not observed in other phosphatases. The recombinant human and zebra fish enzymes hydrolyze fructose-2,6-bisphosphate as well as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but not fructose 6-phosphate in vitro. The TIGAR active site is open and positively charged, consistent with its enzymatic function as bisphosphatase. The closest related structures are the bacterial broad specificity phosphatase PhoE and the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. The structural comparison shows that TIGAR combines an accessible active site as observed in PhoE with a charged substrate-binding pocket as seen in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional enzyme.

  5. Effect of induced polyploidy on some biochemical parameters in Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mahsa; Mansouri, Hakimeh

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at testing the efficiency of colchicine on inducing polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L. and investigation of effects of polyploidy induction on some primary and secondary metabolites. Shoot tips were treated with three different concentrations of colchicine (0, 0.1, 0.2 % w/v) for 24 or 48 h. The biggest proportion of the almost coplanar tetraploids (43.33 %) and mixoploids (13.33 %) was obtained from the 24-h treatment in 0.2 and 0.1 % w/v, respectively. Colchicine with 0.2 % concentration and 48 h duration was more destructive than 24 h. The ploidy levels were screened with flow cytometry. The biochemical analyses showed that reducing sugars, soluble sugars, total protein, and total flavonoids increased significantly in mixoploid plants compared with tetraploid and diploid plants. Tetraploid plants had a higher amount of total proteins, total flavonoids, and starch in comparison with control plants. The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabinol in mixoploid plants only, but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids. Also, we found such changes in protein concentration in electrophoresis analysis. In overall, our study suggests that tetraploidization could not be useful to produce tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use, and in this case, mixoploids are more suitable. PMID:25492688

  6. Effect of Gundelia tournefortii on some biochemical parameters in dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Azeez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Gundelia tournefortii on some biochemical parameters in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic mice. Male albino mice were induced hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic by daily injection of dexamethasone 1 mg/kg of body weight intramuscularly (i.m., the mice randomly divided into five groups (6-8 mice in each group. The group 1: served as negative control group; the group 2: injected with dexamethasone at dose 1 mg /kg.b.w.i.m and served as positive control group; the groups 3, 4, 5: treated with extract of G. tournefortii at doses: 75, 150, 300 mg/kg.b.w. orally respectively companied with injection of dexamethasone 1 mg/kg.b.w.i.m. All treatment were once daily for 22 days. Dexamethasone treatment lead to significant increase in levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride, and significant decrease of body weight, without any effect on level of total protein. G. tournefortii extract treatment at doses: 75 mg/kg.b.w. resulted significant decrease levels of glucose, and body weight. Beneficial effect were seen when mice treated with G. tournefortii at dose of 300 mg/kg.b.w. that lead to significant decrease in levels of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol. These results indicate the usefulness of G. tournefortii extract as hypoglycemia and hypolipidemia in dexamethasone treated mice.

  7. Steroid androgen 17α-methyltestosterone induces malformations and biochemical alterations in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Wendt, Carla Letícia Gediel; Oliveira, Rhaul; Monteiro, Marta Sofia; Domingues, Inês; Soares, Amadeu Mortágua Velho Maia; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic androgen 17α-methyltestosterone is widely used in fish aquaculture for sex reversion of female individuals. Little is known about the amount of MT residues reaching the aquatic environment and further impacts in non-target organisms, including fish early-life stages. Thus, in this work, zebrafish embryos were exposed to two forms of 17α-methyltestosterone: the pure compound (MT) and a formulation commonly used in Brazil (cMT). For MT, a 96h-LC50 of 10.09mg/l was calculated. MT also affected embryo development inducing tail malformations, edemas, abnormal development of the head, and hatching delay. At biochemical level MT inhibited vitellogenin (VTG) and inhibited cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase. cMT elicited similar patterns of toxicity as the pure compound (MT). Effects reported in this study suggest a potential environmental risk of MT, especially since the VTG effects occurred at environmental relevant concentrations (0.004mg/l). PMID:27137108

  8. Secondary psychosis induced by metabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eBonnot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are not well recognized by psychiatrists as a possible source of secondary psychoses. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs are not frequent. Although, their prompt diagnosis may lead to suitable treatments. IEMs are well known to paediatricians, in particular for their most serious forms, having an early expression most of the time. Recent years discoveries have unveiled later expression forms, and sometimes, very discreet first physical signs. There is a growing body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that IEMs can manifest as atypical psychiatric symptoms, even in the absence of clear neurological symptoms. In the present review, we propose a detailed overview at schizophrenia-like and autism-like symptoms that can lead practitioners to bear in mind an IEM. Other psychiatric manifestations are also found, as behavioral., cognitive, learning and mood disorders. However, they are less frequent. Ensuring an accurate IEM diagnosis, in front of these psychiatric symptoms should be a priority, in order to grant suitable and valuable treatment for these pathologies.

  9. Biochemical and Histological Effects of Thiamine Pyrophosphate against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Hilal Bektas; Dağlı, Bekir; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Kahyaoğlu, Fadime; Gökçimen, Alparslan; Ömürlü, İmran Kurt; Demirci, Buket

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) has biochemical and histological preventive effects on oxidative liver damage induced by paracetamol (APAP). Rats were divided into the following groups: healthy control (HG), APAP (AG, 1500 mg/kg, orally), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPPG, 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), APAP+NAC (ANAC, 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), APAP+TPP (ATPG) and APAP+NAC+TPP (ANTG). Oxidant, antioxidant parameters, liver function tests and histological assessment were performed between groups. Malondialdehyde levels in the AG, HG, TPPG, ANAC, ATPG and ANTG groups were 0.470 ± 0.210, 0.213 ± 0.004, 0.194 ± 0.001, 0.197 ± 0.06, 0.199 ± 0.008 and 0.173 ± 0.010 μmol/g protein, respectively. Total glutathione levels were 7.787 ± 0.395, 14.925 ± 0.932, 13.200 ± 0.984, 13.162 ± 0.486, 13.287 ± 0.787 and 13.500 ± 0.891 μm/g protein, respectively. In the AG group, marked liver damage occurred with the elevation of liver function tests and oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide (p TPP significantly reduced oxidant parameter levels in the ATPG group and simultaneously increased the antioxidant parameter levels of catalase and glutathione. The histological changes were improved to almost normal hepatic structure. Moreover, TPP had nearly the same hepatoprotective effect as NAC, and there was statistically no additional benefit with NAC co-treatment. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) among the ANAC, ANTG and ATPG groups in terms of oxidant/antioxidant levels. TPP proved to be as efficacious as standard therapy and may be beneficial in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26432613

  10. CAMEL MILK MODULATES GAMMA RADIATION INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL HAZARDOUS CHANGES IN RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue damage in animals subjected to single sub-lethal dose of gamma rays usually occur within few hours following irradiation and the body may be continuously exposed to the damaging action of free radicals.The present study was conducted to examine the effects of camel milk administration on some radiation induced biochemical changes in rats.A total of 96 albino rats were divided into two equal groups; males and females. Each group were assigned randomly into 4 equal sub-groups, (12 rats/ group). Group 1: control, group 2 (camel milk); rats treated with camel milk instead of water, group 3 (irradiated); rats exposed to single sub-lethal dose of gamma irradiation (4 Gy) and group 4 (combined treatment ); rats treated with camel milk post-irradiation and continuously through the experiment.Animals were sacrificed on 14 and 28 days after gamma irradiation. Sera and liver tissues were collected. The contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Mg and Fe , total protein, albumin, creatinine, uric acid, total thyroxine were determined in the serum. The activities of AST and ALT, and reduced glutathione content were determined in the liver. The results obtained indicated that camel milk improved the activities of AST and ALT and increased the reduced glutathione content in the liver of irradiated rats. Also, there was noticeable improvement in T4 and albumin levels in female groups and T4, A/G ratio, creatinine and uric acid in male groups. In addition, a remarkable improvement in Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn levels was recorded for both sex.It could be concluded that camel milk taken post-irradiation may modulate gamma radiation-induced hazards in male as well as female rats

  11. Physiological and biochemical responses of Yarrowia lipolytica to dehydration induced by air-drying and freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pénicaud

    Full Text Available Organisms that can withstand anhydrobiosis possess the unique ability to temporarily and reversibly suspend their metabolism for the periods when they live in a dehydrated state. However, the mechanisms underlying the cell's ability to tolerate dehydration are far from being fully understood. The objective of this study was to highlight, for the first time, the cellular damage to Yarrowia lipolytica as a result of dehydration induced by drying/rehydration and freezing/thawing. Cellular response was evaluated through cell cultivability determined by plate counts, esterase activity and membrane integrity assessed by flow cytometry, and the biochemical composition of cells as determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The effects of the harvesting time (in the log or stationary phase and of the addition of a protective molecule, trehalose, were investigated. All freshly harvested cells exhibited esterase activity and no alteration of membrane integrity. Cells freshly harvested in the stationary phase presented spectral contributions suggesting lower nucleic acid content and thicker cell walls, as well as longer lipid chains than cells harvested in the log phase. Moreover, it was found that drying/rehydration induced cell plasma membrane permeabilization, loss of esterase activity with concomitant protein denaturation, wall damage and oxidation of nucleic acids. Plasma membrane permeabilization and loss of esterase activity could be reduced by harvesting in the stationary phase and/or with trehalose addition. Protein denaturation and wall damage could be reduced by harvesting in the stationary phase. In addition, it was shown that measurements of loss of membrane integrity and preservation of esterase activity were suitable indicators of loss and preservation of cultivability, respectively. Conversely, no clear effect of freezing/thawing could be observed, probably because of the favorable operating conditions applied. These results give insights into Y

  12. Irradiation induced disorder in organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a brief survey of several recent experimental results concerning the transport properties of irradiated 1D. conductors, and we show that a reasonable knowledge of the mechanisms which account for the changes in the D.C. conductivity either at high or low temperatures has been obtained. These mechanisms are: firstly the 1-D blocking effects of defects and subsequent transverse fixed range phonon activated hopping of single electrons in the metallic regime, and secondly the charge density waves pinning either in the metallic or the insulating regime. As a conclusion we show that it is difficult in most of the cases to distinguish between disorded systems and intrinsic or so-called pure ones

  13. ANXIETY DISORDERS INDUCED HYPERTENTION: ISSUE CLINICAL CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Bihari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized most commonly as a diffuse, unpleasant, vague sense of apprehension, often accompanied by autonomic symptoms such as headache, perspiration, palpitations, tightness in the chest, mild stomach discomfort and restlessness, indicated by an inability to sit or stand still for long. Anxiety disorder is one of important cause of development of hypertension, although it is multifactorial. It increases sympathetic nervous system which causes hypertension due to alterations in baro reflex and chemo reflex pathways at both peripheral and central level. It also increases norepinephrine which acts on β1 receptor (in brain, myocardium and kidney and increases cardiac force, rate of contraction, renin release and β2 receptor (in pulmonary system and blood vessels and decreases resistance of pulmonary airway and blood vessels-leading to hypertension.

  14. Multivariate modeling of chromium-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in plants of Pistia stratiotes L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sarita; Basant, Ankita; Malik, Amrita; Singh, Kunwar P

    2009-07-01

    Biochemical changes in the plants of Pistia stratiotes L., a free floating macrophyte exposed to different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (0, 10, 40, 60, 80 and 160 microM) for 48, 96 and 144 h were studied. Chromium-induced oxidative stress in macrophyte was investigated using the multivariate modeling approaches. Cluster analysis rendered two fairly distinct clusters (roots and shoots) of similar characteristics in terms of their biochemical responses. Discriminant analysis identified ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as discriminating variable between the root and shoot tissues. Principal components analysis results suggested that malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), APX, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), cysteine, ascorbic acid, and Cr-accumulation are dominant in root tissues, whereas, protein and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in shoots of the plant. Discriminant partial least squares analysis results further confirmed that MDA, SOD, NP-SH, cysteine, GPX, APX, ascorbic acid and Cr-accumulation dominated in the root tissues, while protein in the shoot. Three-way analysis helped in visualizing simultaneous influence of metal concentration and exposure duration on biochemical variables in plant tissues. The multivariate approaches, thus, allowed for the interpretation of the induced biochemical changes in the plant tissues exposed to chromium, which otherwise using the conventional approaches is difficult. PMID:19396544

  15. Anticancer drug-induced kidney disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, P E

    2001-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is an inherent adverse effect of certain anticancer drugs. Renal dysfunction can be categorised as prerenal uraemia, intrinsic damage or postrenal uraemia according to the underlying pathophysiological process. Renal hypoperfusion promulgates prerenal uraemia. Intrinsic renal damage results from prolonged hypoperfusion, exposure to exogenous or endogenous nephrotoxins, renotubular precipitation of xenobiotics or endogenous compounds, renovascular obstruction, glomerular disease, renal microvascular damage or disease, and tubulointerstitial damage or disease. Postrenal uraemia is a consequence of clinically significant urinary tract obstruction. Clinical signs of nephrotoxicity and methods used to assess renal function are discussed. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced renal dysfunction generally include damage to vasculature or structures of the kidneys, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and prerenal perfusion deficits. Patients with cancer are frequently at risk of renal impairment secondary to disease-related and iatrogenic causes. This article reviews the incidence, presentation, prevention and management of anticancer drug-induced renal dysfunction. Dose-related nephrotoxicity subsequent to administration of certain chloroethylnitrosourea compounds (carmustine, semustine and streptozocin) is commonly heralded by increased serum creatinine levels, uraemia and proteinuria. Additional signs of streptozocin-induced nephrotoxicity include hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia, hypouricaemia, renal tubular acidosis, glucosuria, aceturia and aminoaciduria. Cisplatin and carboplatin cause dose-related renal dysfunction. In addition to increased serum creatinine levels and uraemia, electrolyte abnormalities, such as hypomagnesaemia and hypokalaemia, are commonly reported adverse effects. Rarely, cisplatin has been implicated as the underlying cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Pharmaceutical antidotes to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity include amifostine, sodium

  16. Canceling disorder-induced localization in nanophotonic cavity arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Sergei; Yüce, Emre; Combrié, Sylvain; De Rossi, Alfredo; Mosk, Allard P

    2016-01-01

    Optical circuits containing high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities have been proposed for delay lines, optical memory storage, optomechanics and quantum communication. However, unavoidable fabrication disorder in nanophotonic structures causes scattering which leads to frequency detuning, signal attenuation, and eventually localizes optical modes which ruins the transmission properties of the whole system. Even state-of-the-art nanofabrication with random spatial variations of only $\\Delta x=1\\ \\rm{nm}$ can lead to resonance wavelength detunings of more than $\\Delta \\lambda =1\\ \\rm{nm}$. In this work, we present a new method to cancel disorder-induced localization of light in a system of coupled nanocavities. We use holographic laser-induced heating to tune individual cavities, introduce a thermal response matrix approach and as a result we observe fully hybridized resonances of three coupled nanocavities, indicating that the effect of the disorder has been canceled. Our method is scalable to large arrays and e...

  17. Criteria for the Evaluation and Selection of Radiation-Induced Metabolic Changes as Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several reasons which prompt a search for suitable biochemical indicators of radiation damage in man. Perhaps the most compelling of these reasons is the urgent need for estimates of exposure doses in cases of accidental exposures of human subjects to ionizing radiations under conditions which preclude a reliable assessment of the exposure dose by the usual physical means. At worst, a biochemical estimate of the dose would provide an independent means of obtaining information otherwise based solely on physical considerations and assumptions. In addition, a biochemical estimate of radiation injury may also, under ideal circumstances, serve as a guide to the attending physician in chosing the type of therapy most efficacious and least likely to lead to complications in the near as well as more distant future. The availability of biochemical indicators capable of revealing with some degree of accuracy the impairment of function of a particular organ would be a helpful adjunct in making decisions concerning the therapeutic approach to be adopted. The latter aspect would be of considerable interest in acute, accidental radiation exposures since under these circumstances radiation exposures are frequently of the partial-body type. An estimate of radiation injury by means of biochemical indicators should also prove useful in cases of protracted or chronic exposures to radiation, the source of which may be either external or internal. The use of biochemical indicators under these conditions of radiation exposure may, in general, aid “case-finding” efforts and, in a more specific way, may help in pin-pointing discrete organ dysfunctions. In evaluating the suitability of radiation-induced metabolic changes for application as biochemical indicators of radiation damage, the following general criteria may be set forth: (1) the biochemical response to irradiation must be dose-dependent within a certain, sufficiently wide range in order to be useful; (2) the

  18. Lung damage induced by butylated hydroxytoluene in mice. Biochemical, cellular, and morphologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L J

    1984-11-01

    This study was designed to characterize the biochemical, cellular, and morphologic events produced in mice by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and to relate these events to changes in extracellular angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On Day 1 after the administration of BHT, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) ACE activity increased 4-fold (p less than 0.001), its specific activity relative to BAL protein increased 3-fold (p less than 0.001), and both type 1 cell damage and endothelial cell damage were detected by electron microscopy. The early increase in BAL ACE activity preceded changes in plasma ACE levels, BAL cell number, protein, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in both plasma and BAL, and the ACE content of alveolar macrophages. On Day 2, BAL ACE activity increased 9-fold, BAL protein increased 4-fold (p less than 0.001), BAL LDH activity increased 34% (p less than 0.05), and the BAL cell count doubled (p less than 0.01). Changes in each animal's appearance, body weight, wet and dry lung weights, and plasma ACE levels occurred between Days 3 and 5. The BAL differential cell count, which consisted of greater than 95% macrophages in uninjured mice, did not change until Day 5 when there was a small increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). On Day 7, the number of PMN peaked, and some of the other measures of lung injury began returning toward normal. These results indicate that BAL ACE activity is a sensitive, early marker of BHT-induced lung injury, which appears to reflect damage to the cells of the alveolar-capillary barrier. In addition, PMN do not appear to play a major role in this model of lung injury. Because of its effects on angiotensin, bradykinin, and prostaglandins, the early release of ACE from damaged cells may modulate the subsequent injury. PMID:6093659

  19. Radiation-induced XRCC4 association with chromatin DNA analyzed by biochemical fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XRCC4, in association with DNA ligase IV, is thought to play a critical role in the ligation of two DNA ends in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. In the present study, we captured radiation-induced chromatin-recruitment of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. A subpopulation of XRCC4 changed into a form that is resistant to the extraction with 0.5% Nonidet P-40-containing buffer after irradiation. This form of XRCC4 was liberated by micrococcal nuclease treatment, indicating that it had been tethered to chromatin DNA. This chromatin-recruitment of XRCC4 could be seen immediately (<0.1 hr) after irradiation and remained up to 4 hr after 20 Gy irradiation. It was seen even after irradiation of small doses, id est (i.e.), 2 Gy, but the residence of XRCC4 on chromatin was very transient after 2 Gy irradiation, returning to near normal level in 0.2-0.5 hr after irradiation. The chromatin-bound XRCC4 represented only -1% of total XRCC4 molecules even after 20 Gy irradiation and the quantitative analysis using purified protein as the reference suggested that only a few XRCC4-DNA ligase IV complexes were recruited to each DNA end. We further show that the chromatin-recruitment of XRCC4 was not attenuated by wortmannin, an inhibitor of DNA-PK, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), indicating that this process does not require DNA-PKcs. These results would provide us with useful experimental tools and important insights to understand the DNA repair process through NHEJ pathway. (author)

  20. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongwei; Guo, Yuming; Ning, Dong; Peng, Yunzhi; Cai, Hong; Tan, Jianzhuang; Yang, Ying; Liu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and haemoglobin (HGB) of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD) level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK) and succinodehydrogenase (SDH) in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK) and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1) cytoskeleton; 2) glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3) cell secretion; 4) cell apoptosis; 5) signal transduction; 6) immune and inflammatory response; and 7) cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK) mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated, but

  1. Training induced changes on physiological and biochemical variables of young indian field hockey players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Manna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to find out the training induced changes on different physiological and biochemical parameters in young Indian field hockey players. A total of 30 Indian male field hockey players (age range 14-16 yrs regularly playing competitive field hockey were selected; a training programme consist of aerobic and anaerobic exercise were followed for 6 wks and 12 wks respectively. Results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in body fat, and a significant increase (P<0.05 in LBM following both 6 wks and 12 wks of training. Strength of backs and handgrip muscles were also increased significantly (P<0.05 after the training. Significant reduction (P<0.05 in heart rates during sub-maximal exercises, maximal exercises and recoveries were noted after both the training programme. Moreover, significant increase (P<0.05 in aerobic capacity and anaerobic power were observed after the training. Further, significant reductions (P<0.05 were noted in hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDLC after the training. On the other hand plasma levels of urea, uric acid and HDLC were increased significantly (P<0.05 following the training. Present study showed a decrease in body fat and the plasma levels of cholesterol as well as LDLC and increase in HDLC, which is beneficial for good health and better performance. However, reduction in hemoglobin and increase in plasma urea and uric acid may be due to increased training load. Since the data on field hockey players are limited in India, therefore the present study may provide useful information to the coaches to develop their training programme.

  2. Influence of Monosodium Glutamate on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Humans are frequently exposed to RAD and MSG from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe, their combined effects remain unclear. The present study proposed to investigate neurotoxic potentials of exposure to MSG and/or RAD on oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders in the rat’s brain tissue. MSG was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 450 mg/Kg bwt/day (equivalent to 5 g/day human consumption) for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Exposure to MSG and/or RAD -induced oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content. The administration of MSG daily during exposure to gamma radiation has potentiated oxidative stress regarding each single treatment. MSG-exposure induced a highly significant decrease of serotonin (P<0.01) and a slight non significant increase (P>0.05) of aspartic and glutamic acids levels while in RAD- group the decrease of serotonin and the increase of amino acids were very highly significant (P<0.001). MSG + RAD-exposure had potentiated the decrease of serotonin and produced an additive effect on the increase of neurotransmitters amino acids. MSG as well as RAD-exposure increased (P<0.05) glucose and insulin levels with

  3. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.I Rajkumar; Samuel Tennyson

    2013-01-01

    Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposur...

  4. Protection against radiation induced biochemical changes in cerebrum of Swiss albino mice by Grewia asiatica fruit extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE) on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. In the present study radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica (rich in anthocyanin, carotenes, Vit.C, etc.) was studied against radiation induced biochemical alterations in mice cerebrum. For experimental study, healthy Swiss Albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) did not receive any treatment. Group II was orally supplemented (GAE) once daily at the dose of 700 mg/Kg.b.wt/day for fifteen consecutive days. Group III (control) received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE for fifteen days than exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation. Group IV (IR+Drug) was administered orally (GAE) for 15 consecutive days once daily after exposed to single dose of 5Gy of gamma radiation respectively. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals viz. 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days and cerebrum were removed for various biochemical estimations viz. glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein. GAE post treatment renders protection against various biochemical changes in mice cerebrum. Radiation induced augmentation in the levels of LPO was significantly ameliorated by GAE post-treatment. Radiation-induced depletion in the level of GSH, protein was checked significantly by GAE administration

  5. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2011-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort...... study that involved linking information from the Danish Civil Registration system to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Register of Patients. The information consisted of data for girls and women with no record of mental disorders during the 1995–2007 period who had a first......-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event...

  6. Effectiveness of Melatonin, as a Radiation Damage-Mitigating Drug in Modulating Liver Biochemical disorders in γ-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melatonin has an anti per oxidative effect on several tissues as well as a scavenger effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whilst radiation-hazards due to free radical generation, present enormous challenges for biological and medical safety. Therefore, rats were classified into four groups; control (n= 8), (received 0.5 ml of alcoholic saline as a vehicle for 5 days). Melatonin-treated rats received 10 mg/ kg body wt, for 5 days (given to the animals in the morning via stomach tube). gamma-irradiated rats received 0.5 ml of the melatonin vehicle followed by one shot dose of 3 Gy gamma-rays. Each of these groups was compared with a further group, which-received melatonin for 5 days after 3 Gy gamma-irradiation exposure. The results revealed that all considered biochemical parameters were not changed significantly in melatonin-treated group as compared with control one. In the liver tissue of the gamma-irradiated animals (3 Gy), the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) were significantly increased, while a marked decrease occurred in the contents of deoxy- and ribo-nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and glutathione (GSH) as well as activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In addition, catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were increased. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were significantly increased in sera of the irradiated rats. Treatment with melatonin for 5 days after gamma-rays exposure significantly modulated the radiation-induced elevations in MDA and PC levels in the liver tissue and significantly restored hepatic GSH content, GST, CAT and MPO activities. Post-irradiation treatment with melatonin showed significant higher hepatic DNA and RNA contents than irradiated rats. The activities of AST, ALP, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated when melatonin was administrated after irradiation. Conclusion: Melatonin has effective

  7. Effect of Pine Oil on Antihyperglycemic and Some Biochemical Parameters in serum of Streptozotocin Induced Tip-2 Diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ersin DEMİR; Yilmaz, Ökkeş

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of pine oil on hyperglycemia and some biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced type- 2 diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three groups: control (C) diabetes (STZ-DM), diabetes+pine oil (STZ-DM+PO) grups. Diabetes induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). 1 ml/kg the dose pine oil was intraperitoneally injected twice in a week to the diabetes+pine oil (STZ-DM+PO), plus 1 g/L dose of pure ...

  8. Avalanches and disorder-induced criticality in artificial spin ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that both square and kagome artificial spin ice systems exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions, with power law avalanche distributions at the critical disorder level. The different nature of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct types of critical avalanche behavior. For the square ice, the avalanches involve the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and the scaling collapse agrees with an interface depinning mechanism. In contrast, avalanches in the fully frustrated kagome ice exhibit pronounced branching behaviors that resemble those found in directed percolation. The kagome ice also shows an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study nonequilibrium critical point phenomena. (paper)

  9. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status. PMID:24524755

  10. Dietary Curcuma longa protects myocardium against isoproterenol induced hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological alternations in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I R Mohanty

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was designed to investigate whether Curcuma longa (Cl, a natural herb, would attenuate the acute myocardial infarction in isoproterenol (ISP-treated rat model via maintaining cardiac function and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Haemodynamic parameters {systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP, heart rate (HR, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular (LV peak positive (+ dP/dt (rate of pressure development and negative  (- dP/dt (rate of pressure decline}were recorded. Cardiac marker enzyme: Creatinine phosphokinase(CPK and antioxidative parameters: Glutathione (GSH, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, Catalase (CAT, Glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx and Superoxide dismutase (SOD of heart tissues were measured. Histopathological examination of heart tissues was also performed.  Induction of rats with ISP (85 mg/kg on 29th and 30th day, s.c. resulted in significant cardiac necrosis, decline in cardiac function, antioxidant status and elevation in lipid peroxidation. Oral administration of Cl (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively to healthy experimental animals (i.e. animals without any myocardial pathologic challenge viz. ISP for 30 days significantly enhanced the basal myocardial levels of GSHPx (p<0.05, CAT (p<0.05 activity as compared to the sham group. Subsequent to ISP induced myocardial injury, Cl (100 & 200 mg/kg pre-treatment for 30 days, resulted in significant mitigating effects on several myocardial injury induced biochemical {SOD (p<0.05, CAT(p<0.05, GSHPx(0.05, TBARS (p<0.05, CPK (p<0.05}, hemodynamic {MAP(p<0.05,, LVEDP(p<0.05} and histopathological perturbations. Cl (100 mg/kg was found to be the optimum cardioprotective dose. The results indicate that chronic Cl administration causes myocardial adaptation by augmenting endogenous antioxidants and protects rat hearts from decline in cardiac function and oxidative stress associated with ISP

  11. Neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome in bipolar disorder with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Ueda,1 Takeshi Sakayori,1 Ataru Omori,2 Hajime Fukuta,3 Takashi Kobayashi,3 Kousuke Ishizaka,1 Tomoyuki Saijo,4 Yoshiro Okubo1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Tamachuo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Kurumegaoka Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 4Saijo Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Neuroleptics can induce not only physical adverse effects but also mental effects that produce deficit status in thought, affect, cognition, and behavior. This condition is known as neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS, which includes apathy, lack of initiative, anhedonia, indifference, blunted affect, and reduced insight into disease. Although this old concept now appears almost forgotten, neuroleptics, whether typical or atypical, can make depression or bipolar disorder resemble other more refractory conditions, readily leading to mistaken diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. The authors describe three cases of NIDS superimposed on depressive phase in bipolar disorder with psychosis, where the attending psychiatrist’s failure to recognize NIDS prevented patients from receiving effective treatment and achieving remission. All cases achieved remission after reduction of neuroleptics and intensive therapy, including electroconvulsive therapy, for bipolar depression. The concept of NIDS was originally introduced for schizophrenia, and it has rarely been highlighted in other diseases. In recent years, however, atypical antipsychotics are being more often administered to patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists, therefore, should also remember and exercise caution regarding NIDS in the pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder with and without psychosis. The authors believe that the concept of NIDS needs to be reappraised in current psychiatry. Keywords: neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS, bipolar disorder, psychosis, atypical antipsychotics, electroconvulsive therapy

  12. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongwei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascites syndrome is still a problem for chicken industry in various parts of the world. Despite the intensive investigations of this syndrome for many years, its pathogenesis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the difference in hepatic proteomics between ascites and healthy broilers by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Changes of biochemical parameters of liver and blood were also determined. The results indicated that red blood cell counts (RBC, hematocrit (HCT and haemoglobin (HGB of ascites broilers were significantly greater than healthy broilers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA level of ascites broilers was significantly increased, and the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD was significantly decreased. Hepatic lactic acid (LD level of ascitic broilers were significantly lower than healthy ones. Serum glucose and cholesterol level of ascites broilers were significantly increased, and serum globulin level was significantly decreased in ascites broilers. There was no significant difference in triglyceride (TG and blood urea nitrogen (BUN level. The activity of liver hexokinase (HK and succinodehydrogenase (SDH in ascites broilers was significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in the activity of liver pyruvate kinase (PK and Na+-K+-ATPase. The hepatic proteomics analysis showed that 18 proteins expression difference were identified between ascites and healthy broilers. These proteins were mainly involved in: 1 cytoskeleton; 2 glucose, lipids and amino acid metabolism; 3 cell secretion; 4 cell apoptosis; 5 signal transduction; 6 immune and inflammatory response; and 7 cellular redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial isoform phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (M-PEPCK mainly participates in gluconeogenesis of chicken liver. In conclusion, liver oxidative damage was significantly aggravated

  13. Neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome in bipolar disorder with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Satoshi; Sakayori, Takeshi; Omori, Ataru; Fukuta, Hajime; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ishizaka, Kousuke; Saijo, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Neuroleptics can induce not only physical adverse effects but also mental effects that produce deficit status in thought, affect, cognition, and behavior. This condition is known as neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS), which includes apathy, lack of initiative, anhedonia, indifference, blunted affect, and reduced insight into disease. Although this old concept now appears almost forgotten, neuroleptics, whether typical or atypical, can make depression or bipolar disorder resemble other more refractory conditions, readily leading to mistaken diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. The authors describe three cases of NIDS superimposed on depressive phase in bipolar disorder with psychosis, where the attending psychiatrist's failure to recognize NIDS prevented patients from receiving effective treatment and achieving remission. All cases achieved remission after reduction of neuroleptics and intensive therapy, including electroconvulsive therapy, for bipolar depression. The concept of NIDS was originally introduced for schizophrenia, and it has rarely been highlighted in other diseases. In recent years, however, atypical antipsychotics are being more often administered to patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists, therefore, should also remember and exercise caution regarding NIDS in the pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder with and without psychosis. The authors believe that the concept of NIDS needs to be reappraised in current psychiatry. PMID:26893564

  14. Disorder-induced order in quantum XY chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observe signatures of disorder-induced order in one-dimensional XY spin chains with an external site-dependent uniaxial random field within the XY plane. We numerically investigate signatures of a quantum phase transition at T=0, in particular, an upsurge of the magnetization in the direction orthogonal to the external magnetic field and the scaling of the block entropy with the amplitude of this field. Also, we discuss possible realizations of this effect in ultracold atomic experiments.

  15. Effect of chronic administration of green tea extract on chemically induced electrocardiographic and biochemical changes in rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Leena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals induce cell-specific cytotoxicity. Chemicals like doxorubicin induce oxidative stress leading to cardiotoxicity causing abnormalities in ECG and increase in the biomarkers indicating toxicity. Green tea extract (GTE, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae, is reported to exert antioxidant activity mainly by means of its polyphenolic constituent, catechins. Our study was aimed to find out the effect of GTE (25, 50, 100 mg/kg/day p.o. for 30 days on doxorubicin-induced (3 mg/kg/week, i.p. for 5 weeks electrocardiographic and biochemical changes in rat heart. It is observed that GTE administered rats were less susceptible to doxorubicin-induced electrocardiographic changes and changes in biochemical markers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, and glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT in serum, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and reduced glutathione (GSH, membrane bound enzymes like Na + K + ATPase, Ca 2+ ATPase, Mg 2+ ATPase and decreased lipid peroxidation (LP in heart tissue, indicating the protection afforded by GTE administration.

  16. The Possible Protective Role of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Against Radiation-Induced Certain Biochemical Changes in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced biochemical changes in male rats. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was orally administrated at dose level of 250 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 days before irradiation and 7 days post exposure (6.5 Gy single dose). Rats exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited a potential elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, lipid abnormalities, and an increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothioneins (MTs). On the other hand, noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione content and serum total protein, albumin and testosterone levels were recorded. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations, which may be due to the radiation ability to induce oxidative stress. The data obtained from rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation revealed significant modulation in the biochemical tested parameters and profound improvement in the activity of antioxidant status, glutathione and metallothioneins. The treatment of irradiated rats with fennel oil also appeared to be effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation as well as changes in essential trace elements in some tissue organs. In addition to its containing many chemical antioxidant constituents such as polyphenols, fennel was found to contain detectable concentrations of essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Mn and Ca) which may be involved in multiple biological processes as constituents of enzymes system including superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn, Mn, SODs), oxide reductase, glutathione (GSP, GSH, GST), metallothionein MTs, etc. Overall, it could be concluded that Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil exerts beneficial protective role against radiation-induced

  17. Alterations in biochemical and physiological characters in radiation-induced mutants of grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected examples from different grain legumes are studied. The biochemically and physiologically detectable alterations in distintc characters as caused by the action of mutant genes are presented comparatively. The interactions between different mutant genes in order to evaluated the influence of the genotypic constitution on the expression of mutated genes are emphasized. (M.A.C.)

  18. Diagnostic Value of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme and Amino Acid Patterns in Several Schistosomal and Non-Schistosomal Disorders as Compared to other Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A. Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzyme and amino acid (a. a patterns were evaluated in comparison to several other biochemical parameters for liver and renal function with the objective of clarifying the differential diagnosis of hepatic disorders and predicting the outcome of schistosomal infection in Egyptian patients. Patients examined included those with complicated hepatic disorders and others with different stages of schistosomal infestation, hepatoma or bladder cancer, in addition to a normal control group. Several biochemical parameters appeared to be useful in establishing consistent differences or similarities between the studied groups. Examples are; elevated serum AST/ AL T ratio and methionine content in chronic schistosomiasis, elevated serum urea/creatinine ratio and leucine content in all schistosomal patients and extremely high levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG in the urine of non-schistosomal bladder cancer patients. In addition, characteristic LDH isoenzyme profiles distinguish between the studied groups, in particular separating chronic schistosomiasis from schistosomal bladder cancer and hepatoma from other hepatic disorders.

  19. Protective effects of Punica Granatum (L) and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Radiotherapy, which is a chief modality to treat cancer, faces a major drawback because it produces severe side effects developed due to damage to normal tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have indicated that some commonly used medicinal plants may be good sources of potent but non-toxic radioprotectors. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron beam radiation(EBR) induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were exposed to sub-lethal dose (6 Gy) of Electron Beam Radiation and then treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid for 15 consecutive days. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the liver homogenate of the sacrificed animals. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were prevented significantly by EPWF, EPS and EA administration. Also there was significant reduction in the levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the treated groups compared to irradiated control. The findings of our study indicate the protective efficacy of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant levels. (author)

  20. Copper-induced changes of lipid peroxidation and hemato-biochemical parameters in rat blood: Protective role of flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of subchronic exposure to copper (Cu on lipid peroxidation, hemato-biochemical parameters, and the possible protective role of flavonoids Quercetin and (--Epicatechin were studied. Male Wistar albino rats were treated with Cu (560 mg/L, p.o. as CuCl2•2H2O for 5 weeks and Quercetin and (--Epicatechin (40 mg/kg BW each, i.p., every third day during the last 3 weeks alone or in combination. Cu increased the concentration of lipid peroxides, decreased the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit values and increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Coadministration of Quercetin and (--Epicatechin with Cu lowered the process of lipid peroxidation and restored examined hemato-biochemical parameters to control values. Our results indicate that Cu induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes, which led to anemia, while Quercetin and (--Epicatechin showed a protective effect on the hemato-biochemical processes in the blood of rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173041

  1. ENZYMOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF RATS INDUCED BY FURFURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Veličković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's industrial expansion of the chemical products, the liver is becoming increasingly important. Furfural (C4C3OCHO is a colorless liquid with pleasant aroma and it is partially soluble in water (8, 3% of weight. The elimination of furfural is done slowly through the kidneys and lungs, while the liver oxidizes it into pyromucic acid (C4C3OCOOH. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a multi-component system of gluconeogenesis. Biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, glucose, γ-GT and alkaline phosphatase are important markers of liver damage.The aim of our study was to analyze the function of hepatocytes using biochemical parameters and to show the dynamics and topography in the development of changes in enzyme activity.The experiment was conducted on Wistar rats aged 6 weeks. The animals were divided into three groups. The control group received pure drinking water, the second group received a 50 mg/kg body weight (BW dose of furfural for seven days and in the third group the dose was progressively increased after which the animals were sacrificed. Biochemical methods were used to determine the parameters of liver damage. Enzyme-histochemical tests were performed on 8nm WKF 1150 cryostat cross sections which were stained according to Pearse (1968. The results are presented tables and graphs.The amount of enzymes and biochemical parameters in the control group were normal. In the group treated for 7 days, the activity of the enzymes was diffusely decreased while the biochemical parameters were increased. In the group of rats treated for 90 days, the periportal G6PD was constantly preserved. Biochemical parameters were different. The differences in all parameters were statistically significant (p<0.05 both in the group treated for 7 days and the group treated for 90 days. The same goes for the control group and the group treated for 7 days.Acute treatment with furfural causes damage to liver functions. The synthetic liver function is

  2. Effects of Pre-induction Administration of Allium Sativum on Some Biochemical Parameters in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo Rotimi Johnson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post- administration of garlic extract on serum glucose and some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats to show the preventive and ameliorating effects in alloxan induced-diabetic rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups; normal control rats, diabetic control rats, diabetic rats post-treated with garlic extract and rats pre-treated with garlic extract before induction. Garlic extract was administered orally for 2 weeks to post-treated rats and 3 weeks to pre-treated rats and they were compared with the normal and diabetic groups, respectively. Serum glucose was reduced significantly in both post-treated and pre-treated groups. The post-treatment with garlic extract reduced serum cholesterol, but pre-treatment with garlic extract produced significant change compare to the diabetic control. The serum creatinine and urea levels were significantly reduced in post-treated group and pretreated group compare to the diabetic control group. It is concluded that the consumption of garlic produced a significant hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic rats and also, garlic is capable of protecting the liver and the kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as shown in the activities of serum enzymes and other biochemical parameters examined.

  3. Mechanically induced atomic disorder and phase transformations. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limei, D.

    1992-11-30

    The study shows the possibilities of preparing alloys in various metastable configurations by the simple technique of ball milling. Firstly, chapter 2 gives the description of experimental techniques. In chapter 3, evidence of atomic anti-site disordering in A15-structure superconducting compounds Nb3Sn and Nb3Au during an early stage of milling is demonstrated. Chapter 4 represents the experimental results on the B2-structure magnetic compounds CoGa and CoAl upon mechanical impact. These compounds are well known for their particular type of atomic disorder, namely triple-defect disorder. Various examples of experimental evidence of phase transformations induced by mechanical grinding are presented in chapter 5. Section 5.2 gives an example of amorphization induced by mechanical attrition in the intermetallic compound Ni3Sn. Section 5.3 shows the milling experiment of the intermetallic compound V3 Ga. In section 5.4, for the first time, the observation of a phase transformation to a high-temperature phase with a complex structure will be demonstrated for the intermetallic compound Co3Sn2. In the last chapter, detailed studies on the intermetallic Nb-Au binary compounds for a variety of compositions are presented.

  4. IMPACT OF CURCUMIN ON NICOTINE-INDUCED LUNG CHANGE: HISTOPATHOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsan H. Karam; Anisa S. Mohamed; Mansour, Sahar M.; Heba I. Issa; Amany Abdel Ghaffar; Atef M. Mahmoud; Seham Abdel Dayem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nicotine, major toxic component of cigarette smoke, is considered to be the main risk factor in the development of pulmonary diseases Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological, biochemical and immunological changes in albino rats following intraperitoneal injection of nicotine. The possible protective effect of curcumin was also evaluated. Material and Methods: The study included three groups, the first served as control. The second...

  5. Disorder-Induced Stabilization of the Quantum Hall Ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, B. A.; Desrat, W.; Maude, D. K.; Kazazis, D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.

    2016-03-01

    We report on an absolute measurement of the electronic spin polarization of the ν =1 integer quantum Hall state. The spin polarization is extracted in the vicinity of ν =1 (including at exactly ν =1 ) via resistive NMR experiments performed at different magnetic fields (electron densities) and Zeeman energy configurations. At the lowest magnetic fields, the polarization is found to be complete in a narrow region around ν =1 . Increasing the magnetic field (electron density) induces a significant depolarization of the system, which we attribute to a transition between the quantum Hall ferromagnet and the Skyrmion glass phase theoretically expected as the ratio between Coulomb interactions and disorder is increased. These observations account for the fragility of the polarization previously observed in high mobility 2D electron gas and experimentally demonstrate the existence of an optimal amount of disorder to stabilize the ferromagnetic state.

  6. Protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation kills cells in the area being treated (the target tissue) as well as other surrounding healthy cells. The damaging effects of ionizing radiation on healthy tissue create a major barrier in effective treatment of common human cancers. Thus there is a need to find a safe and highly effective avenue to reduce normal cell damage during cancer therapy, plants have been used in the traditional healthcare system from time immemorial, and phyto products continue to play an essential role in medicine. Emblica, is reported to have an excellent radio protective activity, antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. In light of above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and lead induced biochemical alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Lead acetate treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or Lead Acetate treatment. The animals from all experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, pieces of the kidney were taken out and kept at - 20 deg C for different biochemical parameters. For the study the animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Lead acetate treatments. In the experimental groups the Emblica juice was given seven days prior to the radiation or lead acetate treatment. The various biochemical parameters viz, total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA were estimated. The values were observed in the form of increase or decrease. After combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate the changes were more severe showing synergistic effect of both the agent. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pre-treated animals. Thus it appears that Emblica is potent enough to check Lead and Radiation induced

  7. Ameliorative Role of Marjoram Against Ionizing Radiation-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes in Thyroid Gland in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of marjoram, grey green leaf, against gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in thyroid gland of male albino rats. Marjoram (100 mg/kg/day) was given to rats via gavages for 30 consecutive days prior exposure to irradiation (4.5 Gy) and the last dose of marjoram was administered 24 hr before irradiation. Thyroid gland was taken for histological study and blood samples for biochemical analysis on the 7th and 15 th day post-irradiation. In the irradiated group, the histological observations of thyroid gland sections showed distortion of the thyroid follicles together with apparent swelling of the follicular cells, vacuolated cytoplasm and ill-defined cell boundaries of the follicular epithelium. Biochemical analysis in the blood showed significant decrease in serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Also, a significant decrease was observed in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and blood glutathione (GSH). Treatment with marjoram (100 mg/kg) was found to offer significant protection against gamma radiation induced toxicity in thyroid gland tissues which was evident by improved status of most parameters under investigation. These results suggest that marjoram could increase the antioxidant defence systems of thyroid gland and may protect from adverse effects of whole body gamma radiation.

  8. Biochemical and histological alterations induced by fluid percussion brain injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulmond, S; Duval, D; Serrano, A; Scatton, B; Benavides, J

    1993-08-20

    In the present study we have characterized the time-course of the histopathological and biochemical alterations resulting from mechanical brain injury caused by lateral fluid percussion centered over the parietal cortex in the rat. The injury device used was an HPLC pump coupled to a solenoid valve which delivered a constant and short lasting (10 ms) impact pressure (1.6 atm). This traumatic procedure resulted in an accumulation of blood in the subarachnoid space and cortical edema at 4-24 h post-trauma. From 4 h after injury, cortical neurons exhibited a pathologic appearance and phagocytic cells invaded the brain parenchyma. At 3 and 7 days post-injury, complete neuronal loss was observed in the parietal cortex around the impact site. In the ipsilateral cortex, the time-course of histologically assessed neuronal loss and phagocytic/glial activation paralleled the time-course of the loss of omega 1-2 (benzodiazepine) sites (a neuronal marker) and of the increase in p sites (peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites; a glial/macrophage marker). Neuronal loss and increase in the density of the glial/macrophage biochemical marker were also observed in the hippocampus but not in the contralateral cortex or in other subcortical structures, suggesting a selective vulnerability of the hippocampus to this traumatic procedure. There was a very good spatial correlation between the histological alterations and the changes in the density of the neuronal and glial/macrophage biochemical markers (as assessed by autoradiography). The volume of the lesion, integrated from the surface of the lesion measured at 10 coronal levels cut at a 1 mm interval and stained with haemalum and eosin, represented 32.9 +/- 1.7 mm3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7691381

  9. Mycophenolate mofetil alters the antioxidant status in duodenum of rats: Implication for silymarin usage in mycophenolate mofetil induced gastrointestinal disorders

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    Sanaz Sheikhzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF as an immunosuppressive agent is used to prevent graftrejection. One of the adverse effects of long time administration of MMF is the gastrointestinaldisorder. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of silymarin (SMN onMMF-induced gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats wereassigned into three groups including the control and test groups. The control animals receivedsaline(5 mL kg-1andthe test animals were treated with MMF (40 mg kg-1, orally and saline,MMF and silymarin (SMN, 50 mg kg-1, orally for 14 consecutive days, respectively. To evaluatethe GI disorders due to the MMF-induced oxidative stress and subsequently the protective effectof SMN, malondialdehyde (MDA,total thiol molecules(TTM levels and total anti-oxidantcapacity (TAC were determined. Additionally, histopathological examinations in the duodenalregion of small intestine were performed. The MMF-increased level of MDA was reduced bySMN administration, while the MMF-reduced level of TTM increased significantly (p< 0.05 bySMN administration. Histopathological examinations showed the goblet cell reduction andcongestion in the MMF-received animals; while SMN was able to improve the MMF-inducedgoblet cell reduction and congestion. Our data suggest that the MMF-induced GI disorders arecharacterized by changes in antioxidant status, which presented by the elevation of MDA leveland reduction of TTM concentration. Moreover, the improved biochemical alterations andhistopathologic damages by SMN indicating its gastroprotective and antioxidant effects

  10. Chemoprevention of Barley and Sage against acrylamide-Induced genotoxic, biochemical and histopathological alterations in rats

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    Sekena, H. Abd El-Aziem1, Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahab2, Mahmoud A. M3Azza M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR has recently been found in fried and backed foods, suggesting widespread public exposure. ACR is an industrial chemical material that causes neurotoxicity in humans and was designated as a probable human carcinogen by IARC and USEPA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of barley and sage against ACR mutagenicity and biochemical and histopathological changes in rats. Forty mature male rats were divided into eight groups and were fed barley and/or sage-supplemented diet (5% with or without ACR (50 mg/kg b.w. The biochemical results revealed that ACR increased Alanine amino transferase (ALT, Aspartate amino transferase (AST, triglycerides (TG, cholesterol and uric acid. Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells were significantly increased in ACR-treated animals. Severe pathological lesions included testicular degeneration, oedema, spermatid giant cells formation and necrosis of spermatid cells were found in the testis of ACR-treated group. The kidney of this group showed degenerative changes. Cotreatment with barley and/or Sage and ACR resulted in a significant improvement in all the parameters tested. It could be concluded that these plants contain antioxidant compounds and may be useful when add as food additive to the food cooked on a higher temperature.

  11. Malathion-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats: biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flehi-Slim, Imen; Chargui, Issam; Boughattas, Sonia; El Mabrouk, Aymen; Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Neffati, Fadwa; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Haouas, Zohra; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2015-11-01

    The increasing use of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment constitutes an ecotoxicological hazard especially for humans and non-target animals. Hereby, we analyzed the toxic effects of malathion on the histological structure of liver and biochemical parameters in male rats. Three groups received daily different amounts of malathion: 1/1000, 1/100, and 1/10 LD50 for 30 days. The weights of treated rat's liver have increased. Analyzed tissues showed centrilobular and sinusoidal congestion, hepatocyte hypertrophy, cellular vacuolization, anucleated hepatocytes, depletion of organelles affecting the majority of cells, and presence of necrotic foci into the hepatic parenchyma. Histological sections of the liver showed important hepatocyte glycogen storage. We conclude that malathion stimulates the filing of glycogen in a dose-dependent manner. Biochemical parameters showed that alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels increased in the treated groups when the level of total protein decreased in intoxicated groups. PMID:26162445

  12. Endothelin-1 As A Biochemical Marker in Asthmatic Children Using Induced Sputum Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelin-1 is a physiological normal potent bronchoconstrictor peptide produced in the respiratory airways and increase excessively their inflammation. Endothelin-1 (Et-1) level was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in saliva, sputum and plasma of thirty children suffering from mild to moderate asthma with age ranged from 6-12 years. Ten healthy children of matching age and sex were used as control group. The patients were further classified according to previous regular treatment into 21 steroid dependent and 9 non-steroid dependent. The results revealed that the saliva, sputum and plasma levels of ET-1 in asthmatic patients were significantly higher than that of control children. In both control and asthmatic children, ET-1 levels were more pronounced in the order of saliva>sputum>plasma. On the other hand, the saliva, sputum and plasma levels of ET-1 were significantly lower in steroid dependent asthmatic children than that of the non-steroid dependent ones. High levels of ET-1 in mild to moderate asthmatic children clarify the implication of this biochemical mediator marker in the pathology of the disease. The regular inhaled steroid therapy reduced the level of this mediator but did not return to the basal levels of controls, so, ET-1 antagonist may be useful in management of bronchial asthma in children. Moreover, ET-1 in sputum was more valuable biochemical indicator to monitor airway inflammation than in plasma

  13. Mercury Induced Biochemical Alterations As Oxidative Stress In Mugil Cephalus In Short Term Toxicity Test

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    J.S.I Rajkumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mugil cephalus juveniles of size 2.5 ±0.6cm were exposed to mercury in short term chronic toxicity test through static renewal bioassay to detect the possible biochemical agent as biomarkers in aquatic pollution and in estuarine contamination as specific. Lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione S -transferase, catalase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase were studied as biochemical parameters. Increased thio-barbituric acid reactive substances levels were observed under exposure to mercury, leading to the oxidative damage resulting in lipid peroxidation. Decreased activities of antioxidants, catalase and increased glutathione-S-transferase under short term chronic exposures to mercury were more prominent in metal stress suggesting activation of physiological mechanism to scavenge the ROS produced. Decreased values of reduced glutathione on prolonged exposures to mercury indicate utilization of this antioxidant, either to scavenge oxy-radical or act in combination with other enzymes. The acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be decreased during mercury exposure. The results also suggest that mercury alters the active oxygen metabolism by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities, which can be used as biomarker to detect sub-lethal effects in aquatic pollution

  14. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results: The results showed marked normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect

  15. Chromium stress induced alterations in biochemical and enzyme metabolism in aquatic and terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K Sankar; Baskaran, L; Rajasekaran, S; Sumathi, K; Chidambaram, A L A; Sundaramoorthy, P

    2008-06-01

    Water is seriously polluted by the discharge of various industrial wastewater containing heavy metals. Among them, chromium is considered to be toxic to living organisms and it is released mostly from tanneries. The chromium-contaminated water is discharged into nearby water bodies and it affects both aquatic and terrestrial plants. So the present experiment was conducted with an aquatic plant, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) and a terrestrial plant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). They were treated with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/L) of potassium dichromate solution. The biochemical parameters such as total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and amino acid content and the enzymatic activities like catalase and peroxidase were estimated. The accumulation of chromium was also analysed in both the plants. All the biochemical contents and enzyme activities of water lettuce and soybean seedlings showed a great variation with respect to the increase in chromium concentrations. The accumulation of chromium increased gradually with the increase of chromium concentrations. Total inhibition of all the parameters were observed at 300 mg/L chromium concentration. The terrestrial plant soybean was sensitive than the aquatic plant water lettuce towards chromium stress. PMID:18206355

  16. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

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    Seshadri Sajjala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.

  17. The Flavonoid Rutin Attenuates the Radiation Induced Biochemical Disorders in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays increasing attention has been given to the role of free radicals generated through oxidative stress. Tissue damage is associated with alterations in oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glutathione (GSH) level and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (g GT) activity. Many radical scavengers, interestingly naturally occurring antioxidants flavonoids, have been found to be effective in inhibiting the oxidative damage. In the present study female Sprague Dawely rats (140-150 g) were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (shot dose, 6.5 Gy). The flavonoid rutin, widely distributed in most vegetables, was administrated orally (1.064 mmol/kg body wt) up to 2 weeks before gamma irradiation of rats. Blood samples were taken 1 and 14 days post radiation exposure. The data revealed deleterious damage of radiation exposure which is manifested in significant acceleration in lipid peroxidation (as malon-dialdehyde, MDA content) and protein oxidation (as carbonyl group). On the other hand, the data recorded imbalance in the redox status which is noticed in the significant inhibition of reduced glutathione (GSH) and elevation in gamma GT activity level. Administration of rutin before radiation exposure ameliorated, to a great extent the damaging effects of radiation in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species as a promising antioxidant

  18. Bone marrow transplantation for treatment of some radiation induced biochemical disorders in albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation has been conducted aiming to study the role played by transplantation of bone marrow cells as a biological treatment for radiation injury to carbohydrate metabolism as shown by changes in: serum glucose level and liver glycogen content as well as protein metabolism as presented by: serum total protein and protein and protein fractions. gamma irradiation caused detectable hyperglycemia parallel by depletion in liver glycogen content. On the other hand, radiation caused decrease in serum albumin, increase in serum protein content, increase in total globulin and consequently a decrease in the albumin/globulin ratio. Transplantation of bone marrow cells to irradiated rats caused restoration of glucose level in serum and glycogen content in liver after one week from transplantation; only partial restoration could be detected for total protein, total globulin, content as well as A/G ratio. 6 fig

  19. Neurobehavioural, neuropathological and biochemical profiles in a novel mouse model of co-morbid posttraumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury.

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    Joseph Olubunmi Ojo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-morbid mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD has become the signature disorder for returning combat veterans. The clinical heterogeneity and overlapping symptomatology of mTBI and PTSD underscore the need to develop a preclinical model that will enable the characterization of unique and overlapping features and allow discrimination between both disorders. This study details the development and implementation of a novel experimental paradigm for PTSD and combined PTSD-mTBI. The PTSD paradigm involved exposure to a danger-related predator odor under repeated restraint over a 21day period and a physical trauma (inescapable footshock. We administered this paradigm alone, or in combination with a previously established mTBI model. We report outcomes of behavioral, pathological and biochemical profiles at an acute timepoint. PTSD animals demonstrated recall of traumatic memories, anxiety and an impaired social behavior. In both mTBI and combination groups there was a pattern of disinhibitory like behavior. mTBI abrogated both contextual fear and impairments in social behavior seen in PTSD animals. No major impairment in spatial memory was observed in any group. Examination of neuroendocrine and neuroimmune responses in plasma revealed a trend towards increase in corticosterone in PTSD and combination groups, and an apparent increase in Th1 and Th17 proinflamatory cytokine(s in the PTSD only and mTBI only groups respectively. In the brain there were no gross neuropathological changes in any groups. We observed that mTBI on a background of repeated trauma exposure resulted in an augmentation of axonal injury and inflammatory markers neurofilament L and ICAM-1. Our observations thus far suggest that this novel stress-trauma-related paradigm may be a useful model for investigating further the overlapping and distinct spatio-temporal and behavioral/biochemical relationship between mTBI and PTSD experienced by combat

  20. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

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    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg. At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS. The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD. Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage.

  1. Aluminium-induced changes in hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2004-06-01

    For a long time, aluminium (Al) has been considered an indifferent element from a toxicological point of view. In recent years, however, Al has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders, such as dialysis dementia, the fulminant neurological disorder that can develop in patients on renal dialysis. Therefore, the present experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on certain hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 0mg AA and 0mg AlCl3/kg body weight (BW) (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3/kg BW (1/25 LD50); 34 mg AlCl3 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 16 weeks. Evaluations were made for lipid peroxidation, enzyme activities and hemato-biochemical parameters. Results obtained showed that AlCl3 significantly (PGST) and the levels of sulfhydryl groups (SH groups) in rabbit plasma, liver, brain, testes and kidney. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP), and phosphorylase activities were significantly decreased in liver and testes due to AlCl3 administration. While, plasma, liver, testes and brain lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were significantly increased. Contrariwise, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly decreased in brain and plasma. Aluminium treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma total lipids (TL), blood haemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), and increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and the concentrations of glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin and cholesterol. Ascorbic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of free radicals, TL, cholesterol, glucose and creatinine, and increased the

  2. Oxamyl-induced alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of daily oral doses of 0.9 and 2.5 mg/kg of the carbamate insecticide oxamyl for 16 days on selected hematological and biochemical parameters in male rats was investigated. The weight of animals was significantly decreased compared to controls. The hematological studies revealed significant reduction in red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Impairment of thyroid function was noticed by elevation of triiodothyronine (T3) and depression of thyroxine (T4). Brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was moderately inhibited in the first few days of exposure. However, the results of the parameters investigated indicate a moderate degree of toxicity of oxamyl following oral exposure of the doses selected

  3. Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats

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    Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

  4. Finding novel distinctions between the sAPPα-mediated anabolic biochemical pathways in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome plasma and brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Balmiki; Sokol, Deborah K.; Maloney, Bryan; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are developmental disorders. No validated blood-based biomarkers exist for either, which impedes bench-to-bedside approaches. Amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein (APP) and metabolites are usually associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). APP cleavage by α-secretase produces potentially neurotrophic secreted APPα (sAPPα) and the P3 peptide fragment. β-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) cleavage produces secreted APPβ (sAPPβ) and intact Aβ. Excess Aβ is potentially neurotoxic and can lead to atrophy of brain regions such as amygdala in AD. By contrast, amygdala is enlarged in ASD but not FXS. We previously reported elevated levels of sAPPα in ASD and FXS vs. controls. We now report elevated plasma Aβ and total APP levels in FXS compared to both ASD and typically developing controls, and elevated levels of sAPPα in ASD and FXS vs. controls. By contrast, plasma and brain sAPPβ and Aβ were lower in ASD vs. controls but elevated in FXS plasma vs. controls. We also detected age-dependent increase in an α-secretase in ASD brains. We report a novel mechanistic difference in APP pathways between ASD (processing) and FXS (expression) leading to distinct APP metabolite profiles in these two disorders. These novel, distinctive biochemical differences between ASD and FXS pave the way for blood-based biomarkers for ASD and FXS. PMID:27212113

  5. Assessment of radio modulatory potential of emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation Induces cellular damage through direct ionization of DNA and other cellular targets and indirectly via reactive oxygen species which may include effects from epigenetic changes. It has been known since ancient times that Cadmium is virtually toxic to every organ of body including renal system. Radioprotectors are compounds that are designed to reduce the damage in normal tissue caused by radiation and cadmium. Emblica officinalis extract has been shown to possess high antioxidative, anticancer, lipid lowering, antisclerotic, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV potential. It is highly nutritious and important dietary source of vitamin. Emblica contains a polyphenols, especially tannins and other phenolic compounds. Considering antioxidant properties of Emblica, the aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica in reducing radiation and cadmium induced changes in mouse kidney. For this purpose four male mice were randomly assigned into six treatment groups. The mice in the treatment groups II to VII treated respectively with cadmium chloride, radiation (7.0 Gy) combined treatment and drug treated groups. All biochemical parameters of the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day-14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups. Thereafter value declined up to day-28 without reaching to normal. Whereas the value of cholesterol and DNA showed a decreasing trend up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in Emblica treated groups. The biochemical findings indicated the drug treated section of the kidney showed slightly/no degenerative changes. The treated groups demonstrating the ability of Emblica to inhibit oxidative stress thus preventing renal injury. (author)

  6. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis. PMID:20217640

  7. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems faced in the modern world today is that of pollution caused due to radioactive material and emission of gamma radiation from various sources either in terms of background radiation sources, accidental leak from nuclear reactors or intentional convert attack by terrorists to achieve the malefic goals. In view of such perceived risks and threats associated with plausible radiological and nuclear incidents. It is pertained to develop potential drugs for the mitigation of deleterious effects of ionizing radiation and heavy metals. In recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metal induced changes. In light of above the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alteration in the Brain of Swiss Albino mice. The animals were exposed to 3.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica extract was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals from all the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, mid brains (cerebral hemisphere) were taken out and kept at -20 deg C for different biochemical parameters. It was The values of total proteins, cholesterol and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in the Emblica treated groups thereafter it increased on day-28, whereas the value of glycogen, Acid phosphatase activity, Alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA increased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in drug treated groups, thereafter it decreased on day-28 in all the groups. In the combined treatment groups the biochemical changes were more prominent showing synergistic or additive effect. In the Emblica pretreated animals the changes were less severe and an early and fast

  8. Chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghimire SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shree Ram Ghimire,1 Sarita Parajuli2 1Department of Psychiatry, National Medical College, Birgunj, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Kathmandu National Medical College, Anamnagar, Kathmandu, Nepal Abstract: Chronic organophosphate (OP-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a rare condition following prolonged exposure to OP compounds. Due to the lack of valid diagnostic tools and criteria, very few cases are seen in clinical practice and are often misdiagnosed. Misdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment that may increase the risk of morbidity or suicidality. In this paper, we present the case of a 35-year-old male who needed support in breathing from a mechanical ventilator and developed neuropsychiatric behavioral problems following ingestion of OP compounds, which lead to suicidality. The patient was treated by the psychiatric team with antipsychotic and antidepressants and improved following the regular use of medication. Keywords: COPIND, mood liability, suicidal thoughts

  9. Cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica against cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity in rats: A biochemical, electrocardiographic and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Saraca indica (SI bark was investigated against cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Cardiotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by administering cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p. single injection on first day of experimental period. Saraca indica (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. was administered immediately after administration of cyclophosphamide on first day and daily for 10 days. The general observations and mortality were measured. Results: Cyclophosphamide administration significantly (p < 0.05 increased lipid peroxidation (LPO and decreased the levels of antioxidant markers such as reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Cyclophosphamide elevated the levels of biomarker enzymes like creatine kinase (CK, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Further, the cyclophosphamide treated rats showed changes in electrocardiogram (ECG along with increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Treatment with Saraca indica significantly (p < 0.05 reversed the status of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, oxidative enzymes and lipid profile in cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity. Potential cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica was supported by histopathological examination that reduced severity of cellular damage of the myocardium. Conclusion: The biochemical, ECG and histopathology reports support the cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica which could be attributed to antioxidant activity.

  10. Biochemical detection of type I cell damage after nitrogen dioxide-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, M C; Pittet, J F; Allen, L; Wiener-Kronish, J P; Dobbs, L G

    1997-12-01

    We have previously shown that injury to lung epithelial type I cells can be detected biochemically by measuring the airway fluid content of a type I cell-specific protein, rTI40, in a model of severe acute lung injury [M. C. McElroy, J.-F. Pittet, S. Hashimoto, L. Allen, J. P. Wiener-Kronish, and L. G. Dobbs. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 12): L181-L186, 1995]. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate the utility of rTI40 in the assessment of alveolar injury in a model of milder acute lung injury. Rats were exposed to 18 parts/ million NO2 for 12 h; control rats received filtered air for 12 h. In NO2-exposed rats, the total amount of rTI40 in bronchoalveolar fluid was elevated 2-fold compared with control values (P recoverable rTI40 can be used as an index of the severity of damage to the alveolar epithelium. PMID:9435578

  11. EVALUATION OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN HELLP SYNDROME CASES OF PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre - eclampsia is a relatively common complication of pregnancy. HELLP Syndrome (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelet is a pregnancy specific disorder, frequently associated with severe manifestation of Pre - eclampsia and eclampsia with significant morbidity and mortality for pregnant women and their children, but can also be diagnosed in the absence of these di sorders. In the present study, the incidence of HELLP Syndrome is 15%. MMR is 11.11% due to DIC, Foetal Morbidity is 44.44%. HELLP Syndrome is more in primigravida, low socio economic groups and AST, ALT, Bilirubin are increased due to Liver Dysfunction.

  12. Haemato-biochemical disorders associated with nodavirus like-agent in adult leaping mullet Liza saliens (Risso, 1810) in the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Maryam; Binaii, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Mohdes; Fazli, Hasan; Zorriehzahra, Mohamad Jalil

    2016-03-01

    Betanoda virus is an emerging problem in several marine fish species in various geographic areas all over the world. In recent years, mullets stock of the Caspian Sea decreased dramatically and a betanoda virus like-agent was introduced as the cause of mullet's mortality. The main objective of the present study is to compare hemato-biochemical parameters in healthy and infected sharpnose mullets (Liza saliens) to betanoda virus like-agent. The adult sharpnose mullets (34 clinically affected fish + 34 apparently healthy fish) were captured from the southeast the Caspian Sea from 2012 to 2013. All of the captured fish were 4 or 5 years old. The main clinical sings of infected fish were lethargy, severe abdominal distention, abnormal swimming and hyperinflation of swim bladder. The results showed that the weight and total length of infected fish were significantly lower than the healthy fish. The results of histopatological evaluation and indirect florescent antibody test were confirmed the presence of a betanoda virus-like agent in infected fish. The diseased fish were severely anemic (hypochromic macrocytic anemia) and had a serious haemopoietic disorders. The anemia associated with a sever leukopenia, a significant rise of neutrophils and immature neutrophils and a significant decries of lymphocytes percentage. Total protein, albumin and total immunoglobulin levels were significantly reduced in the serum of infected fish, while the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased when compared to the healthy fish. These results suggested that the feeding of the infected fish to betanoda virus like-agent were disturbed and it could be cause haemato-biochemical disorder and mortality of the fish in Iranian water of the Caspian Sea. PMID:26925439

  13. Radiation-Induced Topological Disorder in Irradiated Network Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Linn W.

    2002-12-21

    This report summarizes results of a research program investigating the fundamental principles underlying the phenomenon of topological disordering in a radiation environment. This phenomenon is known popularly as amorphization, but is more formally described as a process of radiation-induced structural arrangement that leads in crystals to loss of long-range translational and orientational correlations and in glasses to analogous alteration of connectivity topologies. The program focus has been on a set compound ceramic solids with directed bonding exhibiting structures that can be described as networks. Such solids include SiO2, Si3N4, SiC, which are of interest to applications in fusion energy production, nuclear waste storage, and device manufacture involving ion implantation or use in radiation fields. The principal investigative tools comprise a combination of experimental diffraction-based techniques, topological modeling, and molecular-dynamics simulations that have proven a rich source of information in the preceding support period. The results from the present support period fall into three task areas. The first comprises enumeration of the rigidity constraints applying to (1) more complex ceramic structures (such as rutile, corundum, spinel and olivine structures) that exhibit multiply polytopic coordination units or multiple modes of connecting such units, (2) elemental solids (such as graphite, silicon and diamond) for which a correct choice of polytope is necessary to achieve correct representation of the constraints, and (3) compounds (such as spinel and silicon carbide) that exhibit chemical disorder on one or several sublattices. With correct identification of the topological constraints, a unique correlation is shown to exist between constraint and amorphizability which demonstrates that amorphization occurs at a critical constraint loss. The second task involves the application of molecular dynamics (MD) methods to topologically-generated models

  14. Radiation-Induced Topological Disorder in Irradiated Network Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes results of a research program investigating the fundamental principles underlying the phenomenon of topological disordering in a radiation environment. This phenomenon is known popularly as amorphization, but is more formally described as a process of radiation-induced structural arrangement that leads in crystals to loss of long-range translational and orientational correlations and in glasses to analogous alteration of connectivity topologies. The program focus has been on a set compound ceramic solids with directed bonding exhibiting structures that can be described as networks. Such solids include SiO2, Si3N4, SiC, which are of interest to applications in fusion energy production, nuclear waste storage, and device manufacture involving ion implantation or use in radiation fields. The principal investigative tools comprise a combination of experimental diffraction-based techniques, topological modeling, and molecular-dynamics simulations that have proven a rich source of information in the preceding support period. The results from the present support period fall into three task areas. The first comprises enumeration of the rigidity constraints applying to (1) more complex ceramic structures (such as rutile, corundum, spinel and olivine structures) that exhibit multiply polytopic coordination units or multiple modes of connecting such units, (2) elemental solids (such as graphite, silicon and diamond) for which a correct choice of polytope is necessary to achieve correct representation of the constraints, and (3) compounds (such as spinel and silicon carbide) that exhibit chemical disorder on one or several sublattices. With correct identification of the topological constraints, a unique correlation is shown to exist between constraint and amorphizability which demonstrates that amorphization occurs at a critical constraint loss. The second task involves the application of molecular dynamics (MD) methods to topologically-generated models

  15. Sodium Barbital Induced Biochemical, Histological and Histochemical Changes in the Liver of Albino Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Ali Radwan*, Aziza M. El-Wessemy*, Samia M. Sakr

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The present work was planned to assess and evaluate some physiological parameters, histopathological and histochemical impacts of sodium barbital on the liver of adult male albino mice. Material and Methods :The mice were divided into 3 groups, the first group served as a control group, while the other two groups were treated with the therapeutic dose (60 mg/kg b.wt., i.p. for 7 days (short-term group and 21 days (long-term group as repeated daily doses. Results: Biochemical analysis showed a significant increase in serum glucose level (hyperglycaemia, AST, ALT and bilirubin, in all treated groups. Also, total lipids and triglycerides showed a significant increase in the long-term group and non significant change in the short-term group. On the other hand, alkaline phosphatase ALP, showed a significant decrease in both treated groups. Total cholesterol level showed a significant decrease in the short-term group but exhibited a significant increase in the long-term group. The results obtained from the present study showed marked alterations in the liver tissue. Histopathological changes in liver tissue were congestion of the central veins, wedening of the blood sinusoids, activation of the phagocytic küpffer cells and cytoplasmic degeneration (fatty and hydropic with nuclear lesions. Histochemical changes in liver tissue revealed depletion of polysaccharides and total proteins in both short-term and long-term groups. Conclusion So these results came to conclusion that barbiturates should be prohibited and carefully used specially when prescribed as tranquilizer

  16. Protective effects of y-irradiation to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: A biochemical and histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible protective effect of low dose of gamma radiation against pancreatic cells damage in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Young male Wister rats were divided into the control group, the irradiated groups, which divided into two subgroups, single irradiated group, which subjected to 0.5 Gy of whole body gamma-irradiation as a single dose and repeated irradiated group, which subjected to 0.5 Gy of whole body gamma-irradiation as a repeated dose (0.5 Gy daily for two days). The 3rd groups, which in turn subdivided into three subgroups, STZ group administrated to a single dose of 45 mg kg-1 of STZ (i.p), the STZ single irradiated group, subjected to single irradiated dose after the STZ administration and STZ repeated irradiated group, that exposed to repeated dose of radiation after the STZ administration. The diabetic rats presented a significant increase in plasma glucose and lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in both whole blood SOD and GSH as well as in liver tissue. In addition, marked depression was observed in plasma and liver glutathione- S-transferase compared with normal rats. Low dose of radiation as a single or repeated doses, significantly reduced blood glucose and TEARS and significantly increased SOD activity and GSH content in both blood and liver besides a marked amelioration in GST activity in plasma and liver tissues. The ultra structural studies revealed that STZ affects both cells of pancreas. There was a reduction in secretary granules and rough endoplasmic reticulum with the accumulation of lipid. Low dose of y-rays exposure result a remarkable protective effect on biochemical and histological level

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production in obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fluitman; D. Denys; N. Vulink; S. Schutters; C. Heijnen; H. Westenberg

    2010-01-01

    The immune system is implicated in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. In anxiety disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD), immunological findings are equivocal and sparse. In this study, we investigated the lipopolysaccha

  18. Alleviative effect of myricetin on ochratoxin A-induced oxidative stress in rat renal cortex: histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haleem, Manal R Abdel; Kattaia, Asmaa A A; El-Baset, Samia A Abdel; Mostafa, Heba El Sayed

    2016-04-01

    Ochratoxins (OTA) are secondary metabolites of Aspergillus and Penicillium. The detoxification of OTA has been of major interest due to its widespread threat to human health. We aimed to investigate the possible alleviative effect of myricetin (MYR) against OTA-induced damage in renal cortex of rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were randomized into five equal groups: control (untreated), vehicle control (0.5 ml corn oil/day including dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]), MYR (100 mg MYR/kg b.w./day in distilled water), OTA (0.5 mg OTA/kg b.w./day; dissolved in 10% DMSO and then corn oil) and OTA + MYR group (received OTA and MYR at similar doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, renal cortices were processed for light and electron microscope examinations. Immunohistochemical staining for localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was carried out. Biochemical analysis of tissue glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined to evaluate oxidative stress. OTA administration induced deleterious renal injury evidenced by the structural and ultra-structural changes. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, PCNA and TGF-β1 were significantly up regulated compared with control. Alterations in antioxidant parameters supported that oxidative stress was one of the mechanisms involved in OTA toxicity. On the contrary, co-administration of MRY partially ameliorated OTA-induced renal injury. We suggest the potential effectiveness of MYR to counteract OTA-induced toxic oxidative stress on the renal cortex. PMID:26571153

  19. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Novel Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: an Intrinsically Disordered Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Sampedro, José G; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Cervantes-González, Miguel A; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2015-08-01

    A novel Cu/ZnSOD from Amaranthus hypochondriacus was cloned, expressed, and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame (ORF) of 456 bp, which was predicted to encode a 15.6-kDa molecular weight protein with a pI of 5.4. Structural analysis showed highly conserved amino acid residues involved in Cu/Zn binding. Recombinant amaranth superoxide dismutase (rAhSOD) displayed more than 50 % of catalytic activity after incubation at 100 °C for 30 min. In silico analysis of Amaranthus hypochondriacus SOD (AhSOD) amino acid sequence for globularity and disorder suggested that this protein is mainly disordered; this was confirmed by circular dichroism, which showed the lack of secondary structure. Intrinsic fluorescence studies showed that rAhSOD undergoes conformational changes in two steps by the presence of Cu/Zn, which indicates the presence of two binding sites displaying different affinities for metals ions. Our results show that AhSOD could be classified as an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that is folded when metals are bound and with high thermal stability. PMID:26129702

  20. Determination of Kinetic Parameters and Metal Ions in Urea-Urease System Based on the Biochemical Reaction Heat Induced Laser Beam Deflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new analytical method for the determination of urea-urease system based on biochemical reaction heat induced laser beam deflection is presented in this paper. With the method, the Michaelis constant (Km) of urease and apparent inhibition constant (Ki) of some metal ion inhibitors were measured respectively. This method was also used for the quantitative determination of metal ions with satisfactory result.

  1. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Zhornitsky; Andràs Tikàsz; Élie Rizkallah; Jean-Pierre Chiasson; Stéphane Potvin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD) individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIP...

  2. Brain oscillations in bipolar disorder and lithium-induced changes

    OpenAIRE

    Atagün Mİ

    2016-01-01

    Murat İlhan Atagün Department of Psychiatry, Yıldırım Beyazıt University Medical School, Cankaya, Ankara, Turkey Abstract: Electroencephalography (EEG) studies in patients with bipolar disorder have revealed lower amplitudes in brain oscillations. The aim of this review is to describe lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder and to discuss potential underlying factors. A literature survey about lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder was performed. Lithium consistently e...

  3. Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction of Cassia fistula linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Jarald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae such as petroleum ether (60-80°, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05 to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Montelukast Against Methotrexate-Induced Liver Toxicity: A Biochemical and Histological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Evren Kose; Hilal Irmak Sapmaz; Ediz Sarihan; Nigar Vardi; Yusuf Turkoz; Nihat Ekinci

    2012-01-01

    The effects of montelukast against methotrexate-induced liver damage were investigated. 35 Wistar albino female rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: group I: control; group II: montelukast (ML); group III: methotrexate (Mtx); group IV: montelukast treatment after methotrexate application (Mtx + ML); group V: montelukast treatment before methotrexate application (ML + Mtx). At the end of the experiment, the liver tissues of rats were removed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO)...

  5. Tetrahydrocurcumin exerts protective effect on vincristine induced neuropathy: Behavioral, biochemical, neurophysiological and histological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeshma, N; Prasanth, K G; Balaji, Bhaskar

    2015-08-01

    Hyperalgesia, allodynia, delayed motor nerve conduction velocity, oxidative stress and axonal damage are signs and symptoms of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Present treatment/preventive strategies of CIPN are futile and the neuropathy may even lead to discontinuation of chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) 40 and 80mg/kg in experimental vincristine induced neuropathy in rats. Hyperalgesia was assessed by hot plate (thermal), Randall-Selitto (mechanical) test, allodynia was assessed by cold plate (thermal) test, functional loss was measured by sciatic function index, nociception was evaluated by formalin test. Neurophysiological recordings were carried out to assess motor nerve conduction velocity. Total calcium levels, oxidative stress and TNF-α was measured in sciatic nerve tissue homogenate to assess neuropathy. Histopathological changes was observed on sciatic nerve to assess the protective effect of THC against the vincristine. Pregabalin was used as a standard in this study. Rats administered with THC at 80mg/kg significantly attenuated the vincristine induced neuropathic pain manifestations which may be due to its multiple actions including anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, calcium inhibitory and antioxidant effect. This study delineates that THC can be a promising candidate for the prevention of CIPN by chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26102012

  6. Biochemical mechanisms in drug-induced liver injury: Certainties and doubts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignazio Grattagliano; Leonilde Bonfrate; Catia V Diogo; Helen H Wang; David QH Wang; Piero Portincasa

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a significant and still unresolved clinical problem. Limitations to knowledge about the mechanisms of toxicity render incomplete the detection of hepatotoxic potential during preclinical development. Several xenobiotics are lipophilic substances and their transformation into hydrophilic compounds by the cytochrome P-450 system results in production of toxic metabolites. Aging, preexisting liver disease, enzyme induction or inhibition, genetic variances, local O_2 supply and, above all, the intrinsic molecular properties of the drug may affect this process. Necrotic death follows antioxidant consumption and oxidation of intracellular proteins, which determine increased permeability of mitochondrial membranes, loss of potential, decreased ATP synthesis, inhibition of Ca~(2+)-dependent ATPase, reduced capability to sequester Ca~(2+) within mitochondria, and membrane bleb formation. Conversely, activation of nucleases and energetic participation of mitochondria are the main intracellular mechanisms that lead to apoptosis. Non-parenchymal hepatic cells are inducers of hepatocellular injury and targets for damage. Activation of the immune system promotes idiosyncratic reactions that result in hepatic necrosis or cholestasis, in which different HLA genotypes might play a major role. This review focuses on current knowledge of the mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury and recent advances on newly discovered mechanisms of liver damage. Future perspectives including new frontiers for research are discussed.

  7. Involvement of nitric oxide in the mechanism of biochemical alterations induced by simulated microgravity in Microcystis aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuan; Liu, Yongding; Wang, Gaohong

    2012-03-01

    Simulated microgravity (SMG) can inhibit proliferation and enhance microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating the SMG induced changes of proliferation, photochemical system II photochemical activity, pigment, soluble protein and microcystin production in M. aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa was exposed to 0.1 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) or 0.02 mM 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO, NO scavenger) alone or in combination with SMG for 48 h. SMG and SNP inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa while c-PTIO had no effect on cell number. As to yield, the negative effect of SMG was augmented by SNP and suppressed by c-PTIO. The intracellular concentrations of chlorophyll a, carotenoid, phycocyanin, soluble protein and microcystin were increased by SMG after 48 h. The effects of SMG on these metabolic processes could be enhanced by SNP and be partly eliminated by c-PTIO. Moreover, SNP and c-PTIO only functioned in these biochemical processes under SMG, unlike in the regulation of cell proliferation and yield. These results showed that the effects of SMG could be enhanced by adding exogenous NO and be mitigated by scavenging endogenous NO, revealing the involvement of NO in the changes in biochemistry processes induced by SMG in M. aeruginosa.

  8. Vanillin mitigates potassium bromate-induced molecular, biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Hajer; Driss, Dorra; Ellouz Chaabouni, Samia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Hakim, Ahmed; Ben Amara, Ibtissem

    2016-05-25

    The present study aimed to explore the ability of vanillin to ameliorate the adverse effects induced by potassium bromate (KBrO3) in the renal tissue. Our results showed a significant increase in hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein product and protein carbonyl levels in the kidney of KBrO3 treated mice, compared with the control group. Nephrotoxicity was evidenced by a decrease in plasma uric acid and kidney glutathione levels, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, lactate dehydrogenase and catalase activities. Additionally, creatinine and urea levels significantly increased in the plasma and declined in the urine. Also, Kidney glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, metallothionein (MT1 and MT2) mRNA expression remarkably increased. These modifications in biochemical and molecular values were substantiated by histopathological data. Co-treatment with vanillin restored these parameters to near control values. Interestingly, vanillin proved to possess, in vitro, a stronger scavenging radical activity than vitamin C and Trolox. Thus, vanillin inhibited KBrO3-induced damage via its antioxidant and antiradical activities as well as its capacity to protect genes expression and histopathological changes. PMID:27074584

  9. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  10. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Lipidomic and Biochemical Alterations in the Intertidal Macroalga Gracilaria dura (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-10-01

    The role of exogenously added methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a lipid-derived signaling compound, in inducing oxidative stress in the marine red macroalga Gracilaria dura was investigated. MeJA at a concentration of 1-100 µM was a strong stimulant of reactive oxygen species (H(2)O(2), HO· and O(2) (·-)) (P phycocyanin, with a concomitant increase in phycoerythrin. The MeJA-induced oxidative burst also led to the induction of a fatty acid oxidation cascade, resulting in the synthesis of hydroxy-oxylipins and the up-regulation of the 13-lipoxygenase pathway. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic analysis revealed that monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (a chloroplastic glycerolipid) and phosphatidylcholine (extrachloroplastidic phopholipid) were the most affected lipid classes. The degradation of 18:3-fatty acid-containing monogalactosyldiacylglycerol inferred that it provided fatty acyl chains for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which was further directed towards either the jasmonate pathway or other alternative pathways of the fatty acid oxidation cascade, analogous to higher plants. Also, G. dura modulated the lipid acyl chains in such a way that no significant change was observed in the fatty acid profile of the treated thalli as compared with those of the control, except for C16:0, C16:1 (n-9), C20:3 (n-6) and C20:4 (n-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MeJA caused the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the up-regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism such as polyphenol oxidase, shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, indicating a shift towards secondary metabolism as a defense strategy to combat the induced oxidative stress. PMID:26276825

  11. Efficiency of Mangifera indica L. (mango) Oil in Attenuating of Some Biochemical Disorders in Sodium Nitrate Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the noxious actions of sodium nitrate administration on some biochemical parameters and to explore the ability of Mangifera indica L. (mango) oil, which obtained from various parts of the plant such as stem barks, leaves, flowers and peels, as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. The results showed that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, urea and creatinine was significantly elevated with a concomitant significant decline in the level of high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, total thyroxine (T4) and triiodo thyroxine (T3) after four weeks of drinking water contaminated with sodium nitrate. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in thiobarbituric reactive substances accompanied by significant drop in reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenates. The administration of mango oil to rats along with sodium nitrate resulted in a pronounced modulation in all previous mentioned parameters, suggesting its role as a hypolipidemic and kidney protective agent. In addition, mango oil stimulates thyroid function and inhibits oxidative damage that may be attributed to the presence of biologically active components and antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, especially mangiferin

  12. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens. PMID:19096064

  13. Zearalenone-induced changes in biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiac tissue: Protective role of crocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, I Ben; Boussabbeh, M; Neffati, F; Najjar, M F; Abid-Essefi, S; Bacha, H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin from Fusarium species commonly found in food commodities and is known to cause reproductive disorders. Several in vivo studies have shown that ZEN is haematotoxic and hepatotoxic and causes several alterations of immunological parameters. Meantime, the available information on the cardiotoxic effects of ZEN is very much limited. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of ZEN in heart tissues of Balb/c mice. We demonstrated that ZEN (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.)) increased creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and induced oxidative stress as monitored by measuring the malondialdehyde level, the generation of protein carbonyls, the catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the expression of the heat shock proteins (Hsp 70). We also demonstrated that acute administration of ZEN triggers apoptosis in cardiac tissue. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of crocin (CRO), a natural carotenoid, to prevent ZEN-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. In fact, combined treatment of ZEN with different doses of CRO (50, 100, and 250 mg kg(-1) b.w.) showed a significant reduction of ZEN-induced toxicity for all tested markers in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that CRO was effective in the protection against ZEN-induced toxicity in cardiac tissue. PMID:26231423

  14. Biochemical and radio-immunological studies on HCV-induced liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis C virus infection is now becoming a common health problem in Egypt. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for this diagnosis. However, liver biopsy is invasive and is associated with complications with chronic hepatitis C patients. There is a clinical need for noninvasive measurement of liver fibrosis. Noninvasive bio markers such as Collagen III was identified in serum samples of patients with HCV induced liver fibrosis at 70 kDa using SDS-PAGE and western blot, measured by ELISA and purified using electro elution . Hyaluronic acid also can be used to differentiate between liver fibrosis patients and healthy individuals using radioimmunoassay .we have developed noninvasive diagnosis that can be applied to patients who either have contraindications or refuse liver biopsy for the management of their HCV infection.

  15. Biochemical isolation and purification of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in seminal plasma of llamas

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    Pierson Roger A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to isolate and purify the protein fraction(s of llama seminal plasma responsible for the ovulation-inducing effect of the ejaculate. Methods Semen collected from male llamas by artificial vagina was centrifuged and the seminal plasma was harvested and stored frozen. Seminal plasma was thawed and loaded onto a Type 1 macro-prep ceramic hydroxylapatite column and elution was carried out using a lineal gradient with 350 mM sodium phosphate. Three protein fractions were identified clearly (Fractions A, B, and C, where a prominent protein band with a mass of 14 kDa was identified in Fraction C. Fraction C was loaded into a sephacryl gel filtration column for further purification using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC. Isocratic elution resulted in 2 distinct protein fractions (Fractions C1 and C2. An in vivo bioassay (n = 10 to 11 llamas per group was used to determine the ovarian effect of each fraction involving treatment with saline (negative control, whole seminal plasma (positive control, or seminal plasma Fractions A, B or C2. Ultrasonography was done to detect ovulation and CL formation, and blood samples were taken to measure plasma progesterone and LH concentrations. Results Ovulation and CL formation was detected in 0/10, 10/11, 0/10, 2/11, and 10/11 llamas treated with saline, whole seminal plasma, Fractions A, B and C2 respectively (P Conclusion Ovulation-inducing factor was isolated from llama seminal plasma as a 14 kDa protein molecule that elicits a preovulatory LH surge followed by ovulation and CL formation in llamas, suggesting an endocrine effect at the level of the hypothalamus (release of GnRH or the pituitary (gonadotrophs.

  16. Modulation of radiation-induced histological and biochemical alterations in mice by Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation is the most commonly used source of ionizing radiation to treat neoplastic disorders in clinical conditions. Clinical success of radiotherapy depends on its ability to selectively kill tumor cells while sparing the normal surrounding tissues. The response of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation sat the cellular and molecular levels are complex and are an molecular levels is complex and is an irreversible process that is dependent on both the radiation dose and tissue-weighting factor. Recently, increased interest has developed on search for potential drugs of plant origin which can quench the reactive energy of free radicals and eliminate oxygen with minimum side effects. Due to lack of an effective protective agent, newer compounds are currently under investigation as possible adjuvant in the radiation treatment of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the radioprotective potential of Rosemarinus officinalis (a medicinal paint) extract (ROE) was studied in mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were exposed to gamma rays (6 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence experimental) of ROE, orally 1000 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 5 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from 12 h to 30 days. In irradiated control animals, crypt cell population, mitotic figures and villus length were markedly reduced on day 1, later these value started to increase progressively but did not attain the normal even till the last autopsy interval. Animals receiving ROE prior to irradiation had a high number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and increase in villus length when compared with non drug treated control at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiation of animals resulted in an elevation of lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione as well as catalase activity in the intestine at 1 hr. post irradiation. In contrast, ROE treatment before irradiation caused a significant

  17. Laboratory-induced hyperventilation differentiates female sexual arousal disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Klein, Carolin; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-08-01

    The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing, a technique previously found to increase SNS activity, immediately prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Physiological arousal (i.e., vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured via the vaginal photoplethysmograph and subjective arousal was measured via self-report questionnaires. LIH differentiated women with SAD from those in the control group, with LIH increasing VPA in the latter, but having no significant effect in the heterogeneous SAD group. However, among subtypes of SAD, LIH differentiated women with genital (n = 16) and subjective (n = 16) subtypes of SAD from women with combined SAD (n = 28) and women without sexual difficulties. Specifically, women in the control group and those with combined SAD had a significant increase in VPA whereas women with genital or subjective SAD had a significant decrease in VPA following LIH. There was no significant effect of LIH on any self-report measure of sexual arousal following erotic stimuli. Implications of the results for the conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:18343989

  18. Modeling Neurological Disorders by Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanut Kunkanjanawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of human brain development are critical as research on neurological disorders have been progressively advanced. However, understanding the process of neurogenesis through analysis of the early embryo is complicated and limited by a number of factors, including the complexity of the embryos, availability, and ethical constrains. The emerging of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has shed light of a new approach to study both early development and disease pathology. The cells behave as precursors of all embryonic lineages; thus, they allow tracing the history from the root to individual branches of the cell lineage tree. Systems for neural differentiation of hESCs and iPSCs have provided an experimental model that can be used to augment in vitro studies of in vivo brain development. Interestingly, iPSCs derived from patients, containing donor genetic background, have offered a breakthrough approach to study human genetics of neurodegenerative diseases. This paper summarizes the recent reports of the development of iPSCs from patients who suffer from neurological diseases and evaluates the feasibility of iPSCs as a disease model. The benefits and obstacles of iPSC technology are highlighted in order to raising the cautions of misinterpretation prior to further clinical translations.

  19. Topical cyclosporine A for mustard gas induced ocular surface disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrow Jadidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A 0.05% for treatment of mustard gas-induced ocular surface disorders with special attention to conjunctival goblet cell density in patients with severe dry eye. Methods: This prospective clinical study included 20 eyes of 20 patients previously exposed to mustard gas with dry eye syndrome unresponsive to artificial tears. Before and after treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% twice daily for 3 months, subjects were evaluated for improvement in symptoms using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI and signs by tear breakup time (TBUT, Schirmer test and measurement of superior bulbar conjunctival goblet cell density. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD and the degree of corneal squamous cell metaplasia were also assessed before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, mean OSDI score, Schirmer test I value and mean TBUT were 42.8 ± 6.1, 4.2 ± 1.2 mm and 2.5 ± 1.3 s, respectively. After 3 months of treatment with topical cyclosporine A, these scores reached 36.4 ± 5.2, 5.8 ± 1.6 mm and 4.9 ± 2.1 s, respectively showing a statistically significant improvement (P 0.05. Conclusion: Treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in patients with severe dry eye due to mustard gas injury increases goblet cell density in the bulbar conjunctiva and improves symptoms of the disease.

  20. Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Id (CDG Id) : phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characterization of a new patient

    OpenAIRE

    Rimella-Le-Huu A.

    2010-01-01

    Rapport de synthèseLes troubles de la glycosylation (Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, CDG) regroupent une famille de maladies multi-systémiques héréditaires causées par des défauts dans la synthèse de glycoconjugés. La glycosylation est une réaction enzymatique consistant à lier de façon covalente un glucide à une chaîne peptidique ou une protéine. Il existe deux types de glycosylation. La N-gjycosylation est l'addition de glucides aux chaînes peptidiques en croissance dès leur entrée d...

  1. Estimation of serum malondialdehyde in potentially malignant disorders and post-antioxidant treated patients: A biochemical study

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    Deepa D′souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco causes the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS which are responsible for the high rate of lipid peroxidation. Malondialdehyde (MDA is the most widely used agent to estimate the extent of lipid peroxidation. Timely diagnosis of the condition followed by supplementation with antioxidants like beta-carotene, pro-vitamin A, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, lipoic acid, zinc, selenium, and spirulina can prevent potentially malignant disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, serum MDA was measured according to the method of Buege, in 15 normal samples and 15 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with potentially malignant disordered and they were prescribed with antioxidants for a period of 4 week-time following which potentially malignant patients serum MDA was analyzed again to determine the extent of peroxidation reactions. Results: The mean serum MDA level in Group C1 was 0.7900 ± 0.2336 μM/L were as the mean serum MDA level of Group S1 was 2.478 ± 0.50756 μM/L and the values between them were highly significant. The values between C1 and S2 were found to be statistically significant. The mean serum MDA of S2 was 2.160 ± 0.41252 μM/L and the values were significant when compared to S1. Conclusion: Serum MDA estimation in oral pre-cancer would serve in determining the extent of lipid peroxidation. Diagnosis of patients and administration of antioxidants has proven to be effective in declining the ROS and thus reducing the extent of damage on the cells. MDA may serve as a diagnostic tool in the estimation of oral pre-cancer and in evaluation of post-treated cases.

  2. Pharmacological treatments inhibiting levodopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP-lesioned monkeys: brain glutamate biochemical correlates

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    NicolasMorin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiglutamatergic drugs can relieve Parkinson’s disease (PD symptoms and decrease L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID. This review reports relevant studies investigating glutamate receptor subtypes in relation to motor complications in PD patients and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-lesioned monkeys. Antagonists of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as NMDA and AMPA receptors, display antidyskinetic activity in PD patients and animal models such as the MPTP monkey. Metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5 receptor antagonists were shown to reduce the severity of LID in PD patients as well as in already dyskinetic non-human primates and to prevent the development of LID in de novo treatments in non-human primates. An increase in striatal post-synaptic NMDA, AMPA and mGlu5 receptors is documented in PD patients and MPTP monkeys with LID. This increase can be prevented in MPTP monkeys with the addition of a specific glutamate receptor antagonist to the L-DOPA treatment and also with drugs of various pharmacological specificities suggesting multiple receptor interactions. This is yet to be well documented for presynaptic mGlu4 and mGlu2/3 and offers additional new promising avenues.

  3. Physiological and biochemical changes of females of Piracanjuba, subjected to induced reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, M A; Costa, F G; de Carvalho, S; Seiva, F R F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the level of fish female stress during induced reproduction with pituitary extract by two different methods, natural and semiextruded. The reproductive efficiency was 62.5% in the seminatural treatment and 100% in the extruded. Obtained egg volume was 5200 ml and 4000 ml, for seminatural and extruded treatments respectively. The mean number of eggs was 46.7 for the seminatural and 52.0 and for the extruded treatment. The percentage of viable eggs was, respectively, 87.2% and 8.17% for the natural treatment and extruded semimethods. Blood samples were collected to quantify cortisol and glucose levels, as well as red cell series and lymphocyte count. Fishes submitted to induction procedures showed elevated cortisol and glucose levels, compared to the control animals. The results for haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count showed no significant differences among groups. Significant differences found in the number of lymphocytes and monocytes suggest the general adaptation syndrome. Our results suggest the reproductive induction process with extrusion of gametes as a more stressful method than seminatural reproduction process. PMID:26719107

  4. Physiological, biochemical and molecular characterization of an induced mutation conferring imidazolinone resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Francisco; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Fernández, Pablo Tomas; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Atienza, Sergio G; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The Clearfield(®) wheat cultivars possessing imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant traits provide an efficient option for controlling weeds. The imazamox-resistant cultivar Pantera (Clearfield(®) ) was compared with a susceptible cultivar (Gazul). Target and non-target mechanisms of resistance were studied to characterize the resistance of Pantera and to identify the importance of each mechanism involved in this resistance. Pantera is resistant to imazamox as was determined in previous experiments. The molecular study confirmed that it carries a mutation Ser-Asn627 conferring resistance to imazamox in two out of three acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes (imi1 and imi2), located in wheat on chromosomes 6B and 6D, respectively. However, the last gene (imi3) located on chromosome 6A does not carry any mutation conferring resistance. As a result, photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll content were reduced after imazamox treatment. Detoxification was higher in the resistant biotype as shown by metabolomic study while imazamox translocation was higher in the susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, imazamox metabolism was higher at higher doses of herbicide, which suggests that the detoxification process is an inducible mechanism in which the upregulation of key gene coding for detoxification enzymes could play an important role. Thus, the identification of cultivars with a higher detoxification potential would allow the development of more resistant varieties. PMID:26991509

  5. Alterations in Somatostatin Cells and Biochemical Parameters Following Zinc Supplementation in Gastrointestinal Tissue of St reptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is a major causative factor of free radical generation which further leads to many secondary diabetic complications via the damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and nucleic acids. Zinc is an essential trace element in all living systems and plays a structural role in many proteins and enzymes. Somatostatin is known to have inhibitory effects on various gastrointestinal functions. Therefore, we determined somatostatin protein production and secretion levels, and biochemical and light microscopical changes following zinc supplementation in the gastrointestinal tract of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Group I: control (untreated) animals; Group II: control animals given zinc sulfate; Group III: diabetic animals; and Group IV: diabetic animals given zinc sulfate. Zinc sulfate was given to the animals by gavage at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 60 days. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ in a single dose of 65 mg/kg. For histological studies, stomach and duodenum tissues were fixed in Bouin solution and sections stained with Masson’s trichrome and Periodic-Acid-Schiff. Tissue homogenates were used for protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), and nonenzymatic glycosylation (NEG) analyses. Zinc supplementation to the STZ-diabetic rats revealed the protective effect of zinc on these parameters. Zinc supplementation may contribute to prevent at least some complications of diabetes mellitus

  6. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  7. Effects of spirulina on cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian toxicity in rats: biochemical and histomorphometric evaluation of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Nese Arzu; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Ilter, Erdin; Celik, Aygen; Sezgin, Gulbuz; Midi, Ahmet; Deveci, Ugur; Aksungar, Fehime

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cyc) is known to cause ovotoxicity and infertility in women. Our aim is to investigate the possible ovotoxic effects of Cyc and possible antioxidant and protective effects of blue-green algae, Spirulina (Sp), in rat ovaries. Eighteen rats were given: group I (n = 6, control); group II (n = 6, CP), a single dose Cyc; group III (n = 6, Sp+Cyc), 7 days Sp+single dose Cyc. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities are assessed biochemically. Normal and atretic primordial and primary follicle counts for all sections obtained for each ovary are calculated. Mean number of follicle counts for each group are compared. In Sp+Cyc group, tissue MDA levels were significantly lower than those in the CP and higher than those in the C group (CP > Sp+Cyc > C). Tissue SOD activity was significantly higher in Sp+Cyc group than that in the CP group and lower than that in the C group (C > Sp+Cyc > C). No statistically significant difference was found between the ovarian CAT activities in any group. Histomorphometrically, there was also no significant difference between the mean numbers of normal and atretic small follicle counts. Our results suggest that single dose Cyc has adverse effects on oxidant status of the ovaries and Sp has protective effects in Cyc-induced ovotoxicity. PMID:23762559

  8. Morphoanatomical and Biochemical Changes in the Roots of Rice Plants Induced by Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristiane Ferreira Rêgo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to characterize anatomical and biochemical changes in rice plant roots in response to seed treatment with rhizobacteria (Burkholderia pyrrocinia (R-46 + Pseudomonas fluorescens (R-55 and Trichoderma asperellum (Ta: mixture of strains T-06, T-09, T-12, and T-52. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments (R-46, R-55, R-46 + R-55, Ta+ R-46 + R-55, Ta, and control and ten replicates. Treatments Ta and R-46 + R-55 increased the root length and diameter as well as the cortex expansion and induced a 2% expansion of the aerenchymal space. Treatments Ta and R-46 increased the vascular cylinder diameter. The number of protoxylem poles and metaxylem vessel elements was increased by R-46 and R-55. The total phenol content increased with treatments Ta, R-46 + R-55, R-46, and R-55, and all the treatments increased the flavonoid content. The lignin content increased with the Ta and R-55 treatments. All the root architecture modifications resulting from the interaction between seedlings and bioagents (rhizobacteria and Trichoderma spp. observed in the present study favored the root plasticity of rice seedlings.

  9. Exposure to Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Coated with Phospholipid-Based Polymeric Micelles Induces Biochemical and Histopathological Pulmonary Changes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu (Balas), Mihaela; Din (Popescu), Ioana Mihaela; Hermenean, Anca; Cinteză, Otilia Ludmila; Burlacu, Radu; Ardelean, Aurel; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical and histopathological changes induced by the exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles coated with phospholipid-based polymeric micelles (IONPs-PM) in CD-1 mice lungs were analyzed. After 2, 3, 7 and 14 days following the intravenous injection of IONPs-PM (5 and 15 mg Fe/kg bw), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, oxidative stress parameters and the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and TNF-α were evaluated in lung tissue. An increase of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities on the second day followed by a decrease on the seventh day, as well as a decline of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity on the third and seventh day were observed in treated groups vs. controls. However, all these enzymatic activities almost fully recovered on the 14th day. The reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols levels decreased significantly in nanoparticles-treated groups and remained diminished during the entire experimental period; by contrast malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls increased between the 3rd and 14th day of treatment vs. control. Relevant histopathological modifications were highlighted using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining. In addition, major changes in the expression of apoptosis markers were observed in the first week, more pronounced for the higher dose. The injected IONPs-PM generated a dose-dependent decrease of the mouse lung capacity, which counteracted oxidative stress, thus creating circumstances for morphopathological lesions and oxidation processes. PMID:26690409

  10. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18°C) and normal temperatures (28°C) in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism, and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress. PMID:26904078

  11. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam eHussain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18˚C and normal temperatures (28˚C in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  12. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of andrographolide in rats induced with gastric ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Saranya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of the study was to evaluate the gastroprotective property of andrographolide, a chief component of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata in terms of the ulcer preventive effect in rats. An acute toxicity test was conducted with different concentrations of andrographolide to determine the LD 50 value. The dose responsive study was conducted in rats pretreated with andrographolide (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg for a period of 30 days, prior to ulcer induction by administering ethanol, aspirin or by pyloric ligation. The ulcer protective efficacy was tested by determining the ulcer score, pH, pepsin, titrable acidity, gastric mucin, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in gastric tissue. The activities of H + -K + ATPase and myeloperoxidase were also determined in gastric tissue. The LD 50 value was found to be 48 mg/kg b. wt and the effective dose was found to be 3 mg/kg. We have observed a significant reduction in the ulcer score in rats pretreated with 3 mg of andrographolide/kg body weight. A favourable increase in the pH and decrease in titrable acidity were observed in the gastric fluid of rats pretreated with the test drug. The gastric tissue H + -K + ATPase and myeloperoxidase activities were elevated in ulcer-induced animals. The elevation in the enzyme activity was significantly minimized in the andrographolide received animals. The antioxidants and mucin levels were significantly maintained in the gastric tissue of drug-pretreated animals. Andrographolide did not produce any toxic effects in normal rats. This study reveals that the ulcer preventive efficacy of andrographolide may probably due to its antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiacid secretory effects.

  13. Physiological, biochemical and psychological markers of strenuous training-induced fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, G J W M; Kuipers, H; Adam, J J; Saris, W H M; van Breda, E; van Hamont, D; Keizer, H A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether severe fatigue, possibly leading to overreaching, could be diagnosed at an early stage by a combination of parameters. Seven well-trained male subjects (age [mean +/- SD]: 25.3 +/- 4.7 yr; body mass: 76 +/- 6.6 kg; VO2max: 61.1 +/- 7 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) increased their training load by doubling their training volume and increasing the intensity by 15 % over a period of two weeks. Before and after this intensified training period subjects underwent a series of tests including a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test (Wmax) with continuous ventilatory measurements and blood lactate values, time trial, basal blood parameter tests (red and white blood profile), hormones [growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1), adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol], neuro-endocrine stress test [short insulin tolerance test (SITT), combined anterior pituitary test (CAPT) and exercise], a shortened Profile of Mood State (POMS), the estimated rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and a cognitive reaction time test. The intensified training period resulted in a significant increase of the training load (p exercise-induced plasma hormone values, nor SITT values were observed. During the CAPT only cortisol showed a significant decrease after the intensified training period. Hemoglobin showed a significant decrease after the intensified training period whereas hematocrit, red blood cell count (RBC) and MCV tended to decrease. The intensified training had no effect on physical performance (Wmax or time trial), maximal blood lactate, maximal heart rate and white blood cell profile. The most sensitive parameters for detecting overreaching are reaction time performance (indicative for cognitive brain functioning), RPE and to a lesser extend the shortened POMS. This strongly suggests, that central fatigue precedes peripheral fatigue. All other systems,including the neuro-endocrine, are more robust and react most likely at a

  14. Radiation-induced brain disorders in patients with pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced brain disorders (RIBD) are uncommon and they are grave sequelae of conventional radiotherapy. In the present report, we describe the clinical spectrum of RIBD in 11 patients who received post-surgery conventional megavoltage irradiation for residual pituitary tumours. Of these 11 patients (nine men, two women), seven had been treated for non-functioning pituitary tumours and four for somatotropinomas. At the time of irradiation the age of these patients ranged from 30 to 59 years (mean, 39.4 ± 8.3; median, 36) with a follow-up period of 696 months (mean, 18.3 ± 26.4; median, 11). The dose of radiation ranged from 45 to 90 Gy (mean, 51.3 ± 13.4; median, 45), which was given in 1530 fractions (mean, 18.6 ± 5.0; median, 15) with 2.8 ± 0.3 Gy (median, 3) per fraction. The biological effective dose calculated for late complications in these patients ranged from 78.7 to 180 Gy (mean, 99.1 ± 27.5; median, 90). The lag time between tumour irradiation and the onset of symptoms ranged from 6 to 168 months (mean, 46.3 ± 57.0; median, 57). The clinical spectrum of RIBD included new-onset visual abnormalities in five, cerebral radionecrosis in the form of altered sensorium in four, generalized seizures in four, cognitive dysfunction in five, dementia in three and motor deficits in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/CT of the brain was suggestive of radionecrosis in eight, cerebral oedema in three, cerebral atrophy in two and second neoplasia in one patient. Associated hormone deficiencies at presentation were hypogonadism in eight, hypoadrenalism in six, hypothyroidism in four and diabetes insipidus in one patient. Autopsy in two patients showed primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and brainstem radionecrosis in one, and a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe following radionecrosis in the other. We conclude that RIBD have distinctive but varying clinical and radiological presentations. Diabetes insipidus and PNET as a second neoplastic

  15. Effects of rehydration solution on hematological and biochemical parameters in induced buffalo neonatal calf diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zaman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally diarrhoea with enteropathogenic E. coli was induced in 18 buffalo calves (a week old which were divided into three equal groups while 4th group of six calves served as uninfected, untreated control. All the calves were monitored twice daily. Diarrhea developed in all treatment groups within 2-6 hours post infection. Twenty four hours after the on-set of diarrhea, neonates of Group (G-1 was treated with antibiotic (Kanamycin®, Farvet Laboratories, Holland @ 10 mg/kg b.wt I/M plus rehydration solution (sodium chloride-10g, potassium chloride-4g, sodium bicarbonate-20g, glucose-50g and water-4 litres @ 250–500 ml/day/I/V, G-2 with antibiotic and G-3 with rehydration solution. Diarrheic contents varied from semi solid to watery in consistency, yellowish to greenish yellow colour with blood or mucous and frequency of defecation was 6-10 times/day. Dehydration was mild (4-5% in G-1, moderate (6-9% in G-3 and severe (10-12% in G-2 calves. Most severe signs of dehydration appeared in G-2 calves. Neonates in this group showed severe dryness of cornea, loss of suckling reflex, sunken eyes, dry mucous membranes and cold extremities. Temperature was significantly high in G-3 calves than G-1, G-2 and control calves. Pulse and respiration rates were low in all treatment groups than the control group. Total erythrocytic counts and hematocrit were high (P<0.05 in G-2 calves. Calves treated with Kanamycin showed crenated erythrocytes in the blood smears. Leukocytosis mainly due to neutrophilia was observed in all the treated calves than the control group. Serum total protein and globulin were low (P<0.05 in control calves than all treatment groups. Albumin was high in G-2 calves than calves of G-1, G-3 and control group. Immunglobulins were high (P<0.05 in G-2 calves than G-1, G-3 and control calves.

  16. Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia extract against radiation-induced qualitative, quantitative and biochemical alterations in testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    restoring almost normal structure at the end of experimentation. Furthermore, TCE administration inhibited radiation-induced elevation of lipid per-oxidation (LPO) and reduction of glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels in testes. These observations signify that the Tinospora cordifolia root extract can be used as an efficient radio- protector against radiation mediated qualitative, quantitative and biochemical alterations in testes. (author)

  17. Amelioration of radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations by Punica Granatum (L) extracts and synthetic ellagic acid in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy has been used in cancer treatment for many decades; Although effective in killing tumor cells, ROS produced in radiotherapy threaten the integrity and survival of surrounding normal cells. ROS are scavenged by radioprotectors before they can interact with biochemical molecules, thus reducing harmful effects of radiation. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations in Swiss Albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and Ellagic acid for 15 days before exposure to 6 Gy of EBR. Radiation induced DNA damage was assessed by comet assay in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the serum and RBC lysate of the animals. The plant extracts and synthetic compound exhibited good radical scavenging and reducing properties.The pretreated animals before irradiation caused a reduction in the comet length, olive tail moment, % DNA in tail when compared to irradiated group. The biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation was significantly depleted in the treated groups when compared to irradiated group followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione. Our findings indicate the ameliorating effects of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant

  18. Carrot oil as an Antioxidant on some Biochemical and Haematological disorders in Male rats post exposure to γ Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of carrot oil as an antioxidant, our results recorded that blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, total white blood cells count (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit value (Hct%), platelets count (PLT) and serum testosterone were significantly decreased on the 1st and 7th day post-exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation, while serum total cholesterol level, triglycerides level and malondialdehyde (MDA) revealed a significant increase on the 1st and 7th days post-irradiation. Oral administration of carrot oil (200 mg/Kg b.w.) for consecutive 3 weeks before exposure to 7 Gy gamma irradiation in male albino rats, the data revealed significant amelioration in the previous parameters, it could be concluded that carrot oil capable of reducing the biological hazards induced by gamma irradiation

  19. Genetic and biochemical effects induced by iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure in tadpoles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronez, Alexandra Caroline da Silva; Salla, Rômulo Victor; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2016-05-01

    exposed to iron ore. These findings indicated that tadpoles accumulated Fe and Mn at the whole body level after exposure to the single metals or to their mixture as iron ore. In addition, they indicate that Fe and Mn accumulation can induce oxidative stress with consequent significant developmental, genotoxic and biochemical effects in L. catesbeianus tadpoles. PMID:26930479

  20. Possible Role of ?-Irradiated Ginseng in the Modulation of Some Biochemical Disorders Produced by Aluminum in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity in human and animals has been a matter of concern. Ginseng is liable to be contaminated by micro-organisms during the pre- and post-harvest hand lings. Thus, ginseng decontamination by gamma- rays is needed to warrant the microbiological quality. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the protective effect of gamma-irradiated ginseng against Al-induced toxicity in rat model. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of 8 rats: A control group, the ?- irradiated ginseng extract (IGE) group; daily received the IGE (400 mg kg-1 body wt) for 6 weeks, the Al group received orally a daily dose (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt) of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) for 6 weeks and the irradiated ginseng extract+ AlCl3 (IGE-Al) group, received IGE+ AlCl3 for 6 weeks. Al administration significantly decreased some haematological parameters, sex hormones. Antioxidant enzymes activity in liver and testes showed a decrease. The results also showed a significant increase in some hepatic marker enzymes associated with an elevation of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO). When experimental animals received IGE+ ALCL3, all these parameters were restored to approximately the control levels. These results demonstrated that administration of gamma-irradiated ginseng could be effective in the protection against the toxicity of AlCl3

  1. Protective role of aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The extensive use of atomic energy now a days in various branches of natural economy, science and technology, radio diagnosis, radiotherapy, industries, agriculture, nuclear research etc. has made radiation injury an urgent problem attracting the attention not only of specialists in a variety of clinical disciplines but also of a vast army of theoretical scientists. Metals like cadmium have always been intrinsic components of earth crust with the continuing trends towards and increasing human activities involving man may become exposed to concentration of toxic metals presenting a potential threat for survival. The severity of the damage can be modulated by treating the animals with antioxidants. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radio protective activities. Among these, Aloe vera hold a great promise. Aloe vera juice was obtained from Millennium Agro Company, Goregaon (W) Mumbai. It is a herbal drug and known to contain well over 100 separate ingredients or constituents between those found in the leaf and mucilaginous gel inside the leaf. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, healthy adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups. Group I included sham-irradiated normal mice. Group II was administered CdCl2 at the dose of 20ppm, while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. Animals of Group IV were treated with both CdCl2 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. The animals of Group V and VI were treated with CdCl2 + Aloe vera and 5.0Gy + Aloe vera respectively, whereas Group VII was treated with CdCl2 +5.0Gy+ Aloe vera. In the groups V, VI and VII the Aloe vera was given seven days prior to the treatment of CdCl2 or gamma rays. Three animals from all the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Soltuzu; Zenovia Olteanu; Lăcrămioara Ivănescu; Constantin Toma; Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache

    2013-01-01

    We present in this paper some physiological changes (photosynthetic and transpiration processes intensity) and biochemical (content of photo-assimilating pigments) induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area. Pollutants monitored by the five stations are represented by gaseous (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone) and solid pollutants ...

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Soltuzu; Zenovia Olteanu; Lăcrămioara Ivănescu; Constantin Toma; Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache

    2013-01-01

    We present in this paper some morphological changes (presence and size of the surface both normal and necrotic) and biochemical (water content and dry matter) induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area . These stations monitor the presence of gaseous pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone ) and solids (powders prone to sedime...

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of inosine against radiation-induced damage at cellular, biochemical and chromosomal levels in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inosine has been used for treatment of various diseases and disorders in medicine. Modulator effect of inosine against γ radiation-induced histological alterations in testis, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), acid and alkaline phosphatases activities (AP and ALP) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in mice was studied at various experimental intervals between 1 and 30 days. Mice exposed to 8 Gy γ-rays showed acute radiation sickness including marked testis histological changes and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in bone marrow cells with 100 % mortality within 22 days. When inosine was given orally at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body wt for 15 consecutive days after exposure to γ-rays, death in radiation + inosine group was reduced to 70 % at 30 days. The radiation - dose reduction factor (DRF) was 1.43. There was significantly lesser degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and leydig cells. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the LPO and increase in the GSH levels were observed in testis of radiation + inosine group. Similarly, a significant decrease in level of AP and increase in level of ALP were observed. Inosine treatment significantly prevented γ-rays-induced CA frequency in bone marrow cells.

  5. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  6. Shock-induced cation disorder in magnesium aluminate spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. Y.; Meng, C. M.; Lu, T. C.; Xu, M.; Qi, J. Q.; Tan, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    An increase in lattice constants and an order-disorder phase transition were observed in the magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) powders after shock compression. Theoretical calculations on the basis of density functional theory confirm that the remarkable volume expansion in shocked MgAl2O4 powders is closely related to the substantial site disorder in the MgAl2O4 lattice. The calculations also show that the partially inverse MgAl2O4 spinel with an inversion index of 0.7 represents the greatest disordered metastable phase and the most unstable structure.

  7. Biochemical and molecular evidences on the protection by magnesium oxide nanoparticles of chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Heydary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorpyrifos (CP is one of the most widely used organophosphate (OP insecticides in agricultural and residential pest control with its attendant adverse health effect. In the present study, it is proposed to investigate the possible modulatory role of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs against CP-induced toxicity in human lymphocytes and determine the mechanisms lying behind this protection by viability and biochemical assays. Materials and Methods: Isolated lymphocytes were exposed to 12 μg/mL CP either alone or in combination with different concentrations of MgO NPs (0.1 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL. After a 3-day incubation, the viability and oxidative stress markers including cellular mitochondrial activity, caspase-3 and -9 activities, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity were measured. Also, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as inflammatory index, along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were measured. Statistical differences were determined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Dunnett′s multiple comparison tests. Results: It is indicated that CP-exposed lymphocytes treated with MgO NPs resulted in a substantial reduction in the pace of mortality as well as the stages of oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Also, MgO NPs (100 μg/mL meaningfully restored CP-induced increase of TNF-α (P < 0.001 and decrease of AChE activity (P < 0.001 and were capable of preventing CP-treated human lymphocytes from apoptosis (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that MgO NPs in approximate 100 nm diameter not only make cells resistant to the toxic properties of CP but also attenuate toxic effects of CP, which is demonstrating the potential of MgO NPs to be applied in future immune deficiency therapeutic strategies.

  8. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roza Dianita; Ibrahim Jantan; Athirah Z. Amran; Juriyati Jalil

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after t...

  9. Transcriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Four-weeks exposure is sufficient to increase kidney metal levels in wild perch. • Cd and Cu affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. • Changes at molecular level do not always mean changes at the functional level. • Wild juvenile perch may partly adjust to metal contamination by plastic responses. - Abstract: Despite recent progress achieved in elucidating the mechanisms underlying local adaptation to pollution, little is known about the evolutionary change that may be occurring at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to examine patterns of gene transcription and biochemical responses induced by metal accumulation in clean yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and metal depuration in contaminated fish in a mining and smelting region of Canada. Fish were collected from a reference lake (lake Opasatica) and a Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated lake (lake Dufault) located in the Rouyn-Noranda region (Qc, Canada) and caged for one or four weeks in their own lake or transplanted in the other lake. Free-ranging fish from the same lakes were also collected. Kidney Cd and Cu concentrations in clean fish caged in the contaminated lake increased with the time of exposure, but metal depuration did not occur in contaminated fish caged in the clean lake. After 4 weeks, the major retinoid metabolites analysed, the percentage of free dehydroretinol (dROH) and the retinol dehydrogenase-2 (rdh-2) transcription level in liver decreased in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that metal exposure negatively impacted retinoid metabolism. However, we observed an increase in almost all of the retinoid parameters analysed in fish from the metal-impacted lake caged in the same lake, which we interpret as an adaptation response to higher ambient metal concentration. In support of this hypothesis, liver transcription levels

  10. Transcriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defo, Michel A. [Institut National De La Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 De La Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bernatchez, Louis [Institut De Biologie Intégrative Et Des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C.; Couture, Patrice [Institut National De La Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490 De La Couronne, Québec, QC G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Four-weeks exposure is sufficient to increase kidney metal levels in wild perch. • Cd and Cu affected indicators of retinoid metabolism and oxidative stress in fish. • Multi-level biological approaches are needed when assessing fish metal toxicology. • Changes at molecular level do not always mean changes at the functional level. • Wild juvenile perch may partly adjust to metal contamination by plastic responses. - Abstract: Despite recent progress achieved in elucidating the mechanisms underlying local adaptation to pollution, little is known about the evolutionary change that may be occurring at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to examine patterns of gene transcription and biochemical responses induced by metal accumulation in clean yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and metal depuration in contaminated fish in a mining and smelting region of Canada. Fish were collected from a reference lake (lake Opasatica) and a Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated lake (lake Dufault) located in the Rouyn-Noranda region (Qc, Canada) and caged for one or four weeks in their own lake or transplanted in the other lake. Free-ranging fish from the same lakes were also collected. Kidney Cd and Cu concentrations in clean fish caged in the contaminated lake increased with the time of exposure, but metal depuration did not occur in contaminated fish caged in the clean lake. After 4 weeks, the major retinoid metabolites analysed, the percentage of free dehydroretinol (dROH) and the retinol dehydrogenase-2 (rdh-2) transcription level in liver decreased in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that metal exposure negatively impacted retinoid metabolism. However, we observed an increase in almost all of the retinoid parameters analysed in fish from the metal-impacted lake caged in the same lake, which we interpret as an adaptation response to higher ambient metal concentration. In support of this hypothesis, liver transcription levels

  11. EFFICACY OF TOMATO AND / OR GARLIC IN AMELIORATING CARDIAC DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS FRYING OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Tomato has anti-mutagenic activities and contains lycopene (a powerful antioxidant) that appears to prevent oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of tomato or garlic alone or their combination against cardiac disorders in rats fed commercial diet fortified with frying oil (15% w/w) for 30 days. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and were divided into five groups; group 1, control (rats fed diet containing 15% w/w fresh oil); group 2, animals fed diets fortified with frying oil; groups 3-5, rats fed as in group 2 and received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight), garlic (125 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of tomato and garlic by gavage, respectively.Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c),and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were estimated in the serum of different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in the serum as well as lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were assessed in cardiac tissues.The results obtained revealed that, feeding rats on frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profile, LDL-c, VLDL-c and TBARS associated with a marked depletion in GSH. Elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CPK, ALT

  12. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  13. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.)

  14. Structural and biochemical abnormalities in the absence of acute deficits in mild primary blast-induced head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Michael K; Race, Nicholas; Zheng, Lingxing; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha M; Acosta, Glen; Park, Jonghyuck; Shi, Riyi

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT), if not fatal, is nonetheless potentially crippling. It can produce a wide array of acute symptoms in moderate-to-severe exposures, but mild BINT (mBINT) is characterized by the distinct absence of acute clinical abnormalities. The lack of observable indications for mBINT is particularly alarming, as these injuries have been linked to severe long-term psychiatric and degenerative neurological dysfunction. Although the long-term sequelae of BINT are extensively documented, the underlying mechanisms of injury remain poorly understood, impeding the development of diagnostic and treatment strategies. The primary goal of this research was to recapitulate primary mBINT in rodents in order to facilitate well-controlled, long-term investigations of blast-induced pathological neurological sequelae and identify potential mechanisms by which ongoing damage may occur postinjury. METHODS A validated, open-ended shock tube model was used to deliver blast overpressure (150 kPa) to anesthetized rats with body shielding and head fixation, simulating the protective effects of military-grade body armor and isolating a shock wave injury from confounding systemic injury responses, head acceleration, and other elements of explosive events. Evans Blue-labeled albumin was used to visualize blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise at 4 hours postinjury. Iba1 staining was used to visualize activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages in areas of peak BBB compromise. Acrolein, a potent posttraumatic neurotoxin, was quantified in brain tissue by immunoblotting and in urine through liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry at 1, 2, 3, and 5 days postinjury. Locomotor behavior, motor performance, and short-term memory were assessed with open field, rotarod, and novel object recognition (NOR) paradigms at 24 and 48 hours after the blast. RESULTS Average speed, maximum speed, and distance traveled in an open-field exploration paradigm did not show

  15. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  16. Naphthalene induced activities on growth, respiratory metabolism and biochemical composition in juveniles of Metapenaeus affinis (H.Milne Edward, 1837)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.; Faniband, M.

    Toxicity of naphthalene was carried out on Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne Edward, 1837) to investigate its effects on growth, metabolic index and biochemical constituents. Growth rate in terms of weight gain was 32.13% in control, 12.12% in 0.125 ppm...

  17. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2015-07-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  18. Inducing Order from Disordered Copolymers: On Demand Generation of Triblock Morphologies Including Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tureau, Maëva S.; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Epps, III, Thomas H. (Delaware); (Buffalo)

    2015-10-15

    Disordered block copolymers are generally impractical in nanopatterning applications due to their inability to self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures. However, inducing order in low molecular weight disordered systems permits the design of periodic structures with smaller characteristic sizes. Here, we have induced nanoscale phase separation from disordered triblock copolymer melts to form well-ordered lamellae, hexagonally packed cylinders, and a triply periodic gyroid network structure, using a copolymer/homopolymer blending approach, which incorporates constituent homopolymers into selective block domains. This versatile blending approach allows one to precisely target multiple nanostructures from a single disordered material and can be applied to a wide variety of triblock copolymer systems for nanotemplating and nanoscale separation applications requiring nanoscale feature sizes and/or high areal feature densities.

  19. Haloperidol induced obsessive compulsive symptom (OCS) in a patient with learning disability and bipolar affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ulhaq, Inam; Abba-Aji, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, a patient with severe learning disability and bipolar affective disorder developed de-nova obsessive compulsive symptom (OCS) with haloperidol, a conventional antipsychotic medication and the OCS stopped with stopping haloperidol. Antipsychotics are recommended and used as augmentation therapy in resistant cases of obsessive compulsive disorder. Although second generation antipsychotics have been reported to have induced OCS but haloperidol, which is a first generation an...

  20. The utility of patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells for the modelling of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cocks, Graham; Curran, Sarah; Gami, Priya; Uwanogho, Dafe; Jeffries, Aaron R.; Kathuria, Annie; Lucchesi, Walter; Wood, Victoria; Dixon, Rosemary; Ogilvie, Caroline; Steckler, Thomas; Price, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Until now, models of psychiatric diseases have typically been animal models. Whether they were to be used to further understand the pathophysiology of the disorder, or as drug discovery tools, animal models have been the choice of preference in mimicking psychiatric disorders in an experimental setting. While there have been cellular models, they have generally been lacking in validity. This situation is changing with the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In t...

  1. A Study of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Fekrat, Alireza; Mazhari, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background The abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances such as amphetamines and ecstasy has had a growing trend. Tachycardia, increased blood pressure, hallucinations, panic attacks, and psychosis are the negative effects of methamphetamine abuse. The present study aimed to assess psychiatric disorders associated with methamphetamine-induced psychotic disorder. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from October 2013 to March 2014 on 165 patients hospitalized at Shahid B...

  2. Disorder induced semiconductor to metal transition and modifications of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper report on the disorder induced semiconductor to metal transition (SMT) and modifications of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin film. Disorder is induced using energetic ion irradiation. It eliminates the possibility of impurities induced transition. However, it is revealed that some critical concentration of defects is needed for inducing such kind of SMT at certain critical temperature. Above room temperature, the current-voltage characteristics in reverse bias attributes some interesting phenomenon, such as electric field induced charge transfer, charge trapping, and diffusion of defects. The transition is explained by the defects induced disorder and strain in ZnO crystallites created by high density of electronic excitations.

  3. Disorder-induced light trapping enhanced by pulse collisions in one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Novitsky, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to study interaction of co- and counter-propagating pulses in disordered multilayers with noninstantaneous Kerr nonlinearity. We propose a statistical argument for existence of the disorder-induced trapping which implies the dramatic rise of the probability of realization with low output energy in the structure with a certain level of disorder. This effect is much more pronounced in the case of two interacting pulses than in the single-pulse regime and does not occur in the strictly ordered system at the same intensity of the pulses. Therefore it cannot be explained simply as a result of increase in strength of nonlinear light-matter interaction.

  4. Preventive Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Serum Biochemical Factors and Histopathology of Pancreas and Liver in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Masjedi, Fatemeh; Gol, Ali; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2013-01-01

    Antidiabetic action of garlic is established in animal studies. Since all of the pervious studies have focused on the therapeutic role of garlic, this study investigated the preventive effect of garlic juice on biochemical factors and histological features in Streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. Forty male rats were divided into five groups (n = 8): 1-Normal group (N), 2-Normal+Garlic group (N+G) received garlic juice (1 mL/100g BW) for 6 weeks, 3-Diabetic group (D) was injected with ...

  5. Disorder and strain-induced complexity in functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Avadh; Planes, Antoni; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together an emerging consensus on our understanding of the complex functional materials including ferroics, perovskites, multiferroics, CMR and high-temperature superconductors. The common theme is the existence of many competing ground states and frustration as a collusion of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in the presence of disorder and (both dipolar and elastic) long-range forces. An important consequence of the complex unit cell and the competing interactions is that the emergent materials properties are very sensitive to external fields thus rendering these materials with highly desirable, technologically important applications enabled by cross-response.

  6. Case report of mental disorder induced by niacin deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Bo LIANG

    2012-01-01

    The 45-year-old male patient described in this case report had a classic case of pellagra. The patient was initially brought to a psychiatric hospital because of disorderly behavior. On admission the patient was unable to provide a history so he was given a provisional diagnosis of Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified. Despite having the cardinal symptoms of dermatitis, dementia and (three days after admission) diarrhea it took 20 days to confirm the diagnosis of pellagra. After initiation of appropriate treatment it took about six months for the patient to make a complete recovery.

  7. Electrode-stress-induced nanoscale disorder in Si quantum electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Ahn, Y.; Tilka, J. A.; Sampson, K. C.; Savage, D. E.; Prance, J. R.; Simmons, C. B.; Lagally, M. G.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.; Holt, M. V.; Evans, P. G.

    2016-06-01

    Disorder in the potential-energy landscape presents a major obstacle to the more rapid development of semiconductor quantum device technologies. We report a large-magnitude source of disorder, beyond commonly considered unintentional background doping or fixed charge in oxide layers: nanoscale strain fields induced by residual stresses in nanopatterned metal gates. Quantitative analysis of synchrotron coherent hard x-ray nanobeam diffraction patterns reveals gate-induced curvature and strains up to 0.03% in a buried Si quantum well within a Si/SiGe heterostructure. Electrode stress presents both challenges to the design of devices and opportunities associated with the lateral manipulation of electronic energy levels.

  8. Infrared spectroscopic imaging of the biochemical modifications induced in the cerebellum of the Niemann-Pick type C mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Linda H.; Colarusso, Pina; Stewart, Sarah A.; Levin, Ira W.; Appel, Nathan M.; Lester, David S.; Pentchev, Peter G.; Lewis, E. N.

    1999-01-01

    WE have applied Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging to the investigation of the neuropathologic effects of a genetic lipid storage disease, Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). Tissue sections both from the cerebella of a strain of BALB/c mice that demonstrated morphology and pathology of the human disease and from control animals were used. These samples were analyzed by standard histopathological procedures as well as this new IR imaging approach. The IR absorbance images exhibit contrast based on biochemical variations and allow for the identification of the cellular layers within the tissue samples. Furthermore, these images provide a qualitative description of the localized biochemical differences existing between the diseased and control tissue in the absence of histological staining. Statistical analyses of the IR spectra extracted from individual cell layers of the imaging data sets provide concise quantitative descriptions of these biochemical changes. The results indicate that lipid is depleted specifically in the white matter of the NPC mouse in comparison to the control samples. Minor differences were noted for the granular layers, but no significant differences were observed in the molecular layers of the cerebellar tissue. These changes are consistent with significant demyelination within the cerebellum of the NPC mouse.

  9. Haematological and Biochemical Changes in Response to Stress Induced by the Administration of Amikacin Injection by Autoinjector in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vijayaraghavan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drugs administered by autoinjectors, may act fast reducing the morbidity and mortality in critical and emergency situations. Amikacin drug cartridge was developed for the autoinjector as an antibacterial drug for critical situations and its tolerability was studied. Rats were given either 3 doses or 7 doses on consecutive days by the autoinjector (intraperitoneal, 63 mg/mL. Blood was withdrawn on the 4th day (3 doses or the 8th day (7 doses, and haematological and biochemical parameters were studied. All the parameters studied were within the limits and did not show any significant difference when compared with the control. Rabbits were given 3 doses of two concentrations (intramuscular, 63 or 250 mg/mL and on the 4th day blood was withdrawn for the haematological and biochemical estimations. 63 mg/mL cartridge did not show any significant change while 250 mg/mL cartridge showed significant change in the haematological and biochemical parameters. This study showed that intraperitoneal injection of amikacin by the autoinjector designed for intramuscular injection was well tolerated by the rats. In the rabbits, low dose (63 mg/mL was tolerated while the higher dose, which is an adult human dose (250 mg/mL showed significant changes.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 99-105. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.5032

  10. Comparison between QEEG as a Neurofeedback Tool to Diagnose AD/HD Disorder and Hematological-biochemical Para-clinical Indicators on Children with AD/HD Disorder and Children without Such Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nimrouzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to achieve two objectives. First, study of clinical suitability and diagnostic precision in paraclinical experiments and study of biochemical factors in the diagnosis of AD/HD and second, study of the effectiveness of blood tests in identification of iron panel factors, study of blood mercury level, study of SE in AD/HD and comparing it with control group (normal children. At the first stage of the study, after analysis by QEEG, all factors to be tested underwent paraclinical experiments. The diagnostic precision of QEEG is estimated at 94%. The results of the first stage demonstrated that the paraclinical experiments are an effective tool with a high diagnostic precision for the diagnosis of AD/HD. The results of the second stage of study demonstrated that both groups suffer from iron deficiency anemia and there is no significant relationship between development of AD/HD symptoms and the iron deficiency anemia. Also the blood Ferritin in the tested group was higher than that of control group. Statistically, no significant relationship was noted between the CBC and development of AD/HD symptoms, yet a significant relationship was observed between reduction of Hb level and development of AD/HD symptoms. It was also concluded that SE stool infection in AD/HD children was higher than that of normal children. In children with AD/HD, vitamin B was less than that of normal children and there was significant relationship between increase in the mercury level of blood and development of attention and concentration deficit disorder (AD/HD.

  11. Optically induced spin disorder in YVO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurenko, D A; Nugroho, A A; Palstra, T T M; Loosdrecht, P H M van, E-mail: D.A.Mazurenko@rug.n [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    Yttrium vanadate (YVO{sub 3}) is an interesting material for studying optically induced phase transitions because it exhibits a rich variety of coupled structural and correlated electronic phases. We show that optical excitation effectively decouples spin and magnetic order and results in rapid spin melting within 4 ps while orbital order survives for longer than 100 ps.

  12. Biochemical adaptations of mammalian hibernation: exploring squirrels as a perspective model for naturally induced reversible insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    C-W. Wu; Biggar, K.K.; Storey, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    An important disease among human metabolic disorders is type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder involves multiple physiological defects that result from high blood glucose content and eventually lead to the onset of insulin resistance. The combination of insulin resistance, increased glucose production, and decreased insulin secretion creates a diabetic metabolic environment that leads to a lifetime of management. Appropriate models are critical for the success of ...

  13. Inducible immune factors of the vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae: biochemical purification of a defensin antibacterial peptide and molecular cloning of preprodefensin cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, A M; Bulet, P; Hetru, C; Barillas-Mury, C; Hoffmann, J A; Kafalos, F C

    1996-08-01

    Larvae of the mosquito vector of human malaria, Anopheles gambiae, were inoculated with bacteria and extracts were biochemically fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC. Multiple induced polypeptides and antibacterial activities were observed following bacterial infection, including a member of the insect defensin family of antibacterial proteins. A cDNA encoding An. gambiae preprodefensin was isolated using PCR primers based on phylogenetically conserved sequences. The mature peptide is highly conserved, but the signal and propeptide segments are not, relative to corresponding defensin sequences of other insects. Defensin expression is induced in response to bacterial infection, in both adult and larval stages. In contrast, pupae express defensin mRNA constitutively. Defensin expression may prove a valuable molecular marker to monitor the An. gambiae host response to infection by parasitic protozoa of medical importance. PMID:8799739

  14. Neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome in bipolar disorder with psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda S; Sakayori T; Omori A; Fukuta H; Kobayashi T.; Ishizaka K; Saijo T; Okubo Y

    2016-01-01

    Satoshi Ueda,1 Takeshi Sakayori,1 Ataru Omori,2 Hajime Fukuta,3 Takashi Kobayashi,3 Kousuke Ishizaka,1 Tomoyuki Saijo,4 Yoshiro Okubo1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Tamachuo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 3Kurumegaoka Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 4Saijo Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Neuroleptics can induce not only physical adverse effects but also mental effects that produce deficit status in thought, affect, cognition, and behavior. This condition is known as ...

  15. Morphoanatomical and Biochemical Changes in the Roots of Rice Plants Induced by Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Cristiane Ferreira Rêgo; Fernanda Ilkiu-Borges; Marta Cristina Corsi de Filippi; Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves; Gisele Barata da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to characterize anatomical and biochemical changes in rice plant roots in response to seed treatment with rhizobacteria (Burkholderia pyrrocinia (R-46) + Pseudomonas fluorescens (R-55)) and Trichoderma asperellum (Ta: mixture of strains T-06, T-09, T-12, and T-52). The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments (R-46, R-55, R-46 + R-55, Ta+ R-46 + R-55, Ta, and control) and ten replicates. Treatments Ta and R-46 + R-55 increased the ro...

  16. Soliton pulse propagation in the presence of disorder-induced multiple scattering in photonic crystal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Nishan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new coupled mode theory to model nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations for contra-propagating Bloch modes that include disorder-induced multiple scattering effects on nonlinear soliton propagation in photonic crystal waveguides. We also derive sub unit-cell coupling coefficients and use these to introduce a generalized length scale associated with each coupling effect. In particular, we define a multiple-scattering length scale that quantifies the spatial extent of a disorder-induced cavity mode. Our numerical simulations of nonlinear pulse propagation are in excellent qualitative agreement with recent experiments and provide insight into how disorder inhibits soliton propagation and other nonlinear propagation effects in photonic crystal waveguides.

  17. Investigations on structural disorder-induced modifications in the transport behaviour of rare-earth manganites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZALAK JOSHI; D D PANDYA; DAVIT DHRUV; KEVAL GADANI; HETAL BORICHA; SANJAY KANSARA; J H MARKNA; P S SOLANKI; N A SHAH

    2016-08-01

    The results of the studies on structural disorder-induced modifications in the transport behaviour of La$_{0.5}$Pr$_{0.2}$Ca$_{0.3−x}$Ba$_x$MnO$_3$ (LPCBMO) ($0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.30$) manganites were reported. Structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements confirmed the single phasic nature of all the samples without any detectable impurities. The A-site size disorder ($σ_2$ A) increased from $3.81 \\times 10^{−5} (x = 0.05)$ to $14.9 \\times 10−5 (x = 0.30)$. With the increase in structural disorder in LPCBMO system, the transport improved for the range: $0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.30$, which can be ascribed to the enhancement in one electron bandwidth which dominates over the structural disorder effect, while for lower values of $x$, strong competition existed between size disorder and one electron bandwidth. Below 50 K, all $\\rho–T$ plots showed resistivity minimum behaviour, which modified with disorder. This behaviour wasdiscussed in detail on the basis of electron–electron interaction having the form: $\\rho = [1/(\\rho_0 + BT^{1/2})] + \\rho_nT_n$. Variation in temperature sensitivity with disorder was also discussed in context of granular morphology and phasesegregation scenario.

  18. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced disorder in spinel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural defects in the surface region of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) crystals irradiated with 450 MeV Xe ions were analyzed by using 4He backscattering in channeling geometry (RBS/C). Monte-Carlo simulations applied for the interpretation of channeling spectra permitted to determine the concentration of radiation-induced defects. They showed that the defect distributions are depth dependent, likely due to annihilation of defects at the surface of the crystals. The cross-section for the formation of defects by swift Xe ions, and consequently the diameter of an ion track, were estimated using single-impact-model calculations

  19. Biochemical Characterization of Kat1: a Domesticated hAT-Transposase that Induces DNA Hairpin Formation and MAT-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Rajaei, Naghmeh; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Hofer, Anders; Åström, Stefan U.

    2016-01-01

    Kluyveromyces lactis hAT-transposase 1 (Kat1) generates hairpin-capped DNA double strand breaks leading to MAT-switching (MATa to MATα). Using purified Kat1, we demonstrate the importance of terminal inverted repeats and subterminal repeats for its endonuclease activity. Kat1 promoted joining of the transposon end into a target DNA molecule in vitro, a biochemical feature that ties Kat1 to transposases. Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Macromolecule analysis revealed that Kat1 can form hexamers when complexed with DNA. Kat1 point mutants were generated in conserved positions to explore structure-function relationships. Mutants of predicted catalytic residues abolished both DNA cleavage and strand-transfer. Interestingly, W576A predicted to be impaired for hairpin formation, was active for DNA cleavage and supported wild type levels of mating-type switching. In contrast, the conserved CXXH motif was critical for hairpin formation because Kat1 C402A/H405A completely blocked hairpinning and switching, but still generated nicks in the DNA. Mutations in the BED zinc-finger domain (C130A/C133A) resulted in an unspecific nuclease activity, presumably due to nonspecific DNA interaction. Kat1 mutants that were defective for cleavage in vitro were also defective for mating-type switching. Collectively, this study reveals Kat1 sharing extensive biochemical similarities with cut and paste transposons despite being domesticated and evolutionary diverged from active transposons. PMID:26902909

  20. Investigation of biochemical property changes in activation-induced CD 8 + T cell apoptosis using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ju; Ahn, Hyung Joon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Lee, Gihyun; Kim, Dohyun; Shin, Jae-Ho; Jin, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2015-07-01

    The study was to investigate the changes in biochemical properties of activated mature CD8+ T cells related to apoptosis at a molecular level. We confirmed the activation and apoptosis of CD8+ T cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and atomic force microscopy and then performed Raman spectral measurements on activated mature CD8+ T cells and cellular deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). In the activated mature CD8+ T cells, there were increases in protein spectra at 1002 and 1234 cm-1. In particular, to assess the apoptosis-related DNA spectral signatures, we investigated the spectra of the cellular DNA isolated from resting and activated mature CD8+ T cells. Raman spectra at 765 to 786 cm-1 and 1053 to 1087 cm-1 were decreased in activated mature DNA. In addition, we analyzed Raman spectrum using the multivariate statistical method including principal component analysis. Raman spectra of activated mature DNA are especially well-discriminated from those of resting DNA. Our findings regarding the biochemical and structural changes associated with apoptosis in activated mature T cells and cellular DNA according to Raman spectroscopy provide important insights into allospecific immune responses generated after organ transplantation, and may be useful for therapeutic manipulation of the immune response.

  1. Microcystin-LR induces mitotic spindle assembly disorders in Vicia faba by protein phosphatase inhibition and not reactive oxygen species induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garda, Tamás; Kónya, Zoltán; Tándor, Ildikó; Beyer, Dániel; Vasas, Gábor; Erdődi, Ferenc; Vereb, György; Papp, Georgina; Riba, Milán; M-Hamvas, Márta; Máthé, Csaba

    2016-07-20

    We aimed to reveal the mechanisms of mitotic spindle anomalies induced by microcystin-LR (MCY-LR), a cyanobacterial toxin in Vicia faba, a well-known model in plant cell and molecular biology. MCY-LR inhibits type 1 and 2A phosphoserine/threonine specific protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of the cyanotoxin during cytopathogenesis. Histochemical-immunohistochemical and biochemical methods were used. A significant number of MCY-LR induced spindle alterations are described for the first time. Disrupted, multipolar spindles and missing kinetochore fibers were detected both in metaphase and anaphase cells. Additional polar microtubule (MT) bundles, hyperbundling of spindle MTs, monopolar spindles, C-S- shaped, additional and asymmetric spindles were detected in metaphase, while midplane kinetochore fibers were detected in anaphase cells only. Several spindle anomalies induced mitotic disorders, i.e. they occurred concomitantly with altered sister chromatid separation. Alterations were dependent on the MCY-LR dose and exposure time. Under long-term (2 and mainly 6 days') exposure they were detected in the concentration range of 0.1-20μgmL(-1) MCY-LR that inhibited PP1 and PP2A significantly without significant ROS induction. Elevated peroxidase/catalase activities indicated that MCY-LR treated V. faba plants showed efficient defense against oxidative stress. Thus, although the elevation of ROS is known to induce cytoskeletal aberrations in general, this study shows that long-term protein phosphatase inhibition is the primary cause of MCY-LR induced spindle disorders. PMID:27186862

  2. Disorder-induced density of states on the surface of a spherical topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Adam C.

    2016-06-01

    We consider a topological insulator (TI) of spherical geometry and numerically investigate the influence of disorder on the density of surface states. The energy spectrum of the spherical TI surface is discrete, for a sphere of finite radius, and can be truncated by imposing a high-energy cutoff at the scale of the bulk band gap. To this clean system we add a surface disorder potential of the most general Hermitian form, V =V0(θ ,ϕ ) 1 +V (θ ,ϕ ) .σ , where V0 describes the spin-independent part of the disorder and the three components of V describe the spin-dependent part. We expand these four disorder functions in spherical harmonics and draw the expansion coefficients randomly from a four-dimensional, zero-mean Gaussian distribution. Different strengths and classes of disorder are realized by specifying the 4 ×4 covariance matrix. For each instantiation of the disorder, we solve for the energy spectrum via exact diagonalization. Then we compute the disorder-averaged density of states, ρ (E ) , by averaging over 200 000 different instantiations. Disorder broadens the Landau-level delta functions of the clean density of states into peaks that decay and merge together. If the spin-dependent term is dominant, these peaks split due to the breaking of the degeneracy between time-reversed partner states. Increasing disorder strength pushes states closer and closer to zero energy (the Dirac point), resulting in a low-energy density of states that becomes nonzero for sufficient disorder, typically approaching an energy-independent saturation value, for most classes of disorder. But for purely spin-dependent disorder with V either entirely out-of-surface or entirely in-surface, we identify intriguing disorder-induced features in the vicinity of the Dirac point. In the out-of-surface case, a new peak emerges at zero energy. In the in-surface case, we see a symmetry-protected zero at zero energy, with ρ (E ) increasing linearly toward nonzero-energy peaks. These

  3. The investigation of order–disorder transition process of ZSM-5 induced by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the amorphization of zeolites, an order–disorder transition method was used to prepare silica glass via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). In order to get a better understanding about the mechanism of amorphization induced by SPS, the intermediate products in this process were prepared and characterized by different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction and High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering show a gradual transformation from ordered crystal to glass. Local structural changes in glass network including Si–O bond length, O–Si–O bond angle, size of rings, coordination were detected by Infrared spectroscopy and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Topologically ordered, amorphous material with a different intermediate-range structure can be obtained by precise control of intermediate process which can be expected to optimize and design material. - Graphical abstract: Low-density, ordered zeolites collapse to the rigid amorphous glass through spark plasma sintering. The intermediate-range structure formed in the process of order–disorder transition may give rise to specific property. - Highlights: • Order–disorder transition process of ZSM-5 induced by spark plasma sintering was investigated using several methods including XRD, High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering, SAXS, IR, NMR, ect. • Order–disorder transition induced by SPS was compared with TIA and PIA. • Three stages has been divided during the whole process. • The collapse temperature range which may give rise to intermediate-range structure has been located

  4. Biochemical changes induced by salt stress in halotolerant bacterial isolates are media dependent as well as species specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joghee, Nidhya Nadarajan; Jayaraman, Gurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Halophilic bacteria respond to salt stress by regulating the cytosolic pools of organic solutes to achieve osmotic equilibrium. In order to understand the metabolic regulation of these organic solutes, for the first time, we have investigated the effect of salt on growth and biochemical changes in four major moderately halophilic bacterial strains isolated from a saltern region of the Kumta coast, India. The strains under study were Halomonas hydrothermalis VITP9, Bacillus aquimaris VITP4, Planococcus maritimus VITP21, and Virgibacillus dokdonensis VITP14, which exhibited similar salt tolerance (0% to 10% w/v NaCl) with optimal growth at 5% w/v NaCl. Biochemical analysis showed that the total intracellular organic solutes increased significantly with increasing NaCl concentration in the growth medium, and the compositions of the solutes were dependent on the type of strain and also on the nutrient richness of the growth medium. Glutamic acid levels increased in all the strains under salt stress, indicating the significance of glutamic acid as the anionic counterpart of K(+)/Na(+) ions and precursor for other synthesized nitrogenous osmolytes. Though initial studies were performed with thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry was used to identify the major solutes accumulated by the strains under salt stress, such as proline (VITP4), ectoine (VITP14 and VITP9), and sugars (VITP21) under minimal medium and glycine betaine (by all the strains under study) under complex growth medium conditions. Such comparative study on the stress-dependent metabolic differences of different microbes, under identical experimental condition, helps to identify possible bacterial sources for the production of industrially important solutes. PMID:25286020

  5. Biochemical abnormalities induced by abamectin in sixth instar larvae of the red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum (herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub lethal effects of abamectin (Sure 1.8 EC) were studied on malathion-resistant (PAK) and organophosphate susceptible (FSS-II) strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae in the laboratory. The objective was to examine changes in production or activities of carboxylesterase (CE), total esterases (TE), alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acidic phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Results showed differences in the activities of enzymes and quantities of total protein, soluble protein and FAA between strains and among concentrations. Abamectin, at LC and LC , changed the activities 10 20/levels of TE, CE, AcP, total protein and FAA in the larvae of both the strains. The activities of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and AkP remained non-significant at both doses in the two strains. In PAK strain larvae, the TE activity was inhibited with depletion of total protein contents and elevation of FAA contents. In FSS-II larvae, the effect of abamectin on levels of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, AkP, total protein and soluble protein remained non-significant. The activities of TE and AcP were reduced at both doses, while activities/levels of CE reduced at LC and FAA increased 10 at LC . It is concluded that abamectin affected the overall body 20 functioning of PAK strain more as compared to FSS-II strain considering disturbances caused in the levels/activities of biochemical components. (author)

  6. Diazinon-induced hepatotoxicity and protective effect of vitamin E on some biochemical indices and ultrastructural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide has been used in agriculture and domestic for several years. The aim of present study was to analyze the hepatotoxic effect of diazinon which caused biochemical and ultrastructural changes in adult male Wistar rats and to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamin E. Vitamin E (200 mg/kg, twice a week), diazinon (10 mg/kg per day, once a day in corn oil) and vitamin E (200 mg/kg, twice a week) + diazinon (10 mg/kg per day, once a day in corn oil) combination were given to rats (n = 8) orally via gavage for 7 weeks. Biochemical indices in serum [total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-cholesterol)] and ultrastructural changes were investigated at the end of the 1st, 4th and 7th weeks comparatively with control group (n = 8). It was observed that; at the end of 1st week, there was a statistically significance in all parameters except total protein and albumin, and at the end of 4th and 7th weeks, there was a statistically significance in all parameters when diazinon-treated group compared to control group (P < 0.01). At the end of 1st week, ALP, ALT, total cholesterol and triglyceride, at the end of 4th week, all parameters except VLDL-cholesterol, at the end of 7th week, all parameters were statistically significant when vitamin E + diazinon-treated group compared with diazinon-treated group (P < 0.01). In our electron microscopic investigations, while swelling of mitochondria and breaking up of the mitochondrial cristae of hepatocytes in diazinon-treated groups were observing, no pathological findings were observed in vitamin E + diazinon-treated groups. We conclude that vitamin E decreases diazinon hepatotoxicity, but vitamin E does not protect completely

  7. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kuhnt, Thomas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hering, Kathrin [Leipzig University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren haben Bewegungsstoerungen von Wirbelsaeule und paraspinaler Muskulatur in

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Soltuzu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper some morphological changes (presence and size of the surface both normal and necrotic and biochemical (water content and dry matter induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area . These stations monitor the presence of gaseous pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and solids (powders prone to sedimentation. Measurements were made "in vivo", as well on fresh material covering vegetation periods of years 2012 and 2013. The results are supporting the fact that the increased values of dry matter content do not correlate directly with the degree of necrosis of the leaves , which entitles us to believe that the biochemical and physiological modifications made by pollutants at this level are fast followed by defoliation events. The most critical situation is found at the samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. grown at the site of the traffic station Podul de Piatră, where SO2 and particulate solids in suspension are the predominating pollutants.

  9. Disease signatures for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Bradley; Berkovitch, Shaunna S; Huang, Joanne H; Iaconelli, Jonathan; Toffel, Steven; Karmacharya, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric disorders that present unique challenges in the study of disease biology. There are no objective biological phenotypes for these disorders, which are characterized by complex genetics and prominent roles for gene-environment interactions. The study of the neurobiology underlying these severe psychiatric disorders has been hindered by the lack of access to the tissue of interest - neurons from patients. The advent of reprogramming methods that enable generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells has opened possibilities for new approaches to study relevant disease biology using iPSC-derived neurons. While early studies with patient iPSCs have led to promising and intriguing leads, significant hurdles remain in our attempts to capture the complexity of these disorders in vitro. We present here an overview of studies to date of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using iPSC-derived neuronal cells and discuss potential future directions that can result in the identification of robust and valid cellular phenotypes that in turn can lay the groundwork for meaningful clinical advances. PMID:26777134

  10. Experimental observation of disorder induced self-focusing in optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonetti, Marco, E-mail: marco.leonetti@roma1.infn.it [Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Regina Elena, 291 00161 Roma (Italy); Karbasi, Salman [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Mafi, Arash [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Conti, Claudio [ISC-CNR and Department of Physics, University Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185, Roma (Italy)

    2014-10-27

    We observed disorder induced focusing nonlinearity activated by a monochromatic light beam in optical fibers composed by two kinds of plastics. The two materials, arranged in disordered fashion, support modes with a degree of localization which increases with the intensity of the optical beam. The temporal response of the optical fiber demonstrates the thermal origin of this nonlinearity. Measurements of the localization length as a function of the input power with broadband and monochromatic inputs show the effectiveness of focusing action with respect to the case of homogeneous fibers.

  11. Disorder-induced Phase Transition of Vortex Matter in MgB2

    OpenAIRE

    Angst, M.; Puzniak, R.; Wisniewski, A; Jun, J; Kazakov, S. M.; Karpinski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of single crystalline MgB2 with torque magnetometry in fields up to 90 kOe reveal a sharp peak in the irreversible torque at about 0.85 Hc2. In the region between peak onset and maximum, pronounced history effects occur. Angle and temperature dependence of the characteristic peak fields track those of Hc2. The features observed suggest that the peak marks a disorder-induced phase transition of vortex matter between a quasi-ordered Bragg glass and a highly-disordered glass.

  12. Ethanol intake-induced apoptosis in glial cells and axonal disorders in the cerebellar white matter of UChA rats (voluntary ethanol consumers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Marcelo; Sauce, Rafael; Oliveira, Suelen Alves; de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; Stefanini, Maíra Aparecida; Lizarte Neto, Fermino Sanches; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Tirapelli, Luiz Fernando; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    Ethanol intake may cause alterations in cellular metabolism altering motricity, learning and cognition. The cerebellum is one of the most susceptible organs to ethanol-related disorders during development, and is associated with oxidative stress-induced apoptosis being crucial for pathogenic consequences. The UChA variety is a special strain of Wistar rat genetically selected and represents a rare model for the studies related to genetic, biochemical, physiological, nutritional, and pharmacological effects of ethanol. We evaluated the structure and apoptosis in the cerebellar white matter of UChA rats. There were two groups of 09 rats: a control group that did not consume ethanol, and an experimental group of UChA rats that consumed ethanol at 10% (v/v) (<2 g ethanol/kg body weight/day). At 120 days old, rats were anaesthetized followed by decapitation, and their cerebella were collected and fixed. Cerebellar sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry for Caspase-3 and XIAP and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UChA group showed more glial cells immunoreactive for caspase-3 and less for XIAP than control group. Alcohol consumption affected myelin integrity. Severe ultrastructural damages in UChA group were observed such as disruption of the myelin sheath, disorganization and deformation of its components, and an increase in the interaxonal spaces. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that ethanol induced apoptosis in the glial cells and promoted an intense change in the myelin sheath of UChA rats, which may cause functional disorders. PMID:26072102

  13. Comparison of clinical features between primary and drug-induced sleep-related eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komada Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Komada,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,2 Kentaro Matsui,3 Masaki Nakamura,3 Shingo Nishida,3 Meri Kanno,3,† Akira Usui,3 Yuichi Inoue1,3 1Department of Somnology, 2Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, 3Japan Somnology Center, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Tokyo, Japan †Meri Kanno passed away on March 1, 2016 Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics of drug-induced sleep-related eating disorder (SRED. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with primary SRED (without any comorbid sleep disorders and who were not taking any possible causative medications, and ten patients with drug-induced SRED (occurrence of SRED episodes after starting nightly medication of sedative drugs, which completely resolved after dose reduction or discontinuation of the sedatives. Results: All patients with drug-induced SRED took multiple types of sedatives, such as benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine receptor agonists. Clinical features of drug-induced SRED compared with primary SRED were as follows: higher mean age of onset (40 years old in drug-induced SRED vs 26 years old in primary SRED, significantly higher rate of patients who had total amnesia during most of their SRED episodes (75.0% vs 31.8%, significantly lower rate of comorbidity of night eating syndrome (0% vs 63.3%, and significantly lower rate of history of sleepwalking (10.0% vs 46.7%. Increased doses of benzodiazepine receptor agonists may be responsible for drug-induced SRED. Conclusion: The clinical features of drug-induced SRED were different from those of primary SRED, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying mechanisms between these two categories of SREDs. Keywords: nocturnal eating syndrome, night eating, eating disorder, hypnotics, amnesia, sleepwalking, benzodiazepine

  14. High-dose stabilized chlorite matrix WF10 prolongs cardiac xenograft survival in the hamster-to-rat model without inducing ultrastructural or biochemical signs of cardiotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A; Kemp, K; Kemp, E;

    2001-01-01

    WF10 is a stabilized chlorite matrix with immunosuppressive effects. In vitro studies have demonstrated its ability to suppress T cells and delay or abolish antigen presentation. Hence, WF10 may prove useful to prolong graft survival after transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the use of...... high dose WF10 as a single drug regimen in the hamster-to-rat xenotransplantation model and searched for possible cardiotoxic side effects. WF10 prolonged cardiac xenograft survival, but did not induce tolerence or inhibit pathological signs of acute rejection. Hamsters from the donor population......, receiving high dose WF10 for 5 days, were compared with a matched control group. Ultrastructural examination of cardiac tissue as well as biochemical analysis of the cardiac enzymes troponin I, myoglobin and MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase showed no signs of damage. Thus, while prolonging graft survival...

  15. The Possible Protective Role of Green Tea against Radiation induced Certain Biochemical and Trace Element Changes in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of ionization occurring after radiation energy absorption in atoms and molecules of biological matter results in biochemical alterations, which cause damage to cellular elements. This damage is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that in turn damage proteins, lipids, nucleic-acids and trace elements. They also can attack poly unsaturated fatty acids and initiate lipid peroxidation within the cell. So the present study was constructed in order to assess the role of green tea extract (GTE) (300 mg/kg) to overcome the hazards of ionizing radiation. The parameters studied in the current work were serum AST, ALT and ALP activities as well as serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, urea and creatinine. Liver and kidney glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and metallothioneins (MTs) contents were also investigated. In addition, contents of some trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Se and Mn) in liver, kidney, spleen and testis tissues as well as the content of these trace elements in green tea plant and green tea extract were also estimated. Vitamin E was selected and used at dose of 40 mg/kg as reference standard. Male Wistar albino rats (48) were used, weighing 120-150 g, divided into 6 groups, each consists of 8 rats: Group (1) → received saline for 28 days and served as normal group, Group (2) → received GTE once daily for 28 days, Group (3) → received vitamin E once daily for 28 days, Group 4 → received saline for 21 days then were exposed to 6.5 Gy single dose whole body gamma irradiation followed by receiving saline for 7 days later and served as irradiated control, Group (5) → received GTE once daily for 21 days, and then were exposed to single dose whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), followed by treatment with GTE 7 days later to be 28 days as group 2 and Group (6) → received vitamin E once daily for 21 days, and then were exposed to single dose whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), followed by

  16. Toxicological and biochemical studies on Schinus terebinthifolius concerning its curative and hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Rania H.; Sherif Y Saleh; Khalil, Waleed F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, many efforts have been made to discover new products of natural origin which can limit the xenobiotic-induced hepatic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) is a highly toxic chemical that is widely used to study hepatotoxicity in animal models. Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the curative and protective effects of Schinus terbenthifolius ethanolic extract against CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: S. terbenthifol...

  17. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    P. P. Preetha; V. Girija Devi; Rajamohan, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzym...

  18. Disorder induced negative magnetization in LaSrCoRuO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports effect of thermally induced disorder on the magnetic properties of LaSrCoRuO6 double perovskite. While the ordered sample is antiferromagnetic, the disordered sample exhibits negative values of magnetization measured in low applied fields. Isothermal magnetization on this sample shows hysteresis due to the presence of ferromagnetic interactions. Based on neutron diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies, these results have been interpreted to be due to disorder in site occupancy of Co and Ru leading to octahedral distortions and formation of Ru-O-Ru ferromagnetic linkages. Below 150 K these ferromagnetic Ru spins polarize the Co spins in a direction opposite to that of the applied field resulting in observed negative magnetization.

  19. Drastic disorder-induced reduction of signal amplification in scale-free networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Ricardo; Martínez, Pedro J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding information transmission across a network is a fundamental task for controlling and manipulating both biological and manmade information-processing systems. Here we show how topological resonant-like amplification effects in scale-free networks of signaling devices are drastically reduced when phase disorder in the external signals is considered. This is demonstrated theoretically by means of a starlike network of overdamped bistable systems, and confirmed numerically by simulations of scale-free networks of such systems. The taming effect of the phase disorder is found to be sensitive to the amplification's strength, while the topology-induced amplification mechanism is robust against this kind of quenched disorder in the sense that it does not significantly change the values of the coupling strength where amplification is maximum in its absence. PMID:26274239

  20. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Disorder-Induced Quantum Beats in Two-Dimensional Spectra of Excitonically Coupled Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkus, Vytautas; Dong, Hui; Fleming, Graham R; Abramavicius, Darius; Valkunas, Leonas

    2016-01-21

    Quantum superposition of molecular electronic states is very fragile because of thermal energy fluctuations and the static conformational disorder induced by the intimate surrounding of constituent molecules of the system. However, the nature of the long-lived quantum beats, observed in time-resolved spectra of molecular aggregates at physiological conditions, is still being debated. We present our study of the conditions when long-lived electronic quantum coherences originating from recently proposed inhomogeneous broadening mechanism are enhanced and reflected in the two-dimensional electronic spectra of the excitonically coupled molecular dimer. We show that depending on the amount of inhomogeneous broadening, the excitonically coupled molecular system can establish long-lived electronic coherences, caused by a disordered subensemble, for which the dephasing due to static energy disorder becomes significantly reduced. On the basis of these considerations, we present explanations for why the electronic or vibrational coherences were or were not observed in a range of recent experiments. PMID:26720834

  2. Evidence that nerve growth factor promotes the recovery of peripheral neuropathy induced in mice by cisplatin: behavioral, structural and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, L; Manni, L; Properzi, F; De Santis, S; Fiore, M

    2000-12-28

    In this study we investigate the neurotoxic action of Cisplatin (6 micrograms/g body weight for 5 treatment cycles during 15 weeks with a total dose of 30 micrograms/g), an antitumor drug, and its effect on the level of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in peripheral tissues. We found that Cisplatin in adult rodents impairs peripheral sensory function and both sympathetic and sensory peripheral innervation as shown by the hot-plate response, catecholamine distribution and substance P immunoreactivity respectively. These changes are associated with decreased NGF in intestine, paws, and bladder while NGF increased in the spinal cord. Also BDNF decreased in bladder and paws and increased in spinal cord and intestine. To further investigate the role of NGF in the pathogenesis of Cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathies a group of animals was injected with NGF (1 microgram/g every 4 days for 4 times) following Cisplatin treatment and evaluated for sensory function, sympathetic and sensory innervation and BDNF levels. Data demonstrated that exogenous NGF administration is able to restore biochemical, structural and functional changes induced by Cisplatin. These findings suggest that the reduction of NGF availability could be a cause of Cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathies and that NGF exogenous administration could prevent or reduce Cisplatin neurotoxicity also in cancer patients, reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. PMID:11269929

  3. Protective effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on biochemical and histopathological alterations of cardiac muscle cells in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Amran, Athirah Z; Jalil, Juriyati

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p rats. There were significant rises (p rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats. PMID:25786162

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles induced alterations in haematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of an Indian major carp Labeo rohita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Suganya, R.; Ramesh, M., E-mail: mathanramesh@yahoo.com; Poopal, R. K. [Bharathiar University, Unit of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences (India); Gopalan, N. [Bharathiar University, DRDO-BU (India); Ponpandian, N. [Bharathiar University, Department of Nanoscience and Technology (India)

    2015-06-15

    The wide use of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs) in various applications has raised great concerns worldwide. In this work, we measured the potential harmful effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP (<50 nm) at concentrations of 1 and 25 mg/L on haematological, biochemical, and ionoregulatory responses in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for a short-term period of 96 h. The results revealed significant (P < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, protein, sodium (Na{sup +}), potassium (K{sup +}), chloride (Cl{sup −}) and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase levels in both the concentrations. White blood cell, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration and glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in response to both concentrations during the study period. However, no significant changes in red blood cell count and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (25 mg/L) activity were noticed compared to those of the respective control groups. Based on this study, it was found that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs do have prominent effects on freshwater fish L. rohita. Our data suggest that the alterations of these parameters can be used as nonspecific biomarkers to monitor the environmental risks arising from nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem and also regulate the use, production and release of nanoparticles.

  5. The essential oil from Lippia alba induces biochemical stress in the silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen after transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseânia Salbego

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the essential oil (EO from Lippia alba on biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the brain and liver of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen after six hours of transport. Fish were transported in plastic bags and divided into three treatments groups: control, 30 µL L- 1 EO from L.alba and 40 µL L-1 EO from L.alba. Prior to transport, the fish were treated with the EO from L. alba (200 µL L -1 for three minutes, except for the control group. Fish transported in bags containing the EO did not have any alterations in acetylcholinesterase, ecto -nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase and 5'nucleotidase activity in the brain or superoxide dismutase activity in the liver. The hepatic catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, nonprotein thiol and ascorbic acid levels were significantly lower compared to the control group. However, the hepatic thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances, protein oxidation levels and the lipid peroxidation/catalase+glutathione peroxidase (LPO/CAT+GPx ratio were significantly higher in fish transported with both concentrations of the EO, indicating oxidative stress in the liver. In conclusion, considering the hepatic oxidative stress parameters analyzed in the present experiment, the transport of previously sedated silver catfish in water containing 30 or 40 µL L-1 of EO from L. alba is less effective than the use of lower concentrations.

  6. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  7. Modification of the biochemical pathways of plants induced by ozone: What are the varied routes to change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Robert L. [Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, 500 Watkins Drive, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: heath@ucr.edu

    2008-10-15

    When plants are observed under a low dose of ozone, some physiological and metabolic shifts occur. Barring extreme injury such as tissue damage or stomata closure, most of these disruptive changes are likely to have been initiated at the level of gene expression. The belief is oxidative products formed in ozone exposed leaves, e.g. hydrogen peroxide, are responsible for much of the biochemical adjustments. The first line of defense is a range of antioxidants, such as ascorbate and glutathione, but if this defense is overwhelmed, subsequent actions occur, similar to systemic acquired resistance or general wounding. Yet there are seemingly unrelated metabolic responses which are also triggered, such as early senescence. We discuss here the current understanding of gene control and signal transduction/control in order to increase our comprehension of how ozone alters the basic metabolism of plants and how plants counteract or cope with ozone. - A discussion of current concepts of how ozone interactions with plant leaf tissue can trigger a wide variety of injury symptoms, which include antioxidants changes and metabolic shifts.

  8. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. PMID:26688290

  9. Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M. Alnuaimy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

  10. Modification of the biochemical pathways of plants induced by ozone: What are the varied routes to change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When plants are observed under a low dose of ozone, some physiological and metabolic shifts occur. Barring extreme injury such as tissue damage or stomata closure, most of these disruptive changes are likely to have been initiated at the level of gene expression. The belief is oxidative products formed in ozone exposed leaves, e.g. hydrogen peroxide, are responsible for much of the biochemical adjustments. The first line of defense is a range of antioxidants, such as ascorbate and glutathione, but if this defense is overwhelmed, subsequent actions occur, similar to systemic acquired resistance or general wounding. Yet there are seemingly unrelated metabolic responses which are also triggered, such as early senescence. We discuss here the current understanding of gene control and signal transduction/control in order to increase our comprehension of how ozone alters the basic metabolism of plants and how plants counteract or cope with ozone. - A discussion of current concepts of how ozone interactions with plant leaf tissue can trigger a wide variety of injury symptoms, which include antioxidants changes and metabolic shifts

  11. Electrode-stress-induced nanoscale disorder in Si quantum electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Disorder in the potential-energy landscape presents a major obstacle to the more rapid development of semiconductor quantum device technologies. We report a large-magnitude source of disorder, beyond commonly considered unintentional background doping or fixed charge in oxide layers: nanoscale strain fields induced by residual stresses in nanopatterned metal gates. Quantitative analysis of synchrotron coherent hard x-ray nanobeam diffraction patterns reveals gate-induced curvature and strains up to 0.03% in a buried Si quantum well within a Si/SiGe heterostructure. Electrode stress presents both challenges to the design of devices and opportunities associated with the lateral manipulation of electronic energy levels.

  12. Topiramate-induced periodic limb movement disorder in a patient affected by focal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romigi, Andrea; Vitrani, Giuseppe; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is characterized by pathological periodic limb movements during sleep, insomnia and/or diurnal sleepiness, and the absence of another primary sleep disorder. We report a patient with complex partial seizures who developed PLMD while taking topiramate (TPM). He had no evidence of metabolic and/or other conditions inducing PLMD. He also had fragmented sleep and disruptive PLMS on polysomnography, and PLMS subsided with change of antiepileptic drug. Topiramate may modulate the dopaminergic pathway by inhibition of glutamate release, thereby inducing PLMD as observed in our patient. Although a single case does not allow any generalization, PLMD should be considered in patients complaining of insomnia and treated with TPM. PMID:25667887

  13. Topiramate-induced periodic limb movement disorder in a patient affected by focal epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Romigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD is characterized by pathological periodic limb movements during sleep, insomnia and/or diurnal sleepiness, and the absence of another primary sleep disorder. We report a patient with complex partial seizures who developed PLMD while taking topiramate (TPM. He had no evidence of metabolic and/or other conditions inducing PLMD. He also had fragmented sleep and disruptive PLMS on polysomnography, and PLMS subsided with change of antiepileptic drug. Topiramate may modulate the dopaminergic pathway by inhibition of glutamate release, thereby inducing PLMD as observed in our patient. Although a single case does not allow any generalization, PLMD should be considered in patients complaining of insomnia and treated with TPM.

  14. BRAIN DYSFUNCTION OF PATIENTS WITH QIGONG INDUCED MENTAL DISORDER REVEALED BY EVOKED POTENTIALS RECORDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yingzhi; ZONG Wenbin; CHEN Xingshi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the brain function of patients with Qigong induced mental disorder (QIMD), this study was carried out. Methods: Four kinds of evoked potentials, including contingent negative variation (CNV), auditory evoked potentials (AEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), were recorded from 12 patients with Qigong induced mental disorder.Comparison of their evoked potentials with the data from some normal controls was made. Results: The results revealed that there were 3 kinds of abnormal changes in evoked potentials of patients with QIMD that is latency prolongation, amplitude increase and amplitude decrease, as compared with normal controls. Conclusion: Brain dysfunction of patients with QIMD was confirmed. Its biological mechanism needs further studying.

  15. Aripiprazole-induced hyperprolactinemia in a young female with delusional disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Padamadan Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. Switching over to aripiprazole or adjunctive aripiprazole has been advocated for optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole has been shown to normalize prolactin levels without affecting already achieved improvements in psychotic symptoms. However, here, we present the case of a 36 year old female with delusional disorder who developed symptomatic hyperprolact...

  16. Effects of Silybum marianum Extract on High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Disorders in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sayin Fatma Kubra; Buyukbas Sadik; Basarali M. Kemal; Alp Harun; Toy Hatice; Ugurcu Veli

    2016-01-01

    Silybum marianum extract (SME) has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of liver and biliary tract. Lately, it has been promoted as a nutritional supplement for beneficial effects on some risk factors of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of SME on high-fat diet (HFD) induced metabolic disorders. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed HFD for 11 weeks to induce obesity. SME was given to animals for two different durations, for 11 weeks ...

  17. Combination of Neurofeedback Technique with Music Therapy for Effective Correction of Stress-Induced Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotchev A.I.; Oh S.J.; Semikin G.I.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of music presentations controlled by feedback signals from the narrow-band electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillators of a patient to correct functional stress-induced disturbances. Materials and Methods. We revealed dominant narrow-band (0.4–0.6 Hz) oscillators in the theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (8–13 Hz) EEG bands in 18 volunteers suffering from stress-induced disorders. During two examinations the subjects were pre...

  18. Biochemical adaptations of mammalian hibernation: exploring squirrels as a perspective model for naturally induced reversible insulin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C-W.; Biggar, K.K.; Storey, K.B. [Carleton University, Department of Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-01-28

    An important disease among human metabolic disorders is type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder involves multiple physiological defects that result from high blood glucose content and eventually lead to the onset of insulin resistance. The combination of insulin resistance, increased glucose production, and decreased insulin secretion creates a diabetic metabolic environment that leads to a lifetime of management. Appropriate models are critical for the success of research. As such, a unique model providing insight into the mechanisms of reversible insulin resistance is mammalian hibernation. Hibernators, such as ground squirrels and bats, are excellent examples of animals exhibiting reversible insulin resistance, for which a rapid increase in body weight is required prior to entry into dormancy. Hibernator studies have shown differential regulation of specific molecular pathways involved in reversible resistance to insulin. The present review focuses on this growing area of research and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis, and explores the roles of the Akt signaling pathway during hibernation. Here, we propose a link between hibernation, a well-documented response to periods of environmental stress, and reversible insulin resistance, potentially facilitated by key alterations in the Akt signaling network, PPAR-γ/PGC-1α regulation, and non-coding RNA expression. Coincidentally, many of the same pathways are frequently found to be dysregulated during insulin resistance in human type 2 diabetes. Hence, the molecular networks that may regulate reversible insulin resistance in hibernating mammals represent a novel approach by providing insight into medical treatment of insulin resistance in humans.

  19. Biochemical adaptations of mammalian hibernation: exploring squirrels as a perspective model for naturally induced reversible insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important disease among human metabolic disorders is type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder involves multiple physiological defects that result from high blood glucose content and eventually lead to the onset of insulin resistance. The combination of insulin resistance, increased glucose production, and decreased insulin secretion creates a diabetic metabolic environment that leads to a lifetime of management. Appropriate models are critical for the success of research. As such, a unique model providing insight into the mechanisms of reversible insulin resistance is mammalian hibernation. Hibernators, such as ground squirrels and bats, are excellent examples of animals exhibiting reversible insulin resistance, for which a rapid increase in body weight is required prior to entry into dormancy. Hibernator studies have shown differential regulation of specific molecular pathways involved in reversible resistance to insulin. The present review focuses on this growing area of research and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis, and explores the roles of the Akt signaling pathway during hibernation. Here, we propose a link between hibernation, a well-documented response to periods of environmental stress, and reversible insulin resistance, potentially facilitated by key alterations in the Akt signaling network, PPAR-γ/PGC-1α regulation, and non-coding RNA expression. Coincidentally, many of the same pathways are frequently found to be dysregulated during insulin resistance in human type 2 diabetes. Hence, the molecular networks that may regulate reversible insulin resistance in hibernating mammals represent a novel approach by providing insight into medical treatment of insulin resistance in humans

  20. Biochemical metabolic changes assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy after radiation-induced hepatic injury in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Liang Hao; Fei Dong; Jian-Shan Mao; Jian-Zhong Sun; Ying Chen; Min Lin; Zhi-Kang Wang; Wen-Hong Ding

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To compare the features of biochemical metabolic changes detected by hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) with the liver damage score (LDS) and pathologic changes in rabbits and to investigate the diagnostic value of 31P MRS in acute hepatic radiation injury.METHODS:A total of 30 rabbits received different radiation doses (ranging 5-20 Gy) to establish acute hepatic injury models.Blood biochemical tests,31P MRS and pathological examinations were carried out 24 h after irradiation.The degree of injury was evaluated according to LDS and pathology.Ten healthy rabbits served as controls.The MR examination was performed on a 1.5 T imager using a 1H/31P surface coil by the 2D chemical shift imaging technique.The relative quantities of phosphomonoesters (PME),phosphodiesters (PDE),inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were measured.The data were statistically analyzed.RESULTS:(1) Relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites:(a) ATP:there were significant differences (P<0.05) (LDS-groups:control group vs mild group vs moderate group vs severe group,1.83±0.33 vs 1.55±0.24 vs 1.27±0.09 vs 0.98±0.18;pathological groups:control group vs mild group vs moderate group vs severe group,1.83±0.33 vs 1.58±0.25 vs 1.32±0.07 vs 1.02 ± 0.18) of ATP relative quantification among control group,mild injured group,moderate injured group,and severe injured group according to both LDS grading and pathological grading,respectively,and it decreased progressively with the increased degree of injury (r=-0.723,P=0.000).(b) PME and Pi;the relative quantification of PME and Pi decreased significantly in the severe injured group,and the difference between the control group and severe injured group was significant (P<0.05) (PME:LDScontrol group vs LDS-severe group,0.86±0.23 vs 0.58±0.22,P=0.031;pathological control group vs pathological severe group,0.86±0.23 vs 0.60±0.21,P=0.037;Pi:LDS-control group vs LDS-severe group,0.74±0.18 vs

  1. Biochemical and morphological changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by treatment of rats with p-Nonylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Abnosi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:In previous investigations, we have shown para-nonylphenol (p-NP caused significant reduction of proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in vitro. In this study, we first treat the rats with p-NP, then carried out the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs. Materials and Methods: Proliferation property of cells was evaluated with the help of MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Differentiation property was evaluated with quantitative alizarin red assay, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity as well as intracellular calcium content. In addition; morphological study, TUNEL test, activated caspase assay, and comet assay were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the cell death. Results: The results showed significant reduction in the colony-forming-ability and population-doubling-number of extracted cells when compared to control ones. In addition, it was revealed that the p-NP treatment of rats caused significant reduction in nuclear diameter, cytoplasm shrinkage, and induction of caspase-dependent-apoptosis. Also there was significant reduction in ALP activity, intracellular calcium content, and intracellular matrix following osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: As MSCs are the cellular back up for bone remodeling and repair, we suggest more investigations to be conducted regarding the correlation between the increasing number of patients suffering from osteoporosis and p-NP toxicity. Also, we strongly recommend WHO and local health organization to prevent industries of using p-NP in formulation of industrial products which may cause changes in proliferation and differentiation properties of stem cells.

  2. Assessment of Sesame Oil as a Radioprotector against Some Biochemical Alterations Induced by Argon Laser on Albino Rat Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant (Sesamum indicum) is a lovely annual shrub with white bell-shaped flowers tinged with a hint of blue, red or yellow. The rich, almost odourless oil expressed from the tiny seeds is very stable and contains an antioxidant system comprising sesamol and sesamolinol formed from sesamolin, which substantially reduces its oxidation rate. The objective of this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sesame oil to reduce the altered biochemical indices in brain of irradiated rats exposed to argon laser at wavelength 488 nm. Methods: Animals were divided into 4 groups. Group 1: Control group where 6 rats are dissected as control for other irradiated rats. Group 2: Irradiated with argon laser at wavelength 488 nm receiving energy (1.0 J x 3 times) on head of rats day by day. Group 3: Animals administered with sesame oil 500 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 successive days. Group 4: Irradiated with argon laser at wavelength 488 nm receiving an energy (1.0 J x 3 times) animals administered with sesame oil 500 mg/kg body wt/day through the radiation. Each group was dissected after 1, 9 and 14 days after exposure to laser radiation (presented in NCRRT). Results: The use of naturally occurring agents as antioxidant agents as sesame oil can slow the degenerative process in several neuro degenerative diseases. These data are addition to the antioxidant properties of the sesame oil against argon laser at wavelength 488 nm to indicate a possible role for the use in treatment of diseases involving free radicals and oxidative damage

  3. Biochemical assessment of nephroprotective and nephrocurative activity of Withania somnifera on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimlesh Kushwaha

    2016-01-01

    Results: BUN and serum creatinine values were significantly low as compared to GT group in all test duration in phase-1. In phase two there was no significant difference of these markers in two groups. Conclusions: Withania Somnifera root extract have nephroprotective activity against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 298-302

  4. The Protective Value of Hesperidin in Mitigating the Biochemical Perturbations and Trace Element alterations induced by Acrylonitrile in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Abdallah*, N. E. Amien**, M. R. Mohamed*, A. S. Nada**, M. A. Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acrylonitrile (a chemical pollutant has been reported to induce harmful effects in humans. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of hesperidin, a natural bioflavonoid, against the toxicity induced by acrylonitrile (AN in rats. Material&Methods: This study includes determination of serum total scavenger capacity “TSC”, liver enzymes (aspartate transaminase “ASAT”, alanine transaminase “ALAT” and alkaline phosphatase “ALP”, total proteins, albumin, glucose, creatinine, urea and lipid profile. Moreover, liver and kidney homogenate glutathione content “GSH”, catalase, superoxide dismutase “SOD”, glutathione peroxidase “GPx”, malondialdehyde “MDA” and some minerals were estimated. Results: revealed that administration of AN (orally 50mg/ kg b.wt. induced alterations in TSC level as well as liver, kidney and lipid profiles. In addition, a decrease in GSH-content and catalase, SOD and GPx activities was observed with an increase in MDA levels in both liver and kidney. There was disturbance in certain minerals such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Se, Ca, Mg and Mn. Conclusion: particularly, Hesperidin administration (orally 200 mg/kg b.wt. ameliorates the oxidative stress induced by AN, consistent with the reported antioxidant activity of hesperidin

  5. Efficacy of memoral herbal on prevention of electroconvulsive therapy-induced memory impairment in mood disorder patients (Isfahan - Iran 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ghafur Mousavi; Ghasemi Mohsen; Reza, Maracy M; Ebrahimi Amrollah; Barekatain Majid; Noori Fariba

    2012-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), it is also used as a rapid and efficacious treatment for other psychiatric disorders, especially treatment resistant ones. The cognitive impairment is one of the most important side effects of ECT. This study examined the Memoral herbal efficacy in prevention of ECT-induced memory impairment. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 70 patients with mood disorders who were...

  6. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical changes in two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different photosynthetically active radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-10-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating physiological and biochemical behavior of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different levels (sub-optimum; 25 ± 0.5, optimum; 75 ± 2.5 and supra-optimum; 225 ± 3.5 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and subsequently treated with two doses (30 and 90 mM) of NaCl. PAR influences growth in tested cyanobacteria being maximum in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. NaCl-induced maximum percent decline in growth was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells, which was in consonance with a decrease in chlorophyll content. Sub-optimum PAR acclimatization stimulated phycocyanin content in control cells, whereas maximum carotenoids content was observed in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. Photosystem II photochemistry viz. Fv/F0, Fv/Fm, Ψ0, ϕE0, PIABS, ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC was also influenced by PAR and NaCl. Maximum percent rise in superoxide radical (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells exposed to NaCl, which could be correlated with lower values of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic (NP-SH and cysteine) antioxidants. In supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells level of oxidative stress markers was in parallel with enhanced antioxidants. The results suggest that PAR significantly changes physiological and biochemical responses of studied cyanobacteria under NaCl stress. Besides this, this study also shows that P. foveolarum is more tolerant than N. muscorum under test conditions. PMID:26318279

  7. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide disturbs expression of metallothionein, proinflammatory cytokines and induces genotoxicity: Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Nesrine; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-09-01

    The individual toxic effects of aluminum and acrylamide are known but there is no data on their combined effects. The present study investigates the toxic effects after combined exposure to these toxicants on: (i) oxidative stress during combined chronic exposure to aluminum and acrylamide on kidney function (ii) correlation of oxidative stress with metallothionein (MT) and inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Rats were exposed to aluminum (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to aluminum chloride or acrylamide alone and in combination induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in the 24-h urine volume and uric acid levels in plasma and an increase of plasma creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels. Nephrotoxicity was objectified by a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, advanced oxidation protein, and protein carbonyl contents, whereas reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, vitamin C levels, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities showed a significant decline. Superoxide dismutase activity and its gene expression were increased. Aluminum and acrylamide co-exposure exhibited synergism in various biochemical variables and also in DNA damage. Kidney total MT levels and genes expression of MT1, MT2, and proinflammatory cytokines were increased. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide exhibited synergism and more pronounced toxic effects compared with their individual effects based on various biochemical variables, genotoxic, and histopathological changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1044-1058, 2016. PMID:25858877

  8. Squalene Modulates Radiation-Induced Structural, Ultrastructural And Biochemical Changes In Cardiac Muscles Of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failing heart represents an enormous clinical problem and is a major cause of death throughout the world. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress have been shown to contribute to heart failure. Squalene is a remarkable bioactive substance that belongs to a class of antioxidants called isoprenoids, which neutralize the harmful effect of excessive free radicals production in the body.The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of squalene against oxidative cardiac muscle damage induced by gamma irradiation.Rats were treated daily by gavage with 0.4 ml/kg squalene for 42 days before whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy and continued until animals were sacrificed 3 days post irradiation.Histological examination of cardiac muscles sections by using light and electron microscopes showed that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation has provoked a severe architecture damage such as necrotic nuclei, nuclei located at the periphery, alteration in chromatin distribution, ruptured cell and mitochondrial membranes, cristae of mitochondria disappeared, sticking mitochondria and ruptured myofibers. Structural and ultra-structural changes were associated with severe oxidative stress. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) (MDA) along with reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT), and glutathione content (GSH), were recorded.Treatment of rats with squalene has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in cardiac muscle which was substantiated by a significant amelioration in the activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, administration of squalene to rats has adjusted the radiation-induced increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on these results, it

  9. A biochemical study on ameliorative effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract against contrast media induced acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Hamid; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Hajian, Shabnam; Pour-Arian, Armita; Kohi, Golnoosh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be mediators of kidney injury and green tea polyphenols are potent-free radical scavengers.Objectives: In this study we sought to examine whether green tea was able to protect renal toxicity induced by contrast media or not. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups including: 1) control group 2) contrast media group 3) contrast media plus green tea 4) Green tea pretreatment and con...

  10. Nitrate-induced Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in the Liver of Rats:Ameliorative Effect of Hyparrhenia hirta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanen BOUAZIZ-KETATA; Ghada BEN SALAH; Hichem BEN SALAH; Rim MARREKCHI; Kamel JAMOUSSI; Tahia BOUDAWARA; Faiza FAKHFEKH; Najiba ZEGHAL

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta (H. hirta) against sodium nitrate (NaNO3)-induced hepatoxicity. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups:a control group and two treated groups during 50 d with NaNO3 administered either alone in drinking water or co-administered with H. hirta. Results NaNO3 treatment induced a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride while serum total protein level decreased significantly. Transaminases and lactate deshydrogenase activities in serum were elevated indicating hepatic cells’ damage after treatment with NaNO3. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased serum gamma glutamyl transferase activities suggested the presence of cholestasis in NaNO3 exposed rats. In parallel, a significant increase in malondialdehyde level along with a concomitant decrease in total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed in the liver after NaNO3 treatment. Furthermore, nitrate caused a significant induction of DNA fragmentation. These modifications in NaNO3-treated rats corresponded histologically with hepatocellular necrosis and mononuclear cells infiltration. H. hirta supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of the abnormalities cited above. Conclusion The results concluded that the treatment with H. hirta had a significant role in protecting the animals from nitrate-induced liver dysfunction.

  11. Molecular and biochemical evidence on the protection of cardiomyocytes from phosphine-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by acetyl-l-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Amir; Solgi, Reza; Jafari, Abbas; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Golaghaei, Alireza; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Baeeri, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) on pathologic changes of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, ATP production, oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis induced by aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning. The study groups included: the Sham that received almond oil only; the AlP that received oral LD50 dose of aluminum; the AC-100, AC-200, and AC-300 which received concurrent oral LD50 dose of AlP and single 100, 200, and 300mg/kg of ALCAR by intraperitoneal injection. After 24h, the rats were sacrificed; the heart and blood sample were taken for measurement of biochemical and mitochondrial factors. The results specified that ALCAR significantly attenuated the oxidative stress (elevated ROS and plasma iron levels) caused by AlP poisoning. ALCAR also increased the activity of cytochrome oxidase, which in turn amplified ATP production. Furthermore, flow cytometric assays and caspase activity indicated that ALCAR prohibited AlP-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. PMID:26773361

  12. Cardioprotective Effects of Lagenaria siceraria Fruit Juice on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histoarchitecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upaganlawar, A; Balaraman, R

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Rats injected with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of serum uric acid, tissue Na++ and Ca++ ions and membrane-bound Ca+2-ATPase activity. A significant decrease in the levels of serum protein, tissue K+ ion, vitamin E level, and the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and mg+2-ATPase was observed. Isoproterenol injected rats also showed a significant increase in the intensity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and histopathologic alterations in the heart. Treatment with L. siceraria fruit juice (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 30 days and administration of isoproterenol on 29th and 30th days showed a protective effect on altered biochemical and histopathologic changes. These findings indicate the cardioprotective effect of L. siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. PMID:22224036

  13. Protective Effect of Hesperidin Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats: Biochemical, Histopathological And Molecular Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesperidin belongs to the class of flavonoids called flavonones which are abundant in citrus fruits and it is significantly contributed to the intracellular antioxidant defense system and has been reported to act as a powerful agent against superoxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. Hesperidin has also been reported to have membrane stabilizing properties as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepato protective and antioxidant effects of hesperidin, a naturally occurring citrus flavonoglycone, against gamma irradiation-induced oxidative damage in rat liver hepatocytes and DNA. The results showed that ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress was evidenced by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in the levels of the antioxidants SOD, CAT and GSH in the liver. The data revealed elevation in liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT), increased of comet parameters (tailed %, tail length, % DNA in the tail and tail moment) as indication of DNA fragmentation of liver tissue and decrease in antioxidant GPx and SOD gene expression. The histopathological examination of liver tissues revealed increased tissue changes following the radiation exposure. Supplementation of hesperidin (100 mg/kg/day after day) by special gastric tube for one month before exposing rats to gamma irradiation of 10 Gy fractionated dose (2 Gy x 5 times) and to 8 Gy (single dose) induced significant amelioration and normalization in the levels of all studied parameters. The gamma irradiation-induced toxic effects were decreased by hesperidin administration before irradiation as observed by the restoration in the altered levels of the studied parameter. The pre-treatment with hesperidin can reduce lipid peroxidation (MDA) and increase SOD, CAT and GSH levels. Also, pre-treatment with hesperidin has ameliorated the liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT) and increased GPx and SOD gene expression in liver tissue. On the

  14. S1P prophylaxis mitigates acute hypobaric hypoxia-induced molecular, biochemical, and metabolic disturbances: A preclinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sonam; Rahar, Babita; Saxena, Shweta

    2016-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is emerging to have hypoxic preconditioning potential in various preclinical studies. The study aims to evaluate the preclinical preconditioning efficacy of exogenously administered S1P against acute hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced pathological disturbances. Male Sprague Dawley rats (200 ± 20 g) were preconditioned with 1, 10, and 100 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) S1P (i.v.) for three consecutive days. On the third day, S1P preconditioned animals, along with hypoxia control animals, were exposed to HH equivalent to 7,620 m (280 mm Hg) for 6 h. Postexposure status of cardiac energy production, circulatory vasoactive mediators, pulmonary and cerebral oxidative damage, and inflammation were assessed. HH exposure led to cardiac energy deficit indicated by low ATP levels and pronounced AMPK activation levels, raised circulatory levels of brain natriuretic peptide and endothelin-1 with respect to total nitrate (NOx), redox imbalance, inflammation, and alterations in NOx levels in the pulmonary and cerebral tissues. These pathological precursors have been routinely reported to be coincident with high-altitude diseases. Preconditioning with S1P, especially 1 µg/kg b.w. dose, was seen to reverse the manifestation of these pathological disturbances. The protective efficacy could be attributed, at least in part, to enhanced activity of cardioprotective protein kinase C and activation of small GTPase Rac1, which led to further induction of hypoxia-adaptive molecular mediators: hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and Hsp70. This is a first such report, to the best of our knowledge, elucidating the mechanism of exogenous S1P-mediated HIF-1α/Hsp70 induction. Conclusively, systemic preconditioning with 1 μg/kg b.w. S1P in rats protects against acute HH-induced pathological disturbances. © 2016 IUBMB Life 68(5):365-375, 2016. PMID:26959531

  15. The effect of Prosopis farcta beans extract on blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mohsen; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a well-established practice in traditional medicine. The medicinal plant Prosopis farcta has some antioxidant activity, which may be useful in diabetic patients. Since, there is no report on the antidiabetic effect of the P. farcta, this study evaluated antidiabetic activity of P. farcta bean extract (PFE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight [BW]), after which, the animals were randomly allocated into six experimental groups as follows: Group 1: Normal rats (received normal saline), Groups 2 and 3: Normal rats received PFE; (50 and 75 mg/kg BW), Group 4: Diabetic control rats, Group 5: Diabetic rats received PFE (50 mg/kg BW), Group 6: Diabetic rats received PFE (75 mg/kg BW). Three days after induction of diabetes, rats were received an extract of PFE orally for 12 days. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL). Results: The administration of PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose levels when compared with the STZ-control group (227.2 ± 12.00 and 259.6 ± 7.03 vs. 454.6 ± 12.66, P < 0.001). PFE in diabetic groups had no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, AST, and ALT compare to the STZ-control group. Conclusion: P. farcta could reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:27512685

  16. Biochemical and immunological basis of silymarin effect, a milk thistle (Silybum marianum) against ethanol-induced oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subir Kumar; Mukherjee, Sukhes

    2012-06-01

    Ethanol metabolism induces generation of excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which results in immune dysfunction. We examined the efficacy of silymarin on ethanol-induced oxidative stress, immunomodulatory activity, and vascular function in mice blood. Effectiveness of silymarin was compared with potent antioxidant ascorbic acid. In the present study, 8- to 10-week-old male BALB/c mice (20-30 g) were divided into the four groups of six each. One group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight), while second group were fed with ethanol (1.6 g/kg body weight) and silybin (250 mg/kg body weight), and the third group were exposed to ethanol (250 mg/kg body weight) and ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg body weight) per day for 12 weeks. The control group was fed with isocaloric glucose solution instead of ethanol. Ethanol exposure significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite levels besides glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in whole blood hemolyzate, while silymarin treatment significantly normalized these altered parameters. Silymarin significantly prevented ethanol-induced, elevated activities of interleukin (IL)-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, γ interferon (IFN-γ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, as well as decreased IL-4 activity in mice blood. These results were comparable with the activity of ascorbic acid. PMID:22409310

  17. Cardioprotective effect of Vedic Guard against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: A biochemical, electrocardiographic, and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj C Koti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vedic Guard is a polyherbal formulation used in the treatment of various ailments, however, is not scientifically assessed for its effect on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Objective: To find out the preventive role of Vedic Guard against doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Cardiotoxicity was produced by doxorubicin (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Vedic Guard (270 mg/kg, orally was administered as pre-treatment for 2 weeks and then for 2 weeks alternated with doxorubicin (DXR. The general observations, mortality, histopathology, biomarker like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, electrocardiographic (ECG parameters, antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT were monitored after 3 weeks of last dose. Results: The repeated administration of DXR causes cardiomyopathy associated with an antioxidant deficit. Pre-treatment with Vedic Guard decreases serum enzyme viz LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT levels to that of normal values. Vedic Guard significantly protected the myocardium from the toxic effect of DXR, by increasing the levels of antioxidants such as GSH, SOD, and CAT and decreased the elevated level of malondialdehyde. The study shows significant alteration of ECG pattern in DXR administered rats. The characteristic findings were elevation of ST segment, reduction in P waves, QRS complex, and R-R interval. Vedic Guard showed a protective effect against DXR-induced altered ECG pattern. It also reduced the severity of cellular damage of the myocardium confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated c ardioprotective effect of Vedic Guard might be attributed to its antioxidant activity.

  18. Attenuation of Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Oral Administration of Extracts and Fractions of Cephalotaxus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Muhammad K.; Deng, Yulin; Dai, Rongji

    2007-01-01

    Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) large size, evergreen tree common in China and utilized for numerous effective pharmacological applications in Chinese traditional medicine. The hepato-renal effects of C. sinensis were evaluated in vivo using Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as an tentative model. Animals were orally treated with 80% EtOH extract (aq.EE), H2O extract (WtE) and ethylacetate (EaF)/butanol fractions (BtF) of C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, b.w.) for 28 days whereas control ...

  19. Toxicological and biochemical studies on Schinus terebinthifolius concerning its curative and hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania H Abdou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, many efforts have been made to discover new products of natural origin which can limit the xenobiotic-induced hepatic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 is a highly toxic chemical that is widely used to study hepatotoxicity in animal models. Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the curative and protective effects of Schinus terbenthifolius ethanolic extract against CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: S. terbenthifolius extract was orally administered in a dose of 350 mg dried extract/kg b.wt. before and after intoxication with CCl 4 for curative and protective experiments, respectively. A group of hepatotoxicity indicative enzymes, oxidant-antioxidant capacity, DNA oxidation, and apoptosis markers were measured. Results: CCl 4 increased liver enzyme leakage, oxidative stress, hepatic apoptosis, DNA oxidation, and inflammatory markers. Administration of S. terebinthifolius, either before or after CCl 4 intoxication, significantly decreased elevated serum liver enzymes and reinstated the antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, S. terebinthifolius extract inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis as revealed by approximately 20 times down-regulation in caspase-3 expression when compared to CCl 4 untreated group. On the other hand, there was neither protective nor curative effect of S. terebinthifolius against DNA damage caused by CCl 4 . Conclusion: The present study suggests that S. terebinthifolius extract could be a substantially promising hepatoprotective agent against CCl 4 toxic effects and may be against other hepatotoxic chemical or drugs.

  20. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats

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    Roza Dianita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight prior to ISO (85 mg/kg-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p < 0.05 in cardiac enzyme activities, i.e., cardiac troponin I (cTnI, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, when compared with ISO-control rats. There were significant rises (p < 0.05 in the activity of oxidase enzymes, i.e., glutathione peroxide (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD of the pretreated rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats.

  1. Determination of potential role of antioxidative status and circulating biochemical markers in the pathogenesis of ethambutol induced toxic optic neuropathy among diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Manan, Abdul; Aziz, Khuram; Mahmood, Amna; Zaheer, Saima; Shuja, Naveed; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Karim, Sajjad

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to explore the antioxidative status and circulating biochemical markers having a potential role in the pathogenesis of ethambutol (EMB) induced toxic optic neuropathy (TON) among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Fifty patients under complete therapy of EMB for tuberculosis were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria for patients were to receive EMB everyday during treatment, a dose of 25 mg/kg for initial 2 months and 15 mg/kg during the rest of therapy period. We conducted color vision and visual acuity test for all patients. Fifteen out of fifty EMB induced TON patients, were found to be diabetic. Color vision and visual acuity test results were evaluated for diabetic and non-diabetic as well as twenty age matched controls. The results demonstrated a significant pattern of circulating biochemical markers between the studied groups. Data regarding hematological (RBC, p value = 0.02; Hemoglobin, p value = 0.02), hepatic (total bilirubin, p value = 0.01), renal (urea, p value = 0.03; creatinine, p value = 0.007), lipid (total cholesterol, p value = 0.01; total triglycerides, p value = 0.03) and antioxidative (superoxide dismutase, p value = 0.005; glutathione, p value = 0.02; catalase, p value = 0.02) profile showed a highly significant difference among the studied groups specially patients with diabetes. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level had gone significantly up in diabetic TON patients (p value = 0.02), in comparison to other antioxidants and vitamins (Vit). Vit-A, E, B1, B12 and Zinc seem to be playing a major role in the pathogenesis of TON, specially Vit-E and B1 surpassed all the antioxidants as having highly significant inverse relationships with MDA (MDA vs Vit-E, r = -0.676(**) and MDA vs Vit-B1, r = -0.724(**) respectively). We conclude that during the ethambutol therapy the decreased levels of Vit-E and Vit-B1 possibly play a role in the development of TON and may be used as therapeutic

  2. Effect of gate-induced doping on the Raman spectra of disordered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childres, Isaac; Jauregui, Luis; Chen, Yong; Purdue Univeristy, Yong P. Chen Group Team

    2013-03-01

    We report a Raman spectroscopy study of graphene field-effect transistors (GFET) after exposure to electron-beam irradiation, used to introduce a controlled amount of defects in graphene. Raman spectra are taken over a range of temperatures (4-300 K), back gate voltages and electron-beam exposures. We observe that the intensity ratio between Raman ``D'' and ``G'' peaks,ID /IG , commonly used to determine the amount of disorder in graphene, not only changes with the irradiation dosage, but also with gate-induced doping. At low temperature (4 K), we observe a peak in the plot of ID /IG versus back gate voltage at the Dirac point of the GFET. As the temperature increases, the back gate voltage at which this peak occurs decreases relative to the Dirac point. Our findings may be valuable for understanding the Raman spectra and electron-phonon physics in doped and disordered graphene.

  3. Strategies for reversing the effects of metabolic disorders induced as a consequence of developmental programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarkHVickers

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have reached epidemic proportions worldwide with far-reaching health care and economic implications. The rapid increase in the prevalence of these disorders suggests that environmental and behavioural influences, rather than genetic causes, are fuelling the epidemic. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis has highlighted the link between the periconceptual, fetal and early infant phases of life and the subsequent development of metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, the impact of poor maternal nutrition on susceptibility to later life metabolic disease in offspring is now well documented. Several studies have now shown, at least in experimental animal models, that some components of the metabolic syndrome, induced as a consequence of developmental programming, are potentially reversible by nutritional or targeted therapeutic interventions during windows of developmental plasticity. This review will focus on critical windows of development and possible therapeutic avenues that may reduce metabolic and obesogenic risk following an adverse early life environment.

  4. Weak ferromagnetism induced by atomic disorder in Fe2TiSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific-heat measurements on the Heusler-type alloy Fe2TiSn reveal the occurrence of weak ferromagnetism below 240 K and heavy fermion behavior with a quasiparticle effective mass of ∼40 times the free electron mass. Ab initio electronic structure calculations, which are in good agreement with measured x-ray photoemission valence-band spectra, yield a nonmagnetic ground state with a pseudogap located at the Fermi level. Atomic disorder inferred from Rietveld refinement of powder x-ray-diffraction data and its effect on the calculated electronic structure suggest that the weak ferromagnetism and the heavy fermion behavior may be induced by atomic disorder in Fe2TiSn and other Heusler alloys as well. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  5. Weak ferromagnetism induced by atomic disorder in Fe{sub 2}TiSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebarski, A. [Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0360 (United States); Maple, M. B. [Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0360 (United States); Freeman, E. J. [Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0360 (United States); Sirvent, C. [Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0360 (United States); Tworuszka, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, 40-007 Katowice, (Poland); Orzechowska, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, 40-007 Katowice, (Poland); Wrona, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, 40-007 Katowice, (Poland); Jezierski, A. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 60-179 Poznan, (Poland); Chiuzbaian, S. [Universitaet Osnabrueck, Fachbereich Physik, D-49069 Osnabrueck, (Germany); Neumann, M. [Universitaet Osnabrueck, Fachbereich Physik, D-49069 Osnabrueck, (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific-heat measurements on the Heusler-type alloy Fe{sub 2}TiSn reveal the occurrence of weak ferromagnetism below 240 K and heavy fermion behavior with a quasiparticle effective mass of {approx}40 times the free electron mass. Ab initio electronic structure calculations, which are in good agreement with measured x-ray photoemission valence-band spectra, yield a nonmagnetic ground state with a pseudogap located at the Fermi level. Atomic disorder inferred from Rietveld refinement of powder x-ray-diffraction data and its effect on the calculated electronic structure suggest that the weak ferromagnetism and the heavy fermion behavior may be induced by atomic disorder in Fe{sub 2}TiSn and other Heusler alloys as well. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  6. Suppression and restoration of disorder-induced light localization mediated by PT-symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Huang, Guoxiang; Torner, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    We uncover that the breaking point of the PT-symmetry in optical waveguide arrays has a dramatic impact on light localization induced by the off-diagonal disorder. Specifically, when the gain/loss control parameter approaches a critical value at which PT-symmetry breaking occurs, a fast growth of the coupling between neighboring waveguides causes diffraction to dominate to an extent that light localization is strongly suppressed and statistically averaged width of the output pattern substantially increases. Beyond the symmetry-breaking point localization is gradually restored, although in this regime the power of localized modes grows upon propagation. The strength of localization monotonically increases with disorder at both, broken and unbroken PT-symmetry.

  7. Biochemical and pathological study of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium l. on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassani Bafrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nephrolithiasis is of the most prevalent urinary tract disease. It seems worthwhile to replace the conventional treatments with more beneficial and safer agents, particularly herbal medicines which are receiving an increasing interest nowadays. Aims: In this study, we investigated the protective and curative effects of Achillea millefolium L. on ethylene glycol (EG-induced nephrolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of A. millefolium was prepared by soxhlet method. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (N = 8 as follows. The negative control (group A received tap drinking water. Rats in sham (positive control group B, curative (group C and D, and preventive (group E groups all received 1% EG in drinking water according to the experimental protocol for 30 days. In the curative groups, dosages of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW of A. millefolium extract were administered orally from day 15 to the end of the experiment, group C and D, respectively. Group E received 200 mg/kg A. millefolium extract from the 1 st day throughout the experiment. Urinary oxalate and citrate concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer on the first and 30 th days. On day 31, the kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically for counting the calcium oxalate (CaOx deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In the curative and preventive groups, administration of A. millefolium extract showed significant reduction in urinary oxalate concentration (P < 0.05. Also, urinary citrate concentration was significantly increased in group C, D, and E. The CaOx deposits significantly decreased in group C to E compared with the group B. Conclusions: According to our results, A. millefolium extract had preventive and curative effects on EG-induced renal calculi.

  8. Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders in a naturalistic schizophrenia population: diagnostic value of actometric movement patterns

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    Tuisku Katinka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders (NIMDs have overlapping co-morbidity. Earlier studies have described typical clinical movement patterns for individual NIMDs. This study aimed to identify specific movement patterns for each individual NIMD using actometry. Methods A naturalistic population of 99 schizophrenia inpatients using conventional antipsychotics and clozapine was evaluated. Subjects with NIMDs were categorized using the criteria for NIMD found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Two blinded raters evaluated the actometric-controlled rest activity data for activity periods, rhythmical activity, frequencies, and highest acceleration peaks. A simple subjective question was formulated to test patient-based evaluation of NIMD. Results The patterns of neuroleptic-induced akathisia (NIA and pseudoakathisia (PsA were identifiable in actometry with excellent inter-rater reliability. The answers to the subjective question about troubles with movements distinguished NIA patients from other patients rather well. Also actometry had rather good screening performances in distinguishing akathisia from other NIMD. Actometry was not able to reliably detect patterns of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Conclusion The present study showed that pooled NIA and PsA patients had a different pattern in lower limb descriptive actometry than other patients in a non-selected sample. Careful questioning of patients is a useful method of diagnosing NIA in a clinical setting.

  9. Effects of Silybum marianum Extract on High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Disorders in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayin Fatma Kubra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silybum marianum extract (SME has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of liver and biliary tract. Lately, it has been promoted as a nutritional supplement for beneficial effects on some risk factors of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of SME on high-fat diet (HFD induced metabolic disorders. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed HFD for 11 weeks to induce obesity. SME was given to animals for two different durations, for 11 weeks or for 7 weeks. The results showed significant increase in plasma transaminases, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, leptin, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, glucose and insulin along with significant increase in body mass index (BMI and liver weights in rats fed the HFD diet compared to rats fed with standard rat diet. SME supplementation for different durations raised improvement in the HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatopathy at different degrees. Our study concludes that SME can be well considered as an effective supplement to improve insulin and leptin sensitivity and hyperlipidemia and to suppress body weight gain.

  10. Fractographic finger printing of proton-irradiation-induced disordering and amorphization of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermetallic compounds NiTi, NiTi2, CuZr, CuTi2, and Zr3Al were irradiated by 2 MeV protons at various temperatures between --175 degree C and --44 degree C to a fluence of 1.9x1022 H+/m2. Transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the extents of disordering and amorphization induced by irradiation in the samples. Both phenomena progressed to varying extents in the five compounds, depending on the irradiation temperature and dose. It was observed that the C-A transition began before the degree of long-range order was reduced significantly, and that the amorphous phase nucleated homogeneously throughout the crystalline matrix. A major finding of the current investigation is that the technique of scanning electron fractography provides a useful correlation between the features of the fractured surfaces and the microstructural alterations induced by the proton irradiations. When amorphization is complete the fracture surfaces are either featureless (e.g., NiTi2) or contain branching features resembling river patterns. In some cases (especially in CuZr) these are similar to the markings seen on the surface of fractured amorphous ribbons produced by melt-spinning. In general, however, there is not a particularly good correlation between the features on the fracture surfaces of the irradiated and melt-spun ribbons. When the microstructure consists of amorphous regions embedded in a partially disordered crystalline matrix, there is consierable evidence for irradiation-induced ductility. In such cases, exemplified by the results on NiTi and Zr3Al, the fracture surfaces contain dimples, characteristic of ductile fracture, suggesting that disordering promotes ductility

  11. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats--electrocardiographic biochemical and histological evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithayarasi, A P; Padmavathy, V N; Shyamala Devi, C

    1996-10-01

    The effect of alpha-tocopherol (6 mg/100 g body wt, orally, daily for 90 days) pretreatment in isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt, subcutaneously, twice at an interval of two days at the end of the alpha-tocopherol pretreatment) induced myocardial infarction was studied in rats. Isoproterenol administered rats showed electrocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial infarction with marked ST segment elevation, Q waves appearance and a significant increase in heart rate. In isoproterenol administered rats, a significant decrease was observed in the activities of marker enzymes such as aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in heart and aorta with a significant increase in their activities in serum. The levels of lipid peroxides in terms of "TBA reactants" increased significantly in serum, heart and aorta on isoproterenol administration. The histology of heart and aorta showed marked fragmentation of muscle fibres and necrotic lesions in isoproterenol administered rats. alpha-Tocopherol pretreated rats showed a near normal ECG pattern, levels of lipid peroxides, activities of marker enzymes and a near normal histology of heart and aorta on isoproterenol administration. PMID:9055097

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (Meaning pungent belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on lead induced toxicity in mice. Chronic dose of lead (2 mg/Kg body weight, i.p., showed significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and the nonenzymatic antioxidant as glutathione (GSH and total protein content in the liver, kidney and brain. This decrease was accompanied with significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level. Also, there were disturbances in the liver, kidney and brain functions manifested by significant changes in their functional markers. Efficacy of garlic to reduce tissue lead concentration was also evaluated. Mostly, all of the investigated parameters were restored nearly to the normal values after raw garlic extract treatment. In conclusion, garlic exerts its effects not only as an antioxidant but also as a sulfur donor. So, garlic has a promising role and it is worth to be considered as a natural chelating agent for lead intoxication.

  13. Comparison of Biochemical Effects Induced by Changle between Male and Female Rats Using NMR and ICP-MS Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic profiles caused by rare earth complex were investigated using NMR and ICP-MS techniques. Male and female Wistar rats were treated orally with Changle (A kind of rare earth complex applied in agriculture to raise the production of crops) at dose of 2, 5 and 20 mg*kg-1 body weight/day respectively for 90 d. Urine and serum samples are collected on 90 d. The relative concentrations of important endogenous metabolites in urine and serum are determined from 1H NMR spectra and the contents of the four rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) constituting Changle in the serum samples are measured by ICP-MS technique. Changle-induced renal and liver damage in rats is found based on the increase in the amounts of the amino acids, trimethylamine N-oxide, N, N-dimethyglycine, dimethylamine, succinate, α-ketoglutarate and ethanol as well as rare earth concentrations. The similarities and differentiations are found in the alteration patterns of metabolites and rare earth concentrations in serum.

  14. Some liver and brain disorders induced by anachronistical organophosphorus pesticide in rats subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the changes produced in liver, brain and serum of animals subjected to cumulative doses up to 7 Gy and/or oral administration of 7.5 mg/kg body weight of the organophosphorus pesticide tamaron. The data obtained revealed that treatment with tamaron or exposure to radiation induced highly highly significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity in brain, liver and serum. Radiation exposure alone caused significant inhibition of cholinesterase in liver and serum,whereas, no change was observed in brain. These results indicated that the study of cholinesterase activity in serum is of great use in diagnosing liver disorder

  15. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  16. Energy Transport Induced by an External Alternating Field in Strongly Disordered Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delocalization of excitations in an ensemble of two-level systems with a strong disorder due to an external alternating acoustic or electric field is considered. The propagating modes are shown to appear if a ratio of the field amplitude to the frequency is large enough. Two complementary approaches, the static one similar to that of Anderson and the dynamic one related to Landau-Zener, are developed. It is shown that the field-induced relaxation mechanism can have a strong influence on the kinetics. The internal friction is argued to be vastly affected by the relaxation mechanism proposed

  17. Protective Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid Against Disorders Induced by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation interacts with living cells, causing a variety of biochemical changes depending on exposed and absorbed doses, duration of exposure, interval after exposure and susceptibility of tissues to ionizing radiation. So, it may increase the oxidative stress and damage of body organs. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA-also known as thioctic acid) appears to be readily absorbed from an oral dose and converts easily to its reduced form, dihydro lipoic acid (DHLA), in many tissues of the body. ALA can neutralize free radicals in both fatty and watery regions of cells. The present study has been designed to evaluate the possible efficiency of ALA as antioxidant and radio-protector against radiation induced oxidative stress in different organs (liver, kidney and heart) in rats through estimation of the activity of markers of serum liver, kidney and heart function, in addition to the histopathological differentiation of these organs by light and electron microscope. Five equal groups were conducted for the study: control, ALA (30 mg/kg body wt), irradiated (each rat was exposed to 6 Gy as a fractionated dose of gamma (γ) radiation), irradiated plus ALA (each rat received ALA for 9 days simultaneously during exposure) and ALA plus irradiation plus ALA groups (each rat received ALA for a week pre-exposure plus 9 days during exposure). Radiation doses were fractionated dose levels of 2 Gy each 3 days to reach accumulative dose of 6 Gy. After 3 days of each exposure rats were sacrificed, except, those left for recovery test one month after last exposure. The results revealed that whole body γ-irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in liver, kidney and heart obviously manifested by significant elevation in alanine and aspartate transaminase ( ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine and creatine kinase (CK-MB). ALA treated-irradiated rats showed lower significantly values indicating remarkable improvement in all measured parameters and

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AT FOLIAR LEVEL INDUCED BY ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS ON SAMPLES OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. FROM IAŞI CITY AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Soltuzu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper some physiological changes (photosynthetic and transpiration processes intensity and biochemical (content of photo-assimilating pigments induced at foliar level by some pollutants in samples of Aesculus hippocastanum L. cultivated for ornamental purposes across the five air quality monitoring stations in Iasi city area. Pollutants monitored by the five stations are represented by gaseous (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and solid pollutants (dust prone to sedimentation. Measurements were made "in vivo", as well on fresh material covering vegetation periods of years 2012 and 2013. The necrosis and   the inducted foliar chlorosis by polluting agents represent the clear materialization of some profound physiological modifications which disturb the photo-assimilating structures and assimilator  pigments. The results lead to the conclusion that the amount of chlorophyll a and b and the intensity of photosynthesis aren`t always correlated, as already known from literature. The most obvious results of pollutants influence occurred for the individuals situated at the traffic station Podul de Piatră, where SO2 and particulate solids in suspension are the predominating pollutants and this fact states that the traffic pollutants are the most destructive.

  19. Vinpocetine and Vitamin E Modulates Some Biochemical Alterations Induced by Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Chloropyrifos in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acapi-Cav is a well balanced and well tolerated formula containing vinpocetine and vitamin E. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vinpocetine and vitamin E on the oxidative stress, electrolytes and monoamines level in rats exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays), chloropyrifos (CPF) as well as rats exposed to a combination of gamma rays and CPF. Irradiation was performed by whole body exposure of rats to 8 Gy delivered at 1 Gy every 4 days. CPF was administered to rats by oral gavages at a dose of 3.6 mg/kg body weight ( 1/10 LD50 ) daily for 30 days. Vinpocetine and vitamin E were administered to rats by oral gavages at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight daily during 7 days before starting the experiment and continued during the period of exposure to gamma rays and/or CPF. The results revealed significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level associated with a significant decrease of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the blood of rats exposed to gamma rays and/or CPF indicating oxidative stress. The levels of serum electrolytes (sodium Na+, potassium K+, calcium Ca++ and magnesium Mg) showed significant decrease. Serum dopamine (DA) level was decreased and norepinephrine (NE) was increased while epinephrine (EPI) showed non-significant change. The level of serum monoamine oxidase (MAO) showed significant increase. The administration of vinpocetine and vitamin E to rats exposed to gamma rays and/or CPF significantly reduced the amount of MDA which associated with an increase in the level of antioxidants and significant improvement was recorded for electrolytes level. The results demonstrated that vinpocetine and vitamin E significantly attenuated the increase of MAO and induced significant amelioration in the level of monoamines. It could be concluded that vinpocetine and vitamin E might protect the body from oxidative damage and electrolytes and monoamines alterations in rats exposed to gamma rays and

  20. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assaying biochemical markers and histological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asghari, Ahmad; Amirkamali, Sahar; Hoseinzadeh, Hesam Aldin; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into two experimental groups, as follows: the diabetic IR group (G1, n = 10) and the diabetic IR + LLLT group (G2, n = 10). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats from the right femoral artery clipping for 2 h, followed by a reperfusion for 24 h. Then, the laser irradiation (K30 handheld probe, AZOR, Technica, Russia, 650 nm, 30 mW, surface area = 1 cm(2), energy density = 1.8 J/cm(2)) was carried out by irradiating the rats over a unique point on the skin over the middle region of the right gastrocnemius muscle belly three times (every 8 h), starting after initiating the reperfusion for 3 min. At the end of the reperfusion period, rats were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected and used for the estimation of pO2, pCO2, pH, HCO3, serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Subsequently, the right gastrocnemius muscle samples were taken for wet/dry weight ratio assessment and histological/biochemical examination. The pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pH levels were similar for both groups (P > 0.05). The serum LDH and CPK levels were significantly lower (P level in G2 was significantly decreased (P laser parameters and examining response over a longer period of tissue recovery. PMID:27250714

  1. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  2. Impact of Flax Seed and Canola Oils Mixture Supplementation on The Physiological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important problems in the human health nutrition field is the use of food flavor. Monosodium glutamate is one of the main flavors used as an ingredient in various food products, however it produces physiological and biochemical changes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the supplementation of flax seed and canola oils mixture against the physiological and biochemical changes induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. In addition to analyses the physical and chemical characteristics of flax seed and canola oil and fatty acids composition by using gas liquid chromatography. The results concerning that unsaturated fatty acids of flax seed oil were oleic (18:1) 22%, linoleic acid (18:2) 30 % and linolenic acid (18:3) 36%. Total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in flaxseed oil was 88% and total saturated fatty acids 12%. The unsaturated fatty acids of canola oil were oleic (18:1) 66%, linoleic acid (18:2) 18% and linolenic acid (18:3) 7%, total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in canola oil was 92% and total saturated fatty acids was 8%. On the other hand, treatment of rats with monosodium glutamate for ten consecutive days led to a decrease in RBCs, Hb, Hct % and increased platelet count with decrease in WBCs and undesirable changes in its differential count. There is also, high significant increase in testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is accompanied with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and serum testosterone level. These disturbances were associated with significant increase in the liver enzymes ALT,AST and ALP and increase in the level of total biluribin and glucose. Also, significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid were recorded. The supplementation with mixture of flax seed and canola oils mixture for one month after the injection of monosodium glutamate caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this flavor. To

  3. Exchange bias-like effect in TbFeAl induced by atomic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Strydom, André M.

    2016-05-01

    The exchange bias-like effect observed in the intermetallic compound TbFeAl, which displays a magnetic phase transition at T^hc ≈ 198 \\text{K} and a second one at T^lc ≈ 154 \\text{K} , is reported. Jump-like features are observed in the isothermal magnetization, M (H) , at 2 K which disappear above 8 K. The field-cooled magnetization isotherms below 10 K show loop shifts that are reminiscent of exchange bias, also supported by the training effect. A significant coercive field, Hc ≈ 1.5 \\text{T} at 2 K, is observed in TbFeAl which, after an initial increase, shows a subsequent decrease with temperature. The exchange bias field, H eb , shows a slight increase and a subsequent leveling off with temperature. It is argued that the inherent crystallographic disorder among Fe and Al and the high magnetocrystalline anisotropy related to Tb3+ lead to the exchange bias effect. TbFeAl has been recently reported to show the magnetocaloric effect and the present discovery of exchange bias makes this compound a multifunctional one. The result obtained on TbFeAl generalizes the observation of exchange bias in crystallographically disordered materials and gives impetus for the search for materials with exchange bias induced by atomic disorder.

  4. Cation disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel crystals induced by electron or ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural changes in magnesium aluminate spinel (MgO · nAl2O3) single crystals, which were irradiated with 900 keV electrons or 1 MeV Ne+ ions at 873 K, were examined by electron channeling enhanced X-ray microanalysis. Unirradiated MgO · Al2O3 has a tendency to form the normal spinel configuration, where Mg2+ ions and Al3+ ions occupy mainly the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites, respectively. Electron irradiation induces simple cation disordering between the tetrahedral sites and the octahedral sites in MgO · Al2O3. In addition to cation disordering, slight evacuation of cations from the tetrahedral sites to the octahedral sites occurs in a peak-damaged area in MgO · Al2O3 irradiated with Ne+ ions. In contrast, cation disordering is suppressed in MgO · 2.4Al2O3 irradiated with electrons. The structural vacancies, present in the non-stoichiometric compound, appear to be effective in promoting irradiation damage recovery through interstitial-vacancy recombination

  5. Cation disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel crystals induced by electron or ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Takeshi; Matsumura, Syo; Kinoshita, Chiken; Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    2000-12-01

    Structural changes in magnesium aluminate spinel (MgO · nAl 2O 3) single crystals, which were irradiated with 900 keV electrons or 1 MeV Ne + ions at 873 K, were examined by electron channeling enhanced X-ray microanalysis. Unirradiated MgO · Al 2O 3 has a tendency to form the normal spinel configuration, where Mg 2+ ions and Al 3+ ions occupy mainly the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites, respectively. Electron irradiation induces simple cation disordering between the tetrahedral sites and the octahedral sites in MgO · Al 2O 3. In addition to cation disordering, slight evacuation of cations from the tetrahedral sites to the octahedral sites occurs in a peak-damaged area in MgO · Al 2O 3 irradiated with Ne + ions. In contrast, cation disordering is suppressed in MgO · 2.4Al 2O 3 irradiated with electrons. The structural vacancies, present in the non-stoichiometric compound, appear to be effective in promoting irradiation damage recovery through interstitial-vacancy recombination.

  6. Cation disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel crystals induced by electron or ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Takeshi E-mail: soeda@regroup5.nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsumura, Syo; Kinoshita, Chiken; Zaluzec, Nestor J

    2000-12-01

    Structural changes in magnesium aluminate spinel (MgO {center_dot} nAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}) single crystals, which were irradiated with 900 keV electrons or 1 MeV Ne{sup +} ions at 873 K, were examined by electron channeling enhanced X-ray microanalysis. Unirradiated MgO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a tendency to form the normal spinel configuration, where Mg{sup 2+} ions and Al{sup 3+} ions occupy mainly the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites, respectively. Electron irradiation induces simple cation disordering between the tetrahedral sites and the octahedral sites in MgO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition to cation disordering, slight evacuation of cations from the tetrahedral sites to the octahedral sites occurs in a peak-damaged area in MgO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradiated with Ne{sup +} ions. In contrast, cation disordering is suppressed in MgO {center_dot} 2.4Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradiated with electrons. The structural vacancies, present in the non-stoichiometric compound, appear to be effective in promoting irradiation damage recovery through interstitial-vacancy recombination.

  7. The disorder-induced Raman scattering in Au/MoS2 heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gołasa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Raman scattering has been studied in heterostructures composed of a thin MoS2 flake and a 1-1.5 nm layer of thermally evaporated gold (Au. There have been Au nanoislands detected in the heterostructure. It has been found that their surface density and the average size depend on the MoS2 thickness. The Raman scattering spectrum in the heterostructure with a few monolayer MoS2 only weakly depends on the excitation (resonant vs. non-resonant mode. The overall Raman spectrum corresponds to the total density of phonon states, which is characteristic for disordered systems. The disorder in the MoS2 layer is related to the mechanical strain induced in the MoS2 layer by the Au nanoislands. The strain results in the localization of phonon modes, which leads to the relaxation of the momentum conservation rule in the scattering process. The relaxation allows phonons from the whole MoS2 Brillouin zone to interact with electronic excitations. Our results show that the Au nanoislands resulted from thermal evaporation of a thin metal layer introduce substantial disorder into the crystalline structure of the thin MoS2 layers.

  8. Effects of L-Theanine on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Induced Changes in Rat Brain Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Eduardo Ceremuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by the occurrence of a traumatic event that is beyond the normal range of human experience. The future of PTSD treatment may specifically target the molecular mechanisms of PTSD. In the US, approximately 20% of adults report taking herbal products to treat medical illnesses. L-theanine is the amino acid in green tea primarily responsible for relaxation effects. No studies have evaluated the potential therapeutic properties of herbal medications on gene expression in PTSD. We evaluated gene expression in PTSD-induced changes in the amygdala and hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were assigned to PTSD-stressed and nonstressed groups that received either saline, midazolam, L-theanine, or L-theanine + midazolam. Amygdala and hippocampus tissue samples were analyzed for changes in gene expression. One-way ANOVA was used to detect significant difference between groups in the amygdala and hippocampus. Of 88 genes examined, 17 had a large effect size greater than 0.138. Of these, 3 genes in the hippocampus and 5 genes in the amygdala were considered significant (P<0.05 between the groups. RT-PCR analysis revealed significant changes between groups in several genes implicated in a variety of disorders ranging from PTSD, anxiety, mood disorders, and substance dependence.

  9. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: → Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 μg/L. → Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. → DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 μg DU/L. → The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  10. Identifying intrinsically disordered protein regions likely to undergo binding-induced helical transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Karen; Mei, Yang; Sinha, Sangita C

    2016-10-01

    Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) lacking stable secondary and ordered tertiary structure. IDRs are often implicated in macromolecular interactions, and may undergo structural transitions upon binding to interaction partners. However, as binding partners of many protein IDRs are unknown, these structural transitions are difficult to verify and often are poorly understood. In this study we describe a method to identify IDRs that are likely to undergo helical transitions upon binding. This method combines bioinformatics analyses followed by circular dichroism spectroscopy to monitor 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)-induced changes in secondary structure content of these IDRs. Our results demonstrate that there is no significant change in the helicity of IDRs that are not predicted to fold upon binding. IDRs that are predicted to fold fall into two groups: one group does not become helical in the presence of TFE and includes examples of IDRs that form β-strands upon binding, while the other group becomes more helical and includes examples that are known to fold into helices upon binding. Therefore, we propose that bioinformatics analyses combined with experimental evaluation using TFE may provide a general method to identify IDRs that undergo binding-induced disorder-to-helix transitions. PMID:27179590

  11. Uranium bioaccumulation and biological disorders induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after a depleted uranium waterborne exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.f [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Palluel, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.palluel@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.porcher@ineris.f [Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Unit, INERIS (National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks), Parc technologique ALATA, 60 550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.f [Universite de Lyon, INRA, EFPA-SA, Environmental Science Laboratory (LSE), ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Because of its toxicity and its ubiquity within aquatic compartments, uranium (U) represents a significant hazard to aquatic species such as fish. In a previous study, we investigated some biological responses in zebrafish either exposed to depleted or to enriched U (i.e., to different radiological activities). However, results required further experiments to better understand biological responses. Moreover, we failed to clearly demonstrate a significant relationship between biological effects and U radiological activity. We therefore chose to herein examine U bioaccumulation and induced effects in zebrafish according to a chemical dose-response approach. Results showed that U is highly bioconcentrated in fish, according to a time- and concentration-dependent model. Additionally, hepatic antioxidant defenses, red blood cells DNA integrity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were found to be significantly altered. Generally, the higher the U concentration, the sooner and/or the greater the effect, suggesting a close relationship between accumulation and effect. - Research highlights: Depleted U bioconcentration factor is of about 1000 in zebrafish exposed to 20 {mu}g/L. Hepatic antioxidant disorders are noticed as soon as the first hours of exposure. DNA damage is induced in red blood cells after 20 d of exposure to 500 {mu}g DU/L. The brain cholinergic system (AChE activity) is impacted. - This study demonstrates that U is highly bioaccumulated in fish, resulting in biological disorders such as hepatic oxidative stress as well as genotoxic and neurotoxic events.

  12. Potential benefits of some antioxidant nutrients in reducing the high levels of some biochemical variables associated with induced hypertension in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a preliminary trial, the changes in selected biochemical blood variables which are thought to represent risk factors coincident with hypertension were compared between a group of normal control male albino rats (normotensive) and other group suffered from hypertension induced artificially by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Also, in this study, the effects of four antioxidant nutrients on the same variables were tested in order to show to what extent these nutrients are valid to control the levels of these variables without any deleterious effects after treatment. Co-enzyme Q 10 , taurine or carnitine were daily injected intraperitoneally for two weeks to three groups of hypertensive rats with doses of 50, 500 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Garlic oil (200 mg / kg) was given to another hypertensive rats by oral intubation. The fourth group received a combination of all the above mentioned nutrients. Another hypertensive group was left without any treatment and served as recovery group. Fasting blood samples were drawn at 2 and 4 weeks after the terminal of the treatments. The results obtained revealed that the induced hypertension caused significant (P<0.001) increase of blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatin phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1, angiotensin- II, total cholesterol (T Chol), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) as compared with their relevant levels in the control normotensive rats which injected with normal saline. All nutrients used had significant (P<0.05) lowering effects on the activities of serum cardiac enzymes (LDH and CPK) besides AST, but the reduction was more evident when a combination of all nutrients was used as compared with their corresponding levels of the recovery hypertensive group. As a function of interval, the activities of all enzymes were declined significantly (P<0.05) with the advancement of time. The same

  13. Systemic inflammation induces anxiety disorder through CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wang, M; Guo, Y Y; Sun, T; Li, Y J; Yang, Q; Zhang, K; Liu, S B; Zhao, M G; Wu, Y M

    2016-08-01

    It is evidenced that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorder, as well as the dysfunction of glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Chemokine CXCL12 has been reported taking part in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, however, the roles of CXCL12 in the development of anxiety are still unclear. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced anxiety-like behaviors in adult mice as measured by elevated plus-maze test (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Astrocytes were responsible for CXCL12 induction upon LPS challenge in hippocampus and amygdala, and microinjection of CXCL12 into amygdala induced mice anxiety-like behaviors. AMD3100, which is an antagonist for CXCL12 receptor CXCR4, prevented the anxiety behaviors induced by microinjection of CXCL12 into amygdala as well as injection i.p of LPS. Knockdown of CXCR4 expression in neurons using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) significantly blocked anxiety behaviors mediated by CXCL12 i.c injection. Furthermore, AMD3100 or shCXCR4 prevented the impairment of nesting ability induced by CXCL12 in mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the neurons of basolateral amygdala (BLA) revealed that CXCL12 enhanced glutamatergic transmission by increasing sEPSC frequency in the amygdala. AMD3100 inhibited the excitatory glutamatergic neural transmission and involved in the development of anxiety through CXCR4. These findings provide direct evidence that alterations of CXCL12 in BLA play critical roles in the development of anxiety induced by systemic inflammation and that CXCR4 may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammation-induced anxiety. PMID:26952745

  14. Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced Exhaustion Disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Åke; Åsberg, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between...

  15. Behavioural, biochemical and molecular changes induced by chronic crack-cocaine inhalation in mice: The role of dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, Lorena B; Rodrigues, Livia C M; Andrich, Filipe; Moraes, Livia S; Cicilini, Maria A; Mendonça, Josideia B; Pelição, Fabricio S; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester M; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Pires, Rita G W

    2015-09-01

    Crack-cocaine addiction has increasingly become a public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. However, no studies have focused on neurobiological mechanisms underlying the severe addiction produced by this drug, which seems to differ from powder cocaine in many aspects. This study investigated behavioural, biochemical and molecular changes in mice inhaling crack-cocaine, focusing on dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems in the prefrontal cortex. Mice were submitted to two inhalation sessions of crack-cocaine a day (crack-cocaine group) during 11 days, meanwhile the control group had no access to the drug. We found that the crack-cocaine group exhibited hyperlocomotion and a peculiar jumping behaviour ("escape jumping"). Blood collected right after the last inhalation session revealed that the anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), a specific metabolite of cocaine pyrolysis, was much more concentrated than cocaine itself in the crack-cocaine group. Most genes related to the endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptor and cannabinoid degradation enzymes were downregulated after 11-day crack-cocaine exposition. These changes may have decreased dopamine and its metabolites levels, which in turn may be related with the extreme upregulation of dopamine receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase observed in the prefrontal cortex of these animals. Our data suggest that after 11 days of crack-cocaine exposure, neuroadaptive changes towards downregulation of reinforcing mechanisms may have taken place as a result of neurochemical changes observed on dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems. Successive changes like these have never been described in cocaine hydrochloride models before, probably because AEME is only produced by cocaine pyrolysis and this metabolite may underlie the more aggressive pattern of addiction induced by crack-cocaine. PMID:25940765

  16. Organochlorines and metals induce changes in the mitochondria-rich cells of fish gills: an integrative field study involving chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M N; Paulino, M G; Sakuragui, M M; Ramos, C A; Pereira, C D S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H

    2013-01-15

    Through integrating chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in two fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, collected from five sites (FU10, FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50) in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and zinc as well as organochlorine (aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and metolachlor) contamination at all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Copper, chrome, iron and zinc were detected in the gills of both species, and aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide were detected in the gills of fish from all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Fish collected at FU20, FU30 and FU50 exhibited numerous alterations in the surface architecture of their pavement cells and MRCs. The surface MRC density and MRC fractional area were lower in fish from FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50 than in those from the reference site (FU10) in the winter, and some variability between the sites was observed in the summer. The organochlorine contamination at FU20 and FU50 was associated with variable changes in the MRCs and inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, especially in P. maculatus. At FU30, the alterations in the MRCs were associated with the contaminants present, especially metals. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive association between the biological responses of both species and environmental contamination, indicating that under realistic conditions, a mixture of organochlorines and metals affected the MRCs by inhibiting NKA activity and inducing morphological changes, which may cause an ionic imbalance. PMID:23220410

  17. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  18. [Management of metabolic disorders induced by everolimus in patients with differentiated neuroendocrine tumors: expert proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Cariou, Bertrand; Vergès, Bruno; Coriat, Romain; N'guyen, Thierry; François, Eric; Hammel, Pascal; Niccoli, Patricia; Hentic, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    Medical management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors has recently been improved by new molecules of which the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. If digestive neuroendocrine tumors are rare, the incidence is in constant increase and the prevalence in digestive cancers put them right behind colorectal cancers. Everolimus has demonstrated efficacy in unresectable and progressive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, by doubling the median progression free survival (11 versus 4.6 months), with a median time of exposure to everolimus of nine months. Everolimus is generally maintained until progression or intolerance and some patients are treated during several years. Potential metabolic disorders induced by everolimus (dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia) in patients with life expectancy of several years, justify monitoring of these parameters and accurate treatment management algorithm. These will avoid worsening patient's prognostic, but also prematurely discontinue potentially effective treatment or contraindicate other therapeutic weapons, in a pathology in which there are multiple therapeutic options in metastatic phase. We propose a standard practice in terms of initial assessment, monitoring, care threshold, and therapeutic objectives to manage metabolic disorders, fitted to our patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:24557872

  19. Disorder-induced heating of ultracold neutral plasmas created from atoms in partially filled optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D.; Sparkes, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    We quantify the disorder-induced heating (DIH) of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCNPs) created from cold atoms in optical lattices with partial filling fractions, using a conservation of energy model involving the spatial correlations of the initial state and the equation of state in thermal equilibrium for a one-component plasma. We show, for experimentally achievable filling fractions, that the ionic Coulomb coupling parameter could be increased to a degree comparable to other proposed DIH-mitigation schemes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with compensation for finite-size and periodic boundary effects, which agree with calculations using the model. Reduction of DIH using optical lattices will allow for the study of strongly coupled plasma physics using low-density, low-temperature, laboratory-based plasmas, and lead to improved brightness in UCNP-based cold electron and ion beams, where DIH is otherwise a fundamental limitation to beam focal sizes and diffraction imaging capability.

  20. Aripiprazole-induced hyperprolactinemia in a young female with delusional disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Padamadan Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. Switching over to aripiprazole or adjunctive aripiprazole has been advocated for optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole has been shown to normalize prolactin levels without affecting already achieved improvements in psychotic symptoms. However, here, we present the case of a 36 year old female with delusional disorder who developed symptomatic hyperprolactinemia while on aripiprazole treatment. Dopamine acts as a tonic inhibitor of prolactin secretion through the tubero-infundibular dopaminergic system. Aripiprazole being a partial agonist has a lower intrinsic activity at the D2 receptor than dopamine, allowing it to act as both, a functional agonist and antagonist, depending on the surrounding levels of dopamine. Hence, in the absence of a competing D2 antagonist and the presence of dopamine (the natural agonist, aripiprazole could act as a functional antagonist and thus elevate prolactin levels.

  1. Aripiprazole-induced Hyperprolactinemia in a Young Female with Delusional Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sam Padamadan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. Switching over to aripiprazole or adjunctive aripiprazole has been advocated for optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole has been shown to normalize prolactin levels without affecting already achieved improvements in psychotic symptoms. However, here, we present the case of a 36 year old female with delusional disorder who developed symptomatic hyperprolactinemia while on aripiprazole treatment. Dopamine acts as a tonic inhibitor of prolactin secretion through the tubero-infundibular dopaminergic system. Aripiprazole being a partial agonist has a lower intrinsic activity at the D2 receptor than dopamine, allowing it to act as both, a functional agonist and antagonist, depending on the surrounding levels of dopamine. Hence, in the absence of a competing D2 antagonist and the presence of dopamine (the natural agonist), aripiprazole could act as a functional antagonist and thus elevate prolactin levels. PMID:27335526

  2. The Effect of Rebamipide on Ocular Surface Disorders Induced by Latanoprost and Timolol in Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tokuda

    2015-01-01

    group. Changes in intraocular pressure, tear film break-up time (TBUT, and corneal epithelial barrier function were evaluated at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after rebamipide administration. Furthermore, superficial punctate keratopathy severity was evaluated by scoring the lesion area and density. Results. There was no significant difference in intraocular pressure before and after rebamipide treatment. However, corneal epithelial barrier function improved significantly 4 and 8 weeks after rebamipide treatment. TBUT was partially, but significantly, increased (P = 0.02 8 weeks after rebamipide treatment, whereas no significant change was observed at 4 weeks. Additionally, a significant decrease in area and density of keratopathy was observed 8 weeks after rebamipide treatment but not at 4 weeks. The control group showed no significant difference compared to baseline. Conclusions. Our data suggests that rebamipide treatment may reduce the occurrence of drug-induced ocular surface disorder.

  3. HIV-1 gp120 induces antioxidant response element-mediated expression in primary astrocytes: Role in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Gandhi, Nimisha; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Agudelo, Marisela; Yndart, Adriana; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Nair, Madhavan PN

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), which is characterized by depression, behavioral and motor dysfunctions. The HIV-1 viral envelope protein gp120 is known to induce the release of neurotoxic factors which lead to apoptotic cell death. Although the exact mechanisms involved in HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, oxidative stress is suggested to play a vital role in the neuropathogenesis of H...

  4. Amelioration of some biochemical parameters in irradiated male albino rats by garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation

  5. Hyperphosphorylation of intrinsically disordered tau protein induces an amyloidogenic shift in its conformational ensemble.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaolong Zhu

    Full Text Available Tau is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP whose primary physiological role is to stabilize microtubules in neuronal axons at all stages of development. In Alzheimer's and other tauopathies, tau forms intracellular insoluble amyloid aggregates known as neurofibrillary tangles, a process that appears in many cases to be preceded by hyperphosphorylation of tau monomers. Understanding the shift in conformational bias induced by hyperphosphorylation is key to elucidating the structural factors that drive tau pathology, however, as an IDP, tau is not amenable to conventional structural characterization. In this work, we employ a straightforward technique based on Time-Resolved ElectroSpray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TRESI-MS and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange (HDX to provide a detailed picture of residual structure in tau, and the shifts in conformational bias induced by hyperphosphorylation. By comparing the native and hyperphosphorylated ensembles, we are able to define specific conformational biases that can easily be rationalized as enhancing amyloidogenic propensity. Representative structures for the native and hyperphosphorylated tau ensembles were generated by refinement of a broad sample of conformations generated by low-computational complexity modeling, based on agreement with the TRESI-HDX profiles.

  6. Selective hyper-responsiveness of the interferon system in major depressive disorders and depression induced by interferon therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg F Schlaak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though an important percentage of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV undergoing interferon (IFN therapy develop depressive symptoms, the role of the IFN system in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders is not well understood. METHODS: 50 patients with HCV infection were treated with standard combination therapy (pegylated IFN-α2a/ribavirin. IFN-induced gene expression was analyzed to identify genes which are differentially regulated in patients with or without IFN-induced depression. For validation, PBMC from 22 psychiatric patients with a severe depressive episode (SDE and 11 controls were cultivated in vitro with pegylated IFN-α2a and gene expression was analyzed. RESULTS: IFN-induced depression in HCV patients was associated with selective upregulation of 15 genes, including 6 genes that were previously described to be relevant for major depressive disorders or neuronal development. In addition, increased endogenous IFN-production and selective hyper-responsiveness of these genes to IFN stimulation were observed in SDE patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that selective hyper-responsiveness to exogenous (IFN therapy or endogenous (depressive disorders type I IFNs may lead to the development of depressive symptoms. These data could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to treat IFN-induced and major depressive disorders.

  7. A Risperidone-Induced Prolactinoma Resolved when a Woman with Schizoaffective Disorder Switched to Ziprasidone: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arcari, Gail T.; Mendes, Asante K.; Sothern, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug therapy, e.g., risperidone, can be associated with endocrine abnormalities, including an increase in serum prolactin level (sPrl) due to a drug-induced benign pituitary tumor (prolactinoma). A few case reports have noted a resolution of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma after cessation of risperidone treatment. We report a similar finding for a woman with schizoaffective disorder, manic type.

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram M El-Kashlan

    Full Text Available Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1, group III (hyperthyroid group received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1; i.p., group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1; i.p. and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone (T, testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD. Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2 serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  9. Animal Models for Elucidation of the Mechanisms of Neuropsychiatric Disorders Induced by Sleep and Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoita, Fukie

    2016-01-01

    Numerous changes in human lifestyle in modern life increase the risk of disease. Especially, modern sleep and dietary habits are crucial factors affecting lifestyle disease. In terms of sleep, decreases in total sleep time and in rapid eye movement sleep time have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. From a dietary perspective, mastication during eating has several good effects on systemic, mental, and physical functions of the body. However, few animal experiments have addressed the influence of this decline in sleep duration or of long-term powdered diet feeding on parameters reflecting systemic health. In our studies, we examined both the influence of intermittent sleep deprivation (SD) treatment and long-term powdered diet feeding on emotional behavior in mice, and focused on the mechanisms underlying these impaired behaviors. Our findings were as follows: SD treatment induced hypernoradrenergic and hypodopaminergic states within the frontal cortex. Furthermore, hyperactivity and an explosive number of jumps were observed. Both the hypernoradrenergic state and the jumps were improved by treatment with ADHD therapeutic drugs. On the other hand, long-term powdered diet feeding increased social interaction behaviors. The feeding affected the dopaminergic function of the frontal cortex. In addition, the long-term powdered diet fed mice presented systemic illness signs, such as elevations of blood glucose, and hypertension. This review, describing the SD mice and long-term powdered diet fed mice can be a useful model for elucidation of the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders or the discovery of new therapeutic targets in combatting effects of the modern lifestyle. PMID:27252067

  10. Clinical Correlates of Co-occurring Psychiatric and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Symptom-Induced Impairment in Children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Perlman, Greg; Ramdhany, Lianne; de Ruiter, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric symptom severity and impairment are overlapping but nevertheless distinct illness parameters, little research has examined whether variables found to be associated with the severity are also correlated with symptom-induced impairment. Parents and teachers completed ratings of symptom-induced impairment for DSM-IV-referenced syndromes, and parents completed a background questionnaire for a consecutively referred sample of primarily male (81%) 6-to-12 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 221). Some clinical correlates (e.g., IQ personality symptom-induced impairment. IQ was a unique predictor of schizophrenia, ASD, oppositional defiant disorder symptom-induced impairment. Children whose mothers had relatively fewer years of education had greater odds for symptom-induced impairment in social anxiety, depression, aggression, and mania and greater number of impairing conditions. Season of birth was the most robust correlate of symptom-induced impairment as rated by teachers but not by parents. Children born in fall evidenced higher rates of co-occurring psychiatric and ASD symptom-induced impairment and total number of impairing conditions. Many variables previously linked with symptom severity are also correlated with impairment. PMID:25640910

  11. Estrogen enhances stress-induced prefrontal cortex dysfunction: relevance to Major Depressive Disorder in women

    OpenAIRE

    Shansky, Rebecca M; Arnsten, Amy F.T.

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that exposure to stress can precipitate or exacerbate many mental illnesses, 1,2 including major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are twice as likely as men to develop these disorders, 3 4 as well as most anxiety disorders and phobias, 5 but the biological causes of this discrepancy are poorly understood. Interestingly, there is evidence that the increased prevalence of MDD in women occurs primarily during the childbearing years,...

  12. Chronic orthostatic and antiorthostatic restraint induce neuroendocrine, immune and neurophysiological disorders in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenmacher, I.; Mekaouche, M.; Maurel, D.; Barbanel, G.; Givalois, L.; Boissin, J.; Malaval, F.; Ixart, G.

    The tail-cast suspension rat model has been developed in ground laboratories interested in space physiology for extensive study of mechanisms causing the pathophysiological syndrome associated with space flights. We used individually-caged male rats to explore the effects of acute and chronic (7d) orthostatic restraint (OR) and head-down anti-orthostatic restraint (AOR) on a series of physiological variables. The acute restraint study showed that (1) the installation of the OR device induced an acute reaction for 2 days, with a substantial rise in ACTH (x2) and CORT (x6), and that (2) the head-down tilt from OR to AOR induced (i) within 10 min and lasting 60 min a 2-fold rise in the intra-cerebro-ventricular pressure (Picv) monitored with an icv telemetric recording system, which receded to normal between 60 and 120 min; and (ii) within 30 min a short-lived 4-fold rise in plasma ACTH and CORT levels. Chronic OR induced (1) the suppression of the diurnal ACTH/CORT rhythm, with increased mean levels, especially for ACTH, (2) a degraded circadian locomotor activity rhythm manifested by a significant reduction in the spectral power of the 24h periodicity and a concomitant emergence of shorter (ultradian) periodicities, (3) an associated, but less pronounced alteration of the diurnal rhythm in body temperature; and (4) a marked increase in baseline plasma levels of IL-1β and an increased reactivity in cytokine release following an E. coli endotoxin (LPS) challenge. AOR induced (1) a similar obliteration of the circadian ACTH/CORT rhythm, (2) the loss of close correlation between ACTH and CORT, (3) a generalized increase in baseline plasma IL-1β levels and (4) more extensive degradation of the arcadian periodicity for both locomotor activity and, to a lesser extent, body temperature, replaced by dominant spectral powers for ultradian periodicities (3 to 10h). In conclusion, both experimental paradigms — but AOR more than OR — caused a blockade of the arcadian

  13. Changes in Central Sodium and not Osmolarity or Lactate Induce Panic-Like Responses in a Model of Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Molosh, Andre I; Johnson, Philip L.; Fitz, Stephanie D.; DiMicco, Joseph A.; Herman, James P.; Shekhar, Anantha

    2010-01-01

    Panic disorder is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks that can be consistently provoked with intravenous (i.v.) infusions of hypertonic (0.5 M) sodium lactate (NaLac), yet the mechanism/CNS site by which this stimulus triggers panic attacks is unclear. Chronic inhibition of GABAergic synthesis in the dorsomedial hypothalamus/perifornical region (DMH/PeF) of rats induces a vulnerability to panic-like responses after i.v. infusion of 0.5 M NaLac, providing an anim...

  14. Combination of Neurofeedback Technique with Music Therapy for Effective Correction of Stress-Induced Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotchev A.I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of music presentations controlled by feedback signals from the narrow-band electroencephalographic (EEG oscillators of a patient to correct functional stress-induced disturbances. Materials and Methods. We revealed dominant narrow-band (0.4–0.6 Hz oscillators in the theta (4–8 Hz and alpha (8–13 Hz EEG bands in 18 volunteers suffering from stress-induced disorders. During two examinations the subjects were presented with classical music. However, the music was interrupted for 3 s if the current amplitude of subject’s theta EEG oscillator exceeded the initial level, or if the current amplitude of subject’s alpha EEG oscillator did not reach the initial level. The subjects were asked to find and maintain the functional state in which the music was played continuously. Music playing time, the changes in EEG rhythm power, and the shifts in subjective estimations of health, activity and mood from the beginning to the end of each session were recorded. Results. Marked EEG normalization, reduction of stress sensations and positive shifts in mental and emotional state of the patient were found under the influence of music controlled by a feedback from theta or alpha EEG oscillators of a patient as early as by the end of the first treatment procedure. Conclusion. Improved efficiency of applied music therapy caused by its interaction with the relevant individual characteristics of the bioelectrical brain activity suggests the possibility for a successful use of such effects in a wide range of medical rehabilitation procedures.

  15. Iron-induced neuronal damage in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Yu, Zhibo; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Xueling; Hou, Jingming; Zhao, YanGang; Luo, Wei; Chen, Lin; Ou, Lan; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2016-08-25

    Previous studies have shown that iron redistribution and deposition in the brain occurs in some neurodegenerative diseases, and oxidative damage due to abnormal iron level is a primary cause of neuronal death. In the present study, we used the single prolonged stress (SPS) model to mimic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and examined whether iron was involved in the progression of PTSD. The anxiety-like behaviors of the SPS group were assessed by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field tests, and iron levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Expression of glucocorticoid receptors and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferritin (Fn) was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry in selected brain areas; TfR1 and Fn mRNA expression were detected by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Ultrastructures of the hippocampus were observed under a transmission electron microscope. Our results showed that SPS exposure induced anxiety-like symptoms and increased the level of serum cortisol and the concentration of iron in key brain areas such as the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum. The stress induced region-specific changes in both protein and mRNA levels of TfR1 and Fn. Moreover, swelling mitochondria and cell apoptosis were observed in neurons in brain regions with iron accumulation. We concluded that SPS stress increased iron in some cognition-related brain regions and subsequently cause neuronal injury, indicating that the iron may function in the pathology of PTSD. PMID:27208615

  16. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2015-03-12

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  17. Strategy of ring-shaped aggregates in excitation energy transfer for removing disorder-induced shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral light harvesting complex (LH2), which is found in photosynthetic antenna systems of purple photosynthetic bacteria, has important functions in the photosynthetic process, such as harvesting sunlight and transferring its energy to the photosynthetic reaction center. The key component in excitation energy transfer (EET) between LH2s is B850, which is a characteristic ring-shaped aggregate of pigments usually formed by 18 or 16 bacteriochlorophylls in LH2. We theoretically study the strategy of the ring-shaped aggregate structure, which maximizes EET efficiency, by using the standard Frenkel exciton model and the self-consistent calculation method for the Markovian quantum master equation and Maxwell equation. As a result, we have revealed a simple but ingenious strategy of the ring-shaped aggregate structure. The combination of three key properties of the ring unit system maximizes the EET efficiency, namely the large dipole moment of aggregates causes the basic improvement of EET efficiency, and the isotropic nature and the large occupying area are critically effective to remove the disorder-induced shielding that inhibits EET in the presence of the randomness of orientation and alignment of carriers of excitation energy. (paper)

  18. EBV-induced post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: a persisting challenge in allogeneic hematopoetic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, L; Kapp, M; Einsele, H; Mielke, S

    2014-02-01

    EBV-induced post transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Profound T-cell depletion of the allograft represents a major risk factor for EBV-PTLD. With regard to the increasing use of alternative stem cell sources such as cord blood or purified haploidentical stem cell grafts both associated with impaired immune reconstitution, the frequent occurrence of EBV-PTLD demands particular vigilance on laboratory changes and early symptoms. Here we have summarized today's knowledge about EBV-PTLD in a comprehensive review explaining the underlying mechanisms of EBV-based transformation, EBV-PTLD development, clinical presentation, incidence, diagnosis, screening, therapy and prognosis. In this context, we emphasize on the necessity of regularly applied screening tools and pre-emptive treatment strategies including anti-CD20 Abs particularly in high-risk patients to avoid disease progression to malignant lymphoma. Although EBV-PTLD has always been associated with a high mortality rate, novel immunotherapeutic approaches such as the transfer of EBV-specific T cells nowadays offer improved chances of disease control even at late stages. PMID:23832092

  19. Cellular and biochemical responses induced by Biotherapics prepared from intact influenza A (H3N2 and inactivated influenza A (H3N2 virus at 12x and 30x in the MDCK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariah Marcondes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotherapics are homeopathic remedies prepared from organic products that are chemically undefined and can be used for treatment of diseases like influenza. There are several classes of biotherapics and, among these, there are some called "living biotherapics" or "Roberto Costa’s Biotherapics". This study aimed to compare the cellular and biochemical effects of biotherapics prepared from intact influenza virus diluted in water and the one obtained from the same viral sample inactivated by ethanol 70% (v / v, both in the potencies of 12x and 30x. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses were performed on both preparations to assess the integrity of viral particles, which showed that ethanol 70% (v/v induced a complete denaturation of viral particles. In contrast, the integrity of virus particles was preserved when water was used as the biotherapic solvent. Cellular and biochemical alterations induced by the preparations on MDCK cells were analyzed and compared with those induced by respective controls (water 30x-treated and untreated cells. Cellular viability analyzed by MTT method showed statistically significant differences (p <0.05 in MDCK cells treated with intact biotherapic for 5 (3 stimuli and 30 (18 stimuli days in comparison with untreated control. TEM analysis did not show significant cellular changes when the different experimental groups were compared. The enzymatic activity of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK, an important enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, presented a statistically significant increase (p <0.05 after 30 days of treatment when compared to control groups. The results obtained suggest that inactivation of viral sample with ethanol 70% induces lysis and disruption of viral particles. In addition, preliminary results indicated that treatment with intact biotherapic seems to induce higher variations on MDCK cells responses when compared to inactivated-biotherapic-treated cells. Further analyses are ongoing

  20. Quetiapine-induced sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Tamanna Sadeka; Ullah M; Pope Chelle R; Holloman Garland; Koch Christian A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. The prevalence of sleep-related eating disorder has been found to be approximately between 1% and 5% among adults. Many cases of medication-related somnambulism and sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior have been reported in the literature. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with somnambulism but has not yet been reported to be associated with...

  1. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Puran Badkoobeh; Kazem Parivar; Seyed Mehdi Kalantar; Seyed Davood Hosseini; Alireza Salabat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including...

  2. Effects of Trigonelline, an Alkaloid Present in Coffee, on Diabetes-Induced Disorders in the Rat Skeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Janas, Aleksandra; Pytlik, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Śliwiński, Leszek; Krivošíková, Zora; Štefíková, Kornélia; Gajdoš, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes increases bone fracture risk. Trigonelline, an alkaloid with potential antidiabetic activity, is present in considerable amounts in coffee. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of trigonelline on experimental diabetes-induced disorders in the rat skeletal system. Effects of trigonelline (50 mg/kg p.o. daily for four weeks) were investigated in three-month-old female Wistar rats, which, two weeks before the start of trigonelline administration, received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg i.p.) or streptozotocin after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg i.p.). Serum bone turnover markers, bone mineralization, and mechanical properties were studied. Streptozotocin induced diabetes, with significant worsening of bone mineralization and bone mechanical properties. Streptozotocin after nicotinamide induced slight glycemia increases in first days of experiment only, however worsening of cancellous bone mechanical properties and decreased vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) were demonstrated. Trigonelline decreased bone mineralization and tended to worsen bone mechanical properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated rats, trigonelline significantly increased BMD and tended to improve cancellous bone strength. Trigonelline differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with streptozotocin-induced metabolic disorders, intensifying the osteoporotic changes in streptozotocin-treated rats and favorably affecting bones in the non-hyperglycemic (nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated) rats. The results indicate that, in certain conditions, trigonelline may damage bone. PMID:26950142

  3. [Cardiorenal syndrome: the role of new biochemical markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernuccio, Federica; Grutta, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Filippo; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome is a pathophysiological heart and kidney disorder, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ induces a damage in the other. It's a syndrome more and more often encountered in clinical practice and this implies the need to recognize the syndrome through biochemical markers with a good sensitivity and specificity, since its earliest stages in order to optimize therapy. In addition to widely validated biomarkers, such as BNP, pro BNP, creatinine, GFR and cystatin C, other promising molecules are available, like NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, KIM-1 (kidney injury molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic peptide), Netrin-1, interleuchin 18 and NAG (N-acetyl-β-glucosa-minidase). The role of these emerging biomarkers is still not completely clarified: hence the need of new clinical trials. PMID:23258238

  4. Recent abstracts in biochemical technology

    OpenAIRE

    R R Siva Kiran; Brijesh P

    2008-01-01

    “Recent abstracts in biochemical technology” is a collection of interesting research articles published in “List of biochemical technology journals” (Table 1). The abstracts are most likely to report significant results in biochemical technology.

  5. Co-treatment of chlorpyrifos and lead induce serum lipid disorders in rats: Alleviation by taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo G; Aliu, Yusuf O; Ambali, Suleiman F; Ayo, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine (TA) on serum lipid profiles following chronic coadministration of chlorpyrifos (CP) and lead acetate (Pb) in male Wistar rats. Fifty rats randomly distributed into five groups served as subjects. Distilled water (DW) was given to DW group, while soya oil (SO; 1 mL kg(-1)) was given to SO group. The TA group was treated with TA (50 mg kg(-1)). The CP + Pb group was administered sequentially with CP (4.25 mg kg(-1); 1/20th median lethal dose (LD50)) and Pb at 233.25 mg kg(-1) (1/20th LD50), while the TA + CP + Pb group received TA (50 mg kg(-1)), CP (4.25 mg kg(-1)), and Pb (233.25 mg kg(-1)) sequentially. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanised, and the blood samples were collected at the termination of the study. Sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and malondialdehyde, and also the activities of serum antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were analyzed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index were calculated. The results showed that CP and Pb induced alterations in the serum lipid profiles and evoked oxidative stress. TA alleviated the disruptions in the serum lipid profiles of the rats partially by mitigating oxidative stress. It was concluded that TA may be used for prophylaxis against serum lipid disorders in animals that were constantly co-exposed to CP and Pb in the environment. PMID:25537622

  6. Human Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cells and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Michael W; Phillips, Andre W; Artimovich, Elena; Nestor, Jonathan E; Hussman, John P; Blatt, Gene J

    2016-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental condition. Symptoms of ASD cover the spectrum from mild qualitative differences in social interaction to severe communication and social and behavioral challenges that require lifelong support. Attempts at understanding the pathophysiology of ASD have been hampered by a multifactorial etiology that stretches the limits of current behavioral and cell based models. Recent progress has implicated numerous autism-risk genes but efforts to gain a better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms have seen slow progress. This is in part due to lack of appropriate models for complete molecular and pharmacological studies. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has reinvigorated efforts to establish more complete model systems that more reliably identify molecular pathways and predict effective drug targets and candidates in ASD. iPSCs are particularly appealing because they can be derived from human patients and controls for research purposes and provide a technology for the development of a personalized treatment regimen for ASD patients. The pluripotency of iPSCs allow them to be reprogrammed into a number of CNS cell types and phenotypically screened across many patients. This quality is already being exploited in protocols to generate 2-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) models of neurons and developing brain structures. iPSC models make powerful platforms that can be interrogated using electrophysiology, gene expression studies, and other cell-based quantitative assays. iPSC technology has limitations but when combined with other model systems has great potential for helping define the underlying pathophysiology of ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 513-535. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26426199

  7. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders as a resource for better understanding Parkinson's disease modifier genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior eGreenbaum

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic-induced movement disorders are major side effects of antipsychotic drugs among schizophrenia patients, and include antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism (AIP and tardive dyskinesia (TD. Substantial pharmacogenetic work has been done in this field, and several susceptibility variants have been suggested. In this paper, the genetics of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders is considered in a broader context. We hypothesize that genetic variants that are risk factors for AIP and TD may provide insights into the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD. Since loss of dopaminergic stimulation (albeit pharmacological in AIP and degenerative in PD is shared by the two clinical entities, genes associated with susceptibility to AIP may be modifier genes that influence clinical expression of PD sub-phenotypes, such as age at onset, disease severity or rate of progression. This is due to their possible functional influence on compensatory mechanisms for striatal dopamine loss. Better compensatory potential might be beneficial at the early and later stages of the PD course. AIP vulnerability variants may also be related to latent impairment in the nigrostriatal pathway, affecting its functionality, and leading to subclinical dopaminergic deficits in the striatum. Susceptibility of PD patients to early development of L-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID, is an additional relevant sub-phenotype. LID may share a common genetic background with TD, with which it shares clinical features. Genetic risk variants may predispose to both phenotypes, exerting a pleiotropic effect. According to this hypothesis, elucidating the genetics of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders may advance our understanding of multiple aspects of PD and it clinical course, rendering this a potentially rewarding field of study.

  8. Seizures and movement disorders induced by hyperglycemia without ketosis in elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Younes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKHG may increase the probability of seizures and movement disorders.We describe a series of 14 elders admitted for seizures and movement disorders linked to NKHG.Twelve patients developed motor seizures and two others movement disorders. Glucose levels varied 9.28 to 32 mmol/l, while osmolarity values varied from 302.28 to 328 mosmol/l. All patients responded well to insulin therapy and four of them needed anti-epileptic drugs.Seizures or movement disorders in elderly with NKHG could be misdiagnosed as neurological diseases. Blood glucose must be audited whenever patients with seizures or movement disorders are encountered, as the condition may quickly resolve when NKHG is controlled.

  9. Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS)-Induced Anxiety and Related Mood Disorders in a Zebrafish Model: Altered Brain Proteome Profile Implicates Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Sumana Chakravarty; Bommana R Reddy; Sudhakar, Sreesha R.; Sandeep Saxena; Tapatee Das; Vuppalapaty Meghah; Cherukuvada V Brahmendra Swamy; Arvind Kumar; Idris, Mohammed M.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are major chronic mood disorders, and the etiopathology for each appears to be repeated exposure to diverse unpredictable stress factors. Most of the studies on anxiety and related mood disorders are performed in rodents, and a good model is chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). In this study, we have attempted to understand the molecular basis of the neuroglial and behavioral changes underlying CUS-induced mood disorders in the simplest vertebrate model, the zebrafish, D...

  10. Prediction of renal crystalline size distributions in space using a PBE analytic model. 1. Effect of microgravity-induced biochemical alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Thompson, David

    2016-09-01

    An analytical Population Balance Equation model is developed and used to assess the risk of critical renal stone formation for astronauts during future space missions. The model uses the renal biochemical profile of the subject as input and predicts the steady-state size distribution of the nucleating, growing, and agglomerating calcium oxalate crystals during their transit through the kidney. The model is verified through comparison with published results of several crystallization experiments. Numerical results indicate that the model is successful in clearly distinguishing between 1-G normal and 1-G recurrent stone-former subjects based solely on their published 24-h urine biochemical profiles. Numerical case studies further show that the predicted renal calculi size distribution for a microgravity astronaut is closer to that of a recurrent stone former on Earth rather than to a normal subject in 1 G. This interestingly implies that the increase in renal stone risk level in microgravity is relatively more significant for a normal person than a stone former. However, numerical predictions still underscore that the stone-former subject carries by far the highest absolute risk of critical stone formation during space travel. PMID:27279490

  11. Involvement of immunologic and biochemical mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Tourette's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Yuval Eliahu; Steinberg, Tamar; Richmand, Brian; Leckman, James Frederick; Apter, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder clinically characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. It is likely that a neurobiological susceptibility to the disorder is established during development by the interaction of genetic, biochemical, immunological, and environmental factors. This study sought to investigate the possible correlation of several immunological and biochemical markers with Tourette's syndrome. Children with Tourette's syndrome attending a tertiary pediatric...

  12. Blood glucose level and other biochemical changes induced in normal mice by oral Traditional Chinese Medicine complex for diabetes (TCM-D™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Koh Fook Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of Traditional ChineseMedicine (TCM preparations are being used for thetreatment of diabetes mellitus. Some componentsof these preparations have biochemical effects otherthan those of lowering blood glucose and indeed havebeen used for other medical indications in traditionalpractice. The primary objective of the study was todetermine the effect of the oral mixture of TraditionalChinese Medicine for diabetes (TCM-D™ complex onblood glucose level and the biochemical changes if any,on the liver (ALT, AST, gamma-GT, albumin, globulinand renal (blood creatinine, urea functions in normalmice. The oral mixture is an aqueous extract of four wellknowntraditional Chinese medicinal herbs and consistsof Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., Paeonia lactiflora Pall.,Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch., and Panax ginseng (redCA Meyer in the proportion of 36%, 28%, 18%, and18% respectively of the dry weight. These herbs havebeen shown to have blood glucose lowering activity andhave been used for other traditional medicinal purposes.The safety of the combination was evaluated in thepresent study.Methods: Experimental Balb/c mice were treated orallyvia gastric tube with the extract at daily doses equivalentto 1 and 10 times the recommended human dose for8 weeks. Blood glucose and other biochemical profileswere monitored at pre-treatment and monthly posttreatmentuntil killed.Results: When compared to pre-treatment levels, theblood glucose levels were significantly lower in treatedanimals compared to those in the control group. Atthe recommended TCM-D™ dose the levels in treatedanimals were significantly lower than that of controlanimals and at pre-treatment. When compared withpre-treatment, the glucose levels were lowest at Week8 of treatment, the mean levels being 111.23%, 83.32%and 70.33% in control, and in animals given 1 x and10 x the recommended TCM-D™ dosage respectively.The blood glucose lowering effect was also associatedwith a significant

  13. The M2 macrophages induce autophagic vascular disorder and promote mouse sensitivity to urethane-related lung carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G-G; Guo, Z-Z; Ma, X-F; Cao, N; Geng, S-N; Zheng, Y-Q; Meng, M-J; Lin, H-H; Han, G; Du, G-J

    2016-06-01

    Tumor vessels are known to be abnormal, with typically aberrant, leaky and disordered vessels. Here, we investigated whether polarized macrophage phenotypes are involved in tumor abnormal angiogenesis and what is its mechanism. We found that there was no difference in chemotaxis of polarized M1 and M2 macrophages to lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and that either M1 or M2 macrophage-conditioned media had no effect on LLC cell proliferation. Unexpectedly, the M2 but not M1 macrophage-conditioned media promoted the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and simultaneously increased endothelial cell permeability in vitro and angiogenic index in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The treatment with M2 but not M1 macrophage-conditioned media increased autophagosomes as well as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3-B) expression (a robust marker of autophagosomes) but decreased p62 protein expression (a selective autophagy substrate) in HUVECs, the treatment with chloroquine that blocked autophagy abrogated the abnormal angiogenic efficacy of M2 macrophage-conditioned media. These results were confirmed in urethane-induced lung carcinogenic progression. Urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis led to more M2 macrophage phenotype and increased abnormal angiogenesis concomitant with the upregulation of LC3-B and the downregulation of p62. Clodronate liposome-induced macrophage depletion, chloroquine-induced autophagic prevention or salvianolic acid B-induced vascular protection decreased abnormal angiogenesis and lung carcinogenesis. In addition, we found that the tendency of age-related M2 macrophage polarization also promoted vascular permeability and carcinogenesis in urethane carcinogenic progression. These findings indicate that the M2 macrophages induce autophagic vascular disorder to promote lung cancer progression, and the autophagy improvement represents an efficacious strategy for abnormal angiogenesis and cancer

  14. Radiation-induced disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel subjected to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M. E-mail: shimaq@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsumura, S.; Yasuda, K.; Kinoshita, C.; Chimi, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Iwase, A

    2004-08-01

    An analytical electron microscope study was carried out on single crystal specimens of magnesium aluminate spinel irradiated with 200 MeV Xe{sup 14+} ions up to 5.0 x 10{sup 15} and 2.0 x 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2} at ambient temperature. Bright-field images showed structurally disordered columns of about 4-5 nm in diameter along ion tracks. Tiny pits were observed on the incident surface of the columns. Quantitative HARECXS analysis of atomic configurations revealed that disordering proceeds in more extended regions over 10 nm in diameter. The configurations of Al{sup 3+} ions are more disordered than that of Mg{sup 2+} ions. The disordered areas are appeared to overlap each other in the specimen irradiated with 2.0 x 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}.

  15. Radiation-induced disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel subjected to ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, M.; Matsumura, S.; Yasuda, K.; Kinoshita, C.; Chimi, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Iwase, A.

    2004-08-01

    An analytical electron microscope study was carried out on single crystal specimens of magnesium aluminate spinel irradiated with 200 MeV Xe 14+ ions up to 5.0 × 10 15 and 2.0 × 10 16 ions/m 2 at ambient temperature. Bright-field images showed structurally disordered columns of about 4-5 nm in diameter along ion tracks. Tiny pits were observed on the incident surface of the columns. Quantitative HARECXS analysis of atomic configurations revealed that disordering proceeds in more extended regions over 10 nm in diameter. The configurations of Al 3+ ions are more disordered than that of Mg 2+ ions. The disordered areas are appeared to overlap each other in the specimen irradiated with 2.0 × 10 16 ions/m 2.

  16. Radiation-induced disordering in magnesium aluminate spinel subjected to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical electron microscope study was carried out on single crystal specimens of magnesium aluminate spinel irradiated with 200 MeV Xe14+ ions up to 5.0 x 1015 and 2.0 x 1016 ions/m2 at ambient temperature. Bright-field images showed structurally disordered columns of about 4-5 nm in diameter along ion tracks. Tiny pits were observed on the incident surface of the columns. Quantitative HARECXS analysis of atomic configurations revealed that disordering proceeds in more extended regions over 10 nm in diameter. The configurations of Al3+ ions are more disordered than that of Mg2+ ions. The disordered areas are appeared to overlap each other in the specimen irradiated with 2.0 x 1016 ions/m2

  17. Singularity of density of states induced by random bond disorder in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Wang, Xu

    2016-06-01

    We re-investigate the effect of random bond disorder on the density of states (DOS) in graphene. Our large-scale calculation supports that there exists a critical disorder value gbc dividing the DOS into two distinct structures. In the regime gb disorder), the DOS away from the Dirac point behaves like a power-law with positive exponent (α > 0): ρ (E) ∼ρ1 | E|α (E is Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point, ρ1 is a constant). In the regime gb > gbc, it is observed that DOS develops a peak structure at the Dirac point E = 0. Through the finite-size scaling analysis, we elucidate that the DOS at the Dirac point diverges in the thermodynamics limit. Furthermore, it is found that the divergent behavior of DOS is sensitive to any on-site disorder which violates the chiral symmetry in graphene.

  18. Effect of antioxidants on amelioration of high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jian-hua; YANG Yi-ke; LIU Hua; LIN Qi-de; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background This is a prospective clinical study based on a large sample gathered from multiple centers in China,subordinating to 10th Five-Year Plan of National Science & Technology Progression. We analyzed the high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) and estimated the potential effect of anti-oxidants administration,including vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and Salvia Miltiorrhiza L (SML), a Chinese herb medicine, in amelioration of the high-risk factors in pregnancy.Methods From April 2005 to July 2006, 4814 pregnant women from 24 national wide cooperative hospitals were involved in this prospective research. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: 1607 cases were in anti-oxidants group with administration of vitamins and SML; 3207 cases were in control group without any medicine given. Every participant was under monitoring for the morbidity of HDP and the high-risk factors were investigated in HDP cases in each group.Results (1)The morbidity of HDP was 3.55% in anti-oxidants group vs. 4.18% in control group. No statistical difference existed between the two groups (P>0.05). (2) In anti-oxidants group, the HDP morbidities among three subgroups: VC +VE + SML, VC + VE and SML only, were 5.51%, 3.05% and 5% respectively. It showed no statistical difference among three remedies (P>0.05). (3) The related index of factors affecting HDP showed in intensity sequence as follows: family HDP history > profession > education level > age > body weight. The incidence of HDP in normal population was 3.51%,and the incidence of HDP in high-risk pregnant women (family HDP history, heavy physical labor, low education level (middle school and below), age >40, body mass index ≥24) was 5.84%, which was obviously higher than that in normal population (P <0.01). In anti-oxidants group, the probability of HDP in women with high-risk factors was 3.81%, which was obviously lower than that in control group with high-risk factors at 7.14% (P<0

  19. Structural phase transitions in trigonal Selenium induce the formation of a disordered phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Anirban; Gohil, Smita; Sengupta, Surajit; Poswal, H. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.; Ghosh, Shankar; Ayyub, Pushan

    2015-10-01

    Arguments based on the Mermin-Wagner theorem suggest that the quasi-1D trigonal phase of Se should be unstable against long wavelength perturbations. Consisting of parallel Se-Se chains, this essentially fragile solid undergoes a partial transition to a monoclinic structure (consisting of 8-membered rings) at low temperatures (≈50 K), and to a distorted trigonal phase at moderate pressures (≈3GPa). Experimental investigations on sub-millimeter-sized single crystals provide clear evidence that these transitions occur via a novel and counter-intuitive route. This involves the reversible formation of an intermediate, disordered structure that appears as a minority phase with increasing pressure as well as with decreasing temperature. The formation of the disordered state is indicated by: (a) a ‘Boson-peak’ that appears at low temperatures in the specific heat and resonance Raman data, and (b) a decrease in the intensity of Raman lines over a relatively narrow pressure range. We complement the experimental results with a phenomenological model that illustrates how a first order structural transition may lead to disorder. Interestingly, nanocrystals of trigonal Se do not undergo any structural transition in the parameter space studied; neither do they exhibit signs of disorder, further underlining the role of disorder in this type of structural transition.

  20. Origin and consequences of the disorder-induced inhomogeneities in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    The effect of potential impurities on cuprate superconductors are investigated within a formalism suitable for addressing the complex interplay of the bare repulsive electronic correlations and disorder, both being strong. We show that the mechanism governing the demise of superconductivity is rather subtle and differs from the conventional weak-coupling descriptions. While the superconductivity remains surprisingly robust for up to moderate disorder, it crashes down sharply at stronger disorders. The initial robustness is attributed to the strong repulsive correlations that smear out charge inhomogeneities by reorganizing the hopping on the bonds prohibiting formation of superconducting ``islands''. However, with increasing strength of disorder, the potential difference across some bonds reach the scale of the bandwidth and the overall energy of the system is reduced by prohibiting hopping on such links. Integrating this concept within our formalism, we show that the correlations fail to homogenize the system across these ``cut-bonds''. This produces Mott-insulating, Anderson-insulating, as well as locally superconducting regions interspersed among each other at strong disorder, eventually destroying the global superconductivity.

  1. Protective Role of L- Carnitine and Zinc against γ-Radiation induced Cardiac and testicular Disorders in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-Carnitine is a dipeptide amino acid necessary for fat metabolism, it provides energy by transporting long-chain fatty acids to mitochondria to act as a fuel and it is considered a powerful antioxidant. In addition, zinc is an essential mineral which helps to increase the secretion of male sex hormones and raises the sperm count, so its combination with L-carnitine is useful for the fertility process. The present study aims to evaluate the potency of L-carnitine and zinc as radio- protective and curative agent pre and after exposure to γ-radiation through biochemical, histological, morphological abnormalities of sperms and DNA damage in the sperms induced by γ-irradiation by comet assay. Animals received L-carnitine (LC) and zinc (Zn) orally at the dose 9.45 mg/100 gm body wt./day for successive 20 days and then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at the dose 4 Gy (1 Gy for 4 days, day after day) on the 7th day from treatment with antioxidant. Histological examinations of heart and testis tissues showed that administration of LC and Zn have attenuated radiation induced damage and improved tissues architecture. Moreover, the observed amelioration in the tissues was accompanied by a remarkable decrease of their lipid peroxide levels (malondialdehyde (MDA)), together with an increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Hormonal determinations of serum testosterone (T), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) which carried out for fertility assessment showed that whole body γ-irradiation of rats induced significant decrease in serum testosterone while FSH and LH were significantly increased as compared with control group. On the other hand, irradiation caused significant elevation in the total number of abnormal head, and / or tail of sperms in comparison to the control rats. The comet assay showed that exposure to γ-radiation induced DNA damage of sperms (tail moment values).

  2. Relationship between changes in the cochlear blood flow and disorder of hearing function induced by blast injury in guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Jianmin; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jichuan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    The auditory system is the most susceptible to damages from blast waves. Blast injuries always lead to varying degrees of hearing impairment. Although a disorder of the cochlear blood flow (CoBF) has been considered to be related to many pathological processes of the auditory system and to contribute to various types of hearing loss, changes in the CoBF induced by blast waves and the relationship between such changes and hearing impairment are undefined. To observe the changes in the cochlear...

  3. Disorder-induced phases in the S=1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajkó, Péter; Carlon, Enrico; Rieger, Heiko; Iglói, Ferenc

    2005-09-01

    We use extensive density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations to explore the phase diagram of the random S=1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain with a power-law distribution of the exchange couplings. We use open chains and monitor the lowest gaps, the end-to-end correlation function and the string order parameter. For this distribution at weak disorder, the system is in the gapless Haldane phase with a disorder dependent dynamical exponent, z , and z=1 signals the border between the nonsingular and singular regions of the local susceptibility. For strong enough disorder, which approximately corresponds to a uniform distribution, a transition into the random singlet phase is detected, at which the string order parameter as well as the average end-to-end correlation function are vanishing and at the same time the dynamical exponent is divergent. Singularities of physical quantities are found to be somewhat different in the random singlet phase and in the critical point.

  4. Effects on dynamic characters of antenna structures in satellite induced by disordered parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiangqiu; Wang Cong; Wang Weiyuan; Zou Zhenzhu

    2009-01-01

    A simplified dynamic model of a dish antenna in satellite is established in this article. The model can be easily used to analyze the dynamic behaviour of the antenna structure. In terms of the simplified model, effects on dynamic characters due to the disorder of parameters are investigated in details. The frequencies calculated by the simplified model accord with those computed by ANSYS. Based on the mode shapes of disordered and perfect structure, the influence law and varying trend of dynamic characters of antenna structures in satellites produced by stiffness and mass of antenna ribs, stiffness of antenna membranes and angles between adjacent ribs, are obtained. The analyses in the paper indicate that the effects by disordered parameters can not be ignored in the dynamic analysis of such structures.

  5. Analysis of the impulsive aggression and decision-making ability in the inpatients with amphetamine-type stimulants-induced psychiatric disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏中华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of impulsive aggression and the ability of decision-making in the inpatients with amphetamine-type stimulants(ATS)-induced psychiatric disorder,and explore their changes before and after treatment with antipsychotic drugs.Methods One hundred inpatients(patient group)who met the diagnostic criterion of ATS-induced psychiatric

  6. [Clinical relevance of antidepressant-induced activation syndrome: from a perspective of bipolar spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Teruaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Suzuki, Katsuji; Kitaichi, Yuji; Masui, Takuya; Denda, Kenzo; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2007-01-01

    Recent concerns have been raised regarding whether antidepressants, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) might increase suicidal tendencies and intense debate-rages over the pros and cons of their use. Although systematic reviews and population-based studies have been conducted, a consensus on this association remains to be established. Subsequently, the concept of so-called 'activation syndrome' associated with antidepressants has been accepted without its adequate verification. In the present report, we present our experience of seven cases considered of having 'activation syndrome' brought on by antidepressants, and examine its clinical relevance to bipolar spectrum disorder (Ghaemi, et al., 2001) both symptomatologically and diagnostically. Five patients, diagnosed as having major depressive disorder according to the diagnostic manual (DSM-IV), met the criteria of bipolar spectrum disorder and suffered from activation syndrome following the administration of SSRIs, mainly paroxetine. Similarly, hypomania developed in all five cases with depression; the diagnostic criteria of a hypomanic episode were not met. In the remaining two patients, who were both diagnosed with bipolar disorder, one showed irritability and insomnia through imipramine use, and the another developed a hypomanic and/or a mixed state after the co-administration of fluvoxamine and trazodone. From the results of our examination, 'bipolarity', which is the pivotal factor of bipolar spectrum, might exist behind the phenomenon recognized as activation syndrome, and be revealed by antidepressant treatment, just like manic switching. Moreover, the various problems encountered in the current practice of treating mood disorders, including unipolar-bipolar dichotomy, manic switching by antidepressants, and narrow criteria for a mixed episode, were pointed out a new through this concept of activation syndrome. Actually, the understanding of activation syndrome clinically leads to

  7. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry. PMID:26592256

  8. Hepato Protective Efficacy of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Phyllanthus emblica and Their Formulation on Imidacloprid Induced Liver Toxicity by Histopathological and Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eugin Amala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Phyllanthus emblica and their formulations are used as a phytotherapeutic medicine for hepatic diseases. In the present study the effect of methanolic extract of herbal powder was administered against Imidacloprid in Albino Wistar Rats. Single dose of herbal (500 mg/kg/b.w was given orally for 28 days to Imidacloprid toxicity exposed to rats. They were observed each hour and each day for 28 days for any changes in behavioural activity loss of ability to move, cramping, lethargy, muscle weakness, convulsion, irritation of the eye, excess salivation, change in gait. Clinical observations body weight, organ weight, biochemical analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Administration of Imidacloprid, produced liver degeneration such as cytoplasmic vacuolation, mild vacuolar degeneration, mild hepatic damage in low dose (40 mg/kg b.w and appearance of blood streaks, hepatic damage and severe vacuolar degenerations were observed in high dose of induction (80 mg/kg b.w. Animals were treated with the phytotherapeutic products of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Phyllanthus emblica and their formulations. Triphala extract was possessed more hepatoprotective activity, while comparing the four samples which was proved experimentally.

  9. The Effects of Florfenicol on the Values of Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Other Biochemical Markers in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Endotoxemia in Brown Trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Er

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of florfenicol on the expected changes in sTNF-α, damage markers of the liver and kidney, and the lipid metabolism parameters in endotoxemic brown trout. Ninety-six brown trout were included in this study. After six of the fish were reserved as the control group, the remaining 90 fish were divided equally into 3 groups as follows: LPS (2 mg/kg, IP, LPS (2 mg/kg, IP + florfenicol (40 mg/kg, IM, and florfenicol (40 mg/kg, IM. Blood samples were obtained from the tail of the fish at 1.5, 3, 6, 10, and 24 hours. The levels of sTNF-α were determined by ELISA and biochemical markers were evaluated with an autoanalyzer. A significant increase was observed in the values of sTNF-α in the LPS and LPS + florfenicol groups (P<0.05. Significant increases were found in the kidney and liver damage determinants in the LPS and LPS + florfenicol groups (P<0.05. Irregular changes in the lipid metabolism parameters were observed in all the subgroups. In conclusion, florfenicol does not affect the increases of sTNF-α caused by LPS and does not prevent liver or kidney damage; at least, it can be said that florfenicol does not have any evident positive effects on the acute endotoxemia of fish.

  10. Brief Report: Does Eye Contact Induce Contagious Yawning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Akechi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly fail to show contagious yawning, but the mechanism underlying the lack of contagious yawning is still unclear. The current study examined whether instructed fixation on the eyes modulates contagious yawning in ASD. Thirty-one children with ASD, as well as 31 age-matched typically…

  11. Olanzapine induced de-novo obsessive compulsive disorder in a patient with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are reports of de novo development or exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics, although this is widely debated. We report one such case where a patient with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with olanzapine, developed de novo obsessive-compulsive disorder, with convincing evidence for its causality due to the drug.

  12. Is nodding syndrome an Onchocerca volvulus-induced neuroinflammatory disorder? Uganda's story of research in understanding the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idro, Richard; Opar, Bernard; Wamala, Joseph; Abbo, Catherine; Onzivua, Sylvester; Mwaka, Deogratius Amos; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Mbonye, Anthony; Aceng, Jane R

    2016-04-01

    Nodding syndrome is a devastating neurological disorder, mostly affecting children in eastern Africa. An estimated 10000 children are affected. Uganda, one of the most affected countries, set out to systematically investigate the disease and develop interventions for it. On December 21, 2015, the Ministry of Health held a meeting with community leaders from the affected areas to disseminate the results of the investigations made to date. This article summarizes the presentation and shares the story of studies into this peculiar disease. It also shares the results of preliminary studies on its pathogenesis and puts into perspective an upcoming treatment intervention. Clinical and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated nodding syndrome to be a complex epilepsy disorder. A definitive aetiological agent has not been established, but in agreement with other affected countries, a consistent epidemiological association has been demonstrated with infection by Onchocerca volvulus. Preliminary studies of its pathogenesis suggest that nodding syndrome may be a neuroinflammatory disorder, possibly induced by antibodies to O. volvulus cross-reacting with neuron proteins. Histological examination of post-mortem brains has shown some yet to be characterized polarizable material in the majority of specimens. Studies to confirm these observations and a clinical trial are planned for 2016. PMID:26987477

  13. Is nodding syndrome an Onchocerca volvulus-induced neuroinflammatory disorder? Uganda's story of research in understanding the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Idro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nodding syndrome is a devastating neurological disorder, mostly affecting children in eastern Africa. An estimated 10 000 children are affected. Uganda, one of the most affected countries, set out to systematically investigate the disease and develop interventions for it. On December 21, 2015, the Ministry of Health held a meeting with community leaders from the affected areas to disseminate the results of the investigations made to date. This article summarizes the presentation and shares the story of studies into this peculiar disease. It also shares the results of preliminary studies on its pathogenesis and puts into perspective an upcoming treatment intervention. Clinical and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated nodding syndrome to be a complex epilepsy disorder. A definitive aetiological agent has not been established, but in agreement with other affected countries, a consistent epidemiological association has been demonstrated with infection by Onchocerca volvulus. Preliminary studies of its pathogenesis suggest that nodding syndrome may be a neuroinflammatory disorder, possibly induced by antibodies to O. volvulus cross-reacting with neuron proteins. Histological examination of post-mortem brains has shown some yet to be characterized polarizable material in the majority of specimens. Studies to confirm these observations and a clinical trial are planned for 2016.

  14. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders. PMID:21093519

  15. Rare-Region-Induced Avoided Quantum Criticality in Disordered Three-Dimensional Dirac and Weyl Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, J. H.; Huse, David A.; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-04-01

    We numerically study the effect of short-ranged potential disorder on massless noninteracting three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl fermions, with a focus on the question of the proposed (and extensively theoretically studied) quantum critical point separating semimetal and diffusive-metal phases. We determine the properties of the eigenstates of the disordered Dirac Hamiltonian (H ) and exactly calculate the density of states (DOS) near zero energy, using a combination of Lanczos on H2 and the kernel polynomial method on H . We establish the existence of two distinct types of low-energy eigenstates contributing to the disordered density of states in the weak-disorder semimetal regime. These are (i) typical eigenstates that are well described by linearly dispersing perturbatively dressed Dirac states and (ii) nonperturbative rare eigenstates that are weakly dispersive and quasilocalized in the real-space regions with the largest (and rarest) local random potential. Using twisted boundary conditions, we are able to systematically find and study these two (essentially independent) types of eigenstates. We find that the Dirac states contribute low-energy peaks in the finite-size DOS that arise from the clean eigenstates which shift and broaden in the presence of disorder. On the other hand, we establish that the rare quasilocalized eigenstates contribute a nonzero background DOS which is only weakly energy dependent near zero energy and is exponentially small at weak disorder. We also find that the expected semimetal to diffusive-metal quantum critical point is converted to an avoided quantum criticality that is "rounded out" by nonperturbative effects, with no signs of any singular behavior in the DOS at the energy of the clean Dirac point. However, the crossover effects of the avoided (or hidden) criticality manifest themselves in a so-called quantum critical fan region away from the Dirac energy. We discuss the implications of our results for disordered Dirac and Weyl

  16. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  17. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  18. Melatonin Attenuates Noise Stress-induced Gastrointestinal Motility Disorder and Gastric Stress Ulcer: Role of Gastrointestinal Hormones and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Gong, Ji T; Zhang, Hu Q; Song, Quan H; Xu, Guang H; Lei CAI; Tang, Xiao D; Zhang, Hai F; Liu, Fang-E; Jia, Zhan S.; Zhang, Hong W

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There are increasing evidences for gastrointestinal motility disorder (GIMD) and gastric stress ulcer induced by noise stress. The present study was to investigate the reversed effect of melatonin on GIMD and gastric stress ulcer induced by noise stress and potential mechanism. Methods Noise stress was induced on rats, and melatonin (15 mg/kg) was administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. Differences were assessed in gastric residual rate (GRR), small intestine propul...

  19. Effects of electronic and nuclear stopping power on disorder induced in GaN under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisy, F.; Sall, M.; Grygiel, C.; Balanzat, E.; Boisserie, M.; Lacroix, B.; Simon, P.; Monnet, I.

    2016-08-01

    Wurtzite GaN epilayers, grown on the c-plane of sapphire substrate, have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at different energies and fluences, and thereafter studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectra show strong structural modifications in the GaN layer. Indeed, in addition to the broadening of the allowed modes, a large continuum and three new modes at approximately 200 cm-1, 300 cm-1 and 670 cm-1 appear after irradiation attributed to disorder-activated Raman scattering. In this case, spectra are driven by the phonon density of states of the material due to the loss of translation symmetry of the lattice induced by defects. It was shown qualitatively that both electronic excitations and elastic collisions play an important role in the disorder induced by irradiation. UV-visible spectra reveal an absorption band at 2.8 eV which is linked to the new mode at 300 cm-1 observed in irradiated Raman spectra and comes from Ga-vacancies. These color centers are produced by elastic collisions (without any visible effect of electronic excitations).

  20. Borna disease virus induces acute fatal neurological disorders in neonatal gerbils without virus- and immune-mediated cell destructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a noncytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that is known to cause neurological disturbances in various animal species. Our previous experiment demonstrated that neonate gerbils develop an acute fatal neurological disease following infection with BDV , Virology 282, 65-76). The study suggested that BDV directly causes functional damage of neuronal cells resulting in the lethal disorder in neonatal gerbils. To extend this finding, we examined whether BDV can induce neurological diseases in the absence of virus- and immune-mediated cell destruction, by using cyclosporine A (CsA)-treated neonatal gerbils. Although CsA completely suppressed specific antibody production and brain inflammation in the infected gerbil brains, the fatal neurological disorder was not inhibited by the treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CsA treatment significantly decreased brain levels of cytokines, except interleukin (IL)-1β, in the infected gerbils. These results suggested that BDV replication, as well as brain cytokines, at least IL-1β, rapidly induces fatal disturbances in gerbil brain. We demonstrate here that BDV exhibits a unique neuropathogenesis in neonatal gerbil that may be pathologically and immunologically different from those in two other established rodent models, rats and mice. With this novel rodent model of virus infection it should be possible not only to examine acute neurological disturbances without severe neuroanatomical and immunopathological alterations but also to analyze molecular and cellular damage by virus replication in the central nervous system

  1. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  2. The mechanically induced structural disorder in barium hexaferrite, BaFe12O19, and its impact on magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepelák, V; Myndyk, M; Witte, R; Röder, J; Menzel, D; Schuster, R H; Hahn, H; Heitjans, P; Becker, K-D

    2014-01-01

    The response of the structure of the M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) to mechanical action through high-energy milling and its impact on the magnetic behaviour of the ferrite are investigated. Due to the ability of the (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic technique to probe the environment of the Fe nuclei, a valuable insight on a local atomic scale into the mechanically induced changes in the hexagonal structure of the material is obtained. It is revealed that the milling of BaFe12O19 results in the deformation of its constituent polyhedra (FeO6 octahedra, FeO4 tetrahedra and FeO5 triangular bi-pyramids) as well as in the mechanically triggered transition of the Fe(3+) cations from the regular 12k octahedral sites into the interstitial positions provided by the magnetoplumbite structure. The response of the hexaferrite to the mechanical treatment is found to be accompanied by the formation of a non-uniform nanostructure consisting of an ordered crystallite surrounded/separated by a structurally disordered surface shell/interface region. The distorted polyhedra and the non-equilibrium cation distribution are found to be confined to the amorphous near-surface layers of the ferrite nanoparticles with the thickness extending up to about 2 nm. The information on the mechanically induced short-range structural disorder in BaFe12O19 is complemented by an investigation of its magnetic behaviour on a macroscopic scale. It is demonstrated that the milled ferrite nanoparticles exhibit a pure superparamagnetism at room temperature. As a consequence of the far-from-equilibrium structural disorder in the surface shell of the nanoparticles, the mechanically treated BaFe12O19 exhibits a reduced magnetization and an enhanced coercivity. PMID:25406482

  3. Disorder Induced Dynamic Equilibrium Localization and Random Phase Steps of Bose—Einstein Condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We numerically analyze the dynamic behavior of Bose—Einstein condensate (BEC) in a one-dimensional disordered potential before it completely loses spatial quantum coherence. We find that both the disorder statistics and the atom interactions produce remarkable effects on localization. We also find that the single phase of the initial condensate is broken into many small pieces while the system approaches localization, showing a counter-intuitive step-wise phase but not a thoroughly randomized phase. Although the condensates as a whole show less flow and expansion, the currents between adjacent phase steps retain strong time dependence. Thus we show explicitly that the localization of a finite size Bose—Einstein condensate is a dynamic equilibrium state. (general)

  4. Helminth-induced IgE and protection against allergic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Firdaus; Amoah, Abena S; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response against helminths and allergens is generally characterized by high levels of IgE and increased numbers of Th2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, yet the clinical outcome with respect to immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation is clearly not the same. High levels of IgE are seen to allergens during helminth infections; however, these IgE responses do not translate into allergy symptoms. This chapter summarizes the evidence of the association between helminth infections and allergic disorders. It discusses how helminth infection can lead to IgE cross-reactivity with allergens and how this IgE has poor biological activity. This information is important for developing new diagnostic methods and treatments for allergic disorders in low-to-middle-income countries. PMID:25553796

  5. Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the protective effects of melatonin during stress-induced behavioral and immunological changes in relation to oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rishi; Gulati, Kavita; Banerjee, B D; Ray, Arunabha

    2016-03-01

    Stress is known to precipitate neuropsychiatric diseases, and depending upon its nature and intensity it can also influence the functioning of the immune system. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine) a pineal gland hormone and potent antioxidant is known to protect against many diseases. Effect of melatonin in stress-induced neuro-immunomodulation is not well elucidated. Therefore in the present study, the protective effects of melatonin were evaluated in restraint stress (RS)-induced behavioral and immunological changes in rats. RS for 1 h significantly reduces (i) percentage of open-arm entries and (ii) percentage of time spent on open-arm in elevated plus maze (EPM) test parameters (p < 0.01) and significant increase in MDA levels in brain homogenate when compared to non-RS control groups (p < 0.05). In immunological studies, both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to antigen were significantly suppressed by RS for 1 h for 5 consecutive days, as evidenced by significant reduction in (i) anti-SRBC antibody titre, (ii) PFC counts, (iii) percentage change in paw volume, and (iv) Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokine levels (p < 0.001 in all parameters). These RS-induced immunological changes were associated with significantly increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels in serum and significantly decreased activity of (i) SOD, (ii) CAT, and (iii) GSH levels in RS (X5)-exposed group (p < 0.02). Pretreatment with melatonin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) significantly reversed these RS-induced changes in EPM test parameters and humoral and cell-mediated immunological parameters, as well as oxidative stress markers in a dose-dependent manner by differential degrees (p < 0.001). Results are strongly suggestive of the involvement of free radicals during stress-induced neurobehavioral and immunological changes. These changes were significantly restored by melatonin pretreatment. We can conclude that melatonin may have a protective role during such stress-induced neuro

  6. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo; Francisco Aboitiz; Pablo Fuentealba

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral response...

  7. Measurement of the profiles of disorder-induced localized resonances by local tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, J; Yüce, E; Combrié, S; De Rossi, A; Mosk, A P; .,

    2016-01-01

    Near the band edge of photonic crystal waveguides, localized modes appear due to disorder. We demonstrate a new method to elucidate spatial profile of the localized modes in such systems using precise local tuning. Using deconvolution with the known thermal profile, the spatial profile of a localized mode with quality factor ($Q$) $>10^5$ is successfully reconstructed with a resolution of $2.5 \\ \\mu $m.

  8. Obesity, diabetes and OSAS induce of sleep disorders: Exercise as therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ronaldo VT

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep is an integral part of good health. Sleep disorders and variations in sleep habits are associated with a low-grade inflammatory status, which may be either a cause or consequence of other conditions, including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several strategies are available to counteract these conditions including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, pharmacological and nutritional interventions, and even surgery. At present, our group is investigating the effect of chronic endurance exercise on sleep alterations.

  9. An Infant Case of Hyperprolactinemia Induced by a Functional Disorder of the Hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Toshihide; Furujo, Mahoko

    2007-01-01

    Although functional hyperprolactinemia originating in the hypothalamus has been observed, there have so far been few reports of this condition occurring in children. This report describes a 1-yr-and-4-mo old boy with hyperprolactinemia due to functional disorder of the hypothalamic region. He was referred to our hospital because of left gynecomastia which had been observed for one month. His left breast development was stage II, right breast stage I, and pubic hair stage I by Tanner stages, a...

  10. Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediates Preadolescent Stress-Induced Adult Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Joon H.; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that repeated stressful experiences during childhood increases the likelihood of developing depression- and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We subjected drd3-EGFP and drd3-null mice to daily, two hour restraint stress episodes over a five day period during preadolescence (postnatal day 35 to 39), followed by social isolation. When these mice reached adulthood (post-natal day > 90), we assessed locom...

  11. Sodium Valproate induced priapism in an adult with bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetank Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is defined as a prolonged and persistent, painful erection of the penis without sexual stimulation or arousal. There have been a few case report of priapism resulting from the use of antipsychotics. In our case, a 48-year-old male patient with a bipolar affective disorder was experiencing recurrent priapism with sodium valproate. The condition was found to resolve on stopping sodium valproate. There are no known case reports of similar complication with sodium valproate alone.

  12. Lithium diffusion in silicon and induced structure disorder: A molecular dynamics study

    OpenAIRE

    Huanyu Wang; Xiao Ji; Chi Chen; Kui Xu; Ling Miao

    2013-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics method, we investigate the diffusion property of lithium in different silicon structures and silicon structure's disorder extent during lithium's diffusion process. We find that the pathway and the incident angle between the direction of barrier and diffusion of lithium are also the essential factors to the lithium's diffusion property in silicon anode besides the barrier. Smaller incident angle could decrease the scattering of lithium in silicon structure effectively...

  13. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu; Murat Caloglu; Sevgi Eskiocak; Ebru Tastekin; Alaattin Ozen; Nukhet Kurkcu; Fulya Oz-Puyan; Zafer Kocak; Cem Uzal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC) and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7); irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8); amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8); LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8); LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7); and amifostine and sham irradia...

  14. The effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and the vascular wall of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Balkis Budin; Faizah Othman; Santhana Raj Louis; Mokhtar Abu Bakar; Srijit Das; Jamaludin Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fractions on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups: (i) normal non-diabetic (NDM), (ii) diabetic treated (tocotrienol-rich fractions - TRF) and (iii) diabetic untreated (non-TRF). The treatment group received oral administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions (200 mg/kg body weight) daily for eight weeks. The normal non-diabetic and the diabetic untreated groups were fed stan...

  15. Quetiapine-induced sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Sadeka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. The prevalence of sleep-related eating disorder has been found to be approximately between 1% and 5% among adults. Many cases of medication-related somnambulism and sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior have been reported in the literature. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with somnambulism but has not yet been reported to be associated with sleep-related eating disorder. Case presentation Case 1 is a 51-year-old obese African American male veteran with a body mass index of 34.11kg/m2 and severe sleep apnea who has taken 150mg of quetiapine at bedtime for more than one year for depression. He developed sleepwalking three to four nights per week which resolved after stopping quetiapine while being compliant with bi-level positive pressure ventilation therapy. At one year follow-up, his body mass index was 32.57kg/m2. Case 2 is a 50-year-old African American female veteran with a body mass index of 30.5kg/m2 and mild sleep apnea who has taken 200mg of quetiapine daily for more than one year for depression. She was witnessed to sleepwalk three nights per week which resolved after discontinuing quetiapine while being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. At three months follow-up, her body mass index was 29.1kg/m2. Conclusion These cases illustrate that quetiapine may precipitate complex motor behavior including sleep-related eating disorder and somnambulism in susceptible patients. Atypical antipsychotics are commonly used in psychiatric and primary care practice, which means the population at risk of developing parasomnia may often go unrecognized. It is important to recognize this potential adverse effect of quetiapine and, to prevent injury and worsening obesity, discuss this with the patients who are prescribed these medications.

  16. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals. PMID:24685537

  17. The Efficacy of Coffee and Green Tea in Ameliorating Histological and Biochemical Changes Induced By γ-Irradiation in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation results in oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of coffee, green tea, or coffee + green tea consumption on radiation-induced damage in liver and heart tissues of rats. Rats received/day, by gavages, the water extract of 0.3 g green tea and/or 0.2 g coffee, for a period of 7 days. The last dose was given 60 min before irradiation with a dose of 6.5 Gy. Histological examination through light microscope of sections in the liver and heart tissues on the 3rd day post-irradiation revealed that all treatments has attenuated radiation-induced oxidative damage. Necrosis, apoptosis, cell death and rupture of cell membrane in both tissues were less severe and were associated with significant decrease of serum malonaldehyde (MDA) content and significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content, compared to their corresponding value in non irradiated rats. The results were substantiated by significant amelioration in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the content of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), markers of liver and heart functions. No significant changes were recorded between the 3 treatments. However, coffee + green tea provoked better results with respect to radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, which might be attributed to their synergistic effect as free radical scavengers. It could be concluded that drinking coffee associated with green tea is healthier than drinking coffee or green tea alone to protect liver and heart tissues from oxidative stress

  18. Cardioprotective Effects of Lagenaria siceraria Fruit Juice on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histoarchitecture Study

    OpenAIRE

    Upaganlawar, A; Balaraman, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Rats injected with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of serum uric acid, tissue Na++ and Ca++ ions and membrane-bound Ca+2-ATPase activity. A significant decrease in the levels of serum protein, tissue K+ ion, vitamin E level, and the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and mg+2-ATPase was observed. Isoprot...

  19. Disorder-induced valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John King; Eriksson, M. A.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Friesen, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Quantum dots in silicon are promising candidates for the implementation of solid-state quantum information processing. It is important to understand the effects of the multiple conduction band valleys of silicon on the properties of these devices. Here we present a systematic effective mass theory of valley-orbit coupling in disordered silicon systems. This theory reveals valley-orbit hybridization effects that are detrimental for storing quantum information in the valley degree of freedom, including nonvanishing dipole matrix elements between valley states and altered intervalley tunneling.

  20. The model of rat lipid metabolism disorder induced by chronic stress accompanying high-fat-diet

    OpenAIRE

    Shaodong Chen; Jing Li; Haihong Zhou; Manting Lin; Yihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop an animal model of Lipid Metabolism Disorder, which conforms to human clinical characteristic. Methods: There were 24 male Wistar rats that were randomly divided into 3 groups with 8 rats in each. They were group A (normal diet), group B (high-fat-diet), group C (chronic stress+ high-fat-diet). Group A was fed with normal diet, while group B and C were fed with high-fat-diet, going on for 55 days. From the 35th day, group B and C received one time of daily chroni...

  1. Disorder induced phase transition in an opinion dynamics model: results in 2 and 3 dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    We study a model of continuous opinion dynamics with both positive and negative mutual interaction. The model shows a continuous phase transition between a phase with consensus (order) and a phase having no consensus (disorder). The mean field version of the model was already studied. Using extensive numerical simulations, we study the same model in $2$ and $3$ dimensions. The critical points of the phase transitions for various cases and the associated critical exponents have been estimated. The universality class of the phase transitions in the model is found to be same as Ising model in the respective dimensions.

  2. Bosonic Condensation and Disorder-Induced Localization in a Flat Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboux, F.; Ge, L.; Jacqmin, T.; Biondi, M.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Le Gratiet, L.; Sagnes, I.; Schmidt, S.; Türeci, H. E.; Amo, A.; Bloch, J.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the engineering of a nondispersive (flat) energy band in a geometrically frustrated lattice of micropillar optical cavities. By taking advantage of the non-Hermitian nature of our system, we achieve bosonic condensation of exciton polaritons into the flat band. Because of the infinite effective mass in such a band, the condensate is highly sensitive to disorder and fragments into localized modes reflecting the elementary eigenstates produced by geometric frustration. This realization offers a novel approach to studying coherent phases of light and matter under the controlled interplay of frustration, interactions, and dissipation.

  3. Effects of olive leave extract on metabolic disorders and oxidative stress induced by 2.45 GHz WIFI signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Myriam Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Abderraba, Manef

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effect of olive leaves extract administration on glucose metabolism and oxidative response in liver and kidneys of rats exposed to radio frequency (RF). The exposure of rats to RF (2.45 GHz, 1h/day during 21 consecutive days) induced a diabetes-like status. Moreover, RF decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, -33.33% and -49.40%) catalase (CAT, -43.39% and -39.62%) and the superoxide dismutase (SOD, -59.29% and -68.53%) and groups thiol amount (-62.68% and -34.85%), respectively in liver and kidneys. Indeed, exposure to RF increased the malondialdehyde (MDA, 29.69% and 51.35%) concentration respectively in liver and kidneys. Olive leaves extract administration (100 mg/kg, ip) in RF-exposed rats prevented glucose metabolism disruption and restored the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD and thiol group amount in liver and kidneys. Moreover, olive leave extract administration was able to bring down the elevated levels of MDA in liver but not in kidneys. Our investigations suggested that RF exposure induced a diabetes-like status through alteration of oxidative response. Olive leaves extract was able to correct glucose metabolism disorder by minimizing oxidative stress induced by RF in rat tissues. PMID:23994945

  4. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  5. Dibutyryl c-AMP as an inducer of sporidia formation: Biochemical and antigenic changes during morphological differentiation of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) pathogen in axenic culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kumar; Kaushlendra Tripathi; Manish Rana; Shalini Purwar; G K Garg

    2004-03-01

    Effect of dibutyryl adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbc-AMP), an analogue of c-AMP, was investigated on growth and morphological differentiation of Tilletia indica. Exponential growth was observed up to 21 days in both presence and absence of dbc-AMP; however, increasing concentration of dbc-AMP was deleterious to mycelial growth in liquid culture. A slow increase of mycelial biomass up to 21 days and decline at 30 days in the presence of 2.5 mM dbc-AMP was observed, therefore, this concentration was chosen in subsequent investigations. The inhibitory influence of dbc-AMP was further substantiated by decrease in soluble protein. The fungus on exposure to dbc-AMP experienced morphological differentiation from vegetative mycelial phase to sporogenous mycelial phase, and was induced to produce filiform sporidia. Use of quantitative ELISA further suggested that sporidia formation took more than 21 days in the presence of dbc-AMP. Variations of proteins during different stages of T. indica grown in the presence and absence of dbc-AMP suggested the expression of stage-specific proteins or differential expression of proteins induced by dbc-AMP. The changes in expression of cell surface antigens as evidenced from decrease and increase binding of anti-mycelial and anti-sporidial anti-bodies in dbc-AMP treated culture by ELISA was further interpreted on the basis of morphological differentiation from mycelial to sporidial phase.

  6. Stress-induced enhancement of fear learning: an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Vinuta; DeCola, Joseph P; Fanselow, Michael S

    2005-01-01

    Fear is an adaptive response that initiates defensive behavior to protect animals and humans from danger. However, anxiety disorders, such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), can occur when fear is inappropriately regulated. Fear conditioning can be used to study aspects of PTSD, and we have developed a model in which pre-exposure to a stressor of repeated footshock enhances conditional fear responding to a single context-shock pairing. The experiments in this chapter address interpretations of this effect including generalization and summation or fear, inflation, and altered pain sensitivity. The results of these experiments lead to the conclusion that pre-exposure to shock sensitizes conditional fear responding to similar less intense stressors. This sensitization effect resists exposure therapy (extinction) and amnestic (NMDA antagonist) treatment. The pattern predicts why in PTSD patients, mild stressors cause reactions more appropriate for the original traumatic stressor and why new fears are so readily formed in these patients. This model can facilitate the study of neurobiological mechanisms underlying sensitization of responses observed in PTSD. PMID:16095698

  7. Desipramine induces disorder in cholesterol-rich membranes: implications for viral trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effect of desipramine (DMI) on phospholipid bilayers and parvoviral entry was elucidated. In atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, DMI was found to introduce disorder in cholesterol-rich phospholipid bilayers. This was manifested by a decrease in the deuterium order parameter SCD as well as an increase in the membrane area. Disordering of the membrane suggested DMI to destabilize cholesterol-rich membrane domains (rafts) in cellular conditions. To relate the raft disrupting ability of DMI with novel biological relevance, we studied the intracellular effect of DMI using canine parvovirus (CPV), a virus known to interact with endosomal membranes and sphingomyelin, as an intracellular probe. DMI was found to cause retention of the virus in intracellular vesicular structures leading to the inhibition of viral proliferation. This implies that DMI has a deleterious effect on the viral traffic. As recycling endosomes and the internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies are known to contain raft components, the effect of desipramine beyond the plasma membrane step could be caused by raft disruption leading to impaired endosomal function and possibly have direct influence on the penetration of the virus through an endosomal membrane

  8. Desipramine induces disorder in cholesterol-rich membranes: implications for viral trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi; Salonen, Emppu; Mäkelä, Anna R.; Oker-Blom, Christian; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Vuento, Matti

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the effect of desipramine (DMI) on phospholipid bilayers and parvoviral entry was elucidated. In atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, DMI was found to introduce disorder in cholesterol-rich phospholipid bilayers. This was manifested by a decrease in the deuterium order parameter SCD as well as an increase in the membrane area. Disordering of the membrane suggested DMI to destabilize cholesterol-rich membrane domains (rafts) in cellular conditions. To relate the raft disrupting ability of DMI with novel biological relevance, we studied the intracellular effect of DMI using canine parvovirus (CPV), a virus known to interact with endosomal membranes and sphingomyelin, as an intracellular probe. DMI was found to cause retention of the virus in intracellular vesicular structures leading to the inhibition of viral proliferation. This implies that DMI has a deleterious effect on the viral traffic. As recycling endosomes and the internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies are known to contain raft components, the effect of desipramine beyond the plasma membrane step could be caused by raft disruption leading to impaired endosomal function and possibly have direct influence on the penetration of the virus through an endosomal membrane.

  9. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  10. Minocycline alleviates beta-amyloid protein and tau pathology via restraining neuroinflammation induced by diabetic metabolic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhiyou; Yan, Yong; Wang, Yonglong

    2013-01-01

    Background Compelling evidence has shown that diabetic metabolic disorder plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, including increased expression of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and tau protein. Evidence has supported that minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, protects against neuroinflammation induced by neurodegenerative disorders or cerebral ischemia. This study has evaluated minocycline influence on expression of Aβ protein, tau phosphorylation, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) in the brain of diabetic rats to clarify neuroprotection by minocycline under diabetic metabolic disorder. Method An animal model of diabetes was established by high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin. In this study, we investigated the effect of minocycline on expression of Aβ protein, tau phosphorylation, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) in the hippocampus of diabetic rats via immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results These results showed that minocycline decreased expression of Aβ protein and lowered the phosphorylation of tau protein, and retarded the proinflammatory cytokines, but not amyloid precursor protein. Conclusion On the basis of the finding that minocycline had no influence on amyloid precursor protein and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 which determines the speed of Aβ generation, the decreases in Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation by minocycline are through inhibiting neuroinflammation, which contributes to Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation. Minocycline may also lower the self-perpetuating cycle between neuroinflammation and the pathogenesis of tau and Aβ to act as a neuroprotector. Therefore, the ability of minocycline to modulate inflammatory reactions may be of great importance in the selection of neuroprotective agents, especially in chronic conditions

  11. Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Functional and Structural Disorders in Urogenital System of Male Albino Rats Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca+2), potassium (K+) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining the

  12. RNA-mediated paternal heredity of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Grandjean; Sandra Fourré; Diana Andrea Fernandes De Abreu; Marie-Alix Derieppe; Jean-Jacques Remy; Minoo Rassoulzadegan

    2015-01-01

    The paternal heredity of obesity and diabetes induced by a high-fat and/or high-sugar diet (Western-like diet) has been demonstrated through epidemiological analysis of human cohorts and experimental analysis, but the nature of the hereditary vector inducing this newly acquired phenotype is not yet well defined. Here, we show that microinjection of either testis or sperm RNA of male mice fed a Western-like diet into naive one-cell embryos leads to the establishment of the Western-like diet-in...

  13. Generation of functional neutrophils from a mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disorder using induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayandip Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Murine models of human genetic disorders provide a valuable tool for investigating the scope for application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC. Here we present a proof-of-concept study to demonstrate generation of iPSC from a mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD, and their successful differentiation into haematopoietic progenitors of the myeloid lineage. We further demonstrate that additive gene transfer using lentiviral vectors encoding gp91(phox is capable of restoring NADPH-oxidase activity in mature neutrophils derived from X-CGD iPSC. In the longer term, correction of iPSC from human patients with CGD has therapeutic potential not only through generation of transplantable haematopoietic stem cells, but also through production of large numbers of autologous functional neutrophils.

  14. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Vogel, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  15. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galatage, R. V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  16. Olanzapine-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with bipolar affective disorder: Does quetiapine holds the solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS is a rare, severe and life threatening condition induced by antipsychotic medications. It is commonly encountered with the use of first generation antipsychotics, however cases of NMS have been reported with the use of second generation antipsychotics like Olanzapine, Risperidone, Paliperidone, Aripiprazole, Ziprasidone, Amisulpride, Quetiapine and Clozapine, though the incidence of such reports is rare. Due to decreased use of first generation antipsychotics, NMS is reported less frequently now a days. In this case report- we highlight the management issues of a patient suffering from bipolar affective disorder, who had developed NMS following intramuscular injection of haloperidol, which was withdrawn and olanzapine was given later on. The patient had again developed NMS with olanzapine. Finally the patient was managed with modified electroconvulsive therapy and discharged on Lithium carbonate and Quetiapine.

  17. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  18. Single-prolonged stress induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in the rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dongjuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to a life-threatening traumatic experience. Meta-analyses of the brainstem showed that midsagittal area of the pons was significantly reduced in patients with PTSD, suggesting a potential apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus after single-prolonged stress (SPS. The aim of this study is to investigate whether SPS induces apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus in PTSD rats, which may be a possible mechanism of reduced volume of pons and density of gray matter. Methods In this study, rats were randomly divided into 1d, 7d and 14d groups after SPS along with the control group. The apoptosis rate was determined using annexin V-FITC/PI double-labeled flow cytometry (FCM. Levels of Cytochrome c (Cyt-C was examined by Western blotting. Expression of Cyt-C on mitochondria in the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron was determined by enzymohistochemistry under transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The change of thiamine monophosphatase (TMP levels was assessed by enzymohistochemistry under light microscope and TEM. Morphological changes of the ultrastructure of the dorsal raphe nucleus neuron were determined by TEM. Results Apoptotic morphological alterations were observed in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron for all SPS-stimulate groups of rats. The apoptosis rates were significantly increased in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of SPS rats, along with increased release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm, increased expression of Cyt-C and TMP levels in the cytoplasm, which reached to the peak of increase 7 days of SPS. Conclusions The results indicate that SPS induced Cyt-C released from mitochondria into cytosol and apoptosis in dorsal raphe nucleus neuron of rats. Increased TMP in cytoplasm facilitated the clearance of apoptotic cells. We propose that this presents one of the mechanisms that lead to reduced volume of pons and gray matter associated

  19. Goldstone Mode Induced by Skyrmions and Collective Modes in Disordered Quantum Hall Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, I.

    2015-10-01

    We have proposed the effective Lagrangian density for the skyrmion-like solitons around the filling factor v ∼ 1, and have introduced the massless gauge field (Goldstone mode) induced by the hedgehog-like solitons. We have discussed the skyrmion glassy behaviour.

  20. A CASE REPORT OF AMIODARONE INDUCED MYOPATHY IN A PATIENT OF VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Myopathies are disorders with structural changes or functional impairment of muscle. Voluntary muscle is subject to a range of hereditary and acquired disorders affecting either its structure, or the biochemical processes which convert the chemical energy derived from cell metabolism into mechanical energy in a controlled manner. These disorders present in a limited number of ways, most commonly a symmetrical weakness of the large, power-generating proximal muscles. Drug induced myopathy comes under acquired causes of myopathy. Here we shall be presenting a case of Amiodarone induced myopathy in a 40 years old male patient of ventricular arrhythmia. We shall also discuss the further management of this presentation.

  1. Heavy ion induced damage and disorder in intermetallic compounds with the B2 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the B2-type intermetallic compounds, NiAl, FeAl, NiTi and FeTi all maintained a high degree of order during irradiation, metastable phase formation was observed. Dislocation loops and network developed in NiAl and FeAl during irradiation and a nickel rich, fcc phase, most likely disordered Ni/sub 3/Al, formed in NiAl after high doses. The build-up of constitutional vacancies (excess vacancies on Ni sites) and subsequent elemental partitioning of Ni and Al can explain the formation of a nickel rich phase in NiAl. No metastable phases formed in FeAl. Dislocation loop structures did not develop in NiTi or FeTi, rather a transformation to an amorphous phase occurred at relatively low doses. The amorphous transformation results when the free energy of the crystal lattice containing a high defect concentration exceeds the free energy of the amorphous configuration

  2. Stiffening of Red Blood Cells Induced by Disordered Cytoskeleton Structures: A Joint Theory-experiment Study

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lipeng; Lim, Chwee Teck; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-01-01

    The functions and elasticities of the cell are largely related to the structures of the cytoskeletons underlying the lipid bi-layer. Among various cell types, the Red Blood Cell (RBC) possesses a relatively simple cytoskeletal structure. Underneath the membrane, the RBC cytoskeleton takes the form of a two dimensional triangular network, consisting of nodes of actins (and other proteins) and edges of spectrins. Recent experiments focusing on the malaria infected RBCs (iRBCs) showed that there is a correlation between the elongation of spectrins in the cytoskeletal network and the stiffening of the iRBCs. Here we rationalize the correlation between these two observations by combining the worm-like chain (WLC) model for single spectrins and the Effective Medium Theory (EMT) for the network elasticity. We specifically focus on how the disorders in the cytoskeletal network affect its macroscopic elasticity. Analytical and numerical solutions from our model reveal that the stiffness of the membrane increases with ...

  3. Lithium diffusion in silicon and induced structure disorder: A molecular dynamics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using molecular dynamics method, we investigate the diffusion property of lithium in different silicon structures and silicon structure's disorder extent during lithium's diffusion process. We find that the pathway and the incident angle between the direction of barrier and diffusion of lithium are also the essential factors to the lithium's diffusion property in silicon anode besides the barrier. Smaller incident angle could decrease the scattering of lithium in silicon structure effectively. Moreover, lithium diffuses easier in the Li-Si alloy structure of higher lithium concentration with deeper injection depth. The silicon's structure will be damaged gradually during the charge and discharge process. However, it will also recover to initial state to a great extent after relaxation. Therefore, the damage of lithium diffusion to silicon anode in the structure of low lithium concentration is reversible to a great degree. In addition, the silicon structure of crystal orientation perform better properties in both lithium's diffusivity and structural stability.

  4. Special Features of Polarization-Induced Relaxation in Structurally Disordered Finely Dispersed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbachenko, L. A.; Tanaev, A. B.; Bezrukova, Ya. V.; Ezhova, L. I.; Baryshnikov, D. S.; Marchuk, S. D.; Berezovskii, P. P.

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric characteristics of finely dispersed hydrated natural coal from the Krasnoyarsk Strip Mine are measured in wide ranges of external measuring electric field frequencies, environmental temperatures, and humidities. The frequency, temperature, and concentration dispersions of the dielectric permittivity are revealed for the examined structures. An analysis of the results obtained demonstrates that a cluster layer of the polar aqueous matrix characterized by rigid fixing of water molecules is formed at the interphase boundaries of the examined system. It is demonstrated that this layer plays the role of the potential barrier that complicates transitions for both free water molecules and surface active dispersed coals oriented by the electric field. This layer can increase the electric strength of the examined disordered finely dispersed structures.

  5. Field-induced multiple order-by-disorder state selection in an antiferromagnetic honeycomb bilayer lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Rosales, H. D.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present a detailed study of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice in a highly frustrated regime in the presence of a magnetic field. This study shows strong evidence of entropic order-by-disorder selection in different sectors of the magnetization curve. For antiferromagnetic couplings J1=Jx=Jp/3 , we find that at low temperatures there are two different regions in the magnetization curve selected by this mechanism with different number of soft and zero modes. These regions present broken Z2 symmetry and are separated by a not fully collinear classical plateau at M =1 /2 . At higher temperatures, there is a crossover from the conventional paramagnet to a cooperative magnet. Finally, we also discuss the low-temperature behavior of the system for a less frustrated region, J1=Jx

  6. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Ethanolic Extract and Its Improving Role of Biochemical Changes Induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky substance that is collected from plants by honeybees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, the antimicrobial activity and possible protective effects of ethanolic extract of propolis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced biological damages in rats. The studied rats were allotted to four equal groups (6 rats each) : Group 1 served as control and was given the vehicle (Tween 80 dissolved in distilled water, 1:100 ) orally for 21 consecutive days after which they were sacrificed , group 2 treated orally with ethanolic extract of popolis (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, group 3 ( CCl4 - treated group) administered orally with a single dose (0.5 ml/kg body weight) of carbon tetrachloride (mixed with an equal volume of olive oil) and group 4 (protected group) was treated with propolis extract (100μg/rat) for 21 successive days, after one hour of the last dose of the treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) was given. Then all animals were sacrificed, 24 hr post experimental design period for each group. Our results revealed that, fourteen compounds were identified by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC- MS analysis). Propolis ethanolic extract inhibited the growth of six from the tested microorganisms including bacteria and fungi at 5 mg/ml against E. coli and B. subtilis and 20 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Penicillium italicum and Candida albicans, while it has no effect on A. fumigatus and Syncephalstrum racemasum. In experimental animals, Leucocytic counts and platelets, in addition, AST, ALT, CK and LDH were significantly increased, meanwhile, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level was decreased in CCl4 treated rats (group 3) compared to the control (group 1). Protection with ethanolic extract of propolis to rats received CCl4 (group 4) ameliorated the

  7. N+注入对蒙古黄芪多倍体生化指标的影响%Effects of N+ Implantation on Biochemical Indexes of Induced Polyploid Astragalus membranaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利珍; 李前忠; 杨林源; 武成艳

    2011-01-01

    为了研究N+注入对蒙古黄芪多倍体生化指标的影响,采用培养基中添加秋水仙素的方法诱导多倍体,测定不同剂量N+注入的情况下,不同诱导时间内分化出的不定芽及二倍体和四倍体植株叶片的生化指标变化情况.结果表明:未注入组丙二醛(malonaldehyde,MDA)的含量,以及过氧化物酶( peroxidase,POD)、过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)和超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)的活性,随诱导时间的延长而增高,蛋白质含量随诱导时间的延长而降低,蛋白质含量与MDA含量呈负相关;注入组的生化指标在诱导时间内都有一定的波动,但总体趋势与未注入组一致;四倍体与二倍体相比较,四倍体的MDA含量及POD、CAT和SOD的活性都高于二倍体,而蛋白质含量却低于二倍体.说明离子束注入能使种子产生大量自由基,自由基的增加可导致MDA的产生,从而破坏蛋白质的合成,同时,N+注入又可诱发新的修复机制;四倍体植株受伤害程度更大,但四倍体植株的自我保护能力高于二倍体植株,即四倍体植株的抗逆性较二倍体增强.%To study effects of N+ implantation on biochemical indexes of polyploid Astragalus membranaceus, colchicine was added into medium to induce polyploidy. By measuring the biochemical indexes of adventitious buds at different induction times and leaves from tetraploid and diploid plants, data showed that malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were positively correlated with induction time, but protein content was negatively correlated with induction time in control group. The biochemical indexes of treated group showed fluctuations during induction. MDA content and POD, CAT, SOD activities in tetraploids were higher than in diploids, while protein content in tetraploids was lower than in diploids. These data indicated that abundant free radicals were produced by N

  8. ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE - IS IT USEFUL AS A BIOCHEMICAL MARKER AND AS A PREDICTOR OF SEVERITY OF PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ITS COMPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To compare serum Aspartate Transaminase of normotensive pregnant women with those of pre-eclamptic and eclamptic women. To determine the relationship of levels of serum Aspartate Transaminase with severity of pregnancy-induced hypertension and its complications. METHOD The study was carried out on pregnant hypertensive patients attending Outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, AMCH Dibrugarh, Assam from 1 st July 2013 to 30 th June 2014. Normotensive pregnant women were taken as controls. Each serum sample from the control group as well as study group was estimated for Aspartate Transaminase using standard methods, and a comparison is drawn and analysed using t-test and chi-square test. RESULTS Serum Aspartate Transaminase levels were high in the study group. The levels of this enzyme were normal in the control group. CONCLUSION Aspartate Transaminase levels in patients suffering from preeclampsia and its complications are consistently higher compared to the normotensive pregnant patients. To determine the usefulness of inclusion of this enzyme along with other cardiac enzymes in the panel of investigations of pregnant women universally needs further large scale comparative studies.

  9. Pancreatic islet regeneration and some liver biochemical parameters of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oche, Okpe; Sani, Ibrahim; Chilaka, Njoku Godwin; Samuel, Ndidi Uche; Samuel, Atabo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test two water soluble extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) obtained from the leaves of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for their effects on pancreatic endocrine tissues and serum marker enzymes for a period of 21 d. Methods A total of 55 rats divided into 11 groups of 5 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups and followed by a daily administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts for 21 d. Group 1 was the normal control while group 7 was treated with standard drug. Results The histopathological studies of the diabetic rats indicated increase in the volume density of islets, percent of β-cells and size of islet in the groups that received the plant extracts, which suggested regeneration of β-cells along with β-cells repairs, as compared with the non-treated diabetic control which showed complete degeneration of the islet cells. There was significant reduction (P0.01) in the serum activities of marker enzymes was observed for non-diabetic treated rats. Results of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin showed that diabetic control group was significantly higher (P0.01) in total bilirubin and direct bilirubin compared with the normal control. Conclusion This herbal therapy appears to bring about repair/regeneration of the endocrine pancreas and hepatic cells protection in the diabetic rat. PMID:25182283

  10. Pancreatic islet regeneration and some liver biochemical parameters of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okpe Oche; Ibrahim Sani; Njoku Godwin Chilaka; Ndidi Uche Samuel; Atabo Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test two water soluble extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) obtained from the leaves ofVitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for their effects on pancreatic endocrine tissues and serum marker enzymes for a period of 21 d. Methods: A total of 55 rats divided into 11 groups of 5 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups and followed by a daily administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts for 21 d. Group 1 was the normal control while group 7 was treated with standard drug.Results:The histopathological studies of the diabetic rats indicated increase in the volume density of islets, percent of β-cells and size of islet in the groups that received the plant extracts, which suggested regeneration of β-cells along with β-cells repairs, as compared with the non-treated diabetic control which showed complete degeneration of the islet cells. There was significant reduction (P0.01) in the serum activities of marker enzymes was observed for non-diabetic treated rats. Results of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin showed that diabetic control group was significantly higher (P0.01) in total bilirubin and direct bilirubin compared with the normal control.Conclusion:This herbal therapy appears to bring about repair/regeneration of the endocrine pancreas and hepatic cells protection in the diabetic rat.

  11. Can palpation-induced muscle pain pattern contribute to the differential diagnosis among temporomandibular disorders, primary headaches phenotypes and possible bruxism?

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Martins COSTA; PORPORATTI, André Luís; CALDERON, Patrícia dos Santos; Paulo César Rodrigues CONTI; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2015-01-01

    Background The evaluation of possible differences in the distribution or characteristics of palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles could be valuable in terms of diagnostic assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different combinations of anterior temporalis (AT) and masseter palpation-induced pain in the diagnostic of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), primary headaches and bruxism. Material and Methods A total of 1200 dental records of orofacial pain adult p...

  12. Biochemical changes on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic micro-granular HA + β-tricalcium phosphate induced by laser and LED phototherapies assessed by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Marques, Aparecida Maria C.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed the assessment of the biochemical changes during bone mineralization induced by laser and LED irradiation in an animal model of bone repair using a spectral model based on Raman spectroscopy. Six groups were studied: Clot, Laser (λ780 nm, 70 mW), LED (λ850 nm +/- 10 nm, 150 mW), Biomaterial (biphasic synthetic microgranular hydroxyapatite (HA) + β-tricalcium phosphate), Laser + Biomaterial and LED + Biomaterial. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at 48 h interval during 2 wks, 20 J/cm2 per session. At 15th and 30th days, femurs were dissected and spectra of the defects were collected. Raman spectra were submitted to a model to estimate the relative amount of collagen, phosphate HA and carbonate HA, by using spectra of pure collagen, biomaterial and basal bone, respectively. At 15th days, the use of biomaterial associated to phototherapy reduced the collagen formation, whereas the amount of carbonate HA was not different in all groups. The phosphate HA was higher in the groups that received biomaterial grafts. At 30th days, it was observed an increase of collagen for the group Laser + Biomaterial, and a reduction in the carbonate HA for the LED + Biomaterial. The phosphate HA was higher for the groups LED + Biomaterial and Laser + Biomaterial, while decreased for the group Biomaterial. These results indicated that the use of Laser and LED phototherapies improved the repair of bone defects grafted with the biomaterial by increasing the collagen deposition and phosphate HA.

  13. The effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and the vascular wall of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Balkis Budin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fractions on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups: (i normal non-diabetic (NDM, (ii diabetic treated (tocotrienol-rich fractions - TRF and (iii diabetic untreated (non-TRF. The treatment group received oral administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions (200 mg/kg body weight daily for eight weeks. The normal non-diabetic and the diabetic untreated groups were fed standard rat feed. Blood glucose and lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers and morphological changes of the thoracic aorta were evaluated. RESULTS: Tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment reduced serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group also showed significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride, as compared to the untreated group. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as compared to the untreated group. Superoxide dismutase activity and levels of vitamin C in plasma were increased in tocotrienol-rich fractions-treated rats. The levels of plasma and aorta malondealdehyde + 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4-HNE and oxidative DNA damage were significant following tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment. Electron microscopic examination showed that the normal morphology of the thoracic aorta was disrupted in STZ-diabetic rats. Tocotrienol-rich fractions supplementation resulted in a protective effect on the vessel wall. CONCLUSION: These results show that tocotrienol-rich fractions lowers the blood glucose level and improves dyslipidemia. Levels of oxidative stress markers were also reduced by administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions. Vessel wall integrity was maintained due to the positive effects mediated by tocotrienol-rich fractions.

  14. A.G. Kudyasheva, L.N. Shishkina, N.G. Zagorskaya, A.I. Taskaev. Biochemical mechanisms of radiation damage of mouse-like rodents of natural populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the book - Biochemical mechanisms of radiation damage of mouse-like rodents of natural populations (St-Petersburg, Nauka, 1997) by A.G. Kudyasheva and others - is presented. The book deals with investigation of the regularities and mechanisms of radiation-induced disorders in lipid peroxidation and dehydrogenation processes in the organs of mouse-like rodents residenting under conditions of elevated background radiation. Advantages and disadvantages are analyzed

  15. Effect of pinaverium bromide on stress-induced colonic smooth muscle contractility disorder in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Dai; Jian-Xiang Liu; Jun-Xia Li; Yun-Feng Xu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pinaverium bromide, a Ltype calcium channel blocker with selectivity for the gastrointestinal tract on contractile activity of colonic circular smooth muscle in normal or cold-restraint stressed rats and its possible mechanism.METHODS: Cold-restraint stress was conducted on rats to increase fecal pellets output. Each isolated colonic circular muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing warm oxygenated Tyrode-Ringer solution. The contractile response to ACh or KCl was measured isometrically on inkwriting recorder. Incubated muscle in different concentrations of pinaverium and the effects of pinaverium were investigated on ACh or KCl-induced contraction. Colon smooth muscle cells were cultured from rats and [Ca2+]i was measured in cell suspension using the Ca2+ fluorescent dye fura-2/AlMl.RESULTS: During stress, rats fecal pellet output increased 61% (P<0.01). Stimulated with ACh or KCl, the muscle contractility was higher in stress than that in control. Pinaverium inhibited the increment of [Ca2+]i and the muscle contraction in response to ACh or KCl in a dose dependent manner. A significant inhibition of pinaverium to ACh or KCl induced [Ca2+]i increment was observed at 10-6 mol/L. The IC50 values for inhibition of ACh induced contraction for the stress and control group were 1.66×10-6 mol/L and 0.91×10-6mol/L, respectively. The ICs0 values for inhibition of KCl induced contraction for the stress and control group were 8.13×10-7 mol/L and 3.80×10-7 mol/L, respectively.CONCLUSION: Increase in [Ca2+]i of smooth muscle cells is directly related to the generation of contraction force in colon. L-type Ca2+ channels represent the main route of Ca2+ entry.Pinaverium inhibits the calcium influx through L-type channels;decreases the contractile response to many kinds of agonists and regulates the stress-induced colon hypermotility.

  16. Influence of excipients in comilling on mitigating milling-induced amorphization or structural disorder of crystalline pharmaceutical actives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balani, Prashant N; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H; Chan, Sui Yung

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of using excipients to suppress the amorphization or structural disorder of crystalline salbutamol sulphate (SS) during milling was investigated. SS was subjected to ball-milling in the presence of alpha-lactose monohydrate (LAC), adipic acid (AA), magnesium stearate (MgSt), or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). X-ray powder diffraction, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (HSDSC) were used to analyze the crystallinity of the milled mixtures. Comilling with crystalline excipients, LAC, AA, and MgSt proved effective in reducing the amorphization of SS. LAC, AA, or MgSt acting as seed crystals to induce recrystallization of amorphous SS formed by milling. During comilling, both SS and LAC turned predominantly amorphous after 45 min but transformed back to a highly crystalline state after 60 min. Amorphous content was below the detection limits of DVS (0.5%) and HSDSC (5%). Comilled and physical mixtures of SS and ALM were stored under normal and elevated humidity conditions. This was found to prevent subsequent changes in crystallinity and morphology of comilled SS:LAC as compared to significant changes in milled SS and physical mixture. These results demonstrate a promising application of comilling with crystalline excipients in mitigating milling induced amorphization of pharmaceutical actives. PMID:19902526

  17. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  18. NMDA receptor activity in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShaheenELakhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors play a variety of physiologic roles and their proper signaling is essential for cellular homeostasis. Any disruption in this pathway, leading to either enhanced or decreased activity, may result in the manifestation of neuropsychiatric pathologies such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, substance induced psychosis, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we explore the notion that the overlap in activity of at least one biochemical pathway, the NMDA receptor pathway, may be the link to understanding the overlap in psychotic symptoms between diseases. This review intends to present a broad overview of those neuropsychiatric disorders for which alternations in NMDA receptor activity is prominent thus suggesting that continued direction of pharmaceutical intervention to this pathway may present a viable option for managing symptoms.

  19. Stiffening of Red Blood Cells Induced by Cytoskeleton Disorders: A Joint Theory-Experiment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lipeng; Xu, Xiaofeng; Lim, Chwee Teck; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-12-01

    The functions and elasticities of the cell are largely related to the structures of the cytoskeletons underlying the lipid bilayer. Among various cell types, the red blood cell (RBC) possesses a relatively simple cytoskeletal structure. Underneath the membrane, the RBC cytoskeleton takes the form of a two-dimensional triangular network, consisting of nodes of actins (and other proteins) and edges of spectrins. Recent experiments focusing on the malaria-infected RBCs (iRBCs) show that there is a correlation between the elongation of spectrins in the cytoskeletal network and the stiffening of the iRBCs. Here we rationalize the correlation between these two observations by combining the wormlike chain model for single spectrins and the effective medium theory for the network elasticity. We specifically focus on how the disorders in the cytoskeletal network affect its macroscopic elasticity. Analytical and numerical solutions from our model reveal that the stiffness of the membrane increases with increasing end-to-end distances of spectrins, but has a nonmonotonic dependence on the variance of the end-to-end distance distributions. These predictions are verified quantitatively by our atomic force microscopy and micropipette aspiration measurements of iRBCs. The model may, from a molecular level, provide guidelines for future identification of new treatment methods for RBC-related diseases, such as malaria infection. PMID:26636940

  20. Affective systems induce formal thought disorder in early-stage psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Breier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been described since early conceptualizations of psychosis, its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests FTD may be influenced by affective and cognitive systems; however, few have examined these relationships-with none focusing on early-stage psychosis (EP). In this study, positive FTD and speech production were measured in sex- and race-matched EP (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 19) groups by assessing "reactivity"-a change in experimental compared with baseline conditions-across baseline, affective, and cognitive conditions. Relationships with functioning were also examined within each group. Three key findings emerged: (a) the EP group displayed large differences in positive FTD and speech production, (b) those with EP exhibited affective reactivity for positive FTD, and (c) positive FTD and affective reactivity were linked with poor real-world functioning in EP and these relationships did not considerably change when controlling for positive symptom (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) severity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that affective, but not cognitive, systems play a critical role in positive FTD. Affective reactivity, in particular, may aid in predicting those with EP who go on to develop serious social impairments. Future work should focus on whether affective systems differentially influence those at separate points on the psychosis-spectrum in an effort to establish evidence-based treatments for FTD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999283

  1. 9-Hydroxyrisperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinaemia in Thai Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Chamkrachangpada, Bhunnada; Tan-Khum, Theerarat; Limsila, Penkhae; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2016-09-01

    Although our previous study revealed an association between prolactin level and risperidone dosage, data regarding the plasma concentration of risperidone are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between plasma drug concentrations of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone and serum prolactin level in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The individuals for this study were 103 children and adolescents with ASD (90 males and 13 females). In the 12th hour after the last risperidone dose, blood samples were collected for analysis. Serum prolactin, plasma risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone levels were measured. Patients' clinical data were collected from medical records - age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone and duration of treatment. Serum prolactin level was significantly positively correlated with plasma 9-hydroxyrisperidone level (rs = 0.355, p < 0.001). The median concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone in individuals with hyperprolactinaemia (7.59 ng/ml; IQR 4.86-15.55) was significantly higher than non-hyperprolactinaemic individuals (5.18 ng/ml; IQR 2.10-8.99) after risperidone treatment (p = 0.006). By multivariate analysis, high prolactin level was correlated to high 9-hydroxyrisperidone level (p = 0.010). The results of this study showed that serum prolactin levels, especially in autistic individuals with hyperprolactinaemia during risperidone treatment, were significantly correlated with the level of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. These results suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may develop during risperidone treatment. PMID:26879343

  2. Mechanochemically induced disordered structures of vincamine: the different mediation of two cross-linked polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasa, Dritan; Perissutti, Beatrice; Chierotti, Michele Remo; Gobetto, Roberto; Grabnar, Iztok; Bonifacio, Alois; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Invernizzi, Sergio; Voinovich, Dario

    2012-10-15

    The aims of this research were to prepare highly bioavailable binary cogrounds (vincamine-AcDiSol(®) or PVP-Cl) by means of a mechanochemical process and to study the mediation of each polymer in the induction of physical transformations of the drug. From a set of fifteen cogrounds for each crosslinked polymer, two samples were selected in each group on the basis of the AUC of in vitro dissolution profiles with the help of a statistical comparison. The chosen samples were analysed by means of TEM, XRPD, Raman-spectroscopy/imaging, SSNMR, also including the study of (1)H spin-lattice relaxation times. The research encompassed in vivo oral absorption studies in rats, pharmacokinetic analysis and physical stability studies during 1 year. An intimate drug-polymer mixing was found in the coground samples with domain average dimensions smaller than 100 Å; this reflected in a remarkable enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo bioavailability. Different disordered states were detected in the coground samples as a function of cogrinding time and the type and amount of polymer used. Though both crosslinked polymers produced a remarkable enhancement of the oral bioavailability, coground systems based on AcDiSol(®) are preferable in terms of pharmacokinetic performance and physical stability. PMID:22721852

  3. Safety of transcranial direct current stimulation in alcohol-induced psychotic disorder with comorbid psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Shivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS involves application of weak direct electric currents (up to 2mA using scalp electrodes with resultant neuroplasticity modulation by altering the cortical excitability. Though the side effect profile of tDCS is benign and less severe, the utility and safety of tDCS in dermatological conditions remains a concern. In this context, we report the safe administration of tDCS in a subject with substance induced psychosis and co-morbid psoriasis.

  4. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw-Hwa Jou; Nan-Yin Chiu; Chin-San Liu

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are intracellular organelles crucial in the production of cellular energy.Mitochondrial diseases may result from malfunctions in this biochemical cascade. Severalinvestigators have proposed that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to the pathophysiologyof bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Theauthors reviewed recent study findings and tried to delineate the current understanding of thecorrelation between mitochondrial dysfunction and p...

  5. 针刺对运动性疲劳大鼠部分生化指标的影响%Influence of Acupuncture on Biochemical Parameters in Exercise-induced Fatigue Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹霖; 孙远征; 丰晓溟

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察针刺对运动性疲劳大鼠部分生化指标的影响,探讨针刺抗运动性疲劳的作用机制.方法:采用4星期递增游泳训练的方法复制慢性运动性疲劳大鼠模型,随机分为对照组、模型组、头穴组、体穴组,采用“逆针灸”的方法.观察治疗前后各组大鼠力竭游泳时间、全血乳酸(Lactic Acid,LA)、肌酸激酶(Creatine Kinase,CK)、血尿素氮(Blood Urea Nitrogen,BUN)、血红蛋白(Hemoglobin,Hb)及游离色氨酸/支链氨基酸(free Tryptophan/Branched Chain Amino Acid,F-TRP/BCAA)的变化.结果:与体穴组相比,头穴组在提高Hb水平,降低BUN、LA水平方面有明显优势(P<0.05).在降低CK、F-TRP/BCAA水平方面,更是明显优于体穴组(p<0.01).结论:头穴针刺能够有效改善运动性疲劳大鼠生化指标,同时降低F-TRP/BCAA水平,抑制5-HT生成,从而有效地改善大鼠疲劳程度.%Objective:To observe the effect of acupuncture on some biochemical parameters in rats with exercise-induced fatigue and to explore the mechanism of acupuncture for exercise fatigue.Methods:The rat model of chronic exercise-induced fatigue was established by a 4-week increasing swimming training method.The rats were randomly divided into a control group,a model group,a scalp acupoint group,and a body acupoint group.Preventive acupuncture methods were used.Changes of exhaustive swimming time,whole blood lactic acid (LA),creatine kinase (CK),blood urea nitrogen (BUN),hemoglobin (Hb) and free tryptophan/branched chain amino acid (F-TRP/BCAA) of rats in each group before and after treatments were observed.Results:Compared with the body acupoint group,there were obvious advantages of the scalp point group in increasing Hb levels and lowering BUN and LA levels (P<0.05),as well as in aspects of lowering CK and F-TRP/BCAA levels (P<0.01).Conclusion:Scalp point acupuncture can improve the biochemical parameters in rats with exercise-induced fatigue,meanwhile,decrease the F

  6. Treatment of Sleep Deprivation-induced Circadian Rhythm Disorder by Applying Garlic Cream on Acupoint Shenque(CV 8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dong; SHI Na; ZHU Chong-tian; HUANG Yong; ZHU Zhong-chun

    2007-01-01

    To observe the regulative effect of applying garlic cream on acupoint Shenque (CV8) on circadian rhythm disorder induced by sleep deprivation.Methods:Twenty healthy adult men were randomly divided into normal group(group A),sleep deprivation group (group B) and treatment group (group C).Subjects in group B and C received 48-hour sleep deprivation,and in the meantime subjects in group C were treated by applying garlic cream on acupoint Shenque(CV8),while subjects in group A received no any treatment,then contents of serum noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were detected.Results:The contents of NA in three groups all appeared typical circadian rhythm(P<0.01 when group A is compared with group C,and P<0.05 when group A is compared with group B).The peak value in group A was 158.377 and appeared at 10:56,peak value in group B was 291.529 and appeared at 19:44,peak value in group C was 255.964 and appeared at 17:06.The peak phase in group B shifted more obviously when compared with group A,and the peak phase in group C recovered slightly when compared with group B.The contents of 5-HT in group A showed typical circadian rhythm (P<0.01) and the circadian rhythms in group B and C disappeared (P>0.05).the peak value in group A was 196.563 and appeared at about13:10.Conclusion:The application of garlic cream on acupoint Shenque (CV8) Can adjust the disturbed circadian rhythm and accelerate the recovery of circadian rhythm.It is a simple and effective therapeutic method for adjusting circadian rhythm disorder.

  7. Micro- and macro-structure of implantation-induced disorder in Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, C J; Byrne, A P; Yu, K M; Foran, G J; Clerc, C; Hansen, J L; Nylandsted-Larsen, A

    2000-01-01

    The structure of ion implantation-induced damage in Ge substrates has been investigated with a combination of ion- and photon-based techniques including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), perturbed angular correlation (PAC) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. For MeV Ge ion implantation at -196 degrees C, the dose dependence of the decrease in local atomic order, determined from EXAFS and PAC, was compared to the number of displaced atoms determined from RBS measurements. An EXAFS determined damage fraction was shown to be a better estimate of amorphous fraction than the number of displaced atoms. PAC was used to elucidate the evolution of defective configurations, and was compared to the RBS and EXAFS results. A fit to the overlap model with the overlap of two ion cascades for complete amorphization best described the experimental results. (16 refs).

  8. Permanent Taste and Smell Disorders Induced by Clarithromycin: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Şengeze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clarithromycin belongs to a group of medications called macrolide antibiotics. Other antibiotics in this group include erythromycin, troleandomycin, roxithromycin, spiramycin and azithromycin. The most common use of antibiotics in this group are mild to moderate infections of skin, soft-tissues, mouth and respiratory tract, caused by gram-positive bacteria. This group of antibiotics are known to have side effects such as nausea, vomiting, heartburn, gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, hives, and other forms of skin rashes, drug-induced fever and anorexia when administered perorally. In this article a case who has permanent loss of smell and taste after the clarithromycin therapy has presented. Drugs that often cause taste and smell dysfunction and mechanisms of action are discussed accompanied by literature.

  9. Modulation of Immune Disorders Induced-Arthritis in γ- Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capability of a laboratory preparation mixture Nano Selenium-lovastatin (Lov-Se) against oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade in irradiated and/or adjuvant arthritic rats. The experimental animals were divided into: adjuvant free groups and adjuvant induced groups. Rats were exposed to whole body γ-radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to total dose of 8 Gy) and received oral administration of 1 ml Lov-Se mixture (≈ 20 mg kg-1 Lov and 0.1 mg kg-1 day-1 Se) for 14 successive days. Animal model of arthritis was organized by subcutaneous injection of complete freund’s adjuvant. The antioxidant parameters (heart GSH-Px, CAT, SOD, XDH, GSH and blood Se), and oxidant markers (heart XO, NO, protein carbonyls and TBARS) and Also, the inflammatory molecules (serum TNF-α, CRP and RF) were determined. In irradiated Lov-Se rats, the results obtained reveals that, TBARS, protein carbonyl, TNF-α, CRP levels, and XO, CAT and SOD activities were significantly ameliorated as compared to irradiated rats. Also, heart GSH, NO levels, XDH, GSH-Px activities and blood Se level were significantly improved. In addition, the administration of Lov-Se to the arthritic and arthritic irradiated rats ameliorates the disturbance occurs in oxidative stress, inflammatory cascades and antioxidant indicators when compared to control rats. In conclusion, the proper administration of Lov-Se mixture might reduce the radiation-induced heart injury via amending the antioxidant molecules and decreasing lipid and protein oxidation. Also, it could be suggested that Lov-Se mixture might posses a considerable anti-inflammatory properties

  10. Minocycline alleviates beta-amyloid protein and tau pathology via restraining neuroinflammation induced by diabetic metabolic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Z

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhiyou Cai,1 Yong Yan,2 Yonglong Wang2 1Department of Neurology, the Lu’an Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Lu’an People’s Hospital, Lu’an, Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Compelling evidence has shown that diabetic metabolic disorder plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, including increased expression of β-amyloid protein (Aβ and tau protein. Evidence has supported that minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, protects against neuroinflammation induced by neurodegenerative disorders or cerebral ischemia. This study has evaluated minocycline influence on expression of Aβ protein, tau phosphorylation, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the brain of diabetic rats to clarify neuroprotection by minocycline under diabetic metabolic disorder. Method: An animal model of diabetes was established by high fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin. In this study, we investigated the effect of minocycline on expression of Aβ protein, tau phosphorylation, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus of diabetic rats via immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: These results showed that minocycline decreased expression of Aβ protein and lowered the phosphorylation of tau protein, and retarded the proinflammatory cytokines, but not amyloid precursor protein. Conclusion: On the basis of the finding that minocycline had no influence on amyloid precursor protein and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 which determines the speed of Aβ generation, the decreases in Aβ production and tau hyperphosphorylation by minocycline are through inhibiting

  11. Protective effect of Wormwood extract on lead induced neurotoxicity and cognitive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharoubi O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a ubiquitous and a potent neurotoxicant causes several neurophysiological and behavioural alterations. Considering the vulnerability of the developing brain to Pb neurotoxicity, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of Pb exposure on brain regions acetylcholinesterase (AchE and monoamino oxidase (MAO enzymes activities and on behavioural changes. Wister rat were exposed to 750 ppm of lead acetate in the drinking water for 11-weeks after weaning, and treated by Artemisia Absinthium L. (wormwood extract (200 mg.kg-1 body weight for 4 weeks. The activities of AchE and MAO were determined in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male rat; and general/ Locomotors activity was evaluated in the open-field test. Results indicated a significant decrease in AchE activity in intoxicated group (Pb compared to untreated group (as contral (hypothalamus: -12%, hippocampus: -57%, cerebral cortex: -18% and striatum: -43% and in MAO activity (hypothalamus: -29%, hippocampus: -41%, cerebral cortex: -28% and striatum: -51% respectively, with decrease crossing test score and increase sniffing test score. After, wormwood extract administration, the activity of AchE and MAO were significantly increased in all brain region compared to Pb group, but were significantly lower than control. The locomotors activity was reduced compared to Pb group. These data suggest that administration of wormwood extract for 4 weeks protect against the lead acetate-induced change in behavioural and neurobiochemical parameters changes.

  12. Role of Bacterial Exopolysaccharides as Agents in Counteracting Immune Disorders Induced by Herpes Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Gugliandolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extreme marine environments, such as the submarine shallow vents of the Eolian Islands (Italy, offer an almost unexplored source of microorganisms producing unexploited and promising biomolecules for pharmaceutical applications. Thermophilic and thermotolerant bacilli isolated from Eolian vents are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs with antiviral and immunomodulatory effects against Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. HSV-2 is responsible for the most common and continuously increasing viral infections in humans. Due to the appearance of resistance to the available treatments, new biomolecules exhibiting different mechanisms of action could provide novel agents for treating viral infections. The EPSs hinder the HSV-2 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC but not in WISH (Wistar Institute Susan Hayflic cells line, indicating that cell-mediated immunity was involved in the antiviral activity. High levels of Th1-type cytokines were detected in PBMC treated with all EPSs, while Th2-type cytokines were not induced. These EPSs are water soluble exopolymers able to stimulate the immune response and thus contribute to the antiviral immune defense, acting as immunomodulators. As stimulants of Th1 cell-mediated immunity, they could lead to the development of novel drugs as alternative in the treatment of herpes virus infections, as well as in immunocompromised host.

  13. Biochemical synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descriptions of the biochemical synthesis of glucose-13C6 from Agmenellum quadruplication; the biochemical labelling of [13C, 15N] Chlorella and [13C] E. coli, [15N] E. coli, and the production of lactic-13C3 acid utilizing Lactobacillus casei are discussed

  14. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ...

  15. Impaired Ethanol-Induced Sensitization and Decreased Cannabinoid Receptor-1 in a Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchynski-Franks, Jessica J.; Susick, Laura L.; Schneider, Brandy L.; Perrine, Shane A.; Conti, Alana C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Impaired striatal neuroplasticity may underlie increased alcoholism documented in those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) is sensitive to the effects of ethanol (EtOH) and traumatic stress, and is a critical regulator of striatal plasticity. To investigate CB1 involvement in the PTSD-alcohol interaction, this study measured the effects of traumatic stress using a model of PTSD, mouse single-prolonged stress (mSPS), on EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization and striatal CB1 levels. Methods Mice were exposed to mSPS, which includes: 2-h restraint, 10-min group forced swim, 15-min exposure to rat bedding odor, and diethyl ether exposure until unconsciousness or control conditions. Seven days following mSPS exposure, the locomotor sensitizing effects of EtOH were assessed. CB1, post-synaptic density-95 (PSD95), and dopamine-2 receptor (D2) protein levels were then quantified in the dorsal striatum using standard immunoblotting techniques. Results Mice exposed to mSPS-EtOH demonstrated impaired EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization compared to Control-EtOH mice, which was accompanied by reduced striatal CB1 levels. EtOH increased striatal PSD95 in control and mSPS-exposed mice. Additionally, mSPS-Saline exposure increased striatal PSD95 and decreased D2 protein expression, with mSPS-EtOH exposure alleviating these changes. Conclusions These data indicate that the mSPS model of PTSD blunts the behavioral sensitizing effects of EtOH, a response that suggests impaired striatal neuroplasticity. Additionally, this study demonstrates that mice exposed to mSPS and repeated EtOH exposure decreases CB1 in the striatum, providing a mechanism of interest for understanding the effects of EtOH following severe, multimodal stress exposure. PMID:27186643

  16. Egg white hydrolysate promotes neuroprotection for neuropathic disorders induced by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Fernandez, Francisca; Moreno, Silvia; Uranga Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vera, Gema; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the egg white hydrolysate (EWH) acts on the neuropathic disorders associated with long-term Mercury (Hg) exposure in rats. 8- week-old male Wistar rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Control - saline solution (i.m.); b) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day, i.m.); c) Hydrolysate - EWH (1g/kg/day, gavage); d) Mercury and Hydrolysate. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey Hairs test; heat hyperalgesia by the plantar test; catalepsy by a modification of the "ring test" and spontaneous locomotor activity by a photocell activity chambers. Analyses were performed at 0, 30 and 60 days of treatment. Brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α determination and skin immunohistochemistry were performed at 60 days. Hg induced a reduction in mechanical sensitivity threshold at 30 and 60 days and in thermal sensitivity threshold at 60 days. At the end of treatment catalepsy was developed, but there was not significant alteration in spontaneous locomotor activity. Hg also increased brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α levels and the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. EWH prevented the development of mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and catalepsy induced by Hg and the increase in MDA concentration in brain and plasma and in the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. In conclusion, EWH promotes neuroprotection against the toxic effects caused by Hg, demonstrating a beneficial therapeutic potential. PMID:27350078

  17. Effects of Wuling capsule on learning and memory disorder induced by post-stroke depression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-chun LI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effects of Wuling capsule on learning and memory disorder induced by post-troke depression(PSD in rats,and examine the relationship between the changes in cognitive function and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF in hippocampus.Methods Forty male adult SD rats were randomly divided into four groups(10 each: untreated control group,model group,escitalopram treatment group and Wuling treatment group.All rats,except those in the untreated control group,underwent a paradigm of 3-week consecutive chronic unpredictable mild stress(CMS followed by selective right middle cerebral artery embolism to induce PSD.The sucrose preference was introduced to evaluate the level of depression and the spatial learning,and memory functions were detected using Morris water maze test.The expression of BDNF was analyzed by Western blotting.Results The cognitive function and hippocampal BDNF expression were significantly lower in model rats than in the untreated control group and the two treatment groups(P < 0.05.When escitalopram was administered once daily to the model rats at a dose of 0.2mg/(kg·d for 21 days along with the procedure of CMS,the depressed behavior was improved with BDNF protein expression rose from 0.41±0.07 to 0.86±0.09.Similar effects were found after treatment with Wuling capsule [100mg/(kg·d],except that the lower BDNF expression was not changed.Conclusion Wuling capsule can improve the learning and memory function in PSD rats,bat this effect is not related to the changes in BDNF expression in hippocampus.

  18. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  19. Sucralose Induces Biochemical Responses in Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The intense artificial sweetener sucralose has no bioconcentration properties, and no adverse acute toxic effects have been observed in standard ecotoxicity tests, suggesting negligible environmental risk. However, significant feeding and behavioural alterations have been reported in non-standard tests using aquatic crustaceans, indicating possible sublethal effects. We hypothesized that these effects are related to alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative status in the expose...

  20. The mechanically induced structural disorder in barium hexaferrite, BaFe12O19, and its impact on magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Šepelák, V; Witte, R; Röder, J; Menzel, D; Schuster, R H; Hahn, H; Heitjans, P; Becker, K-D

    2014-01-01

    The response of the structure of the M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) to mechanical action through high-energy milling and its impact on the magnetic behaviour of the ferrite are investigated. Due to the ability of the Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopic technique to probe the environment of the Fe nuclei, a valuable insight on a local atomic scale into the mechanically induced changes in the hexagonal structure of the material is obtained. It is revealed that the milling of BaFe12O19 results in the deformation of its constituent polyhedra (FeO6 octahedra, FeO4 tetrahedra and FeO5 triangular bi-pyramids) as well as in the mechanically triggered transition of the Fe3+ cations from the regular 12k octahedral sites into the interstitial positions provided by the magnetoplumbite structure. The response of the hexaferrite to the mechanical treatment is found to be accompanied by the formation of a non-uniform nanostructure consisting of an ordered crystallite surrounded/separated by a structurally disordered surfac...

  1. Oxide-cladding aluminum nitride photonic crystal slab: Design and investigation of material dispersion and fabrication induced disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic crystal slabs with a lower-index material surrounding the core layer are an attractive choice to circumvent the drawbacks in the fabrication of membranes suspended in air. In this work we propose a photonic crystal (PhC) slab structure composed of a triangular pattern of air holes in a multilayer thin film of aluminum nitride embedded in silicon dioxide layers designed for operating around 450 nm wavelengths. We show the design of an ideal structure and analyze the effects of material dispersion based on a first-order correction perturbation theory approach using dielectric functions obtained by experimental measurements of the thin film materials. Numerical methods were used to investigate the effects of fabrication induced disorder of typical nanofabrication processes on the bandgap size and spectral response of the proposed device. Deviation in holes radii and positions were introduced in the proposed PhC slab model with a Gaussian distribution profile. Impacts of slope in holes sidewalls that might result from the dry etching of AlN were also evaluated. The results show that for operation at the midgap frequency, slope in holes sidewalls is more critical than displacements in holes sizes and positions

  2. Oxide-cladding aluminum nitride photonic crystal slab: Design and investigation of material dispersion and fabrication induced disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, E. G., E-mail: emerdemelo@usp.br; Alvarado, M. A.; Carreño, M. N. P.; Alayo, M. I. [Electronic Systems Engineering Department, University of São Paulo, CEP 05508-010 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, D. O. [UNESP - São Paulo State University, CEP 13874-149 São João da Boa Vista, SP (Brazil); Ferlauto, A. S. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-01-14

    Photonic crystal slabs with a lower-index material surrounding the core layer are an attractive choice to circumvent the drawbacks in the fabrication of membranes suspended in air. In this work we propose a photonic crystal (PhC) slab structure composed of a triangular pattern of air holes in a multilayer thin film of aluminum nitride embedded in silicon dioxide layers designed for operating around 450 nm wavelengths. We show the design of an ideal structure and analyze the effects of material dispersion based on a first-order correction perturbation theory approach using dielectric functions obtained by experimental measurements of the thin film materials. Numerical methods were used to investigate the effects of fabrication induced disorder of typical nanofabrication processes on the bandgap size and spectral response of the proposed device. Deviation in holes radii and positions were introduced in the proposed PhC slab model with a Gaussian distribution profile. Impacts of slope in holes sidewalls that might result from the dry etching of AlN were also evaluated. The results show that for operation at the midgap frequency, slope in holes sidewalls is more critical than displacements in holes sizes and positions.

  3. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase-deficient mice are protected from high-fat/high-cholesterol diet-induced metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Jessica M; Boehme, Shannon; Li, Feng; Chiang, John Y L

    2016-07-01

    Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. In addition to absorption and digestion of nutrients, bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis. We have backcrossed Cyp7a1(-/-) mice in a mixed B6/129Sv genetic background to C57BL/6J mice to generate Cyp7a1(-/-) mice in a near-pure C57BL/6J background. These mice survive well and have normal growth and a bile acid pool size ∼60% of WT mice. The expression of the genes in the alternative bile acid synthesis pathway are upregulated, resulting in a more hydrophilic bile acid composition with reduced cholic acid (CA). Surprisingly, Cyp7a1(-/-) mice have improved glucose sensitivity with reduced liver triglycerides and fecal bile acid excretion, but increased fecal fatty acid excretion and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) when fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Supplementing chow and Western diets with CA restored bile acid composition, reversed the glucose tolerant phenotype, and reduced the RER. Our current study points to a critical role of bile acid composition, rather than bile acid pool size, in regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism to improve glucose and insulin tolerance, maintain metabolic homeostasis, and prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. PMID:27146480

  4. Protective effect of ascorbic acid on cyclophosphamide—induced testicular gametogenic and androgenic disorders in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UjjalBaranDas; MousumiMallick

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To study the detrimental effects of cyclophosphamide on the testicular androgenic and gametogenic activities through endocrine inhibiton and/or induction of oxidative stress in male albino rats and to evaluate the protective effect of ascorbic acid.Methods:The testicular△5,3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase(HSD),17β-HSD,peroxidase and catalase activities along with the levels of malondialdehyde(MDA)and conjugated dienes in testicular tissue were measured for the evaluation of testicular oxidative stress.The plasma testosterone(T)level was measured by immunoassay7.Various germ cells at stage VⅡof spermatogenic cycle were quantified from testicular stained sections.Results:Cyclophosphamide treatment results in a significant inhibition in the testicular△5,3β-HSDand17β-HSDactivities,a decrease in plasma T level and a diminution in the coumts of various gern cells,Moreover,this treatment was also associated with a significant inhibition of the peroxidase and catalase activities along with high levels of MDA and conjugated dienes in the testis.All these changes were reversed by ascorbic acid co-administration.Conclusion:Cyclophosphamide treatment at the dosage used caused testicular gametogenic and androgenic disor-ders as well as induced testicular oxidative stress that can be reversed by ascorbic acid co-administration.

  5. Biochemical Mechanism of Resistance against Soybean Cyst Nematode Induced by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Soybean%根际促生菌诱导大豆抗大豆胞囊线虫的生化机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉玺; 张禹; 朱晓峰; 刘大伟; 李颂; 陈立杰; 王媛媛

    2011-01-01

    为揭示由根际促生细菌[Sneb207(Bacillus megaterium),Sneb482(Bacillus megaterum)]诱导大豆抗大豆胞囊线虫(Heterodera glycines Inhinhe)的生化机理.使用菌株Sneb207、Sneb482发酵液包衣处理大豆种子,在豆苗三叶期时接种大豆胞囊线虫卵悬液,分别于接种后6、12、18、24、30 d取样,测定大豆根内防御酶系活性(PAL,PP0,POD)、总酚含量和几丁质酶活性的动态变化.结果表明:大豆种子经Sneb207、Sneb482发酵液处理后,根内PAL、PP0、POD活性较对照均表现上升趋势,总酚含量也有所提高.与菌株SneB482相比,菌株Sneb207表现出对大豆胞囊线虫病更好的诱导抗病潜力.%It has been a new research focus on biological control that the induction of disease resistance and growth response in plants is elicited by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR). This study aimed to examine the biochemical mechanism of the resistance to soybean cyst nematode ( Heterodera glycines Ichinohe ) in soybean induced by PGPR [ Sneb207 ( Bacillus megaterium) and Sneb482 (Bacillus megaterium) ]. Seed bacterization with Sneb207 and Sneb482 were utilized in the experiment. The soybean plants were inoculated with eggs of soybean cyst nematode after soybean trefoil stage and the samples of roots were obtained 6,12,18,24 and 30 days later. Activities of plant resistance correlated enzymes including defense enzymes, namely phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and chitinase were measured, the content of total phenolics was also determined. The results showed that both the activities of PAL, PPO, POD,chitinase and the contents of total phenolics could be increased significantly by seed coating with fermentation liquid of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Sneb207, Sneb482) in the soybean roots than those in control. Sneb207 showed greater potential in induced resistance against soybean cyst nematode in the soybean plants than Sneb482.

  6. EVALUATING BIOCHEMICAL INTERNET RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Many people fail to properly evaluate INTERNET information. This is often due to alack of understanding of the issues, by responsible authorities, and, morespecifically, a lack of understanding of the structure and modis operandi of theINTERNET tool. The aim of this project was to analyze biochemical issuesavailable in WEB pages, evaluating contents quality, coverage, accuracy, authorityand currency. Twenty three sites were analyzed for their contents, presence ofbibliographical references, authorship, titles responsibility and adequacy to targetpublic. The great majority (95% did not mention bibliographic references andtarget public. Less than half divulged names and/or graduation status ofresponsibles. Some sites contained critical conceptual errors, such as: oxygen isessential for anaerobic respiration; presence of H2O in photosynthesis dark phase;yeast is a pluricellular fungal; the overall equation of photosynthesis with errors;NADH2 instead NAD+; etc. None of the analyzed sites was thus consideredexcellent. Although the use of the internet is expanding rapidly on collegecampuses, little is known about students usage; how they perceive the reality ofinternet information and how successful they are in searching through it. Our datastrenghthen the need for rigorous evaluation concerning to educational research ofbiochemical themes on the WEB.

  7. Cue-induced Behavioral and Neural Changes among Excessive Internet Gamers and Possible Application of Cue Exposure Therapy to Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Hou, Juan; Chen, Jiawen; Yang, Li Zhuang; Wang, Ying; Han, Long; Bu, Junjie; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) may lead to many negative consequences in everyday life, yet there is currently no effective treatment for IGD. Cue-reactivity paradigm is commonly used to evaluate craving for substance, food, and gambling; cue exposure therapy (CET) is applied to treating substance use disorders (SUDs) and some other psychological disorders such as pathological gambling (PG). However, no study has explored CET's application to the treatment of IGD except two articles having implied that cues' exposure may have therapeutic effect on IGD. This paper reviews studies on cue-induced behavioral and neural changes in excessive Internet gamers, indicating that behavioral and neural mechanisms of IGD mostly overlap with those of SUD. The CET's effects in the treatment of SUDs and PG are also reviewed. We finally propose an optimized CET paradigm, which future studies should consider and investigate as a probable treatment of IGD. PMID:27242589

  8. Cue-induced Behavioral and Neural Changes among Excessive Internet Gamers and Possible Application of Cue Exposure Therapy to Internet Gaming Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Hou, Juan; Chen, Jiawen; Yang, Li zhuang; Wang, Ying; Han, Long; Bu, Junjie; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) may lead to many negative consequences in everyday life, yet there is currently no effective treatment for IGD. Cue-reactivity paradigm is commonly used to evaluate craving for substance, food, and gambling; cue exposure therapy (CET) is applied to treating substance use disorders (SUDs) and some other psychological disorders such as pathological gambling (PG). However, no study has explored CET’s application to the treatment of IGD except two articles having implied that cues’ exposure may have therapeutic effect on IGD. This paper reviews studies on cue-induced behavioral and neural changes in excessive Internet gamers, indicating that behavioral and neural mechanisms of IGD mostly overlap with those of SUD. The CET’s effects in the treatment of SUDs and PG are also reviewed. We finally propose an optimized CET paradigm, which future studies should consider and investigate as a probable treatment of IGD.

  9. Electron-beam induced disorder effects in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornik, I.; Berger, H.; Pavuna, D.; Margaritondo, G.; Forro, L.; Grioni, M.; Rullier-Albenque, F.; Onellion, M.; EPFL Collaboration; Laboratoire Des Solides Irradiés Collaboration

    2000-03-01

    We report on the effects of electron-beam induced disorder in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples, measured with angle-resolved photoemission. In the superconducting state, the disorder fills in the gap, without changing the binding energy or the width of the narrow coherent feature.[1] In the normal state, disorder leads to an anisotropic pseudogap in angle-resolved photoemission, with the largest pseudogap near the (0,p) point and no pseudogap in the direction.[2,3] We discuss implications of these data. 1. I. Vobornik et.al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 , 3128 (1999). 2. I. Vobornik, Ph.D. thesis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, October, 1999. 3. I. Vobornik et.al., unpublished.

  10. Cue-induced Behavioral and Neural Changes among Excessive Internet Gamers and Possible Application of Cue Exposure Therapy to Internet Gaming Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder (IGD may lead to many negative consequences in everyday life, yet there is currently no effective treatment for IGD. Cue-reactivity paradigm is commonly used to evaluate craving for substance, food, and gambling; cue exposure therapy (CET is applied to treating substance use disorders (SUDs and some other psychological disorders such as pathological gambling (PG. However, no study has explored CET’s application to the treatment of IGD except two articles having implied that cues’ exposure may have therapeutic effect on IGD. This paper reviews studies on cue-induced behavioral and neural changes in excessive Internet gamers, indicating that behavioral and neural mechanisms of IGD mostly overlap with those of SUD. The CET’s effects in the treatment of SUDs and PG are also reviewed. We finally propose an optimized CET paradigm, which future studies should consider and investigate as a probable treatment of IGD.

  11. A novel biochemically salvageable animal model of hyperammonemia devoid of N-acetylglutamate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Emilee; Cabrera-Luque, Juan; Morizono, Hiroki; Caldovic, Ljubica; Tuchman, Mendel

    2012-06-01

    All knockout mouse models of urea cycle disorders die in the neonatal period or shortly thereafter. Since N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency in humans can be effectively treated with N-carbamyl-l-glutamate (NCG), we sought to develop a mouse model of this disorder that could be rescued by biochemical intervention, reared to adulthood, reproduce, and become a novel animal model for hyperammonemia. Founder NAGS knockout heterozygous mice were obtained from the trans-NIH Knock-Out Mouse Project. Genotyping of the mice was performed by PCR and confirmed by Western blotting of liver and intestine. NCG and L-citrulline (Cit) were used to rescue the NAGS knockout homozygous (Nags(-/-)) pups and the rescued animals were characterized. We observed an 85% survival rate of Nags(-/-) mice when they were given intraperitoneal injections with NCG and Cit during the newborn period until weaning and supplemented subsequently with both compounds in their drinking water. This regimen has allowed for normal development, apparent health, and reproduction. Interruption of this rescue intervention resulted in the development of severe hyperammonemia and death within 48 h. In addition to hyperammonemia, interruption of rescue supplementation was associated with elevated plasma glutamine, glutamate, and lysine, and reduced citrulline, arginine, ornithine and proline levels. We conclude that NAGS deprived mouse model has been developed which can be rescued by NCG and Cit and reared to reproduction and beyond. This biochemically salvageable mouse model recapitulates the clinical phenotype of proximal urea cycle disorders and can be used as a reliable model of induced hyperammonemia by manipulating the administration of the rescue compounds. PMID:22503289

  12. Majorana modes in InSb nanowires (I): zero bias peaks in hybrid devices with low-disorder and hard induced superconducting gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ö.; Zhang, H.; de Moor, M. W. A.; de Vries, F.; van Veen, J.; van Woerkom, D. J.; Zuo, K.; Mourik, V.; Cassidy, M.; Geresdi, A.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Goswami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.

    Majorana modes in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire devices can be probed via tunnelling spectroscopy which shows a zero bias peak (ZBP) in differential conductance (1). However, alternative mechanisms such as disorder or formation of quantum dots can also give rise to ZBPs, and obscure experimental studies of Majoranas. Further, a soft induced superconducting gap commonly observed in experiments presents an outstanding challenge for the demonstration of their topological protection. In this talk we show that with device improvements, we reach low-disorder transport regime with clear quantized conductance plateaus and Andreev enhancement approaching the theoretical limit. Tunnelling spectroscopy shows a hard induced superconducting gap and no formation of quantum dots. Together with extremely stable ZBPs observed in large gate voltage and magnetic field ranges, we exclude various alternative theories besides the formation of localized Majorana modes for our observations.

  13. Possible effect of norepinephrine transporter polymorphisms on methylphenidate-induced changes in neuropsychological function in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Subin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of noradrenergic system may play important roles in pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. We examined the relationship between polymorphisms in the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 gene and attentional performance before and after medication in children with ADHD. Methods Fifty-three medication-naïve children with ADHD were genotyped and evaluated using the continuous performance test (CPT. After 8-weeks of methylphenidate treatment, these children were evaluated by CPT again. We compared the baseline CPT measures and the post-treatment changes in the CPT measures based on the G1287A and the A-3081T polymorphisms of SLC6A2. Results There was no significant difference in the baseline CPT measures associated with the G1287A or A-3081T polymorphisms. After medication, however, ADHD subjects with the G/G genotype at the G1287A polymorphism showed a greater decrease in the mean omission error scores (p = 0.006 than subjects with the G/A or A/A genotypes, and subjects with the T allele at the A-3081T polymorphism (T/T or A/T showed a greater decrease in the mean commission error scores (p = 0.003 than those with the A/A genotypes. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for the possible role of the G1287A and A-3081T genotypes of SLC6A2 in methylphenidate-induced improvement in attentional performance and support the noradrenergic hypothesis for the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  14. Modulation of antioxidant and phosphatase enzymes by beta-carotene against gamma radiation induced testicular disorders in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of β-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after β-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with β-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated that β-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that β-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats

  15. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  16. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena;

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  17. Increased expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haybaeck J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Haybaeck,1 Magdalena Postruznik,1 Christine L Miller,2 Jeannette R Dulay,3 Ida C Llenos,3,4 Serge Weis3,4 1Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria; 2Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 3Laboratory of Brain Research and Neuropathology, Departments of Psychiatry and Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Laboratory of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, State Neuropsychiatric Hospital Wagner-Jauregg, Medical School, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria Background: Retinoids regulate gene expression in different cells and tissues at the transcriptional level. Retinoic acid transcriptionally regulates downstream regulatory molecules, including enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines, and cytokine receptors. Animal models indicate an involvement of retinoid signaling pathways in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and learning, especially in the hippocampus. Retinoic acid-inducible or induced gene 1 (RAI-1 is induced during neuronal differentiation, and was associated with the severity of the phenotype and response to medication in schizophrenic patients. Methods: In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of RAI-1 in 60 brains from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium (15 cases each from controls and from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Rating scores for density and intensity were determined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Results: All four groups showed high interindividual variation. RAI-1-positive cells were identified as neurons and astrocytes. Significantly increased intensities in cortical neurons were noted in all three major psychiatric groups compared with controls. The density of RAI-1-positive neurons was increased (P=0.06 in schizophrenia and bipolar

  18. Depression and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  19. Report: Human biochemical genetics: an insight into inborn errors of metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chunli; SCOTT C. Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) include a broad spectrum of defects of various gene products that affect intermediary metabolism in the body. Studying the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of those inherited disorder, systematically summarizing the disease phenotype and natural history, providing diagnostic rationale and methodology and treatment strategy comprise the context of human biochemical genetics. This session focused on: (1) manifestations of representative metabolic disorders; (2) the emergent technology and application of newborn screening of metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry; (3) principles of managing IEM; (4) the concept of carrier testing aiming prevention. Early detection of patients with IEM allows early intervention and more options for treatment.

  20. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games