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Sample records for biocatalytic desulfurization project

  1. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  2. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  3. Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs

  4. Biocatalytic desulfurization of diesel oil in an air-lift reactor with immobilized Gordonia nitida CYKS1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Su; Bae, Hee-Sung; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Chang, Yong Keun

    2005-01-01

    A new type of air-lift reactor with immobilized Gordonia nitida CYKS1 cells on a fibrous support was designed and used for the biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) of diesel oil. Its performance was evaluated at different phase ratios of the oil to the aqueous medium (or oil phase fractions) and different sucrose concentrations. When the reaction mixture contained 10% diesel oil (v/v), 61-67% of sulfur was removed as the sulfur content decreased from 202-250 to 76-90 mg L(-1) in 72 h. The sulfur content did not decrease any further because the remaining sulfur compounds were recalcitrant to BDS. During the desulfurization, the strain CYKS1 consumed hydrocarbons in the diesel oil, mainly n-alkanes with 10-26 carbons, as carbon source even though an easily available carbon source, sucrose, was supplied. PMID:15932256

  5. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemi......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase...... and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...

  6. Biocatalytic conversion of epoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Erik; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Epoxides are attractive intermediates for producing chiral compounds. Important biocatalytic reactions involving epoxides include epoxide hydrolase mediated kinetic resolution, leading to the formation of diols and enantiopure remaining substrates, and enantioconvergent enzymatic hydrolysis, which g

  7. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  8. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  9. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  10. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production:A Thermodynamic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Güzel, Günduz

    2012-01-01

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biod...

  11. Biocatalytic portfolio of Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Basidiomycota fungi have received little attention for applications in biocatalysis and biotechnology and remain greatly understudied despite their importance for carbon recycling, ecosystem functioning and medicinal properties. The steady influx of genome data has facilitated detailed studies aimed at understanding the evolution and function of fungal lignocellulose degradation. These studies and recent explorations into the secondary metabolomes have uncovered large portfolios of enzymes useful for biocatalysis and biosynthesis. This review will provide an overview of the biocatalytic repertoires of Basidiomycota characterized to date with the hope of motivation more research into the chemical toolkits of this diverse group of fungi. PMID:26812494

  12. Oxidase-based biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Hemalata; Woodley, John; Krühne, Ulrich

    Biocatalytic processes are gaining significant focus in frontiers where they offer unique advantages(selectivity and mild operating conditions) over chemical catalysts. It is therefore not surprising that therehave been many industrial biocatalytic processes implemented.Despite past successes, the...... implementation of a new biocatalytic process still presents some challenges (demands placed on the biocatalyst) in terms of the requirements to make a viable industrial process. Inorder for a biocatalytic process to be economically successful, it is necessary that certain a set of targetmetrics (product titre...... reaction species (substrate and product volatility for example) and the process (such as oxygen supply, ability to control pH) and are classified as reaction-related and process-related constraintsrespectively. Although the development of biocatalyst and process engineering tools offers a number...

  13. Pushing Forward Industrialization of Thermal Power Desulfuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces present state of industrialization development in flue gas desulfuration, including technological selection, state of design and contracting capability, localization of equipment, etc. in China. It points out main problems currently existed and presents proposals on promotion of desulfuration technology with selfowned intellectual property right, perfection of demonstrative projects and pushing forward localization of desulfuration equipment.

  14. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  15. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  16. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Model visualization for evaluation of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, HEM; Lewis, DJ; McRobbie, I;

    2008-01-01

    Biocatalysis offers great potential as an additional, and in some cases as an alternative, synthetic tool for organic chemists, especially as a route to introduce chirality. However, the implementation of scalable biocatalytic processes nearly always requires the introduction of process and....../or biocatalyst enhancements to ensure effective scale-up. This paper describes a paradigm for the purpose of evaluating biocatalytic processes in order to provide guidance on process and biocatalyst modification. The paradigm is illustrated with the biocatalytic synthesis of S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (S......,S-EDDS), a biodegradable chelant, and is characterised by the use of model visualization using `windows of operation"....

  18. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report number 17, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas. To demonstrate the technical viability of the LIFAC process to economically reduce sulfur emissions from the Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, LIFAC NA is conducting a three-phase project: design; long lead procurement and construction; and operations. Reporting efforts and data analysis were the main focus of the project team during this reporting period. The LIFAC system has been purged and preserved and the process was not operated during the Quarter. However, results from earlier testing were received and are contained in this report.

  19. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 10, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. in comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide -- 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: Relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO{sub 2} removed basis are less; produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and is relatively simple to operate. The site for the LIFAC demonstration is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley 2 pulverized coal-fired power station (60 MW), located in Richmond, Indiana.

  20. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO(sub 2) emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO(sub 2) removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge

  1. Biocatalytic process development using microfluidic miniaturized systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in biocatalytic processes means there is a clear need for a new systematic development paradigm which encompasses both protein engineering and process engineering. This paper argues that through the use of a new microfluidic platform, data can be collected more rapidly and...

  2. Improving Enzyme Activity and Broadening Selectivity for Biological Desulfurization and Upgrading of Petroleum Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijeet P. Borole; Choo Y. Hamilton; Karen Miller; Brian Davison; Matthew Grossman; Robert Shong

    2003-05-12

    The objective of this project was to develop improved biocatalysts for desulfurization and upgrading of petroleum feedstocks. The goal was to improve the activity and broaden the selectivity of desulfurization enzymes using directed evolution as a tool as well as to explore the impact of ring-opening on biological desulfurization

  3. Demonstration of desulfurization technology for high-sulfur coal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese project to demonstrate desulfurization technology for high-sulfur coal firing in China, is presented; two types of flue gas desulfurization systems have been installed and operated in two coal-fired thermal power stations: spray dryer type and simplified wet limestone-gypsum type were selected. Desulfurization efficiency, economic, operator training and promotion issues are discussed. 2 tabs

  4. Desulfurization of fluid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for desulfurizing fluid materials, comprising reacting sulfur to be removed with a rare earth compound, thereby forming rare earth sulfides, oxysulfides or mixtures thereof. The reaction is conducted under conditions of low oxygen potential. Rare earth sulfides and oxysulfides can be reacted with oxygen to restore a capacity for desulfurization

  5. Efficient Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Jiang; Ma, Bao-Di; Xu, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Chiral chemicals are a group of important chiral synthons for the synthesis of a series of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fine chemicals. In past decades, a number of biocatalytic approaches have been developed for the green and effective synthesis of various chiral chemicals. However, the practical application of these biocatalytic processes is still hindered by the lack of highly efficient and robust biocatalysts, which usually results in the low volumetric productivity and high cost of the bioprocesses. Further step forward of biocatalysis in industrial application strongly requires the development of versatile and highly efficient biocatalysts, aiming to increase the process efficiency and facilitate the downstream processing. Recently, the fast growth of genome sequences in the database in post-genomic era offers great opportunities for accessing numerous biocatalysts with practical application potential, and the so-called genome mining approach provides time-effective and highly specific strategy for the fast identification of target enzymes with desired properties and outperforms the traditional screening of soil samples for microbial enzyme producers of interest. A number of biocatalytic processes with industrial application potential were developed thereafter. Further development of protein engineering strategies, process optimization, and cooperative work between biologists, organic chemists, and engineers is expected to make biocatalysis technology the first choice approach for the eco-friendly, highly efficient, and cost-effective synthesis of chiral chemicals in the near future. PMID:25537446

  6. Crude oil desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  7. Operating Sulfiban desulfurization equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Sekikawa, N.; Matsumura, S.; Tawara, T.

    1982-01-01

    A report on the equipment referred to in the title, which has been operating smoothly during the two years since its construction at the Keihin Iron Works. The flowsheet of the Sulfiban process is outlined, with explanations of the design conditions, equipment characteristics, and operational record. Coke oven gas is brought into contact with a 15% solution of monoethanolamine in the desulfurization tower and the contained H/sub 2/S, HCN and some of the CO/sub 2/ is removed by absorption. The equipment maintains a high desulfurization percentage of over 97%. Corrosion control of the equipment is touched upon.

  8. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  9. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  10. A methodology for development of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana

    , is also the source of the greatest opportunities. Indeed, recombinant DNA technology offers a superb complement to process technologies. Potentially this is one of the biggest advantages of biocatalysis when compared with conventional chemical catalysis, where all the reaction boundaries are fixed...... and their relationship with the overall process is not clear.The work described in this thesis presents a methodological approach for early stage development of biocatalytic processes, understanding and dealing with the reaction, biocatalyst and process constraints. When applied, this methodology has a decisive role...... tools, the number of options can be much reduced and the current process bottlenecks identified. By applying a priori this methodology, the Laboratory experts are better able to understand the most favourable operating conditions at fullscale and thus be able to collect information at these relevant...

  11. Biocatalytic Self-Cleaning Polymer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Schulze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer membrane surfaces have been equipped with the digestive enzyme trypsin. Enzyme immobilization was performed by electron beam irradiation in aqueous media within a one-step method. Using this method, trypsin was covalently and side-unspecific attached to the membrane surface. Thus, the use of preceding polymer functionalization and the use of toxic solvents or reagents can be avoided. The resulting membranes showed significantly improved antifouling properties as demonstrated by repeated filtration of protein solutions. Furthermore, the biocatalytic membrane can be simply “switched on” to actively degrade a fouling layer on the membrane surface and regain the initial permeability. The membrane pore structure (pore size and porosity was neither damaged by the electron beam treatment nor blocked by the enzyme loading, ensuring a stable membrane performance.

  12. Biocatalytic Pathway Selection in Transient Tripeptide Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Charalampos G; Sasselli, Ivan R; Ulijn, Rein V

    2015-07-01

    Structural adaption in living systems is achieved by competing catalytic pathways that drive assembly and disassembly of molecular components under the influence of chemical fuels. We report on a simple mimic of such a system that displays transient, sequence-dependent formation of supramolecular nanostructures based on biocatalytic formation and hydrolysis of self-assembling tripeptides. The systems are catalyzed by α-chymotrypsin and driven by hydrolysis of dipeptide aspartyl-phenylalanine-methyl ester (the sweetener aspartame, DF-OMe). We observed switch-like pathway selection, with the kinetics and consequent lifetime of transient nanostructures controlled by the peptide sequence. In direct competition, kinetic (rather than thermodynamic) component selection is observed. PMID:26014441

  13. Biocatalytic Desulfurization Capabilities of a Mixed Culture during Non-Destructive Utilization of Recalcitrant Organosulfur Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; El-Sayed, Wael S.; Abdul Raheem, Abdul Salam; Mohamed, Magdy E.; El Nayal, Ashraf M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biodesulfurization potential of a mixed culture AK6 enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons-polluted soil with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur source. In addition to DBT, AK6 utilized the following compounds as sulfur sources: 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT), benzothiophene (BT), and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT). None of these compounds supported the growth of AK6 as the sole carbon and sulfur source. AK6 could not grow on dibenzylsulfide (DBS) as a sulfur source. The AK6 community structure changed according to the provided sulfur source. The major DGGE bands represented members of the genera Sphingobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, and Rhodococcus. Sphingobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant across all cultures utilizing any of the tested thiophenic S-compounds. Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus spp. were restricted to the 4-MDBT culture. The 4-MDBT culture had the highest species richness and diversity. Biodesulfurization of DBT by resting cells of AK6 produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in addition to trace amounts of phenylacetate. AK6 transformed DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl with a specific activity of 9 ± 0.6 μM 2-HBP g dry cell weight−1 h−1. PCR confirmed the presence in the AK6 community of the sulfur-specific (4S) pathway genes dszB and dszC. Mixed cultures hold a better potential than axenic ones for the development of a biodesulfurization technology. PMID:26973637

  14. Biocatalytic desulfurization capabilities of a mixed culture during non-destructive utilization of recalcitrant organosulfur compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael eIsmail

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biodesulfurization potential of a mixed culture AK6 enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons-polluted soil with dibenzothiophene (DBT as a sulfur source. In addition to DBT, AK6 utilized the following compounds as sulfur sources: 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT, benzothiophene (BT, and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT. None of these compounds supported the growth of AK6 as the sole carbon and sulfur source. AK6 could not grow on dibenzylsulfide (DBS as a sulfur source. The AK6 community structure changed according to the provided sulfur source. The major DGGE bands represented members of the genera Sphingobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus. Sphingobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant across all cultures utilizing any of the tested thiophenic S-compounds. Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus spp. were restricted to the 4-MDBT culture. The 4-MDBT culture had the highest species richness and diversity. Biodesulfurization of DBT by resting cells of AK6 produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP in addition to trace amounts of phenylacetate. AK6 transformed DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl with a specific activity of 9 ± 0.6 µM 2-HBP g dry cell weight-1 h-1. PCR confirmed the presence in the AK6 community of the sulfur-specific (4S pathway genes dszB and dszC. Mixed cultures hold a better potential than axenic ones for the development of a biodesulfurization technology.

  15. Biocatalytic Desulfurization Capabilities of a Mixed Culture during Non-Destructive Utilization of Recalcitrant Organosulfur Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; El-Sayed, Wael S; Abdul Raheem, Abdul Salam; Mohamed, Magdy E; El Nayal, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biodesulfurization potential of a mixed culture AK6 enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons-polluted soil with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur source. In addition to DBT, AK6 utilized the following compounds as sulfur sources: 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT), benzothiophene (BT), and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT). None of these compounds supported the growth of AK6 as the sole carbon and sulfur source. AK6 could not grow on dibenzylsulfide (DBS) as a sulfur source. The AK6 community structure changed according to the provided sulfur source. The major DGGE bands represented members of the genera Sphingobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, and Rhodococcus. Sphingobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant across all cultures utilizing any of the tested thiophenic S-compounds. Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus spp. were restricted to the 4-MDBT culture. The 4-MDBT culture had the highest species richness and diversity. Biodesulfurization of DBT by resting cells of AK6 produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in addition to trace amounts of phenylacetate. AK6 transformed DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl with a specific activity of 9 ± 0.6 μM 2-HBP g dry cell weight(-1) h(-1). PCR confirmed the presence in the AK6 community of the sulfur-specific (4S) pathway genes dszB and dszC. Mixed cultures hold a better potential than axenic ones for the development of a biodesulfurization technology. PMID:26973637

  16. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  17. Fluidized bed desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindram, M.; Kallvinskas, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    High sulfur content carbonaceous material, such as coal is desulfurized by continuous fluidized suspension in a reactor with chlorine gas, inert dechlorinating gas and hydrogen gas. A source of chlorine gas, a source of inert gas and a source of hydrogen gas are connected to the bottom inlet through a manifold and a heater. A flow controler operates servos in a manner to continuously and sequentially suspend coal in the three gases. The sulfur content is reduced at least 50% by the treatment.

  18. Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, G.

    2012-09-15

    In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)

  19. Biocatalytic Separation of N-7/N-9 Guanine Nucleosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sunil K; Sharma, Vivek K; Olsen, Carl Erik;

    2010-01-01

    Vorbrüggen coupling of trimethylsilylated 2-N-isobutanoylguanine with peracetylated pentofuranose derivatives generally gives inseparable N-7/N-9 glycosyl mixtures. We have shown that the two isomers can be separated biocatalytically by Novozyme-435-mediated selective deacetylation of the 5'-O...

  20. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1989-12-14

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds., In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  1. Microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Afferden, M.; Schacht, S.; Beyer, M.; Klein, J.

    1988-01-01

    Concerning the sulfur removal from coal before combustion there is considerable interest in microbial methods as pyrite oxidation and elimination of organically bound sulfur from coal. Using organic sulfur compounds relevant for coal the mechanism of desulfurization was investigated. The authors isolated a defined mixed culture (FODO) able to utilize dibenzothiophene as sole sulfur source for growth, while benzoate was used as carbon source. The mixed culture FODO consists of an Alcaligenes denitrificans subspecies and a Brevibacterium species. Two metabolites of the degradation and dibenzothiophene-5-dioxide. The subsequent degradation of dibenzothiophene-5-dioxide used as sole sulfur source results in a release of sulfate ions into the medium. The results suggest a sulfur specific oxidative mechanism for removal of sulfur from dibenzothiophene.

  2. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-07-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{micro}m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  3. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-(micro)m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system

  4. Biocatalytic membranes for ultrafiltration treatment of wastewater containing dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalova, V.V.; Bryk, M.T.; Nigmatullin, R.R.; Gvozdyak, P.I.; Udilova, O.F. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of ' ' Kyiv-Mohyla Academy' ' , Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2000-12-01

    A possibility to prepare the biofunctional membranes showing the biocatalytic properties and use those in post-treatment of wastewater containing synthetic dyes have been established. Selected Pseudomonas mendocina and Bacillus subtilis cultures were used as biocatalysts for dye destruction. It has been established that cells in spore form are able to survive in N-methylpyrrolidone that allow to use method of polymer solution casting for membrane preparation. The optimal conditions for entrapping of whole cells of microorganisms into the polymer matrix have been determined. Membrane biocatalytic activity has been studied depending on method of casting solution preparation, biocatalyst loading and operating parameters. Dye destruction occurs both in membrane pores and on membrane surface. Membrane obtained provide discolouring of treated solutions (permeate). The dye concentration in retentate depends on the trans-membrane fluxes. The concentration in retentate need not be observed at relatively low fluxes (up to 20 l/m{sup 2} h). (orig.)

  5. Biocatalytic synthesis of highly ordered degradable dextran-based hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Lino; Gil, Maria H.; Cabrita, António M. S.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    We have prepared unique macroporous and ordered dextran-based hydrogels using a single-step biocatalytic transesterification reaction between dextran and divinyladipate in neat dimethylsulfoxide. These hydrogels show a unimodal distribution of interconnected pores with average diameters from 0.4 to 2.0 [mu]m depending on the degree of substitution. In addition, the hydrogels show a higher elastic modulus for a given swelling ratio than chemically synthesized dextran-based hydrogels. In vivo s...

  6. Report on the fiscal 1996 result of the introduction support project of environment-friendly coal utilization systems. Desulfurizing CWM plant; 1996 nendo seika hokokusho kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Datsuryugata CWM setsubi ni kakawaru jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    China is positive to introduce desulfurizing CWM plants among the typical reduction technologies of sulfur oxide emission due to coal combustion. This Japan-China joint project aims at reduction of pollutant emission derived from coal combustion by demonstration of Japanese CWM combustion technology for Chinese existing boilers, and preparation of diffusion bases. The project was promoted at Yanshan petrochemical plant in Peking as a new site. The fiscal 1997 results are as follows: field survey at the site, production of some equipment, receiving of Chinese engineers, and leading of field works. Combustion of material CWM is extremely difficult because of coal concentration as low as 65{+-}1wt% and much volatile matter. The mixture of fuel CWM and pulverized limestone is sprayed into a boiler furnace by burner for water evaporation, coal combustion and limestone burning in a combustion area of the furnace nearly at the same time. S content is fixed through reaction of SO2 and CaO with a decrease in furnace temperature. 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  8. Desulfurization of Jordanian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxy desulfurization process and caustic treatment were applied in this work to remove sulfur from Jordanian oil shale. The oxy desulfurization process has been studied in a batch process using a high pressure autoclave, with constant stirring speed, and oxygen and water were used as desulfurizing reagents. Temperature, oxygen pressure, batch time, and particle size were found to be important process variables, while solid/liquid ratio was found to have no significant effect on the desulfurization process. The response of different types of oil shale to this process varied, and the effect of the process variables on the removal of total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon were studied. An optimum condition for oxy desulfurization of El-Lajjun oil shale, which gave maximum sulfur removal with low loss of carbon, was determined from the results of this work. The continuous reaction model was found to be valid, and the rate of oxidation for El-Lajjun oil shale was of the first order with respect to total sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon. For pyritic sulfur oxidation, the shrinking core model was found to hold and the rate of reaction controlled by diffusion through product ash layer. An activation energy of total sulfur, organic sulfur, pyritic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon oxidation was calculated for the temperature range of 130 -190 degrees celsius. In caustic treatment process, aqueous sodium hydroxide at 160 degrees celsius was used to remove the sulfur from El-Lajjun oil shale. The variables tested (sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time) were found to have a significant effect. The carbon losses in this process were less than in the oxy desulfurization process. 51 refs., 64 figs., 121 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  9. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  10. Formulation and development of a methodology for selecting desulfurization processes, applicable to diluted sulfurous emissions from copper. Preparation of the engineering for a draft project using electron beam process, selected with this methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of clean desulfurization technologies was prepared. Sulfur abatement processes from S O2 gas streams were analyzed in 21 processes grouped into 8 different types. Since there are a large number of potentially applicable processes, this thesis presents a process selection methodology based on a technical/economic analysis series, which produces a ranking by scores. Visual Basic 3.0 software was used to develop the program, which can be installed in any computer and uses Windows 95. Based on these results in Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission decided to present a draft project for electron beam technology. The full design and calculation for the humidifying and cooling tower was prepared together with the design of the remaining equipment for size, in order to estimate probable costs. The pre-feasibility evaluation determined that the process would generate profits, when the selling price of ammonium sulfate - which is a byproduct of the process that is used as fertilizer - is above US$ 110/ton. The process cost is heavily influenced by the capital cost of storage facilities, since a long term supply for ammonia reagent is needed. This product is imported in Chile and it is currently an expensive reagent. (author). 33 app., 7 tabs

  11. Desulfurization chemistry on tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desulfurization on tungsten surfaces was studied by Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and infrared spectroscopy. Aliphatic compounds reacted by electrophilic interaction of sulfur with the surface. On sulfided surfaces adsorption occurred by disulfide linkages, but C-S bond scission required vacant metal sites. Thiophene underwent electrophilic attack on the ring at the α-carbon by metal sites

  12. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  13. Rare earth oxides in gaseous desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase stability diagrams are used to predict the abilities of lanthanum and cerium oxides to desulfurize coal gasification products in the temperature range 800-1000 C. Results of desulfurization studies in laboratory fixed bed reactors illustrate the effects of sorbent preparation, input gas quality and temperature, on the desulfurization reaction: 2CeO(2-x)(s) + H2S(g) + (1-2x)H2 = Ce2O2S(s) + 2(1 - x)H2O(g). The results of desulfurization/oxidation regeneration cycles are also reported

  14. Enzyme-polymer composites with high biocatalytic activity and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungbae; Kosto, Timothy J.; Manimala, Joseph C.; Nauman, E B.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2004-08-22

    We have applied vacuum-spraying and electrospinning to incorporate an enzyme into a polymer matrix, creating a novel and highly active biocatalytic composite. As a unique technical approach, enzymes were co-dissolved in toluene with polymers, and the solvent was then rapidly removed by injecting the mixture into a vacuum chamber or by electrospinning. Subsequent crosslinking of the enzyme with glutaraldehyde resulted in stable entrapped enzyme within the polymeric matrices. For example, an amorphous composite of alpha-chymotrypsin and polyethylene showed no significant loss of enzymatic activity in aqueous buffer for one month. Nanofibers of alpha-chymotrypsin and polystyrene also showed no decrease in activity for more than two weeks. The normalized activity of amorphous composite in organic solvents was 3-13 times higher than that of native alpha-chymotrypsin. The activity of nanofibers was 5-7 times higher than that of amorphous composite in aqueous buffer solution. The composites of alpha-chymotrypsin and polymers demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining a wide variety of active and stable biocatalytic materials with many combinations of enzymes and polymers.

  15. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on simplified desulfurizer introduction (Changshou Chemical Industry Main Works); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kan`i datsuryu setsubi ni kakawaru follow up jigyo) (Changshou kako sohei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the follow-up project, to promote the diffusion of results in the clean coal technology (CCT) model projects, experts of simplified desulfurizers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the CCTs, and to support the promotion of the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. The operation record data are periodically sent from the sites, to analyze the performance. In addition, experts were dispatched to survey the operation conditions of facilities introduced in the model project. Conditions of absorber, mist eliminator, scaling in ducts, and machineries including pumps were inspected by the experts to provide some guidance and advice. The utilization of by-product gypsum was also surveyed by the experts dispatched at the sites. The gypsum samples obtained were analyzed to provide some advice about its utilization. The project in this fiscal year has been successfully progressed, and the situation of demonstration operation is satisfied. 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu; Mustafa Şahin Gülaboğlu

    2013-01-01

    The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue g...

  17. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

    2004-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing and evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the break

  18. Research program for environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Demonstration project of desulfurization CWM plants; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Datsuryugata CWM setsubi ni kakawaru jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    To suppress the emission of environmental pollutants from coal utilization in China and to contribute to stable security of Japan`s energy, demonstration of clean coal technology and consolidation of diffusion base to be introduced into China have been promoted. A desulfurization CWM plant is described. It was planned, designed and constructed at Baiyang-he, Shandong Province from the end of 1995 to the end of 1996. CWM and limestone (desulfurizer) were crushed and mixed, to supply them into a power generation boiler (230 t/h). A ball mill was employed as a pulverizer. A high shear and contra-flow type intense mixer was employed as an agitator. A uniaxial screw pump was used as a slurry pump. Used CWM showed high agglomeration property, resulting in the disadvantaged fluidity. The solid concentration above 65% was difficult for the high concentration limestone mixing and crushing. The final CWM concentration was 65.5%, resulting in the decreased heating value. There were no problems in the desulfurization performance of limestone. Slugging was anticipated due to the drop of softening point of ash. Since residence time of desulfurizer was short, the initial reaction rate was significant. 30 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Multi-step biocatalytic strategies for chiral amino alcohol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Torres, Maria F; Martinez-Torres, R Julio; Cázares-Körner, Armando; Hailes, Helen; Baganz, Frank; Ward, John

    2015-12-01

    Chiral amino alcohols are structural motifs present in sphingolipids, antibiotics, and antiviral glycosidase inhibitors. Their chemical synthesis presents several challenges in establishing at least two chiral centres. Here a de novo metabolic pathway using a transketolase enzyme coupled with a transaminase enzyme has been assembled. To synthesise this motif one of the strategies to obtain high conversions from the transaminase/transketolase cascade is the use of hydroxypyruvate (HPA) as a two-carbon donor for the transketolase reaction; although commercially available it is relatively expensive limiting application of the pathway on an industrial scale. Alternately, HPA can be synthesised but this introduces a further synthetic step. In this study two different biocatalytic strategies were developed for the synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-amino-1,3,4-butanetriol (ABT) without adding HPA into the reaction. Firstly, a sequential cascade of three enzymatic steps (two transaminases and one transketolase) for the synthesis of ABT from serine, pyruvate and glycolaldehyde as substrates. Secondly, a two-step recycling cascade where serine is used as donor to aminate erythrulose (catalysed by a transketolase) for the simultaneous synthesis of ABT and HPA. In order to test the novel pathways, three new transaminases are described, two ω-transaminases able to accept a broad range of amine acceptors with serine as amine donor; and an α-transaminase, which showed high affinity towards serine (KM: 18mM) using pyruvate as amine acceptor. After implementation of the above enzymes in the biocatalytic pathways proposed in this paper, the two-step recycling pathway was found to be the most promising for its integration with E. coli metabolism. It was more efficient (10-fold higher conversion), more sustainable and cost-effective (use of low cost natural substrates and only two enzymes), and the reaction could be performed in a one-pot system. PMID:26453469

  20. A mathematical model of a spray-dryer flue gas desulfurization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, A.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L. [Univ. of Seville (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    At a pilot installed at the Los Barrios Power Plant (Cadiz, Spain), a research project was carried out to study, among other things, the desulfurization of flue gas by means of a spray dryer under different operating conditions. At the same time, and as a tool for evaluating the experimental results and for reaching reliable conclusions, we developed a spray dryer simulation model based on a theoretical approximation to the behaviour of these desulfurization units. This mathematical model was translated into a computer code, creating a computer simulation tool that will allow us to investigate some spray dryer design parameters and their operational conditions.

  1. Oxidative processes of desulfurization of liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Martín, José Miguel; Capel Sánchez, María del Carmen; Pérez Presas, Patricia; García Fierro, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns have introduced a need to remove sulfur-containing compounds from light oil. As oxidative desulfurization is conducted under very mild reaction conditions, much attention has recently been devoted to this process. In this contribution, the developments in selective removal of organosulfur compounds present in liquid fuels via oxidative desulfurization, including both chemical oxidation and biodesulfurization, are reviewed. At the end of each section, a brief ...

  2. IR laser ablative desulfurization of poly (1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durani, S. M. A.; Khawaja, E. E.; Masoudi, H. M.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Galíková, Anna; Pola, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2005), s. 145-149. ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/04/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : poly (1,4-phenylene sulfide) * laser ablation * desulfurization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.265, year: 2005

  3. Feasibility Study of Commercial Sorbent in Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chien, H.-Y.; Chyou, Y.-P.; Svoboda, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 236-242. ISSN 2078-0737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant ostatní: MOST(TW) NSC 103-2923-E-042A-001 -MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gasification * desulfurization * sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. Increasing draft capability for retrofit flue gas desulfurization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrofit installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems results in significantly higher draft losses for existing generating stations. Consequently, the means for increasing draft capability must be included in many FGD retrofit projects. Consideration is given to several alternatives for increasing draft capability. Alternatives are developed for new induced draft (ID) fans to replace the existing ID fans and for new booster fans to supplement the existing ID fans. Both centrifugal and axial fans are evaluated, as are different means of fan volume control. Each alternative is evaluated on the basis of technical merit and economics. Presented are the development of fan alternatives and results of the technical and economic evaluations

  5. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  6. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  7. BENCH SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF MEYERS PROCESS FOR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of coal desulfurization experiments to determine the feasibility and advantages of combining gravity separation of coal with chemical desulfurization. The investigations led to the definition of the Gravichem Process, a combination physical/chemical coal ...

  8. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO2. The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  9. Application of environmental and economic metrics to guide the development of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    The increasing industrial interest in biocatalytic processes is predominantly driven by the need for selective chemistry, with high reaction yield (Y-reaction) and few side reactions, as well as the need for optically pure chiral molecules (in particularly in the pharmaceutical industry). Interes......The increasing industrial interest in biocatalytic processes is predominantly driven by the need for selective chemistry, with high reaction yield (Y-reaction) and few side reactions, as well as the need for optically pure chiral molecules (in particularly in the pharmaceutical industry...

  10. A Study and Application of Biocatalytic Synthesis of (S-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper first uses the environmental friendly whole cell of biocatalyst pichia pastoris SIT2014 to asymmetrically synthesized anti-tumor drug of chiral intermediate (S-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine.. Improve the final biocatalytic reduction yield to 85.4% based on the study of fermentation optimization and biocatalytic asymmetrical reduction system for pichia pastoris. The ee value of obtained reduction product (S-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine hits over 99%. The study of this article is a successful case where the biocatalyst is applied to the green synthesis of chiral intermediate of anti-tumor drug.

  11. Method for desulfurization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelland, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  12. A Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using Different Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, David

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with desulfurization of hot metal using different agents. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of commonly used desulfurization agents such as fluidized CaO, CaC2, commercial-CaO, Mg, and mixtures of commercial-CaO-Mg. The possibility to use ZnO for desulfurization of hot metal was also investigated. The desulfurization mechanisms and kinetics of these agents were studied. A broad comparison of the desulfurization abilities of the agents was performed under...

  13. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Bragança

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO2 emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong influence on the reaction time and efficiency of desulfurization. The results of this work prove that marble type is very important in the choice of sorbent for a desulfurization process. A magnesian limestone showed a better performance than a dolomite. Therefore, the magnesian limestone is more efficient for a shorter particle residence time, which is characteristic of the bubbling fluidized bed.

  14. Rational Improvement of Simvastatin Synthase Solubility in Escherichia coli Leads to Higher Whole-cell Biocatalytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xinkai; Pashkov, Inna; Gao, Xue; Guerrero, Jennifer L.; Yeates, Todd O; Tang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Simvastatin is the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the blockbuster cholesterol lowering drug Zocor. We have previously developed an Escherichia coli based whole-cell biocatalytic platform towards the synthesis of simvastatin sodium salt (SS) starting from the precursor monacolin J sodium salt (MJSS). The centerpiece of the biocatalytic approach is the simvastatin synthase LovD, which is highly prone to misfolding and aggregation when overexpressed from E. coli. Increasing the solubility o...

  15. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a

  16. Desulfurization under Conditions of Substoichiometric Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Coal - Comparison with TG-Tests and Equilibrium Limits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Čermák, Jiří; Pohořelý, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 120 (2001), s. 39-53. ISSN 1211-1929 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072801; GA MŠk OK 349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : desulfurization * sub-stoichiometric * pressurized fluidized bed combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  17. Uniform lab-scale biocatalytic nanoporous latex coatings for reactive microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Jimmy L; Flickinger, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for generating uniform lab-scale biocatalytic nanoporous latex coatings. Nearly everything we come into contact with on a daily basis has been coated with some polymer material. High-speed waterborne polymer coating and ink-jet printing techniques are mature technologies. Methods for immobilizing microorganisms in lab-scale waterborne latex biocatalytic coatings draw on existing coating technologies for generating precision industrial paint and paper coatings and would therefore be amenable to scale up in future applications. An inherent problem for many lab-scale techniques is coating uniformity. The method described here has been developed to dramatically increase the uniformity of multiple individual small surface area coatings derived from a single coating template by minimizing edge effects due to emulsion drying adjacent to the edge of the mask. PMID:21553194

  18. Reactor systems for microbial desulfurization of coal: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, V.K.; Pandey, R.A.; Bal, A.S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    1995-12-31

    Precombustion microbial desulfurization of coal has significant advantages over physicochemical processes. Its application on a large scale is still in its infancy. The cost-effectiveness of microbial coal desulfurization is dependent on the type of reactor system used. The technicoeconomic feasibilities of various bioreactor systems, such as packed-bed reactors, agitated aerated bioreactors, airlift recycle bioreactors, plug-flow bioreactors, and continuous stirred-tank reactors have been reviewed extensively. Few processes are also suggested for effective desulfurization of coal.

  19. Study on the Flow of Particle Agglomerates in Desulfurization Tower

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Jian-Xiang; Xu Chun-Xing; Zhang Wei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the flow feature of particle agglomerates in a desulfurization tower, a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the gas-solid two phase flow in the tower is carried out by use of the LES model and the cohesive particles kinetics theory. Based on the experimental model of the internal circulation multistage spray desulfurization tower, the simulation successfully captures the key flow features in a desulfurization tower, find that: agglomerates forming a stable fluidization...

  20. Application of Commercial Sorbent into Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field for Clean Coal technologies Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chien, H.-Y.; Chyou, Y.-P.; Svoboda, Karel

    Praha: World Academy of Research and Publications, 2015 - (Qureshi, K.), s. 51 ISBN N. [International Renewable Energy and Environment Conference (IREEC-2015) /4./. Prague (CZ), 04.06.2015-06.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant ostatní: NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001 -MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : producer gas * desulfurization * ZnO sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Alcohols and Amino Acids for Development of Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ramesh N.

    2013-01-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates and drugs has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes derived there from for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enatioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthe...

  2. Biocatalytic synthesis of acrylates in supercritical fluids: tuning enzyme activity by changing pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, S.V.; Iwaskewycz, B; Beckman, E J; Russell, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are a unique class of nonaqueous media in which biocatalytic reactions can occur. The physical properties of supercritical fluids, which include gas-like diffusivities and liquid-like densities, can be predictably controlled with changing pressure. This paper describes how adjustment of pressure, with the subsequent predictable changes of the dielectric constant and Hildebrand solubility parameter for fluoroform, ethane, sulfur hexafluoride, and propane, can be used to ma...

  3. Actinobase: Database on molecular diversity, phylogeny and biocatalytic potential of salt tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Amit K; Gohel, Sangeeta; Singh, Satya P.

    2012-01-01

    Actinobase is a relational database of molecular diversity, phylogeny and biocatalytic potential of haloalkaliphilic actinomycetes. The main objective of this data base is to provide easy access to range of information, data storage, comparison and analysis apart from reduced data redundancy, data entry, storage, retrieval costs and improve data security. Information related to habitat, cell morphology, Gram reaction, biochemical characterization and molecular features would allow researchers...

  4. Biocatalytic anode for glucose oxidation utilizing carbon nanotubes for direct electron transfer with glucose oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaze, Abhay; Hussain, Nighat; Tang, Chi [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Rusling, James [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06032 (United States); School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Covalently linked layers of glucose oxidase, single-wall carbon nanotubes and poly-L-lysine on pyrolytic graphite resulted in a stable biofuel cell anode featuring direct electron transfer from the enzyme. Catalytic response observed upon addition of glucose was due to electrochemical oxidation of FADH{sub 2} under aerobic conditions. The electrode potential depended on glucose concentration. This system has essential attributes of an anode in a mediator-free biocatalytic fuel cell. (author)

  5. Desulfurization of Nickel Pyrrhotite by Steam in the Microwave Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Desulfurization of Ni pyrrhotite by steam in the microwave field was studied. According to the experimental data, the desulfurization rate by microwave heating is faster than that by conventional one. The desulfurization reaction is in a non-isothermal state and in a diffusion control because of the effect of chemical reaction heat, phase formation and intrinsic properties of materials of microwave absorbability. When the flow rate of steam was in the range of 180~220 mL/min, the temperature and desulfurization rate approached to a maximum and the activation energy to a minimum.

  6. Zirconia-silica based mesoporous desulfurization adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Jessica M.; Tran, Dat T.; Kareh, Ana R.; Miller, Christopher A.; Gardner, Joshua M. V.; Dong, Hong; Oliver, Scott R. J.

    2015-03-01

    We report a series of mesoporous silicate sorbent materials templated by long-chain primary alkylamines that display record level of desulfurization of the jet fuel JP-8. Pure silica frameworks and those with a Si:Zr synthesis molar ratio ranging from 44:1 to 11:1 were investigated. The optimum sorbent was identified as dodecylamine-templated silica-zirconia synthesized from a gel with Si:Zr molar ratio of 15:1. With an optimized silver loading of 11 wt.%, a saturation adsorption capacity of 39.4 mgS g-1 and a silver efficiency of 1.21 molS mol Ag-1 were observed for JP-8. This sorbent displayed exceptional regenerability, maintaining 86% of its initial capacity in model fuel after solvent regeneration with diethyl ether. Low-cost, portable and reusable sorbents for the desulfurization of JP-8 jet fuel are needed to make solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) a reality for military power needs. SOFCs require ultra-low sulfur content fuel, which traditional desulfurization methods cannot achieve.

  7. AN ADVANCED COAL DESULFURIZATION PROCESS——SELECTIVE FLOCCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璋; 刘红缨; 吴军; 陈彩茶

    1997-01-01

    Selective flocculation is an idea separation method to separate ultrafine pyrite from coal. A number of selective flocculation separation tests under different conditions have been done and the results are very encouraging. The results also show that desulfurization and deashing can be finished simultaneously in selective flocculation process. It is an advanced coal desulfurization process.

  8. Radiation methods for demercaptanization and desulfurization of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage method for the desulfurization of oil is presented. The first stage strongly oxidizes sulfuric material to do away with its chemical aggressiveness and promote its removal. Desulfurization of the overall product is reached at the second stage by means of conventional methods

  9. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (cotton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that can be beneficially used in agriculture. Research was conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration wi...

  10. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  11. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade

    1997-08-31

    Remarkably mild conditions have been discovered for quantitative sulfur removal from dibenzothiophene and other organosulfur systems using relatively cheap elemental sodium. The project objectives are: (1) Optimize the coal desulfurization reaction with respect to time, temperature, coal type and the R groups (including R = H), and also on extraction, impregnation and sonication conditions; (2) Optimize the conditions for the HDS reaction (which allows the PR{sub 3} to function as an HDS catalyst for coal) with respect to R group, temperature, pressure, H{sub 2} gas flow rate and inert solvent presence; (3) Determine the product(s) and the pathway of the novel redox reaction that appears to quantitatively remove sulfur from dibenzothiophene (DBT) when R = Bu when FeCl{sub 3} is used as a catalyst; (4) Impregnate sulfur-laden coals with Fe{sup 3+} to ascertain if the PR{sub 3} desulfurization rate increases; (5) Determine the nature of the presently unextractable phosphorus compounds formed in solid coals by PR{sub 3}; (6) Explore the efficacy of PR{sub 3}/Fe{sup 3+} in removing sulfur from petroleum feedstocks, heavy ends (whether solid or liquid), coal tar and discarded tire rubber; (7) Explore the possibility of using water-soluble PR{sub 3} compounds and Fe{sup 3+} to remove sulfur from petroleum feedstocks and heavy ends in order to remove the SPR{sub 3} (and Fe{sup 3+} catalyst) by water extraction (for subsequent HDS of the SPR{sub 3}); and (8) Explore the possibility of using solid-supported PR{sub 3} compounds (plus Fe{sup 3+} catalyst) to remove sulfur from petroleum feedstocks and heavy ends in order to keep the oil and the SPR{sub 3} (formed in the reaction) in easily separable phases.

  12. Development of technology for desulfurization of coal gas and other industrial gases using amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Sobina, N.A.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Taranenko, I.V. (Khar' kovskii Institut Inzhenerov Kommunal' nogo Stroitel' stva (USSR))

    1989-06-01

    Comparatively evaluates methods for coal gas desulfurization using amines derived from ammonia. A method developed by the UKhIN institute for coal gas desulfurization using monoethanamide is discussed. The Sulfiban, Sulfinol and Takahax processes used in the USA and Japan for coal gas desulfurization are comparatively evaluated. Absorption conditions, reagent types, temperature and pressure effects, and factors that influence desulfurization efficiency are analyzed. Eleven desulfurization procedures are comparatively evaluated. Advantages of ethanamide methods for desulfurization of coal gas and removal of carbon dioxide are analyzed. Recommendations for most efficient desulfurization processes are made. 29 refs.

  13. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Desulfurization of indigenous coal with sorbent injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desulfurization of Lakhra Coal with sorbent injection was carried out in furnace. Limestone and lime was used as sorbent and sorbent/sulphur ratio was varied. The sorbent/sulphur ratio was varied from 0.5 to 5 and size of sorbent from 80 mesh to 325 mesh. Surface capture observed was higher for CaO than CaCO/sub 3/. The %age removal increased as sorbent/sulphur ratio was increased and the finer size also gave increased removal of sulphur, which was due to greater active sites presents in finer size of sorbent. (author)

  15. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança S.R.; Jablonski A.; Castellan J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble) as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO2 emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong ...

  16. Application of Enzyme Coupling Reactions to Shift Thermodynamically Limited Biocatalytic Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu, Rohana; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    , it can be challenging to combine several engineered enzymes in vitro for the conversion of non-natural substrates. In this mini-review we focus on enzyme coupling reactions as a tool to alleviate thermodynamic constraints in synthetically useful biocatalytic reactions. The implications of...... shift the equilibrium of otherwise thermodynamically unfavourable reactions to give a higher conversion of the target product. By coupling an energetically unfavourable reaction with a more favourable one, the multi-enzyme cascade mimics the approach taken in nature in metabolic pathways. Nevertheless...

  17. Flue gas desulfurization in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes measures accepted by the owner of power stations , the significant heating plants and combustion plant in significant industrial factories in order to bring them into compliance with the requirement of the Clean Air Act (CAA), accepted in 1991. Czech CAA classifies the stationary combusting sources into 3 categories according to the thermal output (up to 0.2 MW; up to 5 MW; over 5 MW). Different approach to complying the emission limit values have been noticed. Prevailing part of the small and middle sources have been converted to natural gas combustion. The part of the large sources with lower thermal input have been converted from coal to natural gas or low sulfur liquid fuels combustion and sources with great thermal input have been retrofitted by flue gas desulfurization. Wet limestone-gypsum (WLG) technology has been installed in almost all power plants. Some wet-dry processes are applied in significant heating plants. Old boilers are replaced by atmospheric fluidized bed combustion where dry limestone process is used. In case of the coal gasification the Rectisol process which uses cold methanol desulfurizes the gas. Sulfur compounds are converted to SO2. Nitrogen oxides are removed by selective catalytic reduction using ammonia. SO2 is catalytically oxidized to SO3. After the cooling 95-97% sulfuric acid is condensed. As a result a significant reduction of the emissions in Czech Republic is reached. Prognoses are given up to 2010

  18. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhong; Yan Cao; Wenying Li; Kechang Xie; Wei-Ping Pan

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se).The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues.It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal.A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS).It has been determined that Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 μg/L, respectively.The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples.Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is nigh in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(Ⅳ)).The toxicity of Se(Ⅳ) is the strongest of all Se species.Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  19. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk. PMID:21476358

  20. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  1. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2000-12-15

    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  2. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo-Ramos Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid (ABTS, and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst.

  3. Recent advances on halohydrin dehalogenases-from enzyme identification to novel biocatalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallmey, Anett; Schallmey, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are industrially relevant enzymes that catalyze the reversible dehalogenation of vicinal haloalcohols with formation of the corresponding epoxides. In the reverse reaction, also other negatively charged nucleophiles such as azide, cyanide, or nitrite are accepted besides halides to open the epoxide ring. Thus, novel C-N, C-C, or C-O bonds can be formed by halohydrin dehalogenases, which makes them attractive biocatalysts for the production of various β-substituted alcohols. Despite the fact that only five individual halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme sequences have been known until recently enabling their heterologous production, a large number of different biocatalytic applications have been reported using these enzymes. The recent characterization of specific sequence motifs has facilitated the identification of novel halohydrin dehalogenase sequences available in public databases and has largely increased the number of recombinantly available enzymes. These will help to extend the biocatalytic repertoire of this enzyme family and to foster novel biotechnological applications and developments in the future. This review gives a general overview on the halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme family and their biochemical properties and further focuses on recent developments in halohydrin dehalogenase biocatalysis and protein engineering. PMID:27502414

  4. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  5. Catalytic Desulfurization of Benzothiophene Using Keggin Type Polyoxometalates as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of catalytic desulfurization of benzothiophen (BT was studied using polyoxometalates as catalyst. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40], have different heteroatom in Keggin structure and catalytic activities. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] have high crystallinity with homogeneous distribution particles. Desulfurization of BT using polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] resulted % conversion up to 99% for 3 h reaction time and at temperature 40 oC. Application of polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] for crude oil desulfurization showed % conversion of 4-88%. The main functional groups of polyoxometalates still retained after catalytic desulfurization indicated the stability of polyoxometalate compounds

  6. Desulfurization of chalcopyrite and molybdenite by atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molybdenite (MoS2) desulfurization by monatomic hydrogen in 625-800 K range was studied using helium as diluent gas. Desulfurization degree at 680 K equals 9%. Temperature growth elevates sulfur content in molybdenite. The effect of initial molybdenite enrichment with temperature growth up to 800 K is probably caused by removal of reduced molybdenum capable to form oxide in the presence of traces of oxygen contained in inert diluent gas

  7. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jan J. Hycnar; Gabriel Borowski; Tomasz Józefiak; Agnieszka Malec

    2015-01-01

    Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as...

  8. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION METHODS TO CONSERVE THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    H.Bridjanian; A Dehghani

    2010-01-01

    After the observation of serious environmental damages resulting from industrial activities, air pollutionreduction has become globally very important.Fuels and flue gas desulfurization methods in power plants are applicable for petroleum derived fuelsconsuming units. But in coal fuel power plants, only Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) can be used.Therefore, the substitution of (natural) gas for power plants fuels has become a common way, dueto its low sulfur content and lower excess air requir...

  9. Sequencing of oligonucleotide phosphorothioates based on solid-supported desulfurization.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrzykiewicz, T K; Cole, D L

    1994-01-01

    We described a solid-supported desulfurization procedure allowing easy access to the sequence analysis of oligonucleotide phosphorothioates. The described method is based upon selective removal of the 2-cyanoethyl phosphate protecting groups, followed by iodine-promoted desulfurization of the resulting phosphorothioate diesters. Automatic oxidation of oligonucleotide phosphorothioates, anchored via an ester linkage to a standard solid support (LCAA/CPG), is combined with Maxam-Gilbert solid-s...

  10. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel I. C.; Kristala L. J. Prather

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the obstacles to the commercialization of BDS is the reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with the accumulation of the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), during the process. BDS experiments were performed by incubating Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 resting-cell suspensio...

  11. The development of a novel, selective desulfurization process

    OpenAIRE

    Maat, ter, J.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide from natural, industrial of bio gas is an operation that is frequently encountered in process industry. Driven by tight sulfur specifications and the everlasting need for cost reduction a considerable research effort is made in this field, sprouting numerous new developments in desulfurization technology. The procede desulfurization process is a regenerative process that is capable of removing H2S from a gas stream without the uptake of CO2. The removal of H2S ...

  12. Method of treating final products from flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of treating final products from a flue gas desulfurization. The flue gas desulfurization is carried out by the absorption of sulfur oxide in a spray dryer with a suspension which contains lime, or in a reactor with a dry, fine-grained, absorbent which contains lime. Prior to desulfurization, the fly ash carried along by the flue gas which is to be desulfurized is separated entirely, partially, or not at all from the flue gas, and the final products from the flue gas desulfurization, prior to any further treatment thereof, amount to 1-99% by weight, preferably 1-70% by weight, of fly ash, and 1-99% by weight, preferably 30-99% by weight, of the sum of the desulfurization products, preferably calcium sulfite hemihydrate, and/or calcium sulfite, and/or calcium sulfate dyhydrate, and/or calcium sulfate hemihydrate, and/or calcium sulfate, as well as residue of the absorbent. The reduction of the amount of calcium sulfite is implemented by a dry oxidation with air

  13. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  14. Optimisation of Experimental Conditions for Ex-Bed Desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Ruiz, E.; Otero, J.

    2010-12-22

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.3 Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds Abatement of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The assignment of CIEMAT in Task 6.3 has dealt with the experimental study of ex-bed desulfurization at high temperature and high pressure. Based on a review of the state of the art, a zinc oxide sorbent was chosen as a promising candidate for bulk sulfur removal in highly reducing gases such as those from coal and waste oxygen gasification or for a polishing stage in low sulfur content gases, which is typically the case in biomass gasification gases. The work accomplished has included the study of the sulfidation and regeneration stages in order to determine successful operating conditions and the assessment of the long term performance of the sorbent over subsequent sulfidation and regeneration cycles. (Author) 36 refs.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  16. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H(sub 2)S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H(sub 2)S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO(sub 2) tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H(sub 2)S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO(sub 2) to produce elemental sulfur

  18. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  19. A process optimization for bio-catalytic production of substituted catechols (3-nitrocatechol and 3-methylcatechol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwary Bhupendra N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substituted catechols are important precursors for large-scale synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other industrial products. Most of the reported chemical synthesis methods are expensive and insufficient at industrial level. However, biological processes for production of substituted catechols could be highly selective and suitable for industrial purposes. Results We have optimized a process for bio-catalytic production of 3-substituted catechols viz. 3-nitrocatechol (3-NC and 3-methylcatechol (3-MC at pilot scale. Amongst the screened strains, two strains viz. Pseudomonas putida strain (F1 and recombinant Escherichia coli expression clone (pDTG602 harboring first two genes of toluene degradation pathway were found to accumulate 3-NC and 3-MC respectively. Various parameters such as amount of nutrients, pH, temperature, substrate concentration, aeration, inoculums size, culture volume, toxicity of substrate and product, down stream extraction, single step and two-step biotransformation were optimized at laboratory scale to obtain high yields of 3-substituted catechols. Subsequently, pilot scale studies were performed in 2.5 liter bioreactor. The rate of product accumulation at pilot scale significantly increased up to ~90-95% with time and high yields of 3-NC (10 mM and 3-MC (12 mM were obtained. Conclusion The biocatalytic production of 3-substituted catechols viz. 3-NC and 3-MC depend on some crucial parameters to obtain maximum yields of the product at pilot scale. The process optimized for production of 3-substituted catechols by using the organisms P. putida (F1 and recombinant E. coli expression clone (pDTG602 may be useful for industrial application.

  20. Application and Development Trend of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD Process: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Jamil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1927, the limestone desulfurization process was first applied in the Barthes and Bansside Power Plants (total 120MW beside the Thames River in UK to protect high-rise building in London. Up to now, over 10 desulfurization processes have been launched and applied. Based on the desulfurizing agent being used, there include calcium process (limestone/lime, ammonia process, magnesium process, sodium process, alkali alumina process, copper oxide/zinc process, active carbon process, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate process, etc. The calcium process is commercially available and widely used in the world, i.e. more than 90%. Flue gas desulfurization processes, survey made by the coal research institute under the International Energy Agency shows that the wet-process desulfurization accounts for 85% of total installed capacity of flue gas desulfurization units across the world. The wet-process desulfurization is mainly applied in countries, like Japan (98%, USA (92%, Germany (90%, etc. The limestone-gypsum wet desulfurization process, the most mature technology, the most applications, the most reliable operation in the world, may have rate of desulfurization of more than 90%. Currently, the flue gas desulfurization technology used at thermal power plants at home and abroad tends to be higher rate of desulfurization, bigger installed capacity, more advanced technology, lower investment, less land acquisition, lower operation cost, higher level of automation, more excellent reliability, etc. This paper briefs current situations and trends of flue gas desulfurization technology also append short descript of different type of FDG and their category.

  1. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade

    2001-11-01

    Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid

  2. Enzyme immobilization by fouling in ultrafiltration membranes: Impact of membrane configuration and type on flux behavior and biocatalytic conversion efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil;

    2014-01-01

    and PLGC regenerated cellulose membranes. With these two highly hydrophilic membranes, the ADH enzyme activity was fully retained even after 24h of storage of the membrane. Filtration blocking and resistance models were used to analyze the fouling/immobilization mechanisms and give explanations......Enzyme-immobilization in membranes accomplished by fostering membrane fouling was evaluated. Four different membrane configurations and five membranes were compared for immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in terms of enzyme loading, permeate flux and final biocatalytic conversion....... The membrane configuration impacted the efficiency of the enzyme-immobilization as well as the biocatalytic-membrane reaction, and the “sandwich mode”, with an extra polypropylene support above the membrane skin layer, worked best due to its high flux and stable conversion. Among the membranes, a GR51PP...

  3. Increasing flue gas desulfurization system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly reliable system design involves specifying reliable control, electrical, mechanical, and structural features. Because FGD systems are chemical plants, the care and planning that goes into designing a chemical plant should be a model for future FGD systems. This discussion is limited to a typical wet limestone FGD system with sludge stabilization for waste treatment, but these concepts also apply to other FGD technologies. Equipment that has been the cause of repeated problems in power plant FGD systems and features that improve their operation and maintenance is described. Forced outages and other expensive problems can be eliminated, or at least reduced, in power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This is accomplished through proper design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Early FGD systems frequently faced loss of availability caused by corrosion, scaling, control and mechanical equipment failures, and other problems. In recent years, closer attention to design details and testing of equipment and materials has led to improved systems. Systems specifications are no longer directed toward performance only; the days of the black box FGD system are over

  4. Biogas desulfurization using autotrophic denitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakdar, Alper; Tilahun, Ebrahim; Calli, Baris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an autotrophic denitrification process for desulfurization of biogas produced from a chicken manure digester. A laboratory scale upflow fixed bed reactor (UFBR) was operated for 105 days and fed with sodium sulfide or H2S scrubbed from the biogas and nitrate as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The S/N ratio (2.5 mol/mol) of the feed solution was kept constant throughout the study. When the UFBR was fed with sodium sulfide solution with an influent pH of 7.7, about 95 % sulfide and 90 % nitrate removal efficiencies were achieved. However, the inlet of the UFBR was clogged several times due to the accumulation of biologically produced elemental sulfur particles and the clogging resulted in operational problems. When the UFBR was fed with the H2S absorbed from the biogas and operated with an influent pH of 8-9, around 98 % sulfide and 97 % nitrate removal efficiencies were obtained. In this way, above 95 % of the H2S in the biogas was removed as elemental sulfur and the reactor effluent was reused as scrubbing liquid without any clogging problem. PMID:26428238

  5. Study on the Flow of Particle Agglomerates in Desulfurization Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Jian-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the flow feature of particle agglomerates in a desulfurization tower, a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the gas-solid two phase flow in the tower is carried out by use of the LES model and the cohesive particles kinetics theory. Based on the experimental model of the internal circulation multistage spray desulfurization tower, the simulation successfully captures the key flow features in a desulfurization tower, find that: agglomerates forming a stable fluidization and stable internal circulation in the tower, present a typical ring-nuclear flow distribution trend. And the effects of the inlet gas velocity and inlet mass flux to the internal circulation are also analyzed.

  6. Enabling cleaner fuels: desulfurization by adsorption to microporous coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cychosz, Katie A; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J

    2009-10-14

    Microporous coordination polymers (MCPs) are demonstrated to be efficient adsorbents for the removal of the organosulfur compounds dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (DMDBT) from model diesel fuel and diesel fuel. For example, packed bed breakthrough experiments utilizing UMCM-150 find capacities of 25.1 g S/kg MCP for DBT and 24.3 g S/kg MCP for DMDBT from authentic diesel indicating that large amounts of fuel are desulfurized before the breakthrough point. Unlike activated carbons, where selectivity has been a problem, MCPs selectively adsorb the organosulfur compounds over other, similar components of diesel. Complete regeneration using toluene at modest temperatures is achieved. The attainment of high selectivities and capacities, particularly for the adsorption of the refractory compounds that are difficult to remove using current desulfurization techniques, in a reversible sorbent indicates that fuel desulfurization may be an important application for MCPs. PMID:19757809

  7. A briefing paper for the status of the flue gas desulfurization system at Indianapolis Power ampersand Light Company Petersburg Station Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief description of the status of the retrofit wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system project at Indianapolis Power ampersand Light Company (IPL) Petersburg Units 1 and 2. This project was initiated by IPL in response to the Clean Air Act of 1990 and is intended to treat the flue gas from two base load units with a combined capacity of approximately 700 MW gross electrical output

  8. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silaban, A.; Harrison, D.P. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  9. Catalytic Desulfurization of Benzothiophene Using Keggin Type Polyoxometalates as Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Aldes Lesbani; Arianti Marpaung; Marieska Verawaty; Hesti Rizki Amalia; Risfidian Mohadi

    2015-01-01

    Performance of catalytic desulfurization of benzothiophen (BT) was studied using polyoxometalates as catalyst. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40], have different heteroatom in Keggin structure and catalytic activities. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] have high crystallinity with homogeneous distribution particles. Desulfurization of BT using polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] resulted % conversion up to 99% for 3 h reaction time and at tempera...

  10. Current problems and development in flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most widely used processes of SO2 removal from flue gases is absorption by slurry containing CaCO3. The existing installations are designed for big capacity boilers and provide low degree of absorption. The stringent environmental protection regulations for SO2 emissions in EU call for better solutions. The aim of the present discussion on the current problems and achievements in gas desulfurization is to help the finding of the proper direction of the efforts for developing of a new technology and the choice of apparatuses and equipment. Key words: wet flue gas desulfurization, SO2 removal efficiency, bisulfite oxidation, lime, limestone, slurry, gypsum, scrubber

  11. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Dezhi; Liu, Jinlong; Huang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12...

  12. Nano-magnetic particles as multifunctional microreactor for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xinai; Yao, Dongdong [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Li, Hong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China); Yang, Juxiang [Department of Chemistry, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, Xi' an 710065 (China); Hu, Daodao, E-mail: daodaohu@snnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An easy-separated amphiphilic catalyst with small size was prepared for deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst demonstrates high performance in the deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material could make integration of micro-reactor and micro-extractor into one system. - Abstract: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide using a recyclable amphiphilic catalyst has been studied. The catalyst was synthesized by surfacely covering magnetic silica nanospheres (MSN) with the complexes between 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (AEM) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The morphology and components of the composite material were characterized by TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively. The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. The results showed that the composite nanospheres have core/shell structure with the properties of amphiphilicity and superparamagnetism. The composite nanospheres have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of dibenzothiophene to corresponding sulfones by hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions. The sulfur level could be lowered from 487 ppm to less than 0.8 ppm under optimal conditions. Additionally, the amphiphilic catalyst and the oxidized product could be simultaneously separated from medium by external magnetism, and the recovered composite material could be recycled for three times with almost constant activity.

  13. Desulfurizing absorbent for flue gas and its absorption mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new desulfurizing absorbent for flue gas, i.e., anorganic physical solvent of DMSO(dimethyl sulfoxide) mixed with arelatively small amount of chemical solvent(Mn2+) was studied.Compared with pure physical solvent of DMSO, the purificationefficiency of the new absorbent has been much improved. And itsabsorption and reaction mechanism are discussed.

  14. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  15. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

  17. Comments on "Ceria-Zirconia High-Temperature Desulfurization Sorbents".

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 1548-1549. ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * desulfurization * cerium sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2006

  18. Nano-magnetic particles as multifunctional microreactor for deep desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An easy-separated amphiphilic catalyst with small size was prepared for deep desulfurization. ► The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. ► The catalyst demonstrates high performance in the deep desulfurization. ► The material could make integration of micro-reactor and micro-extractor into one system. - Abstract: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide using a recyclable amphiphilic catalyst has been studied. The catalyst was synthesized by surfacely covering magnetic silica nanospheres (MSN) with the complexes between 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (AEM) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The morphology and components of the composite material were characterized by TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively. The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. The results showed that the composite nanospheres have core/shell structure with the properties of amphiphilicity and superparamagnetism. The composite nanospheres have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of dibenzothiophene to corresponding sulfones by hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions. The sulfur level could be lowered from 487 ppm to less than 0.8 ppm under optimal conditions. Additionally, the amphiphilic catalyst and the oxidized product could be simultaneously separated from medium by external magnetism, and the recovered composite material could be recycled for three times with almost constant activity.

  19. Mechanical, Hygric and Thermal Properties of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    Tesárek, P.; J. Drchalová; J. Kolísko; P. Rovnaníková; R. Černý

    2004-01-01

    The reference measurements of basic mechanical, thermal and hygric parameters of hardened flue gas desulfurization gypsum are carried out. Moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined with the primary aim of comparison with data obtained for various types of modified gypsum in the future. 

  20. Mechanical, Hygric and Thermal Properties of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tesárek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference measurements of basic mechanical, thermal and hygric parameters of hardened flue gas desulfurization gypsum are carried out. Moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined with the primary aim of comparison with data obtained for various types of modified gypsum in the future. 

  1. Effect of operating parameters and reactor structure on moderate temperature dry desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Qi, Haiying; Hou, Bo; Chen, Changhe; Xu, Xuchang

    2006-07-01

    A moderate temperature dry desulfurization process at 600-800 degrees C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was investigated for various operating parameters, such as bed temperature, CO2 concentration, and solids concentration. In addition, structural improvements in key parts of the CFB-FGD system, i.e., the cyclone separator and the distributor, were made to improve the desulfurization efficiency and flow resistance. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiency increased rapidly with increasing temperature above 600 degrees C due to enhanced gas diffusion and the shift of the equilibrium for the carbonate reaction. The sorbent sulfated gradually after quick carbonation of the sorbent with a long particle residence time necessary to realize a high desulfurization ratio. A reduced solids concentration in the bed reduced the particle residence time and the desulfurization efficiency. A single-stage cyclone separator produced no improvement in the desulfurization efficiency compared with a two-stage cyclone separator. Compared with a wind cap distributor, a large hole distributor reduced the flow resistance which reduced the desulfurization efficiency due to the reduced bed pressure drop and worsened bed fluidization. The desulfurization efficiency can be improved by increasing the collection efficiency of fine particles to prolong their residence time and by improving the solids concentration distribution to increase the gas-solid contact surface area. PMID:16856750

  2. Cellulose Digestion and Metabolism Induced Biocatalytic Transitions in Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamazawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of highly polymerized biomass by microbial communities present in diverse microbial ecosystems is an indispensable metabolic process for biogeochemical cycling in nature and for industrial activities required to maintain a sustainable society. Therefore, the evaluation of the complicated microbial metabolomics presents a significant challenge. We here describe a comprehensive strategy for characterizing the degradation of highly crystallized bacterial cellulose (BC that is accompanied by metabolite production for identifying the responsible biocatalysts, including microorganisms and their metabolic functions. To this end, we employed two-dimensional solid- and one-dimensional solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR profiling combined with a metagenomic approach using stable isotope labeling. The key components of biocatalytic reactions determined using a metagenomic approach were correlated with cellulose degradation and metabolic products. The results indicate that BC degradation was mediated by cellulases that contain carbohydrate-binding modules and that belong to structural type A. The degradation reactions induced the metabolic dynamics of the microbial community and produced organic compounds, such as acetic acid and propionic acid, mainly metabolized by clostridial species. This combinatorial, functional and structural metagenomic approach is useful for the comprehensive characterization of biomass degradation, metabolic dynamics and their key components in diverse ecosystems.

  3. Expedient synthesis of C-aryl carbohydrates by consecutive biocatalytic benzoin and aldol reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Karel; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Pohl, Martina; Clapés, Pere

    2015-02-16

    The introduction of aromatic residues connected by a C-C bond into the non-reducing end of carbohydrates is highly significant for the development of innovative structures with improved binding affinity and selectivity (e.g., C-aril-sLex). In this work, an expedient asymmetric "de novo" synthetic route to new aryl carbohydrate derivatives based on two sequential stereoselectively biocatalytic carboligation reactions is presented. First, the benzoin reaction of aromatic aldehydes to dimethoxyacetaldehyde is conducted, catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I. Then, the α-hydroxyketones formed are reduced by using NaBH4 yielding the anti diol. After acetal hydrolysis, the aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone, hydroxyacetone, or glycolaldehyde catalyzed by the stereocomplementary D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase is performed. Both aldolases accept unphosphorylated donor substrates, avoiding the need of handling the phosphate group that the dihydroxyacetone phosphate-dependent aldolases require. In this way, 6-C-aryl-L-sorbose, 6-C-aryl-L-fructose, 6-C-aryl-L-tagatose, and 5-C-aryl-L-xylose derivatives are prepared by using this methodology. PMID:25640727

  4. Microbiome and Biocatalytic Bacteria in Monkey Cup (Nepenthes Pitcher) Digestive Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Xin-Yue; Hong, Kar-Wai; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Tropical carnivorous plant, Nepenthes, locally known as "monkey cup", utilises its pitcher as a passive trap to capture insects. It then secretes enzymes into the pitcher fluid to digest the insects for nutrients acquisition. However, little is known about the microbiota and their activity in its pitcher fluid. Eighteen bacteria phyla were detected from the metagenome study in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria are the dominant phyla in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. We also performed culturomics approach by isolating 18 bacteria from the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. Most of the bacterial isolates possess chitinolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Fifteen putative chitinase genes were identified from the whole genome analysis on the genomes of the 18 bacteria isolated from Nepenthes pitcher fluid and expressed for chitinase assay. Of these, six clones possessed chitinase activity. In conclusion, our metagenome result shows that the Nepenthes pitcher fluid contains vast bacterial diversity and the culturomic studies confirmed the presence of biocatalytic bacteria within the Nepenthes pitcher juice which may act in symbiosis for the turn over of insects trapped in the Nepenthes pitcher fluid. PMID:26817720

  5. Two-Input Enzymatic Logic Gates Made Sigmoid by Modifications of the Biocatalytic Reaction Cascades

    CERN Document Server

    Zavalov, Oleksandr; Halamek, Jan; Halamkova, Lenka; Korkmaz, Sevim; Arugula, Mary A; Chinnapareddy, Soujanya; Katz, Evgeny; Privman, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Computing based on biochemical processes is a newest rapidly developing field of unconventional information and signal processing. In this paper we present results of our research in the field of biochemical computing and summarize the obtained numerical and experimental data for implementations of the standard two-input OR and AND gates with double-sigmoid shape of the output signal. This form of response was obtained as a function of the two inputs in each of the realized biochemical systems. The enzymatic gate processes in the first system were activated with two chemical inputs and resulted in optically detected chromogen oxidation, which happens when either one or both of the inputs are present. In this case, the biochemical system is functioning as the OR gate. We demonstrate that the addition of a "filtering" biocatalytic process leads to a considerable reduction of the noise transmission factor and the resulting gate response has sigmoid shape in both inputs. The second system was developed for functi...

  6. Silver Iodide-Chitosan Nanotag Induced Biocatalytic Precipitation for Self-Enhanced Ultrasensitive Photocathodic Immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingshan; Dai, Hong; Zhang, Shupei; Lin, Yanyu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we first exposed that the application of p-type semiconductor, silver iodide-chitosan nanoparticle (SICNP), acted as peroxidase mimetic to catalyze the bioprecipitation reaction for signal-amplification photocathodic immunosensing of human interleukin-6 (IL-6). After immobilization of captured antibody onto a polyethylenimine-functionalized carbon nitride (CN) matrix, SICNPs as photoactive tags and peroxidase mimetics were labeled on secondary antibodies, which were subsequently introduced onto the sensing interface to construct sandwich immunoassay platform through antigen-antibody specific recognition. Due to the matched energy levels between CN and AgI, the photocurrent intensity and photostability of SICNP were dramatically improved with rapid separation and transportation of photogenerated carriers. Moreover, the insoluble product in effective biocatalytic precipitation reaction served as electron acceptor to scavenge the photoexcited electron, leading to great amplification of the photocurrent signal of SICNP again. With the help of multiamplification processes, this photocathodic immunosensor presented a turn-on photoelectrochemical performance for IL-6, which showed wide linear dynamic range from 10(-6) to 10 pg/mL with the ultralow detection limit of 0.737 ag/mL. This work also performed the promising application of SICNP in developing an ultrasensitive, cost-effective, and enzyme-free photocathodic immunosensor for biomarkers. PMID:27180822

  7. Discovery and molecular and biocatalytic properties of hydroxynitrile lyase from an invasive millipede, Chamberlinius hualienensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashipour, Mohammad; Ishida, Yuko; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2015-08-25

    Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) catalyzes the degradation of cyanohydrins and causes the release of hydrogen cyanide (cyanogenesis). HNL can enantioselectively produce cyanohydrins, which are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and is used as an important biocatalyst in industrial biotechnology. Currently, HNLs are isolated from plants and bacteria. Because industrial biotechnology requires more efficient and stable enzymes for sustainable development, we must continuously explore other potential enzyme sources for the desired HNLs. Despite the abundance of cyanogenic millipedes in the world, there has been no precise study of the HNLs from these arthropods. Here we report the isolation of HNL from the cyanide-emitting invasive millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis, along with its molecular properties and application in biocatalysis. The purified enzyme displays a very high specific activity in the synthesis of mandelonitrile. It is a glycosylated homodimer protein and shows no apparent sequence identity or homology with proteins in the known databases. It shows biocatalytic activity for the condensation of various aromatic aldehydes with potassium cyanide to produce cyanohydrins and has high stability over a wide range of temperatures and pH values. It catalyzes the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile from benzaldehyde with a 99% enantiomeric excess, without using any organic solvents. Arthropod fauna comprise 80% of terrestrial animals. We propose that these animals can be valuable resources for exploring not only HNLs but also diverse, efficient, and stable biocatalysts in industrial biotechnology. PMID:26261304

  8. Progress of the technique of coal microwave desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuxiang Tao; Ning Xu; Maohua Xie; Longfei Tang

    2014-01-01

    With the advantages of its fast speed, effective and moderate controllable conditions, desulfurization of coal by microwave has become research focus in the field of clean coal technology. Coal is a homogeneous mixture which consists of various components with different dielectric properties, so their abilities to absorb microwaves are different, and the sulfur-containing components are better absorbers of microwave, which makes them can be selectively heated and reacted under microwave irradiation. There still remain controversies on the principle of microwave desulfurization at present, thermal effects or non-thermal effects. The point of thermal effects of microwave is mainly base on its characters of rapidly and selectly heating. While, in view of non-thermal effect, direct interactions between the microwave electromagnetic field and sulfur containing components are proposed. It is a fundamental problem to determine the dielectric properties of coal and the sulfur-containing components to reveal the interaction of microwave and sulfur-containing compounds. However, the test of dielectric property of coal is affected by many factors, which makes it difficult to measure dielectric properties accurately. In order to achieve better desulfurization effect, the researchers employ methods of adding chemical additives such as acid, alkali, oxidant, reductant, or changing the reaction atmosphere, or combining with other methods such as magnetic separation, ultrasonic and microorganism. Researchers in this field have also put forward several processes, and have obtained a number of patents. Obscurity of microwave desulfurization mechanism, uncertainties in qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing functional groups in coal, and the lack of special microwave equipment have limited further development of microwave desulfurization technology.

  9. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-xiang Yu; Xin-hua Wang; Mao Wang; Wan-jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity (B) and Al2O3 content (B=3.5−5.0;20wt%−25wt%Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity (CS) of the slag were calculated. Then slag−metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution (LS). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO−Al2O3−SiO2−MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%−25wt%has high activity of CaO (aCaO), with no deterioration of CS compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured LS between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt%is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  10. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-xiang; Wang, Xin-hua; Wang, Mao; Wang, Wan-jun

    2014-12-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity ( B) and Al2O3 content ( B = 3.5-5.0; 20wt%-25wt% Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity ( C S) of the slag were calculated. Then slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution ( L S). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%-25wt% has high activity of CaO ( a CaO), with no deterioration of C S compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured L S between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt% is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  11. Experimental study on desulfurization efficiency and gas-liquid mass transfer in a new liquid-screen desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new liquid-screen gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern with discarded carbide slag as the liquid sorbent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. On the basis of experimental data, the correlations of the desulfurization efficiency with flue gas flow rate, slurry flow rate, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio were investigated. A non-dimensional empirical model was developed which correlates the mass transfer coefficient with the liquid Reynolds number, gas Reynolds number and liquid-gas ratio (L/G) based on the available experimental data. The kinetic reaction between the SO2 and the carbide slag depends on the pressure distribution in this desulfurizing tower, gas liquid flow field, flue gas component, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio mainly. The transient gas-liquid mass transfer involving with chemical reaction was quantified by measuring the inlet and outlet SO2 concentrations of flue gas as well as the characteristics of the liquid-screen two-phase flow. The mass transfer model provides a necessary quantitative understanding of the hydration kinetics of sulfur dioxide in the liquid-screen flue gas desulfurization system using discarded carbide slag which is essential for the practical application. (author)

  12. Improving processes for coal gas desulfurization in foreign countries. Sovershenstvovanie protsessov seroochistki koksovogo gaza za rubezhom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipova, V.V.; Ukhmylova, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Processes are comparatively evaluates for coal gas desulfurization developed in the FRG, the USA, United Kingdom and Japan. The following processes are described: the Vacuum-Carbonate process, the Sulfiban process, the Carl Still process, the Otto-Sulfammon process, the Takahax-Hirohax process, the Holmes-Stretford process and the Fumaks process. Flowsheets of desulfurization systems are shown. Desulfurization efficiency, content of hydrogen sulfide in coal gas after desulfurization, desulfurization cost and regeneration methods are analyzed. The Holmes-Stretford process and the Sulfiban process are characterized by the highest efficiency (hydrogen sulfide content in coal gas leaving desulfurization system is 0.115 g/m/sup 3/ and 0.15-0.16 g/m/sup 3/ respectively). The Claus sulfur recovery system is particularly economic. 21 references.

  13. Biogas desulfurization with doped activated carbon; Feinentschwefelung von Biogas mit dotierter Aktivkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossow, Silvana; Goetze, Toralf [AdFiS systems GmbH, Teterow (Germany); Deerberg, Goerge [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Kanswohl, Norbert [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technologie und Verfahrenstechniken der umweltgerechten Landbewirtschaftung

    2009-07-01

    Doped activated carbon is a special developed activated carbon for the desulfurization of biogas. Because of its special properties it is able to bond a big amount of hydrogen sulfide. After many laboratory tests it was possible to demonstrate the performance of doped activated carbon for desulfurization in practical use The advantages and the specific functioning of doped activated carbon for desulfurization were here exactly as in previous laboratory studies. Despite fluctuating boundary conditions a continuous complete desulfurization was possible. By using the desulfurization system the concentration of hydrogen sulfide is lowered to less than 1 ppm. The damages or interferences that are often caused by hydrogen sulfide could not be identified. A directly visible positive impact of the full desulfurization is the doubling of oil using time. (orig.)

  14. Mechanistic analysis of ultrasound assisted enzymatic desulfurization of liquid fuels using horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasarkar, Jaykumar; Borah, Arup Jyoti; Goswami, Pranab; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2015-11-01

    This study has attempted to gain physical insight into ultrasound-assisted enzymatic desulfurization using system comprising horseradish peroxidase enzyme and dibenzothiophene (DBT). Desulfurization pathway (comprising DBT-sulfoxide and DBT-sulfone as intermediates and 4-methoxy benzoic acid as final product) has been established with GC-MS analysis. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra of ultrasound-treated enzyme reveal conformational changes in secondary structure (reduction in α-helix and β-conformations and increase in random coil content) leading to enhancement in activity. Concurrent analysis of desulfurization profiles, Arrhenius and thermodynamic parameters, and simulations of cavitation bubble dynamics reveal that strong micro-convection generated by sonication enhances enzyme activity and desulfurization kinetics. Parallel oxidation of DBT by radicals generated from transient cavitation gives further boost to desulfurization kinetics. However, random motion of enzyme molecules induced by shock waves reduces frequency factor and limits the ultrasonic enhancement of enzymatic desulfurization. PMID:26231128

  15. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Duan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30% were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL/V(Oil /V(H2O2 = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 °C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  16. A novel system combining biocatalytic dephosphorylation of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and electrochemical oxidation of resulting ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Homma, Toshimasa; Kondo, Mizuki; Shimomura, Masato

    2011-03-15

    An enzyme electrode was prepared with acid phosphatase (ACP) for development of a new electric power generation system using ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P) as a fuel. The properties of the electrode were investigated with respect to biocatalytic dephosphorylation of AA2P and electrochemical oxidation of resulting ascorbic acid (AA). The enzyme electrode was fabricated by immobilization of ACP through amide linkage onto a self-assembled monolayer of 3-mercaptopropionic acid on a gold electrode. AA2P was not oxidized on a bare gold electrode in the potential sweep range from -0.1 to +0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. However, the enzyme electrode gave an oxidation current in citric buffer solution of pH 5 containing 10 mM of AA2P. The oxidation current began to increase at +0.2V, and reached to 5.0 μA cm(-2) at +0.5 V. The potential +0.2 V corresponded to the onset of oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA). These results suggest that the oxidation current observed with the enzyme electrode is due to AA resulting from dephosphorylation of AA2P. The oxidation current increased with increasing concentration of AA2P and almost leveled off at around the concentration of 5mM. Thus the enzyme electrode brought about biocatalytic conversion of AA2P to AA, followed by electrochemical oxidation of the AA. The oxidation current is likely to be controlled by the biocatalytic reaction. PMID:21247749

  17. Retrofit flue gas desulfurization system at Indianapolis Power and Light Co. Petersburg Station Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly describes the status of the retrofit wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system (FGDS) project at Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL), Petersburg Units 1 and 2. This project was initiated by IPL in response to the Clean Air Act of 1990 and is intended to treat the flue gas from two base load units with a combined capacity of approximately 700 MW gross electrical output. IPL is the owner and operator of the Petersburg Station located in southwestern Indiana. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone and Webster) is the Engineer and Constructor for the project. Radian Corporation is a subcontractor to Stone and Webster in the area of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. General Electric Environmental Systems, Inc. (GEESI) is the supplier of the FGDS. The project is organized as a team with each company providing services. The supplier of the new stack is scheduled to be selected and join the team in early 1992. Other material suppliers and field contractors will be selected in 1992

  18. Distribution of sulfur-containing aromatics between [hmim][Tf2N] and supercritical CO2: a case study for deep desulfurization of oil refinery streams by extraction with ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2006), s. 70-77. ISSN 1463-9262 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * diesel fuel desulfurization * supercritical carbon dioxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.192, year: 2006

  19. Research on Effect Evaluation of Flue Gas Desulfurization Transformation for Coal-fired Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, the sulfur dioxide produced in coal has increased dramatically. Flue gas desulfurization is an effective measure to control the sulfur dioxide emissions. Taking Handan thermal power plant as example, this paper evaluates the effectiveness of flue gas desulfurization transformation using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, which may contribute to the implementation of the transformation of outdated flue gas desulfurization.

  20. Research on the Desulfurization Gypsum of the Rotary Kiln with the Finned Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zongyu; Xin, Zhaoxiang; Jie LI; Zhao, Hongming

    2010-01-01

    The calcination technology of the desulfurization gypsum decides the product quality directly. The production process and property of the desulfurization gypsum has been described and themerits and faults of the conventional calcination technologies have been analyzed. The calcination technology of the desulfurization gypsum of the rotary kiln with the finned tube was chose for the research. The structure and workflow of the calcinatory has been analyzed, and the results showed the advantages...

  1. Visible-Light-Induced Specific Desulfurization of Cysteinyl Peptide and Glycopeptide in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Fei; Du, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zheng; Guo, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Visible-light-induced specific desulfurization of cysteinyl peptides has been explored. The photocatalytic desulfurization catalyzed by Ru(bpy)3(2+) can proceed efficiently at room temperature in aqueous solution or in binary mixtures of aqueous/organic solvent and be compatible with the presence of residues of amino acids, carbohydrates, and various sulfur-containing functional groups. This approach was successfully applied to synthesize linear and cyclic peptides through the ligation-desulfurization protocol. PMID:26892036

  2. Extractive Deep Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Lewis-Based Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar; Kailas L. Wasewar; Varma, Mahesh N.; Diwakar Z. Shende

    2013-01-01

    A new class of green solvents, known as ionic liquids (ILs), has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of traditional hydrodesulfurization method. In present work, eleven Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized and employed as promising extractants for deep desulfurization of the liquid fuel containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) to test the desulfurization efficiency. [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 was the most promising ioni...

  3. Multifluid modeling of the desulfurization process within a bubbling fluidized bed coal gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, L-M.; Gu, Sai; Luo, K. H.; P Mahanta

    2013-01-01

    The desulfurization process to a two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) Eulerian-Eulerian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of a coal bubbling fluidized gasifier is introduced. The desulfurization process is important for the reduction of harmful SOx emissions; therefore, the development of a CFD model capable of predicting chemical reactions involving desulfurization is key to the optimization of reactor designs and operating conditions. To model the process, one gaseous pha...

  4. Application and Development Trend of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Process: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Jamil; Li Ming; Irfan Jamil; Rizwan Jamil

    2013-01-01

    In 1927, the limestone desulfurization process was first applied in the Barthes and Bansside Power Plants (total 120MW) beside the Thames River in UK to protect high-rise building in London. Up to now, over 10 desulfurization processes have been launched and applied. Based on the desulfurizing agent being used, there include calcium process (limestone/lime), ammonia process, magnesium process, sodium process, alkali alumina process, copper oxide/zinc process, active carbon process, ammonium d...

  5. Thermodynamic Interferences of HCl and HF in Producer Gas Desulfurization by Ce, La, Mn and Zn Based Solid Sorbents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Jeremiáš, Michal; Huang, Ch.-Y.

    Prague: Orgit, 2014, s. 79. ISBN 978-80-02-02555-9. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering /21./ - CHISA 2014 and Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction /17./ - PRES 2014. Prague (CZ), 23.08.2014-27.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-09692J Grant ostatní: NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : producer gas * desulfurization * thermodynamics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  6. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily

  7. Comparison of deep desulfurization methods in alumina production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战伟; 李旺兴; 马文会; 尹中林; 武国宝

    2015-01-01

    Several methods of deep desulfurization in alumina production process were studied, and the costs of these methods were compared. It is found that most of the S2− in sodium aluminate solution can be removed by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide in digestion process, and in this way the effect of S2− on alumina product quality is eliminated. However, the removal efficiency of2-23SOin sodium aluminate solution is very low by this method. Both S2− and2-23SO in sodium aluminate solution can be removed completely by wet oxidation method in digestion process. The cost of desulfurization by wet oxidation is lower than by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide. The results of this research reveal that wet oxidation is an economical and feasible method for the removal of sulfur in alumina production process to improve alumina quality, and provide valuable guidelines for alumina production by high-sulfur bauxite.

  8. Experimental and mechanism studies on seawater flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (Seawater FGD) process has a number of advantages, but the study on mechanism of seawater FGD is little. The effects of absorbing efficiency of SO2 by the constant component and part of trace transition elements in seawater are studied by the experiment. The results indicate that the effect factors of absorption of SO2 by seawater are alkaline, ion intensity, catalysis of Cl- and transition metal ions Fe, Mn. The degree of effect is alkaline > the catalysis of Cl-, Fe2+ and Mn > ion intensity. The mechanisms of catalysis oxidation for S(IV) by Cl, Feand Mnare discussed. According to the results, some measures can be used to improved the capability of desulfurization.

  9. Mesoporous Inorganic Materials For The Desulfurization Of Jet Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino, Jessica Marie

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of the U.S. military is to use solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a power source during military silent watch missions. Fueling these SOFCs with JP-8, the military's primary fuel type, would be ideal. However, the organosulfur compounds present quickly poison the expensive fuel cell and reformer components, drastically limiting the lifetime of the SOFC. Furthermore, current desulfurization technology is unable to produce ultra-low sulfur content JP-8 fuel required for solid oxide ...

  10. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade

    1998-02-28

    The reactions of dialkyl mono- and disulfides and functionalized alkylthio compounds with sodium in refluxing hydrocarbon solvent (tetradecane, mesitylene or toluene) resulted in sulfur-free products in very high yields. Greater than 95% sulfur removal was observed when dialkyl mono or polysulfides were treated with Na in liquid ammonia. Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles were only moderately desulfurized under these conditions while phenylthio derivatives gave thiophenol as the major product and dithiophenols as the minor products.

  11. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez; Guillermo González Múzquiz; José Refugio Parga Torres; Luciano Eliezer Ramírez Vidaurri

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial c...

  12. Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosád Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.

  13. Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosád, Jan; Vít, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.

  14. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO x gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, ...

  15. Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Novosád Jan; Vít Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension...

  16. Peroxidase-active cell free extract from onion solid wastes: biocatalytic properties and putative pathway of ferulic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agha, Ayman; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2008-09-01

    The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses in several biocatalytic processes, including green organic synthesis, modification of food physicochemical properties, bioremediation, etc. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained attention in studies pertaining to biocatalytic applications, plant enzymes have been given less consideration or even disregarded. Therefore, we investigated the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from solid onion by-products for oxidizing ferulic acid, a widespread phenolic acid, various derivatives of which may occur in food wastes. The highest enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 4, but considerable activity was retained up to a pH value of 6. Favorable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20-40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated ferulic acid solution showed the formation of a dimer as a major oxidation product. PMID:18930006

  17. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%. PMID:23798152

  18. [Pore structure and desulfurization characteristics of organic calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai-ping; Li, Jing-tao; Zhou, Jun-hu; Sun, Bao-min; Ye, Li-ping

    2008-08-01

    Calcination of oganic calcium was carried out in fixed bed, pore structure of tested sample was analyzed with auto-adsorption analyzer, and desulfurization experiment was studied by intelligent sulfur determination analyzer. Specific surface area of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was 46.6 m2/g after calcination at 900 degrees C, almost four times of that of limestone. Specific surface area of calcium acetate (CA) were mainly made up of pore of diameter less than 5 nm, and those of CMA was chiefly contributed by middle pore of diameter about 5 nm. Agglomeration of CA occurred in pore of diameter less than 5 nm, while CMA was sintered in whole range of pore size distribution. Agglomeration of organic calcium were slighter. Desulfurization efficiency of organic calcium ranged from 62.28% to 75.55% at 1000 degrees C as calcium/sulfur ratio being one, which was one time more than that of limestone. Perfect pore structure of organic calcium contributes to higher desulfurization efficiency. PMID:18839601

  19. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  20. Sequence and molecular characterization of a DNA region encoding the dibenzothiophene desulfurization operon of Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8.

    OpenAIRE

    Piddington, C S; Kovacevich, B R; Rambosek, J

    1995-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model compound for sulfur-containing organic molecules found in fossil fuels, can be desulfurized to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) by Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8. Complementation of a desulfurization (dsz) mutant provided the genes from Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 responsible for desulfurization. A 6.7-kb TaqI fragment cloned in Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector pRR-6 was found to both complement this mutation and confer desulfurization to Rhodococcus fascian...

  1. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12 MPa at the age of 28 d of curing. Stabilizer can meet the strength requirements of cement-soil mixing pile composite foundation and cement-soil mixing pile waterproof curtain.

  2. Progress on flue gas desulfurization and denitration with electron beam irradiation in CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first pilot plant with electron beam irradiation for desulfurization and denitration of flue gas in China and the experimental results based on the pilot plant are briefly introduced in this paper. The FGD (flue gas desulfurization) demonstration installation designed by CAEP (China Academy of Engineering Physics) in Beijing Jingfeng Thermal Powe Co., Ltd. is recommended. (author)

  3. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-01

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels. PMID:26051675

  4. Commercial Test of Multi-functional Desulfurizing Agent TS-01 for Gasoline in FCC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhi; Wu Yingjian; Yu Weisheng

    2003-01-01

    Experimental use of multi-functional desulfurizing agent TS-01 for FCC gasoline in the FCC unitof SINOPEC Jiujiang Company shows that the multi-functional desulfurizing agent can effectivelyremove various kinds of sulfur in FCC gasoline and diesel fuel and fulfill passivation on heavy metals.

  5. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  6. Desulfurization of natural gases and industrial gases using water solutions of alkanolamines - a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdal, S.; Kowalska, T.; Kowalski, P.; Rutkowski, K.; Gwiner, H.

    1984-10-01

    Twenty-eight articles are reviewed on desulfurization of natural gas and industrial gases, among others coal gas, using water solutions of alkanolamines. Processes for production of alkanolamines as well as their chemical and physical properties are evaluated. The Sulfiban Process developed in the USA and used on a commercial scale by the Bethlehem Steel company is characterized: 13 to 18% water solution of monoethanoloamine is used; hydrogen cyanide, oxygen, oxysulfides etc. do not have a negative influence on sorption ability of monoethanolamine. The method is characterized by high desulfurization efficiency, low consumption rates of monoethanolamine solution, uncomplicated design of desulfurization system, low investment and limited waste water discharge. The Thylox Process and the absorption-carbonate methods are used in Poland for coal gas desulfurization. The methods use imported materials. Due to shortage of foreign currency Polish research institutes are investigating the possibility of replacing the Thylox Process with desulfurization methods using alkanolamines. 28 references.

  7. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  8. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2001-09-01

    Due to the increasingly stricter regulations for deep reduction of fuel sulfur content, development of new deep desulfurization processes for liquid transport fuels has become one of the major challenges to the refining industry and to the production of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cell applications. The sulfur compounds in the current transport fuels corresponding to the S level of 350-500 ppm account for only about 0.12-0.25 wt % of the fuel. The conventional hydrotreating approaches will need to increase catalyst bed volume at high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for treating 100 % of the whole fuel in order to convert the fuel mass of less than 0.25 wt %. In the present study, we are exploring a novel adsorption process for desulfurization at low temperatures, which can effectively reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel at low investment and operating cost to meet the needs for ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications. Some adsorbents were prepared in this study for selective adsorption of sulfur compounds in the fuels. The adsorption experiments were conducted by using a model fuel and real fuels. The results show that the adsorbent (A-1) with a transition metal compound has a significant selectivity for sulfur compounds with a saturated adsorption capacity of {approx}0.12 mol of sulfur compounds per mol of the metal compound. Most sulfur compounds existing in the current commercial gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel can be removed by the adsorption using adsorbent A-1. On the basis of the preliminary results, a novel concept for integrated process for deep desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons was proposed.

  9. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh isolates of bacteria presumptively identified as R. erythropolis unequivocally have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. The production of OH-BP from either DBT or DBTO{sub 2} was confirmed by difference spectroscopy, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. The temperature, pH, and means of supplying the thiophenic or sulfonic sole source of sulfur were optimized. The maximal rate of growth of the organism, its affinity for sulfone, and the extent to which substrate was converted to product were determined by using batch, fed batch, and continuous cultures. For strain N1-36, the maximum specific growth rate was 0.235 hr{sup -1} which corresponds to a minimal generation time of 2.95 hr. The K{sub s} was estimated to be 0.39 {mu}M. With 100 {mu}M DBT as the sole sulfur source, approximately 40 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth); with 100 {mu}M DBTO{sub 2} as the sole sulfur source, approximately 70 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth). The desulfurization activity is repressed by SO{sub 4}{sup =} OH-BP does not serve as a carbon source. The DbtS{sup +} phenotype of the R. erythropolis isolates is stable and discrete. The isolates selectively remove sulfur from DBT, a compound which models a refractory form of organic sulfur in compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. The desulfurization occurs with no oxidation of carbon-carbon bonds. The stability and specificity (along with genetic regulation) indicate that microbial desulfurization in a real phenomenon in which a noxious element is removed without significantly affecting the calorific value of the substrate. Additional characterization (and optimization) would provide the basis of a very important form of fossil fuel beneficiation.

  10. Biocatalytic self-assembly of supramolecular charge-transfer nanostructures based on n-type semiconductor-appended peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Berdugo, Cristina; Javid, Nadeem; Frederix, Pim W J M; Ulijn, Rein V

    2014-06-01

    The reversible in situ formation of a self-assembly building block (naphthalenediimide (NDI)-dipeptide conjugate) by enzymatic condensation of NDI-functionalized tyrosine (NDI-Y) and phenylalanine-amide (F-NH2) to form NDI-YF-NH2 is described. This coupled biocatalytic condensation/assembly approach is thermodynamically driven and gives rise to nanostructures with optimized supramolecular interactions as evidenced by substantial aggregation induced emission upon assembly. Furthermore, in the presence of di-hydroxy/alkoxy naphthalene donors, efficient charge-transfer complexes are produced. The dynamic formation of NDI-YF-NH2 and electronic and H-bonding interactions are analyzed and characterized by different methods. Microscopy (TEM and AFM) and rheology are used to characterize the formed nanostructures. Dynamic nanostructures, whose formation and function are driven by free-energy minimization, are inherently self-healing and provide opportunities for the development of aqueous adaptive nanotechnology. PMID:24788665

  11. The rationalization of desulfurization by on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y.; Kohmura, S.; Taketomi, H.; Matsumura, S.; Sasaki, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Nippon Kokan uses the Takahax and Sulfiban processes for the desulfurization of coke oven gas. The authors outline the Sulfiban Process and describe a recently developed system for the on-line determination of H/sub 2/S in coke oven gas, and of CO/sub 2/ and monoethanolamine (MEA) in the wash oil. This new on-line analysis system has proved effective in rationalizing the Sulfiban Process via lower MEA production costs and decreased power consumption. The introduction of a computerized control system is now being studied. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Liu, Jun; Huo, Qisheng

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  13. Tunneling of redox enzymes to design nano-probes for monitoring NAD(+) dependent bio-catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshath, Uchangi Satyaprasad; Bhatt, Praveena

    2016-11-15

    Monitoring of bio-catalytic events by using nano-probes is of immense interest due to unique optical properties of metal nanoparticles. In the present study, tunneling of enzyme activity was achieved using redox cofactors namely oxidized cytochrome-c (Cyt-c) and Co-enzyme-Q (Co-Q) immobilized on Quantum dots (QDs) which acted as a bio-probe for NAD(+) dependent dehydrogenase catalyzed reaction. We studied how electron transfer from substrate to non-native electron acceptors can differentially modify photoluminescence properties of CdTe QDs. Two probes were designed, QD-Ox-Cyt-c and QD-Ox-Co-Q, which were found to quench the fluorescence of QDs. However, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) catalyzed reduction of Cyt-c and Co-Q on the surface of QDs lead to fluorescence turn-on of CdTe QDs. This phenomenon was successfully used for the detection of HCHO in the range of 0.01-100,000ng/mL (LOD of 0.01ng/mL) using both QD-Ox-Cyt-c (R(2)=0.93) and QD-Ox-Co-Q (R(2)=0.96). Further probe performance and stability in samples like milk, wine and fruit juice matrix were studied and we could detect HCHO in range of 0.001-100,000ng/mL (LOD of 0.001ng/mL) with good stability and sensitivity of probe in real samples (R(2)=0.97). Appreciable recovery and detection sensitivity in the presence of metal ions suggests that the developed nano-probes can be used successfully for monitoring dehydrogenase based bio-catalytic events even in the absence of NAD(+). Proposed method is advantageous over classical methods as clean up/ derivatization of samples is not required for formaldehyde detection. PMID:27179565

  14. Thermodynamic Analysis of Desulfurization of Fine Coal by Electrochemical Reduction Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; ZHU Hong; ZHANG Yu

    2003-01-01

    Problems in desulfurization of coal by electrochemical reduction is analyzed and calculated. The result shows that 1) the △rGm function of the reaction of pyrite into FeS and the modifying reaction decreasing the oxygenous functions on coal surface is smaller than zero in a spontaneous reaction, and greater than zero in a nonspontaneous reaction; 2) the △rGm value can be adjusted by pH and the dosage of electrolyte to make it be greater than zero , which is favorable for the modifying reaction and useful for desulfurization of coal. The research has provided a theoretical foundation for determining reasonable technical parameters of desulfurization

  15. The effect of annealing and desulfurization on oxide spallation of turbine airfoil material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors report a study that addresses the sulfur-induced spallation theory. Previous work has shown that a high temperature anneal in hydrogen desulfurizes nickel-base alloys and greatly improves their resistance to oxide spallation. The authors will show that such an anneal can be applied successfully to a Ni-base airfoil material. Both Auger segregation experiments and chemical analyses show that this anneal desulfurizes the material, at least in the absence of yttrium. However, the results suggest that factors other than desulfurization may be contributing to the improvement in spallation resistance produced by the anneal

  16. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Erhong Duan; Dishun Zhao; Yanan Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H2O2) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 °C, the time 30 min. The ...

  17. Binding and desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor in biocoalbriquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejoon; Lu, Guoqing; Li, Tianji; Sadakata, Masayoshi

    2002-04-01

    To control pollutant emissions from coal combustion in some developing countries, biocoalbriquette, an artificially produced solid fuel, was developed. Both the breaking strength and production costs of the biocoalbriquette have become essentially the most important factors in popularizing it in these countries. To increase the breaking strength and decrease the production costs, it is proposed in this study to use pulp black liquor, a byproduct from the pulp production industry, as a binder. The influences of pulp black liquor on the briquetting and combustion characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, the desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor were also evaluated through combustion experiments. The study results show that the briquetting pressure has a limited effect on the breaking strength. An increase in the briquetting pressure yields greater breaking strength of up to the 50 MPa. Above 50 MPa, the breaking strength changes very little with the briquetting pressure. The use of pulp black liquor has had a greater effect on increasing the breaking strength than on changing the briquetting pressure and also on improving the combustion characteristics of the biocoalbriquette. On the other hand, pulp black liquor has some desulfurization capabilities. When used as a binder, it not only increases the breaking strength and decreases the necessary briquetting pressure, but it also improves some characteristics of the combustion and reduces the pollutants emission. PMID:11999073

  18. Desulfurization Activated Phosphorothioate DNAzyme for the Detection of Thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2015-10-20

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal situated between mercury and lead in the periodic table. While its neighbors have been thoroughly studied for DNA-based sensing, little is known about thallium detection. In this work, in vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes is carried out using Tl(3+) as the target metal cofactor. Both normal DNA and phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA are tested for this purpose. While no Tl(3+)-dependent DNAzymes are obtained, a DNA oligonucleotide containing a single PS-modified RNA nucleotide is found to cleave by ∼7% by Tl(3+) at the RNA position. The remaining 93% are desulfurized. By hybridization of this PS-modified oligonucleotide with the Tm7 DNAzyme, the cleavage yield increases to ∼40% in the presence of Tl(3+) and Er(3+). Tm7 is an Er(3+)-dependent RNA-cleaving DNAzyme. It cleaves only the normal substrate but is completely inactive using the PS-modified substrate. Tl(3+) desulfurizes the PS substrate to the normal substrate to be cleaved by Tm7 and Er(3+). This system is engineered into a catalytic beacon for Tl(3+) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM, which is below its maximal contamination limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (10 nM). PMID:26393365

  19. Study on Desulfurization of Gasoline by Electrochemical Oxidation and Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenbo; Wang Shujun; Liu Hongyan; Wang Zhenxin

    2006-01-01

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, a new desulfurization process was proposed by using catalytic oxidation and extraction realized in an electrochemical fluidized reactor. The fluidized layer of loaded catalyst particles consisted of lead dioxide (PbO2) supported on activated carbon particles (PbO2/C) and the electrolyte was aqueous NaOH solution. The PbO2/C particle anodes could remarkably accelerate the electrochemical reaction rate and promote the electrochemical catalysis of sulfur compounds. The sulfur compounds were at first oxidized to sulfones or sulfoxides, which were then removed after extraction. The experimental results indicated that the optimal desulfurization conditions were as follows: The cell voltage was 3.2 V, the concentration of hydroxyl ions in electrolyte was 0.12 mol/L, and the feed rate was 300 mL/min. Under these conditions the concentration of sulfur in gasoline was reduced from 310 ppm to 70 ppm. Based on these experimental results, a mechanism of indirect electrochemically catalytic oxidation was proposed.

  20. Preparation of activated ceria and its desulfurization performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-chun Yu; Yong Deng; Fei Wang; Yue-bin Feng; Xiu-min Chen; Bin Yang; Da-chun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Activated ceria (CeO2/γ-Al2O3) prepared by impregnation was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM), and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The desulfurization of the activated ceria was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results showed that ceria could be highly dispersed or crystallized on the surface ofγ-alumina. The reduction temperatures of 0.1CeO2/γ-Al2O3, 0.45CeO2/γ-Al2O3, and CeO2 ranged from 250°C to 470°C, 330°C to 550°C, and 350°C to 550°C, respectively. The reduction peak tem-perature of 0.45CeO2/γ-Al2O3 was higher than that of 0.1CeO2/γ-Al2O3, which was consistent with the reduction temperature of CeO2. O2 participated in the reaction between ceria and sulfur dioxide. The desulfurization product was cerium(III) sulfate. The intensity of the hy-droxyl band decreased with the formation of sulfate species.

  1. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  2. Research on optimal domestication of thiobacillus ferooxidans and desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G.; Tao, X.; Zhang, X.; ??? Luo, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2006-07-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of biodesulfurization and reduce the reaction time, based on the high selectivity adsorption and oxidation characteristic of thiobacillus ferooxidans (T.f.) for pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in coal, the strain of T.f. was acclimatized by changing concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and adding FeS{sub 2} and glucose in the 9 K medium. The optimal conditions of growth were investigated and used in the biodesulfurization experiments. The results show that the normal growth of T.f. was achieved after two turns of acclimatization. The desulfurization efficiency is the best under the conditions of 10% inoculation, 1.85 pH value and 27{sup o}C. The smaller the size of coal particle is, the effective the biodesulfurization is. The maximum sulphur removal from coal of 76.2% was obtained after reaction time of 7 days. The mechanisms of desulfurization with T.f. can be explained by the cooperation reaction of dissolved oxygen, bacteria and Fe{sup 3+}. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Hybrid membrane with TiO2 based bio-catalytic nanoparticle suspension system for the degradation of bisphenol-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingwei; Dong, Guangxi; Luu, Belinda; Sengpiel, Robert G; Ye, Yun; Wessling, Matthias; Chen, Vicki

    2014-10-01

    The removal of micropollutant in wastewater treatment has become a key environmental challenge for many industrialized countries. One approach is to use enzymes such as laccase for the degradation of micropollutants such as bisphenol-A. In this work, laccase was covalently immobilized on APTES modified TiO2 nanoparticles, and the effects of particle modification on the bio-catalytic performance were examined and optimized. These bio-catalytic particles were then suspended in a hybrid membrane reactor for BPA removal with good BPA degradation efficiency observed. Substantial improvement in laccase stability was achieved in the hybrid system compared with free laccase under simulated harsh industrial wastewater treatment conditions (such as a wide range of pH and presence of inhibitors). Kinetic study provided insight of the effect of immobilization on the bio-degradation reaction. PMID:25084046

  4. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning. PMID:24456468

  5. Development of a two separate phase submerged biocatalytic membrane reactor for the production of fatty acids and glycerol from residual vegetable oil streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatic membrane bioreactors (MBR) have been studied for very different applications since many years. Submerged MBR has also been successfully used for treatment of wastewater. In the existing submerged configuration, the membrane works as the separation unit operation while the bioconversion is carried out by microorganisms suspended in the tank reactor. In the present work, a novel approach that combines the concept of biocatalytic membranes and submerged modules is proposed for the treatment of biomass. Lipase enzyme from Candida rugosa has been immobilized in polyethersulphone hollow fiber (PES HF) membrane in order to develop a two separate phase biocatalytic submerged membrane reactor in which the membrane works as both catalytic and separation unit. Furthermore, the submerged biocatalytic membrane reactor is intended for production of valuable components from waste biomass, and different physical, chemical and fluid dynamics has been optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to model the operating parameters and Box-Behnken method has been applied to maximize the fatty acids production and optimization. At TMP 80 ± 2 kPa, pH 7.40 ± 0.1, temperature 35 ± 0.5 °C with an axial velocity of 0.07 ± 0.01 ms−1 and organic stirring 89.01 rad s−1 the system showed the global examined value within the experimental scope. The proof of principle using fried cooked oils has been performed in later period. -- Highlights: Catalytic activity of enzyme in submerged condition has been studied. ► Optimization of submerged biocatalytic membrane reactor for production of value added components. ► Waste valorization by membrane reactor in order to minimization of waste. ► Three different waste oil (as waste biomass) has been studied in respect to product generation and different results obtained.

  6. Biocatalytic synthesis of flavones and hydroxyl-small molecules by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the cyanobacterial CYP110E1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Makino Takuya; Otomatsu Toshihiko; Shindo Kazutoshi; Kitamura Emi; Sandmann Gerhard; Harada Hisashi; Misawa Norihiko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyanobacteria possess several cytochrome P450s, but very little is known about their catalytic functions. CYP110 genes unique to cyanaobacteria are widely distributed in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria including nitrogen-fixing genera Nostoc and Anabaena. We screened the biocatalytic functions of all P450s from three cyanobacterial strains of genus Nostoc or Anabaena using a series of small molecules that contain flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, low-molecular-weight drugs, and...

  7. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  8. Biocatalytic Conversion of Avermectin to 4″-Oxo-Avermectin: Improvement of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Specificity by Directed Evolution▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefzer, Axel; Jungmann, Volker; Molnár, István; Botejue, Ajit; Buckel, Dagmar; Frey, Gerhard; Hill, D. Steven; Jörg, Mario; Ligon, James M.; Mason, Dylan; Moore, David; Pachlatko, J. Paul; Richardson, Toby H.; Spangenberg, Petra; Wall, Mark A.; Zirkle, Ross; Stege, Justin T.

    2007-01-01

    Discovery of the CYP107Z subfamily of cytochrome P450 oxidases (CYPs) led to an alternative biocatalytic synthesis of 4″-oxo-avermectin, a key intermediate for the commercial production of the semisynthetic insecticide emamectin. However, under industrial process conditions, these wild-type CYPs showed lower yields due to side product formation. Molecular evolution employing GeneReassembly was used to improve the regiospecificity of these enzymes by a combination of random mutagenesis, protein structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis, and recombination of multiple natural and synthetic CYP107Z gene fragments. To assess the specificity of CYP mutants, a miniaturized, whole-cell biocatalytic reaction system that allowed high-throughput screening of large numbers of variants was developed. In an iterative process consisting of four successive rounds of GeneReassembly evolution, enzyme variants with significantly improved specificity for the production of 4″-oxo-avermectin were identified; these variants could be employed for a more economical industrial biocatalytic process to manufacture emamectin. PMID:17483257

  9. Using sugar factory carbonatation lime for flue-gas desulfurization; Utilisation des ecumes de sucrerie pour la desulfuration des fumees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolignier, J.C.; Martin, G. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1999-10-01

    Studies have been carried out by the Institut Francais du Petrole and Babcock Entreprise to demonstrate that sugar factory carbonization lime can be used as a desulfurization agent in the Aude boiler, which is a new combustion apparatus designed to use high sulfur fuels. Tests have been conducted both in the laboratory and on a near-industrial-scale 10 MW boiler. Sugar factory carbonatation lime provides greater desulfurization efficiency than that obtained using finely crushed natural limestone. Furthermore, the nitrogen contained in the carbonatation lime reduces NO{sub x} emissions through selective non-catalytic reduction. Those who use high sulfur content fuels, and who are faced with increasingly stringent legislation, could reduce their annual outlays for absorbents by using sugar factory carbonatation lime. In addition, sugar producers could open up a new channel for using their carbonatation lime. The high water content of carbonatation lime rules out long distance transport. Calculations have been carried out to indicate at whet distance carbonatation lime becomes more expensive than limestone. (authors) 11 refs.

  10. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Performance evaluation and effect of biogas circulation rate of a bubble column for biological desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Xu, Kai-Qin; Li, Yu-You; Inamori, Yuhei

    2012-01-01

    Biological desulfurization using a bubble column reactor was investigated in a continuous biogas treatment. Rapid biogas circulation between the digester and the bubble column for biological desulfurization was used to stimulate the gas-liquid mass transfer of H(2)S. A positive correlation between the biogas circulation rate and H(2)S removal rate was observed. Moreover, the increase in the circulation rate stimulated the O(2) mass transfer, eventually translating into an increase in sulfate production from the oxidation of H(2)S. Throughout the continuous experiment, the reactor retained sufficient levels of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. A comparison of the results of the continuous biogas treatment and batch tests suggests that the gas-liquid mass transfer rate of H(2)S was the rate-limiting step in the biological desulfurization in the reactor, indicating that the mass transfer efficiency of H(2)S needs to be improved to enhance the desulfurization performance. PMID:22925864

  12. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Gao, Ruimin [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Zhao, Jianshe, E-mail: jszhao@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Wang, Junlong [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2015-05-15

    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.

  13. Key factor in rice husk ash/CaO sorbent for high flue gas desulfurization activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvan Dahlan; Keat Teong Lee; Azlina Harun Kamaruddin; Abdul Rahman Mohamed [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-01

    Siliceous materials such as rice husk ash (RHA) have potential to be utilized as high performance sorbents for the flue gas desulfurization process in small-scale industrial boilers. This study presents findings on identifying the key factor for high desulfurization activity in sorbents prepared from RHA. Initially, a systematic approach using central composite rotatable design was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the sorbent preparation variables to the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. The sorbent preparation variables studied are hydration period, x{sub 1} (6-16 h), amount of RHA, x{sub 2} (5-15 g), amount of CaO, x{sub 3} (2-6 g), amount of water, x{sub 4} (90-110 mL), and hydration temperature, x{sub 5} (150-250{sup o}C). The mathematical model developed was subjected to statistical tests and the model is adequate for predicting the SO{sub 2} desulfurization activity of the sorbent within the range of the sorbent preparation variables studied. Based on the model, the amount of RHA, amount of CaO, and hydration period used in the preparation step significantly influenced the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. The ratio of RHA and CaO used in the preparation mixture was also a significant factor that influenced the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. A RHA to CaO ratio of 2.5 leads to the formation of specific reactive species in the sorbent that are believed to be the key factor responsible for high desulfurization activity in the sorbent. Other physical properties of the sorbent such as pore size distribution and surface morphology were found to have insignificant influence on the desulfurization activity of the sorbent. 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiulan Song; Weifeng Yao; Bo Zhang; Yiping Wu

    2012-01-01

    A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solutio...

  15. Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene in the presence of iron chlorideionic liquid catalyst and ultrasound waves

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Sadat Seyedi; Manouchehr Bahmaei; Amir Farshi

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene refinery in Tehran with sulfur content of 0/293% with iron chloride - hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonic liquid catalysts in the presence of acetic acid - formic acid and an oxidizinghydrogen peroxide has been studied. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of moles of sulfur oxidation (no/ ns),mole ratio of moles of acid per mol of sulfur (nacid/ ns (on the desulfurization of kerosene checked(the molar ratio of o...

  16. Characteristics of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 and its Dsz-negative mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Etemadifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodesulfurization is used as a selective method for lowering the sulfur content of petroleum products. Materials and methods: A sulfur-oxidation bacterial strain named Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GU570564 was used in this study for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT. Results: The induced culture of strain R1 was able to produce 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2- HBP from DBT followed 4S pathway without further degrading carbon backbone. This process confirmed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. The specific activity of DBT desulfurization by R1 was 45 µM (g dry wt-1 h-1. The addition of Tween 80 as surfactant and glycerol as carbon source determines a 100% rate of DBT-desulfurization during 3 days. The heavy plasmid detected in R1 strain carries dsz genes responsible for biodesulfurization of DBT that was shown by PCR reaction. The mutant strains which had lost this plasmid also had lost desulfurization phenotype. Both mutant and wild strain were sensitive to high concentration of 2-HBP and some antibiotics. Discussion and conclusion: Strain R1 desulfurize DBT through the sulfur-specific degradation pathway or 4S pathway with the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S bonds without reducing the energy content. Addition of surfactant enhanced the desulfurization of DBT by increasing its bioavailability and also could improve the growth and desulfurization rate. The location of desulfurization genes was on a heavy plasmid in strain R1. Based on the results of this study, R. erythropolis R1 could serve as a model system for efficient biodesulfurization of petroleum oil without reducing the energy value.

  17. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M2(PcAN)2 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcAN)2–W-HZSM-5) or the M2(PcTN)2 doping W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu2(PcAN)2–W-HZSM-5 and Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N2 adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu2(PcAN)2–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed

  18. Limestone scrubbing for 2000 flue gas desulfurization system. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-16

    As emission limits for sulfur dioxide from utility coal-fired boilers become lower due to increased regulation and environmental concern around the globe, power generating companies require increasingly cost-effective pollution control technology in order to maintain or reduce the cost of electricity to the end user. Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization, or WFGD, is the preferred sulfur dioxide removal technology for utilities in the US and worldwide. This is a result of its extensive reference list, lower risks, and lower evaluated overall costs. For more than two decades ABB has supplied WFGD systems and currently has greater than 29,000 MWe of scrubbing capacity in operation. Given the industry`s ever-present need for lower costs, ABB funds a continuous research and development program focused on technology advancements that will reduce both capital and operating costs for its customers. As a result of this effort the LS-2 Concept WFGD System was developed through revolutionary design changes in every significant subprocess of conventional WFGD technology. To demonstrate the cumulative effects of all the individual advancements of the LS-2 Concept and to prove the process`s viability and cost-efficiency under representative US power plant conditions, the Limestone Scrubbing for 2000 project was initiated. This report is the final submittal to the Ohio Coal Development Office to document the results of this demonstrate project. The four-phase project execution, from the initial design and procurement through erection and extensive testing, proceeded as scheduled and on budget. The project resulted in a successful reference program that illustrates, in detail, the improved efficiencies and costs of the LS-2 advancements.

  19. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  20. Cu Nanoparticles Inlaid Mesoporous Carbon Aerogels as a High Performance Desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Yang, Siyuan; Liu, Qizhen; He, Ping; Tian, Huan; Ren, Jianxing; Guan, ZhenZhen; Hu, Tao; Ni, Bu; Zhang, Chong

    2016-05-17

    In the present study, to insert the Cu nanoparticles (NPs) into mesoporous carbon aerogels and first applied it to remove H2S efficiently. This desulfurizer was made based on the dimensional policy by inserting the Cu NPs on mesoporous carbon aerogels to overcome the sintering problem and improve the activity, which has potential performance at high-temperature catalysis. The obtained desulfurizer was employed for H2S removal at middle temperature conditions (optimal H2S adsorption at 550 °C). We explored the optimum doping amount of CuOx, optimum temperature conditions, and the influence of textural parameters of carbon aerogels. The desulfurizers were characterized by means of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), N2-adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and Raman spectra techniques. The results confirmed that the presence of H2 was unfavorable for sulfidation and obviously shortened the breakthrough time. However, the existence of CO had little impact on the desulfurization and sulfur capacity. In a nutshell, this work could provide a new synthetic route to prepare Cu NPs deep into the lattice of carbon aerogels structure of desulfurizers and understand the desulfurization mechanism. PMID:27128500

  1. A novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with the magnetically fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) was used as the reactor in a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency. Experiments in a laboratory-scale apparatus were conducted to reveal the effects of approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, Ca/S molar ratio and applied magnetic field intensity on SO2 removal. Results showed that SO2 removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by decreasing approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, increasing Ca/S molar ratio, or increasing applied magnetic field intensity. At a magnetic field intensity of 300 Oe and a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.0, the desulfurization efficiency (excluding desulfurization efficiency in the fabric filter) was over 80%, while spent sorbent appeared in the form of dry powder. With the SEM, XRD and EDX research, it can be found that the increase of DC magnetic field intensity can make the surface morphology on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles loose and enhance the oxidation of S(IV), hence reducing the liquid phase mass transfer resistance of the slurry droplets and increasing desulfurization reaction rate, respectively. Therefore, the desulfurization efficiency increased obviously with the increase of DC field intensity.

  2. Desulfurization of fuel-oils with [C2mim][NTf2]: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fuels desulfurization with ILs must be analyzed not just in terms of S reduction. ► Smaller chain length of imidazolium cation increases desulfurization selectivity. ► The anion type influences the desulfurization ability of ILs. ► [C2mim][NTf2] can be a competitive desulfurization solvent. - Abstract: A tendency to use polysubstituted pyridinium-based ionic liquids for desulfurization of fuel-oils is being very remarkable during last years. Are these ones the most suitable ionic liquids for this purpose? The possibility of using a much cheaper ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, has been studied in this work. With this aim, LLE data of the {[C2mim][NTf2] + thiophene + toluene}, {[C2mim][NTf2] + thiophene + n-hexane} and {[C2mim][NTf2] + pyridine + n-hexane} ternary systems have been obtained at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been used to correlate the obtained data. Solute distribution ratios and selectivities have been calculated and a comparison with data obtained previously for other ionic liquids has been established. It was found that both cation and anion clearly affect to these thermodynamic parameters. According not just to solubility, but also in terms of selectivity and cost, [C2mim][NTf2] can be a competitive desulfurization solvent.

  3. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. 1978-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1978-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    The two part bibliography covers aspects of coal and petroleum fuel desulfurization relating to coal preparation, coal liquids, the gasification of coal, and crude oil preparation, where the processes specifically accomplish desulfurization before combustion of the fuel. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 173 abstracts, 54 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. Study of the Desulfurization Process and Gas-Solid-Liquid Phase Distribution under the Complex Humidification Conditions in Dense Tower

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyue Sun; Fan Pan; Donghui Zhang; Qian Jia; Cunyi Song; Baorui Liang

    2012-01-01

    In making the gas-solid-liquid phase analysis, based on the collaborative study of the internal and external humidification ratio of desulfurization efficiency, determine the humidifier ratio within 60% to 75%, that can make the best balance between the respective merits of a simple tower humidifiers tower humidifier way, optimizing the overall desulfurization reaction, effectively reducing the sticky wall, stick in the desulfurization efficiency and reduce the wall to achieve a balance betwe...

  5. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  6. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by the irradiation with 300 keV electrons in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of ammonia yields removal efficiencies of more than 90%. NOX-removal efficiencies depend on the absorbed dose, NOX-concentration and NH3-stoichiometry. SO2-removal proceeds by thermal and radiation induced mechanisms. The efficiency of the SO2-removal process is highest for low temperatures and high NH3-stoichiometries. By recycling of scrubbed gas into the reaction chamber (multiple irradiation) the efficiency of the process is increased by 50%. The product aerosol has mass median diameters of 2 and NOx removals in the absence of NH3 are predicted with reasonable accuracy by the computer model. In the presence of NH3 experimental data show higher SO2 removal efficiencies than calculated. This is probably due to additional heterogeneous reactions on particles, which are not covered by the computer model. With 119 figs., 86 refs

  7. Desulfurization of gasoline using molecularly imprinted chitosan as selective adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yonghui; Zhang, Lei; Ying, Hanjie; Li, Zhenjiang; Lv, Hao; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2010-01-01

    For desulfurization of gasoline, novel chitosan-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared by cross-linking chitosan with epichlorohydrin in the presence of dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the template. The influence of cross-linking ratio on the specific adsorption was evaluated. The effects of the types and the amounts of porogen on selectivity of the chitosan MIP were also examined. Results showed that MIP has a higher recognition property to DBT. The maximum rebinding capacities of the MIP reached 22.69 mg g(-1) in the model solution. The adsorption behaviors of the MIP including adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic parameters were investigated and the experimental data agreed well with the Langmuir model. The dynamical adsorption behaved in first-order kinetics. Negative values for the Gibbs free energy showed that the adsorptions were spontaneous processes. The MIP was further used to selectively adsorb organosulfur from gasoline. PMID:19050832

  8. Flue gas desulfurization by a powder-particle spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini, M.; Hatamipour, M.S. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    The powder-particle spouted bed process is one of the semi-dry processes that have been developed for flue gas desulfurization. In this study, which is designed for SO{sub 2} removal by a powder-particle spouted bed, the reaction term is included in one-dimensional and streamtube models that were presented previously for spouted beds. Hydrated lime is used as the sorbent in this process. The predictions of the models are compared with some published experimental data and it is found that the developed models are valid. The results of two models are compared with each other and their various properties are evaluated. The effects of different operating conditions on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency are also investigated and preferred operating conditions are discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Desulfurization of flue gases by oil shale ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using different ashes (furnace ash, cyclone ash) at the Estonian and Baltic Thermal Power Plants in recycle as a reagent for deeper desulfurization of flue gases and the ways of their activation (crushing, hydratation) were studied. The experiments were carried out in a derivatograph, a laboratory tube furnace and a fluidized bed kiln; different methods of analysis (chemical, X-ray, BET dynamic desorption, SEM, ion chromatography, etc.) were used. The optimum temperature interval for SO2 removal from the gas phase in the fluidized bed conditions for ashes without previous activation is 750-850 deg C and for hydrated ashes 550-850 deg C. The maximum SO2 removal efficiency up to 75% was achieved by using hydrated furnace ash, which means that the total SO2 removal efficiency increased accordingly, up to 95%. (author). 3 tabs., 5 figs., 9 refs

  10. Two-Phase Phenomena In Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce sulfur oxides discharge, Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) is building a wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) facility at Rutenberg B power station. The primary objective of IEC is to minimize the occurrence of stack liquid discharge and avoid the discharge of large droplets, in order to prevent acid rain around the stack. Liquid discharge from the stack is the integrated outcome of two-phase processes, which are discussed in this work. In order to estimate droplets discharge the present investigation employs analytical models, empirical tests, and numerical calculations of two-phase phenomena. The two-phase phenomena are coupled and therefore cannot be investigated separately. The present work concerns the application of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) as an engineering complementary tool in the IEC investigation

  11. Thermodynamic Possibilities and Limits for Producer Gas Desulfurization and HCI Related Interferences for Zn, Mn, Ce and La Based Sorbents of Sulfur Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Huang, L.-W.

    Volume 656-657. Dürnten: Trans Tech Publications, 2015 - (Chen, J.; Hiroshi, U.; Lee, S.), s. 101-106 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Machining, Materials and Mechanical Technologies (IC3MT). Taipei City (TW), 31.08.2014-05.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant ostatní: NSC(TW) 103-2923-E-042A-001-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : syngas * desulfurization * HCI and HF removal Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  12. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  13. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhigang; Tang, Qiang; Cao, Zidong

    2004-08-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used. Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  14. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2H(sub 2)S(yields) 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 2H(sub 2)O; Regeneration: 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 3O(sub 2)(yields) Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2SO(sub 2) The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  15. Applying ACF to desulfurization process from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used. Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost. (authors)

  16. FGD [flue gas desulfurization] gypsum in research, development, production and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research, development, production and application activities concerning flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in Germany are reviewed. Possibilities for the utilization of FGD gypsum were investigated in numerous laboratory and pilot plant tests. An agglomerating process was developed to dry the moist, fine gypsum powder into briquettes similar to natural crushed gyspum rock, and suitable for use alone or in conjunction with natural gypsum in existing factories producing plaster or Portland cement. After calcination, the FGD gypsum briquettes showed very good rheological properties in plaster with no thixotropy. The briquettes have a uniform 1 ton/m3 density and can be easily transported and stored outdoors. Utilization of FGD gypsum as a beta-hemihydrate plaster for production of prefabricated gypsum building components is now standard in Germany. A new factory was built in the early eighties using 50% FGD gypsum briquettes and 50% moist, finely divided FGD gypsum, producing 350,000 tonnes of projection plaster annually. A process was also developed for the production of alpha gypsum plaster from the moist, fine FGD gypsum. FGD gypsum has been found suitable for a wide range of filler applications currently filled by calcium carbonate and china clay. Main expenditures to be considered when performing economic assessments include: drying expenditure (ca 550,000 kJ/ton); energy consumption for briquetting (ca 10 kWh/ton); FGD gypsum transportation between power station and factory and associated handling; intermediate storage facilities; service and maintenance; and additive costs. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  17. Biocatalytic Properties and Structural Analysis of Eugenol Oxidase from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1: A Versatile Oxidative Biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Thai; de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Binda, Claudia; Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Mattevi, Andrea; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-07-15

    Eugenol oxidase (EUGO) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 had previously been shown to convert only a limited set of phenolic compounds. In this study, we have explored the biocatalytic potential of this flavoprotein oxidase, resulting in a broadened substrate scope and a deeper insight into its structural properties. In addition to the oxidation of vanillyl alcohol and the hydroxylation of eugenol, EUGO can efficiently catalyze the dehydrogenation of various phenolic ketones and the selective oxidation of a racemic secondary alcohol-4-(1-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxyphenol. EUGO was also found to perform the kinetic resolution of a racemic secondary alcohol. Crystal structures of the enzyme in complexes with isoeugenol, coniferyl alcohol, vanillin, and benzoate have been determined. The catalytic center is a remarkable solvent-inaccessible cavity on the si side of the flavin cofactor. Structural comparison with vanillyl alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum highlights a few localized changes that correlate with the selectivity of EUGO for phenolic substrates bearing relatively small p-substituents while tolerating o-methoxy substituents. PMID:27123962

  18. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D.P.

    1994-07-01

    The primary objective of this research project is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of known high temperature desulfurization sorbents. The contract was awarded to LSU on April 12, 1994, and this quarterly report covers accomplishments during the first 2 1/2 months of the project. Effort during the initial 2 1/2 month period has been limited to Tasks 1 and 2, and involves a search of the literature to identify concepts for producing elemental sulfur during regeneration of known metal oxide sorbents and a thermodynamic evaluation of these concepts. While searching and evaluating the literature is a continuing process, concentrated effort on that phase is now complete and a detailed summary is included in this report. Three possible concepts for the direct production of elemental sulfur were identified in the LSU proposal, and the literature search has not uncovered any additional concepts. Thus, the three concepts being investigated involve: (1) regeneration with SO{sub 2}, (2) regeneration with mixtures Of 02 and H{sub 2}O, and (3) regeneration with H{sub 2}O. While concept (3) directly produces H{sub 2}S instead of elemental sulfur, the concept is included because the possibility exists for converting H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. Each of the concepts will ultimately be compared to the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) under development by RTI. DSRP involves initial sorbent regeneration to SO{sub 2}, and the inclusion of additional processing steps to reduce the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur.

  19. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report

  20. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Zhao, Suwei; Chen, Changhe; Qi, Haiying

    2008-03-01

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH)2 content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH)2 particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH)2 particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH)2 particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. PMID:18441824

  1. Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

    2010-06-15

    A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g). PMID:20481549

  2. Deep desulfurization of full range and low boiling diesel streams from Kuwait Lower Fars heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Al-Hindi, A.; Stanislaus, A. [Petroleum and Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2007-09-15

    Information on feed quality and, in particular, various types of sulfur compounds present in the diesel (gas oil) fractions produced form different crudes and their HDS reactivities under different operating conditions are of a great value for the optimization and economics of the deep HDS process. This paper deals with deep desulfurization of gas oils obtained from a new heavy Kuwaiti crude, namely, Lower Fars (LF) which will be processed in the future at Kuwaiti refineries. Comparative studies were carried out to examine the extent of deep HDS, and the quality of diesel product using two gas oil feeds with different boiling ranges. The results revealed that the full range diesel feed stream produced from the LF crude was very difficult to desulfurize due to its low quality caused by high aromatics content (low feed saturation) together with the presence of high concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds and sterically hindered alkyl DBTs. The low-boiling range gas oil showed better desulfurization compared with the full range gas oil, however, deep desulfurization to 50 ppm sulfur was not achieved even at a temperature as high as 380 C for both feeds. The desulfurized diesel product from the low-boiling gas-oil feed was better in quality with respect to the S, N and PNA contents and cetane index than the full-range gas-oil feed. (author)

  3. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH4HCO3 and zeolite could reduce SO2 to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NOx to nitrogen with the best NOx purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NOx concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO2 concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO2, NOx and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent

  4. Radiation-induced desulfurization of Arabian crude oil and straight-run diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced desulfurization of four types of Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) and straight-run diesel (SRD) was investigated over the range of 10-200 kGy. Results show that gamma radiation processing at absorbed doses up to 200 kGy without further treatment is not sufficient for desulfurization. However, the combination of gamma-irradiation with other physical/chemical processes (i.e. L/L extraction, adsorption and oxidation) may be capable of removing considerable levels of sulfur compounds in the investigated products. Currently, this approach of combined radiation/physical/chemical processes is under investigation. The findings of these attempts will be reported in the future. - Highlights: → Irradiation effect on desulfurization in Arabian crude oils and straight-run diesel was investigated. → No noticeable changes in sulfur content after irradiation up to 200 kGy were observed. → Stricter regulations on sulfur levels in fuels motivate search for improved desulfurization processes. → Limited investigations on radiation-induced desulfurization of oil products are conducted.

  5. Results of the desulfurization programme at coal-fired power plants operated by CEZ a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Czech utility CEZ, which is the major power plant operator in the Czech Republic, is running an extensive coal-fired power plant desulfurization programme to improve the environmental situation in the region. Flue gas desulfurization is achieved in 2 ways: by augmenting the existing units with desulfurization equipment, and by replacing old boilers with new, fluidized-bed combustion facilities. Both wet limestone scrubbing and the dry limestone method are applied. A survey of the power plants, desulfurized power, desulfurization equipment suppliers, and contract prices is presented in a tabular form. Plots showing the contribution of CEZ's power plants to sulfur dioxide emissions in the Czech Republic are reproduced. (P.A.). 1 tab., 3 figs

  6. Biocatalytic conversion of turpentine - a wood processing waste - into oxygenated monoterpenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, Marcela; Valterová, Irena; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2011), s. 204-211. ISSN 1024-2422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08070; GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biotransformation * monoterpene * Picea abies Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2011

  7. Radiation-chemical desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-chemical desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases is a highly promising method for removing SO2 and NOx from gases emerging from the combustion of coal and heating oils, from the heat treatment of ores, etc. Its principle is as follows. Into the flue gases, freed from solid particles, are injected a suitable base and water. The gaseous mixture, or aerosol, enters a reactor in which it is exposed to accelerated electrons. The latter thermalize gradually and their energy is transferred to the surrounding molecules, whereby radiolysis is initiated. The primary products are positively charged ions, secondary electrons, excited states of molecules and free radicals. Some amount of negatively charged ions is also formed. These particles enter into fast reactions with the molecules, and as a result, SO2 and NOx are oxidized and transformed into acids (H2SO4, HNO3) which ultimately react with the base to give salts as the final products. In suitable conditions the final products are formed in the solid state and can be removed by filtration, electrostatic separation, etc. The topic is treated in detail with respect to its physico-chemical and radiation-chemical principles as well as its characteristics and technical implementation, and a survey of research, demonstration and pilot-plant units aimed at its industrial application is given. The method is considered promising in Czechoslovak conditions and deserves attention of technologists as well as national economy experts. (P.A.). 7 figs., 3 tabs., 49 refs

  8. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan P; Brown, Shannon R; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO(x) gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  9. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BryanP.Brown

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and –independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  10. Desulfurization of petroleum induced by ionization radiation: benzothiophene behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is currently the most common method used by refineries; this removes significantly sulfur compounds from petroleum fractions, however, is not highly effective for removing thiophene compounds such as benzothiophene, and generates high costs for the oil industry. Another factor, are the environmental laws, which over the years has become increasingly strict, especially regarding the sulfur content. This compound cause incalculable damage both to the industry and to the environment. Therefore new methods for petroleum desulfurization should be studied in order to minimize the impacts that these compounds cause. In the present study it was used ionizing radiation, a promising method of advanced oxidation in reducing sulfur compounds. The analysis were performed after purge and trap concentration of samples, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then benzothiophene samples with the same concentration from 27 mg.L-1 to 139 mg.L-1 were irradiated with different absorbed doses of radiation ranging from 1 kGy to 20 kGy in gamma irradiator Cobalt-60, Gammacell. These samples were analyzed by the same procedure used for the calibration curve, and the removals of benzothiophene after ionizing radiation treatment were calculated. It was observed that at higher doses there was a greater degradation of this compound and the formation of fragments, such as 1,2-dimethylbenzene and toluene, which may be removed by simple processes. (author)

  11. Deep desulfurization of diesel fuels by catalytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guoxian; CHEN Hui; LU Shanxiang; ZHU Zhongnan

    2007-01-01

    Reaction feed was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT),which was selected as a model organosulfur compound in diesel fuels,in n-octane.The oxidant was a 30 wt-% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide.Catalytic performance of the activated carbons with saturation adsorption of DBT was investigated in the presence of formic acid.In addition,the effects of activated carbon dosage,formic acid concentration,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide,initial concentration of DBT and reaction temperature on the oxidation of DBT were investigated.Experimental results indicated that performic acid and the hydroxyl radicals produced are coupled to oxidize DBT with a conversion ratio of 100%.Catalytic performance of the combination of activated carbon and formic acid is higher than that ofouly formic acid.The concentration of formic acid,activated carbon dosage,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide and reaction temperature affect the oxidative removal of DBT.The higher the initial concentration of DBT in the n-octane solution,the more difficult the deep desulfurization by oxidation is.

  12. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1991-06-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems require the development of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier down to very low levels. The objective of this investigation was to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite, a leading regenerable sorbent, for fluidized-bed applications. Fluidized sorbent beds offer significant potential in IGCC systems because of their ability to control the highly exothermic regeneration involved. However, fluidized beds require a durable, attrition-resistant sorbent in the 100--300 {mu}m size range. A bench-scale high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor (7.6-cm I.D.) system capable of operating up to 24 atm and 800{degree}C was designed, built and tested. A total of 175 sulfidation-regeneration cycles were carried out using KRW-type coal gas with various zinc ferrite formulations. A number of sorbent manufacturing techniques including spray drying, impregnation, crushing and screening, and granulation were investigated. While fluidizable sorbents prepared by crushing durable pellets and screening had acceptable sulfur capacity, they underwent excessive attrition during multicycle testing. The sorbent formulations prepared by a proprietary technique were found to have excellent attrition resistance and acceptable chemical reactivity during multicycle testing. However, zinc ferrite was found to be limited to 550{degree}C, beyond which excessive sorbent weakening due to chemical transformations, e.g., iron oxide reduction, was observed.

  13. Adsorptive desulfurization by copper species within confined space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wen-Hang; Sun, Lin-Bing; Song, Xue-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Yin, Yu; He, Gu-Se

    2010-11-16

    Copper species were incorporated into SBA-15 by solid-state grinding precursor with as-prepared mesoporous silica (SPA). The obtained materials (CuAS) were well-characterized by XRD, TEM, N(2) adsorption, H(2)-TPR, IR, and TG and compared with the material derived from calcined SBA-15 (CuCS). Surprisingly, CuO up to 6.7 mmol·g(-1) can be highly dispersed on SBA-15 by use of SPA strategy. Such CuO forms a smooth layer coated on the internal walls of SBA-15, which contributes to the spatial order and results in less-blocked mesopores. However, the aggregation of CuO takes place in CuCS material containing 6.7 mmol·g(-1) copper, which generates large CuO particles of 21.4 nm outside the mesopores. We reveal that the high dispersion extent of CuO is ascribed to the abundant silanols, as well as the confined space between template and silica walls provided by as-prepared SBA-15. The SPA strategy allows template removal and precursor conversion in one step, avoids the repeated calcination in conventional modification process, and saves time and energy. We also demonstrate that the CuAS material after autoreduction exhibits much better adsorptive desulfurization capacity than CuCS. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent can be recovered completely. PMID:20882950

  14. Investigation on gasoline deep desulfurization for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of adding some amounts of cerium into Zn-Fe-O/Al2O3 sorbent on its performance of removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline by adsorption was studied in this paper. It showed that the ideal compositions for the preparation of Zn-Fe-Ce-O/Al2O3 consisted of 4.54 wt.% ZnO, 2.25 wt.% Fe2O3 and 2.5 wt.% CeO2, respectively, shortened as AZFC0.52. Further study indicated that this sorbent could be well regenerated at 250 deg. C with gas mixtures containing 6.0 vol.% steam + air and 2400 ml h-1 ml-1 gas space velocity. At those regenerated conditions and 60 deg. C adsorption temperature, the AZFC0.52 sorbent had better desulfurization stability, which was confirmed by typical characterization results using BET, XRD and SEM apparatus. This implied that the AZFC0.52 sorbent could be an ideal sorbent for removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline

  15. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  16. Manganese-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Fisher, E.P. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Goyette, W.J. [Chemetals, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The intent of this study is to perform a preliminary screening on a particular Mn-based sorbent, CST-939 (from Chemetals), for hot gas desulfurization. The purpose of the preliminary screening is to determine which temperature and type of coal gas this sorbent demonstrates the greatest capacity and efficiency for sulfur removal. The following conclusions were made from the data collected on the CST-939 sorbent: The sorbent efficiency and capacity are much greater at 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) than at 871{degrees}C (1,600{degrees}F). The sorbent efficiency and capacity are much greater in the presence of the more highly-reducing Shell gas than with the less-reducing KRW gas. The sorbent showed tremendous capacity for sulfur pickup, with actual loadings as high as 21 weight percent. Oxidative regeneration at 871{degrees}C (1,600{degrees}F) appeared to decompose sulfate; however, unusually high SO{sub 2} release during the second sulfidations and/or reductive regenerations indicated incomplete regeneration. The average crush strength of the reacted sorbent did not indicate any loss of strength as compared to the fresh sorbent. Superior sorbent performance was obtained in the presence of simulated Shell gas at 538{degrees}C (1,000{degrees}F).

  17. Extraction desulfurization process of fuels with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Extraction of thiophene and benzothiophene from heptane. • The ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria using ILs. • High selectivity and solute distribution ratio for the extraction of sulfur compounds form alkanes. • [BMPYR][TCM] was proposed as entrainer for the separation process. - Abstract: In this work, we studied the applicability of three ionic liquids (ILs) in the extraction of thiophene, or benzothiophene from heptane at T = 308.15 K and ambient pressure. Experimental data for (liquid + liquid) phase equilibrium (LLE) were obtained for five ternary systems. The 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMPYR][CF3SO3], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide, [BMPYR][TCM] and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, [HMIM][TCB] were used for the desulfurization process. The [BMPYR][CF3SO3] showed much better selectivity than [HMIM][TCB] in the extraction of thiophene from heptane and all of them showed excellent results in terms of benzothiophene selectivity and distribution ratio compared to what is currently published for different ILs. Chromatography analysis showed that IL was not present in the heptane layer. This eliminates the process of the separation of the solvent from the raffinate layer. The data obtained have been correlated with the non-random two liquid NRTL model. The experimental tie-lines and the phase composition in mole fraction in the ternary systems were calculated with an average root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 0.005

  18. Revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge pond disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to summarize research undertaken to date on revegetation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal ponds. A review of the physical and chemical properties of FGD sludges and wastes with similar characteristics is also included in order to determine the advantages and limitations of FGD sludge for plant growth. No specific guidelines have been developed for the revegetation of FGD sludge disposal sites. Survey studies showed that the wide-ranging composition of FGD wastes was determined primarily by the sulfur dioxide and other flue gas scrubbing processes used at powerplants. Sulfate rich (>90%CaSO4) FGD sludges are physically and chemically more stable, and thus more amenable to revegetation. Because of lack of macronutrients and extremely limited microbial activity, FBD sludge ponds presented a poor plant growth environment without amendment. Studies showed the natural process of inoculation of the FGD sludge with soil microbes that promote plant growth be can after disposal but proceeded slowly. Revegetation studies reviewed showed that FGD sludges amended with soils supported a wider variety of plant species better and longer than abandoned FGD ponds. Two major types of plants have been successful in revegetation of FGD waste ponds and similar wastes: salt-tolerant plants and aquatic plants. A comprehensive list of plant species with potential for regetation of FGD sludge disposal pond sites is presented along with successful revegetation techniques

  19. Speciation of Raney Copper Oxide during High-Temperature Desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speciation of copper in the Raney copper oxides (R-CuO) during high-temperature desulfurization has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The preedge XANES spectra (8975-8979 eV) of R-CuO exhibit a very weak 1s-to-3d transition forbidden by the selection rule in the case of the perfect octahedral symmetry. A shoulder at 8985-8988 eV and an intense band at 8994-9002 eV can be attributed to the 1s-to-4p transition that indicates the existence of the Cu(II) species. The preedge band at 8981-8984 eV can be attributed to the dipole-allowed 1s-to-4p transition of Cu(I), suggesting an existence of Cu2S during sulfurization. An enhanced absorbance at 9003 eV shows that Cu(0) species may be formed in the sulfurized R-CuO. The main copper species in regenerated R-CuO are CuO (96%) and Cu2S (4%)

  20. Determination of Salt Impurities in MDEA Solution Used in Desulfurization of Highly Sulphurous Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yucheng; Zhang Bo; Chen Mingyan; Wu Danni; Zhou Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The foaming phenomenon of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solution used in desulfurization process occurs frequently in the natural-gas puriifcation plant. The foaming phenomenon has a strong impact on operation of the process unit. The salt impurities are the main reason for causing the foaming of MDEA solution, so the full analysis of salt impuri-ties is necessary. A method for comprehensive analysis of salt impurities in MDEA solution used in desulfurization process was established. Anions and non-metallic cations of MDEA solution were determined by different conditions of ion chro-matograph, respectively. Metallic cations of the solution were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with the N2O-C2H2 lfame absorption. The analytical results of salt impurities in the desulfurization solution can provide a theoretical basis for an accurate analysis of the factors affecting the foaming of MDEA to unveil further control measures.

  1. Application of High Shear Agitation for Desulfurization of Gasoline Using Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dishun; ZhangZhigang; Wang Jialei; Wang Na; Li Xiangyu

    2006-01-01

    The high shear agitation device was first adopted for gasoline desulfurization by ionic liquids. The effect of benzylimidazol fluoborate in desulfurization of gasoline and the influence of moisture on deuslfurization rate were investigated. The experimental results showed that the ionic liquid could effectively decrease the sulfur content of gasoline and the optimal conditions were as follows: The reaction could be carried out at room temperature, a volumetric ratio between oil and the liquid of 2∶1, a volumetric ratio between water and ionic liquid of 0.04∶1, a rotational speed of 5 krad/s, and a reaction time of 1 minute. The desulfurization rate of gasoline reached 53.6%, and the gasoline yield was up to 97.3%. The ionic liquid could be recycled for repeated use, and the use of high shear agitation for gasoline would have good prospects.

  2. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. [Pyrococcus furiosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  3. Desulfurization technologies for flue gases from power stations, technological and financial characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms on life environment, caused by aero pollution, for the last decades enforced fast development of technologies for filtration of gases that come from thermal power plants and other objects. SO2, that appear as one of outputs of fossil fuels combustion, and also processing of sulphide ore, is a main component of acid rains. Acid rains represent one of the most risky factors, responsible for dryne of woods and changing of flora and fauna on land and in water. Starting from 1931 year when on the thermal power plant BATTERSEA STATION, property of London Power, first scrubbers were monnted for filtration of flue gases of SO2 , and up till today, many procedures are developed for desulfurization of flue gases. For easier coping with numerous technologies for desulfurization , various classifications were made. By state of aggregation of the absorption agent , the technologies for desulfurization of gases are divided in wet , semidry and dry procedures. Wet procedures are technologies with highness rate of desulfurization of 90-95 % and most flexible of the quality of fuel whose flue gases are filtered. Presently they have high price of 90-220 $/kw installed power. According to American sources, their price at the world market is forecasted that till 2000 year will reach price of 100 $/kw. Dry technologies for desulfurization of flue gases are last technologies. The rate of desulfurization is 50-60 % and its prise is 76 -113 $/kw. Their negative side is high variable costs 250 - 388 $/ ton SO2 (at wet procedures variable costs 76 - 157 $/ton SO2). Semidry technologies by financial and technological characteristics are wet and dry procedures. (Author)

  4. Effect of impregnation methods on sorbents made from lignite for desulfurization at middle temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurong; Dong; Xiurong; Ren; Meijun; Wang; Qiang; He; Liping; Chang; Weiren; Bao

    2013-01-01

    With lignite after vacuum drying as the raw material,a series of Zn-based sorbents were prepared by static impregnation,ultrasonic-assisted impregnation,bubbling-assisted impregnation and high-pressure impregnation.The physical properties and the desulfurization performances of Zn-based sorbents were studied systematically by XRD,BET,AAS characterization techniques and the fixed-bed desulfurization evaluation apparatus.The sorbents obtained by high-pressure impregnation method have a larger specific surface area,pore volume and pore diameter comparing with other methods,which is conducive to the sulfidation reaction of hydrogen sulfide gas in the sorbent.The effects of pressure during the high-pressure impregnation and concentration of Zn(NO3)2 precursor solution on the sorbents properties and desulfurization behavior were investigated.The higher the impregnation pressure and the concentration of impregnation solution are,the greater the amount of the active components are uploaded.However,overhigh impregnation pressure can cause collapse and blocking of the carrier pore.The optimal operating condition of high-pressure impregnation method for preparing the sorbents was the impregnation pressure of 20 atm and the solution concentration of 41%.Under that condition,the sorbent had the best desulfurization ability with a sulfur capacity of 13.94 gS/100 gsorbent and a breakthrough time of 54 h.Its desulfurization precision and efficiency of removing H2S before sorbent breakthrough from the middle temperature gases of 400℃ can reach<5 ppm and>99%,respectively.Sorbents could be regenerated under the condition of 1 vol%O2,20 vol% H2O,0.5 vol% NH3,and N2balance gas.The regenerated sorbent could be used for repeated absorption of H2S with a slight decrease in desulfurization effect.

  5. Biochemical mechanisms for the desulfurization of coal-relevant organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afferden, M. van; Tappe, D.; Beyer, M.; Trueper, H.G.; Klein, J. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Two microbial strains ([ital Brevibacterium] sp. DO, [ital Pseudomonas aeruginosa] OS1) were isolated for their ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzyl methyl sulfide (BMS). Enrichment was achieved by a sulfur-selective screening system using the model compounds as the sole source of sulfur for bacterial growth. [ital Brevibacterium] sp. DO utilizes DBT as a sole source of sulfur, carbon and energy for growth, whereas [ital Pseudomonas aeruginosa] OS1 metabolizes BMS to only a small extent under sulfur-selective conditions. Investigations of the regulation of enzymes involved in the desulfurization of coal-relevant sulfur compounds indicate that in nature at least two mechanisms exist: 'carbon regulation' and 'sulfur regulation'. The biochemical mechanisms leading to the desulfurization of BMS and DBT are similar. The sulfur atom of both compounds is initially oxidized to the corresponding sulfone, and cleavage of the C-S bond proceeds via the formation of a chemically unstable hemimercaptal (S-oxidized form) by oxidation of the carbon atom adjacent to the sulfur atom. These results indicate that oxidation of sulfur to its highest oxidation state may be the precondition for the oxidative cleavage of the covalent C-S bonds. By isotope-labelling experiments using [sup 18]O[sub 2], the initial enzymes were identified as sulfoxygenases that use molecular oxygen. Cleavage of the C-S bond of DBT and BMS leads to the formation of organic sulfinic acids as intermediates. With DBT the sulfinic acid is desulfurized probably by hydrolysis; this results in the formation of sulfite and benzoate. The desulfurization of BMS proceeds by sulfonic acid-oxidation. The applicability of these biochemical mechanisms to the microbial desulfurization of coal is discussed. 39 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Physical and biocatalytic properties of polyvinyl alcohol lens-shaped particles versus spherical polyelectrolyte complex microcapsules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenkmayerová, A.; Bučko, M.; Gemeiner, P.; Treľová, D.; Lacík, I.; Chorvát Jr., D.; Ačai, P.; Polakovič, M.; Lipták, L.; Rebroš, M.; Rosenberg, M.; Štefuca, V.; Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva

    Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v. v. i, 2014, s. 38-39. ISBN 978-80-87441-12-1. [Workshop of Interesting Topics of SEM and ESEM. Mikulov (CZ), 26.08.2014-31.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SEM * ESEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. Microbial coal desulfurization in an airlift bioreactor by sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferooxidans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, H.W.; Chang, Y.K.; Kim, S.D. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and BioProcess Engineering Research Center)

    1993-12-01

    Microbial desulfurization of a domestic anthracite coal by using an acidophilic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] has been studied in an airlift slurry reactor of 12 L volume. Effects of coal slurry density and CO[sub 2] supplement on microbial pyrite removal have been evaluated. High sulfur removal rates have been obtained even for very high coal slurry densities (up to 70% w/v). About 90-95% of the sulfur in the coal could be removed in 15-20 days. The efficiency of microbial desulfurization was significantly improved with CO[sub 2] enriched air supply for high coal slurry densities. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Montebello, Andrea M.; Mora Garrido, Mabel; López de León, Luís Rafael; Bezerra, Tercia; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Lafuente Sancho, Francisco Javier; Baeza Labat, Mireia; Gabriel Buguña, David

    2014-01-01

    Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H2S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130s, H2S loading rate of 52gS-H2Sm-3h-1 and pH 2.50-2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT...

  10. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solution oxidation were detected.

  11. Chemical desulfurization of Turkish Cayirhan lignite with HI using microwave and thermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Elsamak, Gülhan Güllü; Elsamak, Gulhan Gullu; Altuntaş Öztaş, Nurşen; Altuntas Oztas, Nursen; Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of the concentration of HI and reaction time in the chemical desulfurization of Cayirhan lignite in a microwave energy set up and to compare the results with those obtained in a thermal heating system. As the concentration of the HI was increased, the extent of desulfurization was also increased in all the experiments done for all of the samples of lignite. The main difference between the thermal and microwave heating was the extre...

  12. Subsequent flue gas desulfurization of coal-fired power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presently operating coal-fired power plant in Hungary do not satisfy the pollution criteria prescribed by the European Union norms. The main polluting agent is the sulfur dioxide emitted by some of the power plants in Hungary in quantities over the limit standards. The power plant units that are in good operating state could be made competitive by using subsequent desulfurization measures. Various flue gas desulfurization technologies are presented through examples that can be applied to existing coal-fired power plants. (R.P.)

  13. Conservation of plasmid-encoded dibenzothiophene desulfurization genes in several rhodococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Denis-Larose, C; Labbé, D.; Bergeron, H.; Jones, A M; Greer, C. W.; al-Hawari, J; Grossman, M. J.; Sankey, B M; Lau, P C

    1997-01-01

    The cloned sulfur oxidation (desulfurization) genes (sox) for dibenzothiophene (DBT) from the prototype Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 were used in Southern hybridization and PCR experiments to establish the DNA relatedness in six new rhodococcal isolates which are capable of utilizing DBT as a sole sulfur source for growth. The ability of these strains to desulfurize appears to be an exclusive property of a 4-kb gene locus on a large plasmid of ca. 150 kb in IGTS8 and ca. 100 kb in the other s...

  14. Tracking pyritic sulfur during the microwave-chemical desulfurization of coal using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformations of pyrite in coal during the microwave-chemical treatment for desulfurization of coal were studied with Moessbauer spectroscopy of 57Fe. The results for phase analyses show that the selective dielectric heating by microwave energy can give rise to the thermal decomposition of pyrite FeS2 in coal to new phases, pyrrhotite Fe1-xS (0< x≤0.125) and troilite FeS which can be dissolved in dilute HCl solution. Therefore the microwave irradiation combined with pickling treatment will be an effective method of desulfurization of coal

  15. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO2 will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO2 is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Development and testing of regenerable hot-coal-gas desulfurization sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindley, T.; Steinfeld, G.

    1981-10-01

    Investigations over several years at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center have been concerned with the development of a regenerable metal oxide desulfurization sorbent which would function on hot coal-derived fuel gas. In the latest phase of testing, a combination of zinc oxide with iron oxide as zinc ferrite has produced a sorbent which has demonstrated regenerability and capability of removing sulfur from simulated hot coal gas to a level of 1 to 10 ppM by volume. The principal finding at this stage of the project is that the compound zinc ferrite and also iron oxide containing some zinc ferrite have hydrogen sulfide absorption performances very similar to those of zinc oxide. Extruded sorbents made from these compounds have been demonstrated to perform with varying ability in the temperature range 800/sup 0/F (427/sup 0/C) to 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C) at a space velocity of 2000 hourly and a hydrogen sulfide concentration of 2.7 percent. They have also been shown to be regenerable with a 50/50 percent v/v steam-air mixture at 1000/sup 0/F (538/sup 0/C) and 600 hourly space velocity with no loss of absorptive power. Both zinc ferrite and zinc oxide appear to perform optimally in the middle of the temperature range, where absorption capacity is greatest. Surprisingly, the experimental results indicate no trend to a lower degree of hydrogen sulfide removal with rise in temperature. Zinc ferrite appears to be superior to zinc oxide in terms of its absorption capacity and resistance to sintering at higher temperatures.

  17. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  18. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh Bahuguna; Madhuri K. Lily; Ashok Munjal; Ravindra N. Singh; Koushalya Dangwal

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil.The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No.GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively.The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT.However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation.The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7.In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT.Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  19. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level. PMID:26368800

  20. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  1. Gas desulfurization macrokinetics in the calcium oxide reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are produced by burning of fossil fuels in air in excess, a pollutant agent which, once reaching the atmosphere, transforms in sulfuric acid . One solution of diminishing the SO2 releases is injection of powder limestone in the oven. The reaction CaCO3 = CaO + CO2 gives rise to porous calcium oxide grains which react with SO2 in the presence of oxygen. As a result, calcium sulphate is formed by the reaction CaO + SO2 + 1/2O2 = CaSO4. This technology is convenient for thermal power plants due to small investments and simple operation. However,the desulfurization degree is reduced and the process kinetics is still unelucidated. In this work, the kinetics of the second reaction is studied by thermogravimetry with CAHN TG-121 device. Conversion-time kinetic diagrams were generated for five granulometric classes of Ca CO3 with an average diameter of 25-900 μm. The measurements were carried out at 973 K - 1173 K and gas flow speeds of 0.023 - 0.0277 m/s. The kinetic parameters of the external mass transfer, solid crust diffusion and chemical reaction were determined. The influence of external mass transfer in all operation conditions is insignificant. The influence of solid crust diffusion is dominant even for the smallest particles (25 μm). Therefore, the process is described by a combined macrokinetics reaction-diffusion model, where the resistance to the diffusion is about 80% of the total resistance. Complementary structure determinations using structural models are required for the solid undergoing the reaction in order to rigorously identify the enhancing factors of the process. (authors)

  2. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of an Industrial Gas Suspension Absorber for Flue Gas Desulfurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio;

    2016-01-01

    In this work, semidry desulfurization of flue gas using a gas suspension absorber (GSA) is studied. A simple dynamic model which can properly represent the GSA was developed. In order to model the reaction kinetics, an empirical reaction rate expression was introduced. The reaction rate expressio...

  4. Facile Fabrication of AgCl Nanoparticles and Their Application in Adsorptive Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hua; Tan, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Zu, Dan-Dan; Huang, Chun-Ling; Sun, Lin-Bing

    2015-06-01

    Adsorption via π-complexation is highly promising for selective removal of aromatic sulfur from transportation fuels. Because adsorbents play a crucial role in the process of desulfurization, the development of efficient adsorbents attracts increasing attention recently. In the present study, AgCl nanoparticles were employed as π-complexation adsorbents for adsorptive desulfurization, for the first time. A facile strategy for the fabrication of AgCI nanoparticles was designed in aqueous phase with the assistance of surfactant (namely, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride). The present strategy avoids the use of cosurfactant and oil phase that is compulsory for the traditional microemulsion method. As a result, the synthetic system is greatly simplified and the synthetic controllability is improved. By adjusting the reaction temperature, both size and morphology of AgCl nanoparticles can be well controlled. We also demonstrate that the obtained AgCI nanoparticles are active in adsorptive desulfurization, and the adsorption capacity can be well correlated with the particle size of AgCl. The high accessibility of active Ag(I) sites in AgCl nanoparticles is believed to be responsible for the good adsorptive desulfurization capacity. The present study may open a way for the development of new, efficient adsorbents based on nanoparticles. PMID:26369051

  5. Effects of fluidized gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum on non-target freshwater and sediment dwelling organims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluidized gas desulfurization gypsum is a popular agricultural soil amendment used to increase calcium and sulfur contents, and reduce aluminum toxicity. Due to its surface application in conservation tillage systems and high solubility, the soluble components of gypsum may be transferred with agri...

  6. SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - SPRAY DRYER PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Described spray dryer flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from flue gas by an atomized lime slurry [Ca(OH)2]. he hot flue gas dries the droplets to form a dry waste product, while the absorbent reacts with sulfur d...

  7. MODELING OF SO2 REMOVAL IN SPRAY-DRYER FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the SO2 removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a sorbent droplet and absorption/reaction of SO2 in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transf...

  8. Hydrologic transport of fecal bacteria attenuated by flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. As a soil amendment for crop and pasture production it may increase water infiltration, reduce soil erosion, and decrease nutrient losses from applications of animal manures. Broiler litter is used as a source of plan...

  9. Environmental evaluation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a BMP for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) is produced from pollution control systems reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from thermo-electric coal-fired power plants. Natural gypsum and FGDG both have been shown to be useful in control of soil erosion. However, concerns have been raised recently by envir...

  10. Extractive Deep Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Lewis-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of green solvents, known as ionic liquids (ILs, has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of traditional hydrodesulfurization method. In present work, eleven Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized and employed as promising extractants for deep desulfurization of the liquid fuel containing dibenzothiophene (DBT to test the desulfurization efficiency. [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 was the most promising ionic liquid and performed the best among studied ionic liquids under the same operating conditions. It can remove dibenzothiophene from the model liquid fuel in the single-stage extraction process with the maximum desulfurization efficiency of 75.6%. It was also found that [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 may be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency of 47.3%. Huge saving on energy can be achieved if we make use of this ionic liquids behavior in process design, instead of regenerating ionic liquids after every time of extraction.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF INFRARED METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF INORGANIC SULFUR SPECIES RELATED TO INJECTION DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods designed to control and reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and factories rely upon the reaction between SO2 and alkaline earth compounds and are called flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Of these met...

  12. Field studies on the use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a product of precipitation of sulfur from stack gases from coal-fired electric power plants. This material is produced in increasingly large quantities by electric power companies to meet clean air standards. We have evaluated this material for beneficial us...

  13. A cyclic (alkyl)(amido)carbene: synthesis, study and utility as a desulfurization reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Zachary R; Lastovickova, Dominika N; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and study of a cyclic (alkyl)(amido)carbene is described. The carbene was found to undergo C-H insertion at low temperatures, formed cyclopropenes upon exposure to alkynes, and facilitated desulfurization reactions. Spectroscopic studies revealed that the carbene is strongly π-accepting but retains a complimentary degree of σ-donating properties. PMID:27010415

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Wasewar, Kailas L; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z

    2016-05-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM]SCN has been presented on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel. The FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]SCN. Further, thermal, conductivity, moisture content, viscosity, and solubility analyses of [BMIM]SCN were carried out. The effects of time, temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of [BMIM]SCN on removal of dibenzothiophene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization, removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 86.5 % for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild process conditions. [BMIM]SCN could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, in the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazolium-based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels. PMID:26139406

  15. Thermal preparation effects on the x-ray diffractograms of compounds produced during flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffractograms of syn-gypsum and of flue gas desulfurization products indicate that CaSO4 · 2H2O is converted to other phase(s) when heated to 100 degrees C. Syn-hannebachite CaSO3·0.5H2O is unaffected by similar thermal treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. A modeling and experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a dense phase tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a dense phase tower as the reactor in a novel semi-dry flue gas desulfurization process to achieve a high desulfurization efficiency of over 95% when the Ca/S molar ratio reaches 1.3. Pilot-scale experiments were conducted for choosing the parameters of the full-scale reactor. Results show that with an increase in the flue gas flow rate the rate of the pressure drop in the dense phase tower also increases, however, the rate of the temperature drop decreases in the non-load hot gas. We chose a water flow rate of 0.6 kg/min to minimize the approach to adiabatic saturation temperature difference and maximize the desulfurization efficiency. To study the flue gas characteristics under different processing parameters, we simulated the desulfurization process in the reactor. The simulated data matched very well with the experimental data. We also found that with an increase in the Ca/S molar ratio, the differences between the simulation and experimental data tend to decrease; conversely, an increase in the flue gas flow rate increases the difference; this may be associated with the surface reactions caused by collision, coalescence and fragmentation between the dispersed phases.

  17. Deep desulfurization of diesel via peroxide oxidation using phosphotungstic acid as phase transfer catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High sulfur level in diesel fuel has been identified as a major contributor to air pollutant in term of sulfur dioxide (SOx) through diesel fueled vehicles. The main aim of the present work is to develop a promising methodology for ultra deep desulfurization of diesel fuel using oxidation followed by phase transfer of oxidized sulfur. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor using n-decane as the model diesel compound and also using commercial diesel feedstock. To remove sulfur tetraoctylammonium bromide, phosphotungstic acid, and hydrogen peroxide were used as phase transfer agent, catalyst and oxidant respectively. The percent sulfur removal increases with increasing the initial concentration of sulfur in fuel and with increasing the reaction temperature. Similar trends were observed when commercial diesel was used to carry out desulfurization studies. The amphiphilic catalyst serves as a catalyst and also as an emulsifying agent to stabilize the emulsion droplets. The effects of temperature, agitation speed, quantity of catalyst and the phase transfer agent were studied to estimate the optimal conditions for the reactions. The sulfur removal from a commercial diesel by phase transfer catalysis has been found effective and removal efficiency was more than 98%. Kinetic experiments carried out for the desulfurization revealed that the sulfur removal results are best fitted to a pseudo first order kinetics and the apparent activation energy of desulfurization was 30.6 kJ/mol. (author)

  18. Trace elements in flue gas desulfurization environments and their effect on corrosion of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature survey has been performed to determine what trace elements are prevalent in the environments of various flue gas desulfurization (FGD) components. The potential effect of these elements on the corrosion of alloys is discussed. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrated that certain elements in the flue gas can complex fluoride, thereby inhibiting corrosion significantly

  19. Deep Desulfurization of Extensively Hydrodesulfurized Middle Distillate Oil by Rhodococcus sp. Strain ECRD-1

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R C; Minak-Bernero, V.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    2001-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm.

  20. Investigation Of A Mercury Speciation Technique For Flue Gas Desulfurization Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to bene...

  1. Effect of alternative solid fuels on desulfurization of fluidized bed boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory research revealed a negative effect of ash formed during combustion of industrial and municipal waste in fluidized bed boilers. The reactivity of limestone used for desulfurization during the combustion reacts with the ash. The negative effect can be attributed to the oxides coating on the surface of calcined limestone. (author)

  2. Broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum effects on peanut yield and uptake of nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop that requires large amounts of soluble calcium and phosphorus. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) and super phosphate (SP) have been used for calcium and phosphorus fertilizer for peanut. Broiler litter ash (BLA), a high phosphorus byproduct pr...

  3. The influence of process parameters on desulfurization of Mezino coal by HNO3/HCl leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal desulfurization prior to usage is a preprocessing in order to achieve clean fuel and reduce environmental impacts such as acid rain. Desulfurization of Tabas Mezino coal was conducted with two consecutive steps of froth flotation at ambient temperature followed by leaching at various conditions. Reducing the ash content of Mezino coal by 35.7 wt.% and its total sulfur content by 36.9% using froth flotation process was successful. HCl and HNO3 were used, separately, to leach the floated coal, and the effectiveness of each acid on Mezino coal desulfurization was investigated. Nitric acid was found to be much more effective than HCl and the effects of reaction time, acid concentration and temperatures as well as stirring speed were studied as major parameters in the nitric leaching process. Taguchi orthogonal experiment with the above mentioned parameter elements; one at three levels was used to optimize the experiment parameters by the analysis of variances. Applying of the Taguchi technique significantly reduced the time and cost required for the experimental investigation. The findings indicated that acid concentration, with a high contribution, had the most dominant effect on desulfurization performance, followed by temperature, stirring speed and time. Accordingly, the optimum condition was obtained as, temperature: 90 C., acid concentration: 30%., and stirring rate: 1000 rpm. The total sulfur and ash removal after flotation and leaching at optimum condition reached to 75.4 and 53.2% respectively that is a remarkable result compared to the previous works. (author)

  4. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  5. Comparison of soil applied flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and agricultural gypsum on soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypsum can come from different sources. Agricultural gypsum is typically mined and used to supply calcium to crops. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a by-product of coal power plants. Although their chemical formulas are the same, different trace elements and materials are present in them....

  6. Thermodynamic assessment of IGCC power plants with hot fuel gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In IGCC power plants, hot gas desulfurization (HGD) represents an attractive solution to simplify syngas treatments and to improve the efficiency, potentially reducing the final cost of electricity. In the present study, the various consequences of the introduction of a HGD station in the power plant are discussed and evaluated, in comparison with conventional near-ambient temperature clean-up. Attention is paid to the potential improvements of the overall energy balance of the complete power station, along with the requirements of the sorbent regeneration process, to the influence of the desulfurization temperature and to the different solutions needed to control the NOx emissions (altered by the presence of HGD). The net performance of complete IGCC power plants (with HGD or with conventional desulfurization) were predicted, with reference to status-of-the-art solutions based on an entrained flow, dry-feed, oxygen-blown gasifier and on an advanced, FB-class combined cycle. The net efficiency experiences about 2.5% point improvement with HGD, even if a small reduction in the power output was predicted, when using the same combustion turbine. An exhaustive sensitivity analysis was carried out to evaluate the effects of different working conditions at the HGD station, e.g. desulfurization temperature and oxygen content in the gaseous stream for sorbent regeneration. According to the obtained results, these parameters have a weak influence on the efficiency. In particular, a very elevated desulfurization temperature (above 400-500 oC) does not provide decisive thermodynamic advantages. Therefore, the HGD unit optimization can be driven by technical and economical aspects and by emission abatement requirements. For instance, utilization of nitrogen for HGD sorbent regeneration (rather than for syngas dilution) and higher fuel temperature may improve the NO formation. Hence, different strategies to achieve acceptable NOx emissions (e.g. steam dilution) and their impact

  7. Results of testing various natural gas desulfurization adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Gordon

    2004-06-01

    This article presents the results of testing many commercially available and some experimental sulfur adsorbents. The desired result of our testing was to find an effective method to reduce the quantity of sulfur in natural gas to less than 100 ppb volume (0.1 ppm volume). An amount of 100 ppb sulfur is the maximum limit permitted for Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The tested adsorbents include some that rely only on physical adsorption such as activated carbon, some that rely on chemisorption such as heated zinc oxide, and some that may use both processes. The testing was performed on an engineering scale with beds larger than those used for typical laboratory tests. All tests were done at about 3.45 barg (50 psig). The natural gas used for testing was from the local pipeline in Pittsburgh and averaged 6 ppm volume total sulfur. The primary sulfur species were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), isopropyl mercaptan, tertiary butyl mercaptan, and tetrahydrothiophene. Some tests required several months to achieve a sulfur breakthrough of the bed. It was found that DMS always came through a desulfurizer bed first, independent of adsorption process. Since the breakthrough of DMS always exceeds the 100 ppb SOFC sulfur limit before other sulfurs were detected, an index was created to rate the adsorbents in units of ppm DMS × absorbent bed volume. This index is useful for calculating the expected adsorbent bed lifetime before sulfur breakthrough when the inlet natural gas DMS content is known. The adsorbents that are included in these reports were obtained from suppliers in the United States, the Netherlands, Japan, and England. Three activated carbons from different suppliers were found to have identical performance in removing DMS. One of these activated carbons was operated at four different space velocities and again showed the same performance. When using activated carbon as the basis of comparison for other adsorbents, three high-performance adsorbents

  8. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  9. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  10. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  11. Enrichment and cultivation of a sulfide-oxidizing bacteria consortium for its deploying in full-scale biogas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operational experiences and strategies to get suitable chemolithoautotrophic sulfide-oxidizing biomass from activated sludge wastewater treatment plant for its deploying in a full-scale biogas desulfurization plant are described. An economic nutrient source was applied to foster microbial selection and rapid growth. Respirometry was implemented on full-scale installations to monitor the ability of the specialized bacteria consortium to oxidize reduced sulfur i.e. H2S. During the deployment in the full-scale desulfurization reactor, intermittent sulfide feed from biogas scrubbing was performed to accelerate the startup the desulfurization process. - Highlights: • A simple method for reaching high amounts of specialized sulfide-oxidizing bacterial consortium from activated sludge was developed. • The full-scale desulfurization process can be continuously monitored by respirometry allowing fast decision making if problems arise. • The dissolved sulfide concentration was estimated with an empirical correlation between measurements of ORP, dissolved oxygen and pH

  12. Superoxide radical and UV irradiation in ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD): A potential alternative for greener fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ngo Yeung

    This study is aimed at improving the current ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process by utilizing superoxide radical as oxidant. Research was also conducted to investigate the feasibility of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-assisted desulfurization. These modifications can enhance the process with the following achievements: (1) Meet the upcoming sulfur standards on various fuels including diesel fuel oils and residual oils; (2) More efficient oxidant with significantly lower consumption in accordance with stoichiometry; (3) Energy saving by 90%; (4) Greater selectivity in petroleum composition. Currently, the UAOD process and subsequent modifications developed in University of Southern California by Professor Yen's research group have demonstrated high desulfurization efficiencies towards various fuels with the application of 30% wt. hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The UAOD process has demonstrated more than 50% desulfurization of refractory organic sulfur compounds with the use of Venturella type catalysts. Application of quaternary ammonium fluoride as phase transfer catalyst has significantly improved the desulfurization efficiency to 95%. Recent modifications incorporating ionic liquids have shown that the modified UAOD process can produce ultra-low sulfur, or near-zero sulfur diesels under mild conditions with 70°C and atmospheric pressure. Nevertheless, the UAOD process is considered not to be particularly efficient with respect to oxidant and energy consumption. Batch studies have demonstrated that the UAOD process requires 100 fold more oxidant than the stoichiometic requirement to achieve high desulfurization yield. The expected high costs of purchasing, shipping and storage of the oxidant would reduce the practicability of the process. The excess use of oxidant is not economically desirable, and it also causes environmental and safety issues. Post treatments would be necessary to stabilize the unspent oxidant residual to prevent the waste

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  14. Mechanistic and Chiroptical Studies on the Desulfurization of Epidithiodioxopiperazines Reveal Universal Retention of Configuration at the Bridgehead Carbon Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Cherblanc, Fanny L; Lo, Ya-Pei; Herrebout, Wouter A.; Bultinck, Patrick; Rzepa, Henry S; Fuchter, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The stereochemistry of the desulfurization products of chiral natural and synthetic 3,6-epidithiodiketopiperazines (ETPs) is specified inconsistently in the literature. Qualitative mechanisms have been put forward to explain apparently divergent stereochemical pathways, but the quantitative feasibility of such mechanistic pathways has not been assessed. We report a computational study revealing that desulfurization of ETPs should occur universally with retention of configuration. While the ma...

  15. Simulation study on equivalent dose field of electron beam irradiation flue gas desulfurization and denitrification model and its parameters optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an electron beam irradiation flue gas desulfurization and denitrification technical model, the track and the equivalent dose field of electron beams with different inject energy were simulated with Geant4 toolkit. Simulation results show that electron beam with 1.75 MeV matches with 1000 MW(e) level power plant flue gas desulfurization and denitrification technical design. The simulation results will be beneficial to the engineering design and the accelerator parameter optimization. (authors)

  16. Changes and removal of different sulfur forms after chemical desulfurization by peroxyacetic acid on microwave treated coals

    OpenAIRE

    MESROGHLI, Shahin; Yperman, Jan; Jorjani, E.; Vandewijngaarden, Jens; REGGERS, Guy; Carleer, Robert; Noaparast, M.

    2015-01-01

    High sulfur coal sample from C1 seam in Tabas mine (Iran) was studied. The effect of microwave pre-irradiation followed by a peroxyacetic acid (PAA) desulfurization on sulfur forms was investigated by atmospheric pressure-temperature-programmed reduction (AP-TPR) method. Implementing microwave irradiation at 300 W for 2 min resulted in a maximum total sulfur and organic sulfur reduction by PAA of about 63% and 49%, respectively. Pyrite reduction in the microwave treated - PAA desulfurized sam...

  17. Ability of Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B for enhanced desulfurization of dibenzothiophene and its derivatives using fructose as carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Luís Manuel; Silva, Tiago P.; A. S. Fernandes; Paixão, Susana M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to keep up the strict sulfur limits on fossil fuels and their derivatives, refineries commonly use a desulfurization method, which combines high temperatures and pressures with molecular hydrogen known as hydrodesulfurization (HDS). However, the effectiveness of HDS to desulfurize recalcitrant organic aromatic compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) or its derivatives is low. Biodesulfurization (BDS) has been described as a promising complementary technique to HDS. Using microor...

  18. Bioorganometallic chemistry: biocatalytic oxidation reactions with biomimetic nad+/nadh co-factors and [cp*rh(bpy)h]+ for selective organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Jochen; Hollman, Frank; Ho, The Vinh; Schnyder, Adrian; Fish, Richard H.; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-03-09

    The biocatalytic, regioselective hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl to the corresponding catechol was accomplished utilizing the monooxygenase 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA). The necessary natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) co-factor for this biocatalytic process was replaced by a biomimetic co-factor, N-benzylnicotinamide bromide, 1a. The interaction between the flavin (FAD) containing HbpA enzyme and the corresponding biomimetic NADH compound, N-benzyl-1,4-dihdronicotinamide, 1b, for hydride transfers, was shown to readily occur. The in situ recycling of the reduced NADH biomimic 1b from 1a was accomplished with [Cp*Rh(bpy)H](Cl); however, productive coupling of this regeneration reaction to the enzymatic hydroxylation reaction was not totally successful, due to a deactivation process concerning the HbpA enzyme peripheral groups; i.e., -SH or -NH{sub 2} possibly reacting with the precatalyst, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)](Cl){sub 2}, and thus inhibiting the co-factor regeneration process. The deactivation mechanism was studied, and a promising strategy of derivatizing these peripheral -SH or -NH{sub 2} groups with a polymer containing epoxide was successful in circumventing the undesired interaction between HbpA and the precatalyst. This latter strategy allowed tandem co-factor regeneration using 1a or 2a, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)](Cl){sub 2}, and formate ion, in conjunction with the polymer bound, FAD containing HbpA enzyme to provide the catechol product.

  19. Effects of coal-fired flue gas desulfurated waste residue application on saline-alkali soil amelioration and oil-sunflower growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin; XIAO Guo-Ju; MAO Gui-Lian; YUE Zi-Hui; Xu, Xing

    2010-01-01

    Aims Coal-fired flue gas desulfurated waste residue (abbreviated as desulfurated waste residue) may be a feasible approach to improving saline-alkali soil. Our objective was to explore the effects of desulfurated waste residue application on saline-alkali soil amelioration and growth of oil-sunflower (Helianthus annuus).Methods Based on field and pot experiments, we studied soil properties (including pH and total salt content), and plant eco-physiological traits (root length and volume, leaf ...

  20. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  1. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Rosazza, John P. N.

    2000-01-01

    The conversions of vanillic acid and O-benzylvanillic acid to vanillin were examined by using whole cells and enzyme preparations of Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646. With growing cultures, vanillic acid was decarboxylated (69% yield) to guaiacol and reduced (11% yield) to vanillyl alcohol. In resting Nocardia cells in buffer, 4-O-benzylvanillic acid was converted to the corresponding alcohol product without decarboxylation. Purified Nocardia carboxylic acid reductase, an ATP and NADPH-dependent...

  2. Biocatalytic weapons against micropollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Agathos, Spiros N.; Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology in the frame of the Knowledge-Based Bio and Green Economy (EMB2012)

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in areas of significant urbanization and affect treated and untreated wastewater, groundwater, drinking water as well as associated environmental matrices like sludges and sediments. The occurrence of these compounds at very low but environmentally relevant concentrations has earned them the collective term “micropollutants” while an important subgroup is causing concern because of t...

  3. High polymer materials for flue gas desulfurization equipment - assessment of international know-how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.-G. (Technische Hochschule, Koethen (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Anlagenbau, WB Werkstoff- und Fertigungstechnik)

    1990-07-01

    Reviews available internal coating methods for flue gas desulfurization equipment exposed to aggressive compounds (sulfur dioxide and chlorides) that are released from brown coal combustion and other processes. Technologies for steel surface corrosion protection include vulcanization by chlorinated or isoprene rubber, coating by glass flakes or application of glass fiber reinforced vinyl ester resins. Composition of glass flake coatings are explained as well as methods of spray coating. Glass flakes are mixed with Novolak vinyl ester resins or other binder. Glass fiber reinforced vinyl ester resin is applied for pipes, scrubbers and other parts of desulfurization equipment, predominantly in smaller size. Efforts are made at using this material for larger equipment sections. Introduction of higher quality ECR glass fibers compared to regular E type glass fibers further increased fields of application. New manufacturing methods are being developed aimed at producing additional equipment sections from this material. 26 refs.

  4. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2011-01-01

    Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage....... Unresolved issues, such as determination of the optimal recycle location of flue gas, the flue gas cleaning steps required (SO2, NOx, and particles), and the impact of an oxy-fuel flue gas on the cleaning steps, also persist. The aim of this work was to study the performance of the wet flue gas...... desulfurization (FGD) process under operating conditions corresponding to oxy-fuel firing. The most important output parameters were the overall degree of desulfurization and the residual limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry. Pilot-scale experiments quantified that the introduction of a flue gas with 90...

  5. Radiation-induced desulfurization of Arabian crude oil and straight-run diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, A. A.; Mohamed, K. A.

    2011-11-01

    Radiation-induced desulfurization of four types of Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) and straight-run diesel (SRD) was investigated over the range of 10-200 kGy. Results show that gamma radiation processing at absorbed doses up to 200 kGy without further treatment is not sufficient for desulfurization. However, the combination of gamma-irradiation with other physical/chemical processes (i.e. L/L extraction, adsorption and oxidation) may be capable of removing considerable levels of sulfur compounds in the investigated products. Currently, this approach of combined radiation/physical/chemical processes is under investigation. The findings of these attempts will be reported in the future.

  6. Deep Extractive Desulfurization of Gasoline with Ionic Liquids Based on Metal Halide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haojie; He Jianxun; Yang Cairong; Zhang Hang

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid [Et3NH]Cl-FeCl3/CuCl was synthesized by mixing [Et3NH]Cl, anhydrous FeCl3 and anhydrous CuCl, and the desulfurization activity of this ionic liquid was tested. It exhibited remarkable ability in effective desulfurization of model gasoline (thiophene in n-octane) and lfuid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline, and the sulfur removal of thiophene in model oil (V(IL):V(oil)=0.08) could reach 93.9%in 50 min at 50℃. Low-sulfur (﹤10μg/g) FCC gasoline could be obtained after three extraction runs at an ionic liquid/oil volume ratio of 0.1, with the yield of FCC gasoline reaching 94.3%. The ionic liquid could be recycled 5 times with merely a slight decrease in activity.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications. PMID:23508153

  8. Numerical and experimental study on flue gas desulfurization in the underfeed circulating spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, M.; Jin, B.S.; Zhong, W.Q.; Yang, Y.P.; Xiao, R. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2010-05-01

    An underfeed circulating spouted bed (UCSB) reactor was used as a desulfurization apparatus. In this study, an attempt was made to build a mathematical 3D model which couples the complicated flow and chemical reactions in the interest of system analysis and sulfur removal data analysis. A simplified reaction model was developed to describe the SO{sub 2} absorption process. Humidifying, evaporation, neutralization reaction have been considered in the model while the dissolution and ionization of calcium hydroxide are neglected. The effect of operating parameters including feed style, injecting velocity, jet water flow rate, humidifying style on sulfur removal efficiency were investigated. The results show that the calculation gives a good description of the experimental data under the range of operating conditions. It indicates that the model is successful in predicting the desulfurization efficiency of the UCSB system.

  9. A New Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Process-Underfeed Circulating Spouted Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, M.; Jin, B. S.; Yang, Y. P.

    Applying an underfeed system, the underfeed circulating spouted bed was designed as a desulfurization reactor. The main objective of the technology is to improve the mixing effect and distribution uniformity of solid particles, and therefore to advance the desulfurization efficiency and calcium utility. In this article, a series of experimental studies were conducted to investigate the fluidization behavior of the solid-gas two-phase flow in the riser. The results show that the technology can distinctly improve the distribution of gas velocity and particle flux on sections compared with the facefeed style. Analysis of pressure fluctuation signals indicates that the operation parameters have significant influence on the flow field in the reaction bed. The existence of injecting flow near the underfeed nozzle has an evident effect on strengthening the particle mixing.

  10. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  11. Photooxidative desulfurization for diesel using Fe / N - TiO2 photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Kait, Chong Fai; Mutalib, Mohd Ibrahim Abdul

    2014-10-01

    A series of N - TiO2 with different mol% N was synthesized via sol-gel method and characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer and raman spectroscopy. 0.2 wt% Fe was incorporated onto the calcined (200°C) N - TiO2 followed by calcination at 200°C, 250°C and 300°C. Photooxidative desulfurization was conducted in the presence of 0.2wt% Fe / N - TiO2 with different mol% N with and without oxidant (H2O2). Oxidative desulfurization was only achieved when H2O2 was used while without H2O2 no major effect on the sulfur removal. 0.2Fe -30N - H2O2 photocatalysts showed best performance at all calcination temperatures as compared to other mol% N - H2O2 photocatalysts. 16.45% sulfur removal was achieved using photocatalysts calcined at 300 °C.

  12. Experimental Study on Demercurization Performance of Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO, Jingjing; YANG, Linjun; YAN, Jinpei

    2009-01-01

    The demercurization performance of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system was investigated by measuring mercury concentrations at the inlet and outlet of WFGD system with a QM201H mercury analyzer. The selected desulfurizer included NH_3·H_2O, NaOH, Na_2CO_3, Ca(OH)_2 and CaCO_3. The influences of adding oxidant and coagulant such as KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions were also studied.The results show that elemental mercury is the main component of gaseous mercury in coal-fired flue gas, and the proportion of oxidized mercury is less than 36%. Oxidized mercury could be removed by WFGD system efficiently,and the removal efficiency could amount to 81.1%-92.6%. However, the concentration of elemental mercury slightly increased at the outlet of WFGD as a result of its insolubility and re-emission. Therefore, the removal efficiency of gaseous mercury is only 13.3%-18.3%. The mercury removal efficiency of WFGD system increased with increasing the liquid-gas ratio. In addition, adding KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions could increase the mercury removal efficiency obviously. Various additives have different effects, and Na_2S is demonstrated to be the most efficient, in which a mercury removal efficiency of 67.2% can be reached.

  13. Low temperature oxidative desulfurization with hierarchically mesoporous titaniumsilicate Ti-SBA-2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengxiang; Wang, Wenxuan; Liu, Ni; Xu, Xueyan; Wang, Danhong; Zhang, Minghui; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Tiehong

    2015-07-21

    Hierarchically porous Ti-SBA-2 with high framework Ti content (up to 5 wt%) was firstly synthesized by employing organic mesomorphous complexes of a cationic surfactant (CTAB) and an anionic polyelectrolyte (PAA) as templates. The material exhibited excellent performance in oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel at low temperature (40 °C or 25 °C) due to the unique hierarchically porous structure and high framework Ti content. PMID:26096231

  14. Application of Ultrasound Waves to Increase the Efficiency of Oxidative Desulfurization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Amani; Iman Najafi; Mohammad Amin Makarem

    2011-01-01

    One of the key factors for increasing the efficiency of reactions in which catalysts are involved is to increase the contacts and exposure of reagents to the catalysts. Using ultrasonic waves to destabilize the boundary layer between solid catalysts and reagents and mixing the homogeneous catalysts and reagent can increase the rate of reaction. Based on this fact, many industrial processesincludingdesulfurization are enhanced by sonication. In this study a sono desulfurization unit with the c...

  15. RESEARCH ADVANCES IN OXIDATIVE DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LOW SULFUR FUEL OILS

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Wang; Fengli Yu; Gaofei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative desulfurization (ODS) technology has been widely recognized as one of the mosteffective methods for the removal of fuel oils, due to the very mild operation conditions it requires.According to the oxidants involved, the ODS methods to date can be divided into the followingcategories: H2O2 oxidation method, organic oxidant method, photochemical oxidation method, aswell as those involving the use of plasma or ultrasound. Status of research progress in these ODSmethods was systemat...

  16. A Design of Experiments Investigation of Adsorptive Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Mužic, M.; Sertić-Bionda, K.; Gomzi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Adsorptive desulfurization of diesel fuel was investigated applying two Design of Experiments (DOE) methods. The experiments were carried out in a batch adsorption system using Chemviron Carbon SOLCARBTM C3 activated carbon as adsorbent. The first DOE method employed was a full factorial with three factors on two levels and five center points, and the second was Box-Behneken design with the same three factors but on three levels. The effects of individual factors and their interactions on sul...

  17. Modelling biotrickling filters to minimize elemental sulfur accumulation during biogas desulfurization under aerobic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    López, L.R.; Dorado Castaño, Antonio David; M. Mora; Prades Martell, Lledó; Gamisans Noguera, Javier; Lafuente, J; Gabriel, D.

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical dynamic model describing biological removal of high loads of H2S from biogas streams through a biotrickling filter (BTF) was developed, calibrated and validated to a range of specific experimental conditions of a lab-scale BTF. This model takes into account the main processes occurring in the three phases of the desulfurizing BTF (gas, liquid and biofilm phase) in a co-current configuration flow mode. This model attempts to describe accurately intermediate products obtained fro...

  18. Desulfurization of pyrolysis fuel produced from waste lube oils, tyres and plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Lal Baeza, Ana María; Bolonio Martín, David; Llamas Lois, Alberto; Lapuerta, M.; Canoira López, Laureano

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur compounds remaining in petroleum fractions from topping, hydroskimming or deep conversion processes are a growing concern for oil refiners since in the lapse of a few years the sulphur specification for motor fuels has dropped from 500 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg in most European countries. This increasingly stringent regulation has forced refineries to greatly improve their hydrodesulfurization units, increasing the desulfurization rates and thus consuming huge amounts of hydrogen.

  19. Investigation on Mercury Reemission from Limestone-Gypsum Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Slurry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0 and lead to a damping of the cobenefit mercury removal efficiency by WFGD systems. The experiment on Hg0 reemission from limestone-gypsum WFGD slurry was carried out by changing the operating conditions such as the pH, temperature, Cl− concentrations, and oxygen concentrations. The partitioning behavior of mercury in the solid and liquid byproducts was also discu...

  20. Rate-limiting step analysis of the microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene in a model oil system

    OpenAIRE

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Leung, James C.; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel IC; Prather, Kristala LJ

    2013-01-01

    A mechanistic analysis of the various mass transport and kinetic steps in the microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 in a model biphasic (oil–water), small-scale system was performed. The biocatalyst was distributed into three populations, free cells in the aqueous phase, cell aggregates and oil–adhered cells, and the fraction of cells in each population was measured. The power input per volume (P/V) and the impeller tip speed (v[subscript tip]) ...

  1. Application of Commercial Sorbent into Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field for Clean Coal technologies Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, H.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced applications of producer gas (e.g. fuel cells, catalytic processes for liquid fuels production) require deep gas cleaning. Dry desulfurization technologies of fuel gas select appropriate sorbents according to material’s physical and chemical properties like sulfur capacity, attainable sulphur concentration in gas, price, etc.. The properties of a commercial sorbent were determined by means of XRD, ICP-OES, SEM and surface area measurement. The main components of the sorbent were ZnO,...

  2. Preferential desulfurization of dibenzyl sulfide by an isolated Gordonia sp. IITR100

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Abrar; Chauhan, Ashok Kumar; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Javed, Saleem; Kumar, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    Several organosulfur compounds are present in the crude oil, and are required to be removed before its processing into transport fuel. For this reason, biodesulfurization of thiophenic compounds has been studied extensively. However, studies on the sulfide compounds are scarce. In this paper, we describe desulfurization of a model sulfidic compound, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) by an isolated Gordonia sp. IITR100. The reaction was accompanied with the formation of metabolites dibenzyl sulfoxide, di...

  3. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality: A Natural Experiment from Power Plant Desulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Lüchinger, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The paper estimates the effect of SO2 pollution on infant mortality in Germany, 1985-2003. To avoid simultaneity problems, I exploit the natural experiment created by the mandated desulfurization at power plants, with wind directions dividing counties into treatment and control groups. Instrumental variable estimates are larger than conventional estimates and translate into an elasticity of 0.08-0.13. The observed reduction in pollution implies an annual gain of 895-1528 infant lives. Estimat...

  4. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls from sintering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjing; Hou, Meifang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Haifeng; Han, Ying; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    The influence of desulfurization on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sintering plants was investigated. The concentrations of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, toxic equivalents (TEQs), indicator PCBs, and total tri- to deca-chlorinated PCB homolog groups (∑PCBs) in the flue gases at the desulfurization system inlets were 290-1906 pg m(-3) (2.4-18.8 pg World Health Organization (WHO) TEQ m(-3)), 420-2885 pg m(-3), and 6496-22,648 pg m(-3), respectively. Desulfurization reduced the values to 43.3-500 pg m(-3) (0.46-9.5 pg WHO-TEQ m(-3)), 183-587 pg m(-3), and 2383-11,639 pg m(-3), respectively. The removed PCBs were adsorbed by gypsum from the flue gas; the PCB concentration distributions at the inlets and outlets and in the gypsum samples were similar. The emission factors were 9.86 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for the flue gas and 8.37 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for gypsum. Desulfurization decreased the annual atmospheric PCB emissions from 48.6 to 30.7 g WHO-TEQ, and the estimated annual emissions in gypsum were 8.06 g WHO-TEQ. PCBs in the gypsum have not been effectively eliminated and will probably reenter the environment and in turn become a new source of PCB emission. The PCB concentrations in fly ashes from series-connected electrostatic precipitators clearly increased. PMID:26690582

  5. Desulfurization of fuels with ionic liquids by extraction and oxidative extraction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cabo, Borja

    2014-01-01

    The excessive emission of pollutants to the atmosphere has been a problem during the last few decades due to, among other reasons, the massive use of transports. In order to avoid this problem, many methods are being investigated as an alternative to the classical hydrodesulfurization technique, such as adsorption, biodesulfurization, extraction and oxidation. The extractive desulfurization is one of the most promising alternatives. Moreover, its enhancement with selective oxidation of sulfur...

  6. Characteristics of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 and its Dsz-negative mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Etemadifar; Simone Cappello; Seyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Biodesulfurization is used as a selective method for lowering the sulfur content of petroleum products. Materials and methods: A sulfur-oxidation bacterial strain named Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GU570564) was used in this study for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT). Results: The induced culture of strain R1 was able to produce 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2- HBP) from DBT followed 4S pathway without further degrading carbon backbone. This proces...

  7. Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Titania Nanomaterial for Desulfurization of Model Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Tawfik A.; Mohammad N. Siddiqui; Abdulrahman A. Al-Arfaj

    2014-01-01

    This work reported on the development of novel nanomaterials of multiwalled carbon nanotubes doped with titania (CNT/TiO2) for the adsorptive desulfurization of model fuel oils. Various analytical techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for the characterization of the nanomaterials. The initial results indicated the effectiveness of the prepared CNT/TiO2 nan...

  8. Active-alkali metal promoted reductive desulfurization of dibenzothiophene and its hindered analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Pittalis, Mario; Azzena, Ugo Gavino; Carraro, Massimo; Pisano, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Reductive desulfurisation of organic compounds is of importance both in organic synthesis and in industry. Benzo- and dibenzothiophenes are between the most abundant sulphur containing impurities in crude oils, and their desulfurization is a mandatory issue in the production of non polluting fuels. Following our interest in the development of efficient alkali metal-mediated synthetic procedures and alternative protocols for the chemical transformation of widespread environmental contaminants ...

  9. Calculation of dose distribution in reactor for flue gas desulfurization and denitrification by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose distribution in reactor for flue gas desulfurization and denitrification by 0.8 MeV electron beam irradiation has been simulated using EGSnrcMP Monte-Carlo program. The simulated results are carefully analyzed by utilizing MATLAB. To validate the reliability of the results, simulations with 0.5 MeV electron beam have been conducted, and the results are compared with experiment data from literatures, which shows a good agreement. (authors)

  10. Effect of flue gas desulfurization residue on plant establishment and soil and leachate quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punshon, T.; Adriano, D.C.; Weber, J.T. [University of Georgia, Savannah, GA (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2001-06-01

    Effects on soil quality and crop establishment after incorporation of flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) into soil as an amendment was assessed in a mesocosm study. Mesocosm units received applications equivalent to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% FGD residue. Germination, biomass production, and elemental composition of corn, radish and cotton were determined. The quality of leachates and soil were also determined periodically. Flue gas desulfurization residue did not affect germination and all application rates stimulated aboveground biomass. Plants grown in FGD-amended soil contained significantly elevated tissue concentrations of As, B, Se, and Mo. The FGD residue elevated surface soil pH from 5.5 to 8.1. Leachate pH was unaffected by FGD, but salinity rose sharply with increasing application rates of FGD. Leachates contained higher concentrations of B, with small increases in Se and As. Flue gas desulfurization residue application caused an increase in total B, As, Mo, Se and extractable Ca in the soil, but decreased Mn and Zn. Using FGD residues could have beneficial effects on crop establishment without detrimental effects on soil or leachate quality, at an optimum rate of approximately 2.5%. This material could alleviate surface acidity, and B and Mo deficiencies in plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Aqueous organic phases separation by membrane reactors in bio desulfurization reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents o membrane bioreactor prototype used to separate emulsion phases formed in the bio desulfurization reaction. Hydrophobic membranes used for the construction of the prototype allow the separation of the organic/watery phases. The separation unit resembles o tube and carcass heat exchanger. by feeding the emulsion through the housing and due to the pressure gradient pushed on the membrane, the organic phase pass through and allow to obtain on organic phase free of cells and water. Several organic phase/watery phase ratios and many cellular concentrations were evaluated. Results indicate that is possible to separate the phases by manipulating the fluid pressure within the bioreactor. This is possible even for cellular concentrations of the order of 7 g/l. the system can also be used as a reaction unit. The biological conversion was evaluated by verifying the presence of 2-HBP one of the metabolites of the path 45 in the bio desulfurization reaction. This bioreactor configuration has not been explored before for the bio desulfurization process and therefore it represents an innovation in this research area

  12. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  13. Bioprocessing of crude oils and desulfurization using electro-spray reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.; Borole, A.P.

    1998-07-01

    Biological removal of organic sulfur from petroleum feedstocks offers an attractive alternative to conventional thermochemical treatment due to the mild operating conditions afforded by the biocatalyst. Electro-spray bioreactors were investigated for use in desulfurization due to their reported operational cost savings relative to mechanically agitated reactors and their capability of forming emulsions < 5 {micro}m. Here, the rates dibenzothiophene (DBT) oxidation to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in hexadecane, by Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8 are compared in the two reactor systems. Desulfurization rates ranged from 1.0 and 5.0 mg 2-HBP/(dry g cells-h), independent of the reactor employed. The batch stirred reactor was capable of forming a very fine emulsion in the presence of the biocatalyst IGTS8, similar to that formed in the electro-spray reactors, presumably due to the fact that the biocatalyst produces its own surfactant. While electro-spray reactors did not prove to be advantageous for the IGTS8 desulfurization system, it may prove advantageous for systems which do not produce surface-active bioagents in addition to being mass transport limited.

  14. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan; Gao, Ruimin; Zhao, Jianshe; Wang, Junlong

    2015-05-01

    M2(PcAN)2 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5) or the M2(PcTN)2 doping W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5 and Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV-Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N2 adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed.

  15. Desulfurization of Model Oil via Adsorption by Copper(II) Modified Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Dezhi; Huang, Huan; Shi, Li [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2013-03-15

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in liquid hydrocarbon fuels, a desulfurization process by adsorption for removing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and propylmercaptan (PM) was investigated. Bentonite adsorbents modified by CuCl{sub 2} for the desulfurization of model oil was investigated. The results indicated that the modified bentonite adsorbents were effective for adsorption of DMS and PM. The bentonite adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TGA). The acidity was measured by FT-IR spectroscopy. Several factors that influence the desulfurization capability, including loading and calcination temperature, were studied. The maximum sulfur adsorption capacity was obtained at a Cu(II) loading of 15 wt %, and the optimum calcination temperature was 150 .deg. C. Spectral shifts of the v(C-S) and v(Cu-S) vibrations of the complex compound obtained by the reaction of CuCl{sub 2} and DMS were measured with the Raman spectrum. On the basis of complex adsorption reaction and hybrid orbital theory, the adsorption on modified bentonite occurred via multilayer intermolecular forces and S-M (σ) bonds.

  16. Surface acidity effects of Al-SBA-15 mesoporous materials on adsorptive desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiuhong; Wang, Yuan; Duan, Linhai; Qin, Yucai; Yu, Wenguang; Wang, Qiang; Dong, Shiwei; Ruan, Yanjun; Wang, Haiyan; Song, Lijuan

    2014-09-01

    SBA-15 and Aluminum-substituted SBA-15 with Si/Al molar ratio 10 (Al-SBA-15(10)) mesoporous materials were directly synthesized by a hydrolysis approach and characterized by a powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) etc. The relative number of hydroxyl groups was investigated by in situ FTIR systematically. The acid type and acid strength of the adsorbents were monitord by FTIR at 423 K and 673 K, respectively, utilizing pyridine as a probe. Desulfurization performances of the adsorbents were investigated via static adsorption experiment. Gas chromatography-sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD) was employed to detect the sulfur compounds in model fuels before and after treated by the adsorbents. The calcined Al-SBA-15(10) material shows well-ordered hexagonal mesostructure and strong Lewis acid sites (L acid) and weak Brönsted acid sites (B acid). The number of hydroxy on the surface of the Al-SBA-15(10) is more than that of SBA-15, which is beneficial to further modifications such as spontaneous monolayer dispersion. Desulfurization performance of the adsorbents is affected by surface acidity of adsorbents and the constituent of model fuels (olefins, arene, etc.). The thiophene and olefins adsorbed on the B acid site of the adsorbent may occur subsequently alkylation reactions, which may block the pores of the adsorbents and thus cause the reduction of desulfurization capacity. PMID:25924387

  17. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

    2004-03-01

    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

  18. Removal of polychlorinated naphthalenes by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated naphthalenes from sintering plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Liu, Guorui; Li, Haifeng; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    The sintering flue gas samples were collected at the inlets and outlets of the desulfurization systems to evaluate the influence of the systems on PCNs emission concentrations, profiles, and emission factors. The PCNs concentrations at the inlets and outlets were 27888–153672 pg m−3 and 11988–42245 pg m−3,respectively. Desulfurization systems showed excellent removal for PCNs, and the removal efficiencies of PCNs increase with increasing chlorination level. Lower chlorinated homologs are more sensitive to the desulfurization process than higher ones. High levels of PCNs were also detected in the gypsum (11600–29720 pg g−1) and fly ash samples (4946–64172 pg g−1). The annual total emissions of PCNs released to flue gas and gypsum from the sintering plants were about 394 kg, 48.5% of which was in gypsum. The surface area of the fly ash samples increased significantly from the first to the fourth stage of the series-connected electrostatic precipitator, accompanying obvious rising of concentration of PCNs in the fly ash samples. PMID:27197591

  19. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  20. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  1. Changes in sulfur form during coal desulfurization with microwave:Effect on coal properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ning; Tao Xiuxiang

    2015-01-01

    The changes in sulfur form in coal were analyzed by sulfur K-XANES (K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structures) spectra before and after the coal microwave desulfurization in a NaOH solution. After the desulfurization, the pyritic sulfur content of coal decreased significantly from 53.6%to 39.2%, while the sulfate sulfur content increased from 17.3% to 34.6%. Only a small amount of thiophene sulfur (20.1–16.1%) was removed. Some sulfur-containing components were oxidized to sulfate sulfur. Under the opti-mum conditions, the ash content decreased, while the volatile content increased. The calorific value of coal slightly decreased with a slight variation in the amplitudes. The overall structure of coal did not change significantly based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analyses. Thus, the desulfuriza-tion of coal with microwave irradiation in a NaOH solution did not significantly change the properties of coal.

  2. Desulfurization of petroleum by Co-60 gamma irradiation and analysis of products using GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur is an undesirable hetero-atom that has negative on motor engines if present in quantities between 50 and 180.000 ppm. Research has shown that sour petroleum can be 'sweetened' by gamma irradiation to de-sulfurize the crude oil. In this research we will report experimental results of desulfurizing petroleum locally procured. The objective is to improve the quality of product delivered to the motor market and also reduce the environmental pollution due to SO2 emissions from engines. The gamma irradiated (de-sulfurized petroleum was chemically analyzed using GC-MS. The preliminary results show that the petroleum is polymerized by gamma radiation to higher molecular mass. The un-irradiated petroleum had a sulfur concentration of 3.24% and 0.020% wt after gamma irradiation. The sulfur content was reduced by a factor of about 160 when dose was increased from zero to 50 kGys. GC-MS Chromatographs are presented for the identified hydrocarbons after gamma irradiation. (authors)

  3. Desulfurization of jet fuel for fuel cell-based APU systems in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Pasel, J.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To prevent the catalysts in fuel cell systems from poisoning by sulfur containing substances the fuel to be used must be desulfurized to a maximum of 10 ppmw of sulfur. Since the conventional hydrodesulfurization process employed in the refinery industry is not suitable for mobile fuel cell applications (e.g. auxiliary power units, APUs), the present study aims at developing an alternative process and determining its technical feasibility. A large number of processes were assessed with respect to their application in fuel cell APUs. The results revealed that a two-step process combining pervaporation and adsorption is a suitable process for the on-board desulfurization of jet fuel. The investigations to evaluate this process are presented in this paper. Seven different membrane materials and ten sorbent materials were screened to choose the most suitable candidates. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to optimize the operating conditions and to collect data for a pilot plant design. Different jet fuel qualities with up to 1650 ppmw of sulfur can be desulfurized to a level of 10 ppmw. (orig.)

  4. Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel via dual activation by a protic ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Hongying, E-mail: hylv@ytu.edu.cn; Wang, Shunan; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Guo, Baocun

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • A protic ionic liquid, [Hnmp]HCOO, was used as in ODS. • The mechanism of ODS was involved in dual activation by the PIL. • The [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited high catalytic activity in ODS. • The amounts of PILs and oxidant dosage play vital roles in desulfurization system. • This system can be recycled five times with an unnoticeable decrease in activity. - Abstract: A novel and green carboxylate-anion-based protic ionic liquid (PIL), [Hnmp]HCOO, was prepared through a simple and atom economic neutralization reaction between N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium (NMP) and formic acids. Both FT-IR spectra and {sup 1}H NMR confirmed its simple salt structure. [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited so high catalytic activity that the dibenzothiophene (DBT) removal reached 99% at 50 °C in 3 h under conditions of V{sub PIL}/V{sub model} {sub oil} = 1:10 and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/DBT (O/S, molar ratio) = 5. The catalytic oxidation reactivity of S-compounds was found to be in the order of DBT > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) > benzothiophene (BT). The investigation on mechanism showed that oxidative desulfurization was realized through dual activation of PIL. Moreover, [Hnmp]HCOO can be recycled for five times with an unnoticeable decrease in desulfurization activity.

  5. Effects of nano-TiO2 on combustion and desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized titanium oxide powder was prepared via the sol–gel process and characterized by transmission electron microscope. The effects of nano-TiO2 on combustion characteristics of lignite, desulfurization in combustion and the properties of ashes were investigated. The calorific value of coals and the fusion point of the coal ashes were measured by calorimeter and ash fusion point determination meter; the components of coal ashes and the contents of combustible matters in ash were determined by chemical methods; the pore-size distribution and specific surface area of the coal ash were analyzed by surface area analyzer. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to investigate the effect of nano-TiO2 on combustion. The results showed that the calorific value of the coal and the fusion temperature of the coal ash were lowered by adding CaO, while on the other hand adding nano-TiO2 to coal increased the calorific value and the melting temperature effectively. Meanwhile, the coal combustion efficiency and desulfurization in combustion could be effectively improved by the co-action of TiO2. - Highlights: • The burn-off rate of coals was raised and the combustible contents were reduced by adding nano-TiO2. • The desulfurization in combustion can be achieved by adding CaO, but the combustion efficiency was inhibited. • Nano-TiO2 can promote the transfer rate of oxygen from gas phase to the surface of char

  6. Controlling Peptide Self-Assembly through a Native Chemical Ligation/Desulfurization Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Konda, Maruthi; Biswas, Sagar; Das, Apurba K

    2016-03-18

    Self-assembled peptides were synthesized by using a native chemical ligation (NCL)/desulfurization strategy that maintained the chemical diversity of the self-assembled peptides. Herein, we employed oxo-ester-mediated NCL reactions to incorporate cysteine, a cysteine-based dipeptide, and a sterically hindered unnatural amino acid (penicillamine) into peptides. Self-assembly of the peptides resulted in the formation of self-supporting gels. Microscopy analysis indicated the formation of helical nanofibers, which were responsible for the formation of gel matrices. The self-assembly of the ligated peptides was governed by covalent and non-covalent interactions, as confirmed by FTIR, CD, fluorescence spectroscopy, and MS (ESI) analyses. Peptide disassembly was induced by desulfurization reactions with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and glutathione at 80 °C. Desulfurization reactions of the ligated peptides converted the Cys and penicillamine functionalities into Ala and Val moieties, respectively. The self-supporting gels showed significant shear-thinning and thixotropic properties. PMID:26808117

  7. Removal of polychlorinated naphthalenes by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated naphthalenes from sintering plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Liu, Guorui; Li, Haifeng; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-05-01

    The sintering flue gas samples were collected at the inlets and outlets of the desulfurization systems to evaluate the influence of the systems on PCNs emission concentrations, profiles, and emission factors. The PCNs concentrations at the inlets and outlets were 27888–153672 pg m‑3 and 11988–42245 pg m‑3,respectively. Desulfurization systems showed excellent removal for PCNs, and the removal efficiencies of PCNs increase with increasing chlorination level. Lower chlorinated homologs are more sensitive to the desulfurization process than higher ones. High levels of PCNs were also detected in the gypsum (11600–29720 pg g‑1) and fly ash samples (4946–64172 pg g‑1). The annual total emissions of PCNs released to flue gas and gypsum from the sintering plants were about 394 kg, 48.5% of which was in gypsum. The surface area of the fly ash samples increased significantly from the first to the fourth stage of the series-connected electrostatic precipitator, accompanying obvious rising of concentration of PCNs in the fly ash samples.

  8. Desulfurization of Model Oil via Adsorption by Copper(II) Modified Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in liquid hydrocarbon fuels, a desulfurization process by adsorption for removing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and propylmercaptan (PM) was investigated. Bentonite adsorbents modified by CuCl2 for the desulfurization of model oil was investigated. The results indicated that the modified bentonite adsorbents were effective for adsorption of DMS and PM. The bentonite adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TGA). The acidity was measured by FT-IR spectroscopy. Several factors that influence the desulfurization capability, including loading and calcination temperature, were studied. The maximum sulfur adsorption capacity was obtained at a Cu(II) loading of 15 wt %, and the optimum calcination temperature was 150 .deg. C. Spectral shifts of the v(C-S) and v(Cu-S) vibrations of the complex compound obtained by the reaction of CuCl2 and DMS were measured with the Raman spectrum. On the basis of complex adsorption reaction and hybrid orbital theory, the adsorption on modified bentonite occurred via multilayer intermolecular forces and S-M (σ) bonds

  9. Enhanced pervaporative desulfurization by polydimethylsiloxane membranes embedded with silver/silica core-shell microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervaporative desulfurization based on membrane technology provides a promising alternative for removal of sulfur substances (as represented by thiophene) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The present study focused on the performance enhancement of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane by incorporation of core-shell structured silver/silica microspheres. A silane coupling agent, N-[3-(trimethoxysily)propyl]-ethylenediamine (TSD), was used to chelate the Ag+ via its amino groups and attach the silver seeds onto the silica surface via condensation of its methoxyl groups. The resultant microspheres were characterized by Zeta-positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (ZetaPALS), inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrophotometer (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag+/SiO2-PDMS composite membranes were prepared by blending PDMS with the as-synthesized silver/silica microspheres. PALS analysis was used to correlate the apparent fractional free volume with permeation flux. The sorption selectivity towards thiophene was enhanced after incorporation of silver/silica microspheres due to the π-complexation between the silver on the microsphere surface and the thiophene molecules. The pervaporative desulfurization performance of the composite membrane was investigated using thiophene/n-octane mixture as a model gasoline. The composite membrane exhibited an optimum desulfurization performance with a permeation flux of 7.76 kg/(m2 h) and an enrichment factor of 4.3 at the doping content of 5%.

  10. Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene in the presence of iron chlorideionic liquid catalyst and ultrasound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Seyedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene refinery in Tehran with sulfur content of 0/293% with iron chloride - hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonic liquid catalysts in the presence of acetic acid - formic acid and an oxidizinghydrogen peroxide has been studied. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of moles of sulfur oxidation (no/ ns,mole ratio of moles of acid per mol of sulfur (nacid/ ns (on the desulfurization of kerosene checked(the molar ratio of oxidant to 15-40 and 20-80 mole ratio of sulfur to sulfur acidThe results showed that the optimal conditions for the removal of sulfur from iron chloride catalyst system kerosene by 93% and sulfur content of residual 128 ppm is obtained. The effect of ultrasonic waves on system performance oxidationwas studied, the results showed that the percentage of desulfurization systems, oxidation of acetic acid- hydrogen peroxide in combination with ultrasound (96% and without ultrasound was 93%, which indicates improved performance oxidation The presence of ultrasound.

  11. Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel via dual activation by a protic ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A protic ionic liquid, [Hnmp]HCOO, was used as in ODS. • The mechanism of ODS was involved in dual activation by the PIL. • The [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited high catalytic activity in ODS. • The amounts of PILs and oxidant dosage play vital roles in desulfurization system. • This system can be recycled five times with an unnoticeable decrease in activity. - Abstract: A novel and green carboxylate-anion-based protic ionic liquid (PIL), [Hnmp]HCOO, was prepared through a simple and atom economic neutralization reaction between N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium (NMP) and formic acids. Both FT-IR spectra and 1H NMR confirmed its simple salt structure. [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited so high catalytic activity that the dibenzothiophene (DBT) removal reached 99% at 50 °C in 3 h under conditions of VPIL/Vmodel oil = 1:10 and H2O2/DBT (O/S, molar ratio) = 5. The catalytic oxidation reactivity of S-compounds was found to be in the order of DBT > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) > benzothiophene (BT). The investigation on mechanism showed that oxidative desulfurization was realized through dual activation of PIL. Moreover, [Hnmp]HCOO can be recycled for five times with an unnoticeable decrease in desulfurization activity

  12. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  13. Desulfurization and denitrogenation of heavy gas oil by Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, D; Todescato, D; Moritz, D E; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Oliveira, D; Ulson de Souza, A A; Guelli Souza, S M A

    2015-08-01

    Some of the noxious atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen and sulfur dioxides come from the fossil fuel combustion. Biodesulfurization and biodenitrogenation are processes which remove those pollutants through the action of microorganisms. The ability of sulfur and nitrogen removal by the strain Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277 was tested in a biphasic system containing different heavy gas oil concentrations in a batch reactor. Heavy gas oil is an important fraction of petroleum, because after passing through, the vacuum distillation is incorporated into diesel oil. This strain was able to remove about 40% of the nitrogen and sulfur present in the gas heavy oil. Additionally, no growth inhibition occurred even when in the presence of pure heavy gas oil. Results present in this work are considered relevant for the development of biocatalytic processes for nitrogen and sulfur removal toward building feasible industrial applications. PMID:25759162

  14. Proteomics and Metabolomics Analyses to Elucidate the Desulfurization Pathway of Chelatococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Naba K; Bhagowati, Pabitra; Chaudhuri, Mihir K; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2016-01-01

    Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and alkylated DBT derivatives present in transport fuel through specific cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S) bonds by a newly isolated bacterium Chelatococcus sp. is reported for the first time. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the products of DBT degradation by Chelatococcus sp. showed the transient formation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) which was subsequently converted to 2-methoxybiphenyl (2-MBP) by methylation at the hydroxyl group of 2-HBP. The relative ratio of 2-HBP and 2-MBP formed after 96 h of bacterial growth was determined at 4:1 suggesting partial conversion of 2-HBP or rapid degradation of 2-MBP. Nevertheless, the enzyme involved in this conversion process remains to be identified. This production of 2-MBP rather than 2-HBP from DBT desulfurization has a significant metabolic advantage for enhancing the growth and sulfur utilization from DBT by Chelatococcus sp. and it also reduces the environmental pollution by 2-HBP. Furthermore, desulfurization of DBT derivatives such as 4-M-DBT and 4, 6-DM-DBT by Chelatococcus sp. resulted in formation of 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-biphenyl and 2-hydroxy -3, 3/- dimethyl-biphenyl, respectively as end product. The GC and X-ray fluorescence studies revealed that Chelatococcus sp. after 24 h of treatment at 37°C reduced the total sulfur content of diesel fuel by 12% by per gram resting cells, without compromising the quality of fuel. The LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digested intracellular proteins of Chelatococcus sp. when grown in DBT demonstrated the biosynthesis of 4S pathway desulfurizing enzymes viz. monoxygenases (DszC, DszA), desulfinase (DszB), and an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (DszD). Besides, several other intracellular proteins of Chelatococcus sp. having diverse biological functions were also identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Many of these enzymes are directly involved with desulfurization process whereas the other enzymes/proteins support growth

  15. Retrofitting brown-coal-fired power plants in the new Federal Laender with flue gas desulfurization systems as exemplified by the Jaenschwalde power plant (3000 megawatts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-coal-fired power plants continuing in operation in the new Federal laender must be retrofitted with flue-gas desulfurization systems in accordance with the ordinance on large furnaces. One such plant is the Jaenschwalde power station, for which the author describes the retrofitting concept as well as the design, process steps and most important components of the desulfurization system. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Fe2O3 Addition in MgO-CaO Refractory on Desulfurization of Liquid Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yao-wu; LI Nan; CHEN Fang-yu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Fe2O3 addition in MgO-CaO refractory on desulfurization of liquid iron were studied by SEM, EDA and chemical analysis. Fe2O3 of 1 % and 4 % were added to MgO-CaO refractory as the lining of graphite crucible in which 150 g iron powder with sulfur of 0.15 % was charged. It is found that when the sample is heated at 1 600 ℃ for 40 min, 60 min and 90 min, the addition with Fe2O3 of 1 % improves desulfurization greatly. However, the desulfurization ratio of the refractory with Fe2O3 addition of 4 % is less than that with Fe2O3 addition of 1 %. For the soaking time of 90 min, the desulfurization ratio is less than those of 40 min and 60 min. These phenomena were explained by the contrary roles of O2- and Fe2+ formed by reaction between liquid iron and Fe2O3 on desulfurization.

  17. Electronic transfers save time and money for FGD project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in order to support the numerous construction projects that PSI Energy is currently engaged in, particularly the FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurization) Project at Gibson, it was decided to establish hardware, software, and procedures that would help shorten the project completion time. This would be accomplished by reducing the review times at PSI Energy for drawings and specifications received from the architect/engineer. The FGD Project, which uses Chicago-based Sargent and Lundy (S and L) as the primary architect/engineer and which involves construction at the Gibson Generating Station, was to be the pilot project for putting this system in place

  18. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 3, April--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  19. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...... operation has been carried out. Foaming caused by 0.03 g SDS/(L slurry) reduced the desulfurization degree from 84 to 74% and the solids and limestone concentrations of the slurry from 58 to 48 g/(L slurry) and from 1.4 to 1.0 g/(L slurry), respectively. These effects were attributed to the foaming...... transferring small particles to the foam layer present on top of the slurry in the holding tank. The addition of 0.03 g antifoams/(L slurry) to SDS foam eliminated the foam, but the desulfurization degree remained low. Potential mechanisms for the observed behavior are analyzed. (c) 2014 American Institute of...

  20. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-12-31

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  1. Synthesis of l- and d-Ubiquitin by One-Pot Ligation and Metal-Free Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chao; Chen, Chen-Chen; Gao, Shuai; Wang, Ye-Hai; Xiao, Hua; Wang, Feng; Tian, Chang-Lin; Li, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-23

    Native chemical ligation combined with desulfurization has become a powerful strategy for the chemical synthesis of proteins. Here we describe the use of a new thiol additive, methyl thioglycolate, to accomplish one-pot native chemical ligation and metal-free desulfurization for chemical protein synthesis. This one-pot strategy was used to prepare ubiquitin from two or three peptide segments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and racemic protein X-ray crystallography confirmed the correct folding of ubiquitin. Our results demonstrate that proteins synthesized chemically by streamlined 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) solid-phase peptide synthesis coupled with a one-pot ligation-desulfurization strategy can supply useful molecules with sufficient purity for crystallographic studies. PMID:27075969

  2. Semi-dry flue gas desulfurization using Ca(OH)2 in a fluidized bed reactor with bed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of present work is to reduce sulfur dioxide emission from power plant for the environment protection. The fluidized bed (FB) was used as the reactor with bed materials in a new semi-dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency (>98%). Fine powder of Ca(OH)2 as sorbent and water were continuously fed separately to the bed reactor where bed materials (2 mm glass beads) were fluidized vigorously with flue gas (flow 720 Nm3/ hr) using bench scale plant of stainless steel column. We have investigated different effects of water injection flow rate, Ca/ S molar ratio and weight of bed materials on SO2 removal. The increments in the Ca/ S molar ratio and water injection flow rate have been resulted higher desulfurization efficiency with certain disadvantages such as higher sorbent cost and lower temperature of the treated flue gas, respectively. (author)

  3. Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing of high sulfur coals by oxidation with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing process for cleaning high sulfur coals. • The process removes inorganic as well as organic sulfur components from high sulfur coals. • The process has less risk to chemists and other surroundings. - Abstract: The environmental consequences of energy production from coals are well known, and are driving the development of desulfurization technologies. In this investigation, ionic liquids were examined for extractive desulfurization and de-ashing in industrially important high sulfur sub-bituminous Indian coals. The ionic liquids, namely, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) and 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL2) were employed for desulfurization of a few Indian coal samples in presence of HCOOH/H2O2 and V2O5. Results show the maximum removal of 50.20% of the total sulfur, 48.00% of the organic sulfur, and 70.37 wt% of the ash in this process. The ionic liquids were recovered and subsequently used for further desulfurization. FT-IR spectra reveal the transformation of organic sulfur functionalities into the sulfoxides (S=O) and sulfones (-SO2) due to the oxidative reactions. The sulfate, pyrite and sulfides (aryls) signals in the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the oxidized coal samples showed sulfur transformation during the desulfurization process. The study demonstrates the removal of significant amount of inorganic as well as organic sulfur (aryls) components from the original high sulfur coal samples to make them cleaner

  4. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Flavor Ester “Pentyl Valerate” Using Candida rugosa Lipase Immobilized in Microemulsion Based Organogels: Effect of Parameters and Reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Raghavendra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentyl valerate was synthesized biocatalytically using Candida rugosa lipase (CRL immobilized in microemulsion based organogels (MBGs. The optimum conditions were found to be pH 7.0, temperature of 37°C, ratio of concentration of water to surfactant (Wo of 60, and the surfactant sodium bis-2-(ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT for MBG preparation. Although kinetic studies revealed that the enzyme in free form had high affinity towards substrates (Km = 23.2 mM for pentanol and 76.92 mM for valeric acid whereas, after immobilization, the Km values increased considerably (74.07 mM for pentanol and 83.3 mM for valeric acid resulting in a slower reaction rate, the maximum conversion was much higher in case of immobilized enzyme (~99% as compared to free enzyme (~19%. Simultaneous effects of important parameters were studied using response surface methodology (RSM conjugated with Box-Behnken design (BBD with five variables (process parameters, namely, enzyme concentration, initial water content (Wo, solvent used for MBG preparation, substrate ratio and time, and response as the final product formation, that is, pentyl valerate (%. The MBGs were reused for 10 consecutive cycles for ester synthesis. Efficacy of AOT/isooctane as dehydrating agent for extracting excess water from MBGs was found to exert a positive effect on the esterification reaction.

  5. Combination of deep eutectic solvent and ionic liquid to improve biocatalytic reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Du, Peng-Xuan; Zong, Min-Hua; Li, Ning; Lou, Wen-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The efficient anti-Prelog asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cells was successfully performed in a biphasic system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) and water-immiscible ionic liquid (IL). Various DESs exerted different effects on the synthesis of (R)-2-octanol. Choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ChCl/EG) exhibited good biocompatibility and could moderately increase the cell membrane permeability thus leading to the better results. Adding ChCl/EG increased the optimal substrate concentration from 40 mM to 60 mM and the product e.e. kept above 99.9%. To further improve the reaction efficiency, water-immiscible ILs were introduced to the reaction system and an enhanced substrate concentration (1.5 M) was observed with C4MIM·PF6. Additionally, the cells manifested good operational stability in the reaction system. Thus, the efficient biocatalytic process with ChCl/EG and C4MIM·PF6 was promising for efficient synthesis of (R)-2-octanol. PMID:27185089

  6. Effect of Influent HRT on Pretreatment of Sulfate-Laden Food Wastewater for Desulfurization-Denitrification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to treat wastewater rich in sulfate and organic carbon, an anaerobic attached-growth bioreactor was set up. It was the pretreatment of mixotrophic desulfurization-denitrification process and the effect of influent HRT was considered. The HRT was decreased from 128 to 6.2 h, while the sulfate removal rate, the organic carbon removal rate and sulfide generating rate were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the suitable HRT in sulfate reduction stage for the pretreatment of desulfurization-denitrification process was 7.7 to 10.2 h.

  7. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    OpenAIRE

    R. Biernacki; R. Haratym; J. Kwapisz

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic), recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2).In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a resul...

  8. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H2S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H2S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H2S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H2S loading rate of 52 g S–H2S m−3 h−1 and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H2S m−3 h−1. Stepwise increases of the inlet H2S concentration up to 10,000 ppmv lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H2S m−3 h−1. The H2S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H2S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H2S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H2S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred

  9. Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by a low-cost adsorbent dry desulfurization slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; You, Ruirong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Yu, Yan, E-mail: yuyan_1972@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Dry desulfurization slag, solid waste, was an efficient adsorbent for lead removal. • The adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} onto dry desulfurization slag was generally monolayer. • The rate limiting step in the adsorption process of Pb{sup 2+} was chemisorption. • Pb{sup 2+} was absorbed onto the surface of the sample adsorbent only. • The adsorbent was low-cost and could be recycled. - Abstract: A collectable and non-sintered material prepared as hollow cylindrical shaped pellet from dry desulfurization slag (FGD ash) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for wastewater treatments is tested. The characteristic results of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) show that –OH, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, SO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} are the possible functional groups responsible for Pb uptake. Adsorption data indicate that Pb removal is pH dependent and optimal at pH 6, with a very rapid initial removal that reaches equilibrium in about 90 min. A maximum removal of 99.2% is seen for 5 mg/L (pH of 6); higher initial Pb concentrations reduce overall removal efficiencies, but generate higher surface loadings. Adsorption process correlates well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models, although the Langmuir isotherm is more favored, providing a maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of 130.2 mg/g (13 wt%). Pseudo-second order rate kinetic model best describes the Pb removal, and calculated R{sub L} values between 0 and 1, indicate a favored adsorption process that is chemisorption limited. SEM and EDAX analysis of the surface and fracture surface show that Pb occurs as surface precipitates and that Pb is not distributed to the inner core of the pellet. This study demonstrates that dry FGD ash could be successfully used for wastewater Pb removal.

  10. Mechanism of flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using the highly reactive absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Yi; SUN; Xiaojun; XU; Peiyao; MA; Shuangchen; WANG; L

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash, industry-grade lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive were used to prepare the "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using the highly reactive absorbent in the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Removal efficiencies of 94.5% for SO2 and 64.2% for NO were obtained respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, common highly reactive absorbent, "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The white flake layers were observed in the SEM images about surfaces of the common highly reactive absorbent and "Oxygen- riched" one, and the particle surfaces of the spent absorbent were porous. The content of calcium on surface was higher than that of the average in the highly reactive absorbent. The manganese compound additive dispersed uniformly on the surfaces of the "Oxygen- riched" highly reactive absorbent. There was a sulfur peak in the energy spectra pictures of the spent absorbent. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods, and the results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the absorbent except sulfur species, and SO2 and NO were removed by chemical absorption according to the experimental results of X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis. Sulfate being the main desulfurization products, nitrite was the main denitrification ones during the process, in which NO was oxidized rapidly to NO2 and absorbed by the chemical reaction.

  11. Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by a low-cost adsorbent dry desulfurization slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dry desulfurization slag, solid waste, was an efficient adsorbent for lead removal. • The adsorption of Pb2+ onto dry desulfurization slag was generally monolayer. • The rate limiting step in the adsorption process of Pb2+ was chemisorption. • Pb2+ was absorbed onto the surface of the sample adsorbent only. • The adsorbent was low-cost and could be recycled. - Abstract: A collectable and non-sintered material prepared as hollow cylindrical shaped pellet from dry desulfurization slag (FGD ash) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for wastewater treatments is tested. The characteristic results of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) show that –OH, CO32−, SO32− and SO42− are the possible functional groups responsible for Pb uptake. Adsorption data indicate that Pb removal is pH dependent and optimal at pH 6, with a very rapid initial removal that reaches equilibrium in about 90 min. A maximum removal of 99.2% is seen for 5 mg/L (pH of 6); higher initial Pb concentrations reduce overall removal efficiencies, but generate higher surface loadings. Adsorption process correlates well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models, although the Langmuir isotherm is more favored, providing a maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of 130.2 mg/g (13 wt%). Pseudo-second order rate kinetic model best describes the Pb removal, and calculated RL values between 0 and 1, indicate a favored adsorption process that is chemisorption limited. SEM and EDAX analysis of the surface and fracture surface show that Pb occurs as surface precipitates and that Pb is not distributed to the inner core of the pellet. This study demonstrates that dry FGD ash could be successfully used for wastewater Pb removal

  12. Highly stable and regenerable Mn-based/SBA-15 sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A series of mesoporous CuxMnyOz/SBA-15 sorbents were fabricated for hot coal gas desulfurization. ► 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 sorbent with high breakthrough sulfur capacity is high stable and regenerable. ► Utilization of SBA-15 constrained the sintering and pulverization of sorbents. - Abstract: A series of mesoporous xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents with different Cu/Mn atomic ratios were prepared by wet impregnation method and their desulfurization performance in hot coal gas was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the range of 700–850 °C. The successive nine desulfurization–regeneration cycles at 800 °C revealed that 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 presented high performance with durable regeneration ability due to the high dispersion of Mn2O3 particles incorporated with a certain amount of copper oxides. The breakthrough sulfur capacity of 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 observed 800 °C is 13.8 g S/100 g sorbents, which is remarkably higher than these of 40 wt%LaFeO3/SBA-15 (4.8 g S/100 g sorbents) and 50 wt%LaFe2Ox/MCM-41 (5.58 g S/100 g sorbents) used only at 500–550 °C. This suggested that the loading of Mn2O3 active species with high thermal stability to SBA-15 support significantly increased sulfur capacity at relatively higher sulfidation temperature. The fresh and used xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, XPS, XAES, TG/DSC and HRTEM techniques, confirmed that the structure of the sorbents remained intact before and after hot coal gas desulfurization.

  13. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasingly stricter regulations for deep reduction of fuel sulfur content, development of new deep desulfurization processes for liquid transport fuels has become one of the major challenges to the refining industry and to the production of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cell applications. The sulfur compounds in the current transport fuels corresponding to the S level of 350-500 ppm account for only about 0.12-0.25 wt% of the fuel. The conventional hydrotreating approaches will need to increase catalyst bed volume at high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for treating 100% of the whole fuel in order to convert the fuel mass of less than 0.25 wt%. In the present study, we are exploring a novel adsorption process for desulfurization at low temperatures, which can effectively reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel at low investment and operating cost to meet the needs for ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications. Some adsorbents were prepared in this study for selective adsorption of sulfur compounds in the fuels. The adsorption experiments were conducted by using a model fuel and real fuels. The results show that the adsorbent (A-1) with a transition metal compound has a significant selectivity for sulfur compounds with a saturated adsorption capacity of(approx)0.12 mol of sulfur compounds per mol of the metal compound. Most sulfur compounds existing in the current commercial gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel can be removed by the adsorption using adsorbent A-1. On the basis of the preliminary results, a novel concept for integrated process for deep desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons was proposed

  14. Rapid Regeneration of Chelated Iron Desulfurization Solution Using Electrochemical Reactor with Rotating Cylindrical Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永; 刘有智; 祁贵生

    2014-01-01

    A new electrochemical reactor with rotating cylindrical electrodes was designed and used to increase the regeneration efficiency of chelated iron desulfurization solution. The influence of operating parameters, such as the rotation speed of electrode, voltage, and inlet air and liquid flow rates, on the regeneration rate was investigated. Compared with the traditional tank-type reactor, the regeneration rate with the new electrochemical reactor was in-creased significantly. Under the optimum conditions, the regeneration rate was increased from 45.3% to 84.8%. Experimental results of continuous operation indicated that the new electrochemical regeneration method had some merits including higher regeneration efficiency, smaller equipment size and good stability in operation.

  15. Theoretical study of the catalytic desulfurization mechanism of thiiren and its methyl derivative

    OpenAIRE

    L.O. Olatunji; Y.G. S. Atohoun; J.B. Mensah

    2003-01-01

    The desulfurization process of compounds implicates two steps. The first step is the adsorption process on the catalytic site and the second, the breaking of the carbon-heteroatom bond leading to the heteroatom elimination. The adsorption process of thiiren have been studied and published in previous works. The results obtained on MoS3H3+ and MoS4H4 have shown that the adsorption of this molecule was very good on the two and three anionic vacancies sites based on molybdenum. In the present st...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of porous metal oxides and desulfurization studies of sulfur containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces Trujillo, Hector Fabian

    This thesis contains two parts: 1) synthesis and characterization of porous metal oxides that include zinc oxide and a porous mixed-valent manganese oxide with an amorphous structure (AMO) 2) the desulfurization studies for the removal of sulfur compounds. Zinc oxide with different nano-scale morphologies may result in various porosities with different adsorption capabilities. A tunable shape microwave synthesis of ZnO nano-spheres in a co-solvent mixture is presented. The ZnO nano-sphere material is investigated as a desulfurizing sorbent in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 200 to 400 °C and compared with ZnO nanorods and platelet-like morphologies. Fresh and sulfided materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET specific surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The tunable shape microwave synthesis of ZnO presents a high sulfur sorption capacity at temperatures as low as 200 °C which accounts for a three and four fold enhancement over the other preparations presented in this work, and reached 76 % of the theoretical sulfur capacity (TSC) at 300 °C. Another ZnO material with a bimodal micro- and mesopore size distribution investigated as a desulfurizing sorbent presents a sorption capacity that reaches 87% of the theoretical value for desulfurization at 400 °C at breakthrough time. A deactivation model that considers the activity of the solid reactant was used to fit the experimental data. Good agreement between the experimental breakthrough curves and the model predictions are obtained. Manganese oxides are a type of metal oxide materials commonly used in catalytic applications. Little is known about the adsorption capabilities for the removal of sulfur compounds. One of these manganese oxides; amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) is highly promising material for low temperature sorption processes. Amorphous

  17. Advances on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Gao, Li; Ma, Jing-Xiang; Jin, Xin; Yao, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yi

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the research background and chemistry of desulfurization and denitrification technology using microwave irradiation. Microwave-induced catalysis combined with activated carbon adsorption and reduction can reduce nitric oxide to nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to sulfur from flue gas effectively. This paper also highlights the main drawbacks of this technology and discusses future development trends. It is reported that the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide using microwave irradiation has broad prospects for development in the field of air pollution control. PMID:22856293

  18. Ionic liquids supported on metal-organic frameworks: remarkable adsorbents for adsorptive desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Acidic ionic-liquids (IL) supported on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been shown to be beneficial for adsorptive desulfurization. A remarkable improvement in the adsorption capacity (ca. 71%) was observed in for ILs supported on MIL-101 compared with virgin MIL-101. The improved adsorptive performance might be explained by the acid-base interactions between the acidic ionic liquid and basic benzothiophene (BT). Moreover, from this study, it can be suggested that porous MOFs, supported with ionic liquids, may introduce a new class of highly porous adsorbents for the efficient adsorption of various compounds. PMID:24390909

  19. Froth flotation pretreatment for enhancing desulfurization of coal with sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdurrahman Saydut; Yalcin Tonbul; Akin Baysal; M. Zahir Duz; Candan Hamamci [Iowa State University, Ames, IO (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Froth flotation (FF) pretreatment of coal from Hazro, Turkey, for enhancing desulfurization with sodium hydroxide was investigated. FF reduced following contents of coal: ash, 58.54; pyritic sulfur, 79.34; and volatile matter, 56.98%. The coal flotation was 69.59%. FF could not remove organic sulfur. Coal concentration obtained from flotation was leached using aqueous Nah. and its organic sulfur content was reduced by 59.27%. Hence using combination of two methods, total sulfur, ash and volatile matter contents was reduced by 88.06%, 63.13% and 77.32%, respectively.

  20. An experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a pilot spray dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Canadas, L. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm{sup 3}/h spray-drying desulfurization pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/S ratio, approach to saturation temperature, unit load changes, and the utilization of seawater as make-up water on both spray dryer behavior and treated flue gas properties were analyzed. This experimental study allows us to reach some conclusions about how to achieve optimum operating conditions and to assess the impact of spray drying on a downstream ESP. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. THE APPLICATION OF REVERSE FLOCCULATION METHOD IN HIGH SULFUR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏; 张素清

    1999-01-01

    The reverse flocculation method for removing pyritic sulfur from high sulfur coals has been conceptually developed and investigated. The tentative tests on China high sulfur coals have shown that this advanced physical separation technique can be very efficient in coal desulfurization, provided the process parameters are properly optimized. Under the circumstances of acquiring high coal recovery, the total sulfur rejection with four kinds of coal samples normally falls in the range 5?% to 71% by one-step reverse flocculation, and within the range 40% to 59% by one-step normal flocculation process.

  2. Kinetic Analyses of Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene by Rhodococcus erythropolis in Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    P. Wang; Krawiec, S.

    1996-01-01

    The DbtS(sup+) phenotype (which confers the ability to oxidize selectively the sulfur atom of dibenzothiophene [DBT] or dibenzothiophene sulfone [DBTO(inf2)]) of Rhodococcus erythropolis N1-36 was quantitatively characterized in batch and fed-batch cultures. In flask cultures, production of the desulfurization product, monohydroxybiphenyl (OH-BP), was maximal at pH 6.0, while specific productivity (OH-BP cell(sup-1)) was maximal at pH 5.5. Quantitative measurements in fermentors (in both batc...

  3. Thiazolidine-Protected β-Thiol Asparagine: Applications in One-Pot Ligation-Desulfurization Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jessica; Thompson, Robert E; Perry, Kristen J; Malins, Lara R; Payne, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of a β-thiol asparagine derivative bearing a novel (2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)thiazolidine protecting group is described. The efficient incorporation of the amino acid into the N-termini of peptides is demonstrated as well as the utility of the β-thiol asparagine moiety for rapid ligation reactions with peptide thioesters. The streamlined synthesis of native peptide products could be accomplished using a one-pot radical desulfurization of the β-thiol auxiliary following the ligation event. The utility of the amino acid is highlighted in the efficient one-pot assembly of the HIV entry inhibitor enfuvirtide. PMID:26398220

  4. Moessbauer analysis on the microwave-magnetic desulfurization of raw coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective dielectric heating of microwave energy to convert a portion of each pyrite particle to moderately magnetic pyrrhotite has been suggested to enhance the magnetic separation of inorganic sulfur from coal. The results for Moessbauer analyses show that the considerable amount of pyrrhotite produced during microwave irradiation, carrying with it some of non-magnetic pyrite (unconverted), ferrous sulfate, and troilite, is completely removed from coal after magnetic separation. The optimum desulfurization efficiency can be attained by appropriately controlling the irradiation time to maximize the amount of pyrrhotite formed pyrite decomposition. Excessive irradiation would be disadvantageous for improving magnetic separation due to the further decomposition of pyrrhotite to antiferromagnetic troilite

  5. Kinetic Analyses of Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene by Rhodococcus erythropolis in Continuous Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    P. Wang; Humphrey, A. E.; Krawiec, S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis N1-36, a desulfurization strain, was grown in continuous culture at 10 different dilution rates with 50 (mu)M dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO(inf2)) as the growth-limiting nutrient. The steady-state biomass, concentrations of substrate (DBTO(inf2)) and product (monohydroxybiphenyl), saturation constant (0.39 (mu)M DBTO(inf2)), and cell yield coefficient (9 mg of biomass(middot)(mu)M(sup-1) DBTO(inf2)) were measured. Continuous cultures at five temperatures allowed calc...

  6. Desulfurization and structural transformation of thiophene on the Pt(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependence of near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectra above the C K edge and S L/sub 2,3/ edge for thiophene (C4H4S) on Pt(111) reveals changes in the chemisorption geometry and the cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond. Our results suggest the formation of a metallocycle intermediate after desulfurization with the S atom replaced by a Pt surface atom. The near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure results are corroborated by thermal desorption, x-ray photoemission, and electron-energy-loss data

  7. Functions of Mg and Mg-CaO mixtures in hot metal desulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, David; Nortier, Patrice; Sichen, Du

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using Mg and Mg-CaO mixtures were studied in a newly designed set-up. It was found that most of the added Mg quickly escaped in 2 s. MgS was not formed by homogeneous nucleation but by its formation on the MgO particles originated from oxide shell of the Mg particles. When tiny CaO particles were added together with Mg, the particles efficiently transformed to CaS. It was found that Mg-gas helped the distribution of the CaO particles in the hot meta...

  8. The design of the extraction window of high power electron accelerator used in flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the pollution caused by industrial exhaust gas, especially, the air pollution and acid rain resulting from the sulfur of exhaust gas, is increasingly drawing people's attention. The flue gas desulfurization by electron beam produced by high-power electron accelerator has the characteristics of high efficiency and non-secondary contamination. As one of the most pivotal part of accelerator, the service lifetime of this extraction window directly effects the stable operation of the device. In this paper, a brief review is given to summarize the advantages, material selecting, structure, replacing, maintaining of the extraction window of high-power electron accelerator developed by SINAP. (authors)

  9. OH radicals generated by DC corona discharge for improving the pulsed discharge desulfuration efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LI Guo-feng; WU Yan; WANG Ning-hui; HUANG Qiu-nan

    2004-01-01

    Positive DC corona discharge is formed with needle-plate electrode configuration, in which the water vapor is ejected though the needle points. The purpose is to increase the numbers of the water-based radicals, ionize the water molecule and improve the desulfuration efficiency of pulsed corona reactor. The water ions were determined by four stages molecular beam mass spectrometer and diagnose the water-based radicals by emission spectrograph. A conclusion on formation of ions and radicals with DC corona discharges can be drawn.

  10. Highly stable and regenerable Mn-based/SBA-15 sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F.M. [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, B.S., E-mail: bingsiliu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Y.; Guo, Y.H.; Wan, Z.Y.; Subhan, Fazle [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of mesoporous Cu{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z}/SBA-15 sorbents were fabricated for hot coal gas desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 sorbent with high breakthrough sulfur capacity is high stable and regenerable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of SBA-15 constrained the sintering and pulverization of sorbents. - Abstract: A series of mesoporous xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents with different Cu/Mn atomic ratios were prepared by wet impregnation method and their desulfurization performance in hot coal gas was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the range of 700-850 Degree-Sign C. The successive nine desulfurization-regeneration cycles at 800 Degree-Sign C revealed that 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 presented high performance with durable regeneration ability due to the high dispersion of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles incorporated with a certain amount of copper oxides. The breakthrough sulfur capacity of 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 observed 800 Degree-Sign C is 13.8 g S/100 g sorbents, which is remarkably higher than these of 40 wt%LaFeO{sub 3}/SBA-15 (4.8 g S/100 g sorbents) and 50 wt%LaFe{sub 2}O{sub x}/MCM-41 (5.58 g S/100 g sorbents) used only at 500-550 Degree-Sign C. This suggested that the loading of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} active species with high thermal stability to SBA-15 support significantly increased sulfur capacity at relatively higher sulfidation temperature. The fresh and used xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, XPS, XAES, TG/DSC and HRTEM techniques, confirmed that the structure of the sorbents remained intact before and after hot coal gas desulfurization.

  11. BIOCATALYTIC POLYESTER SYNTHESIS: ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND END-GROUP FUNCTIONALITY. (R825338)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  13. Development of secondary salt recovery technology from desulfurization waste water%脱硫废液中副盐回收技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建孝; 杨建杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a conclusion for dry desulfurization and wet desulfurization ,introduces the principle and methods of desulfurization waste water treatment such as partial conversion ,com-plete conversion , multistep crystallization and diaphragm separation , and analyzes the problems of each method .%对干法脱硫和湿法脱硫方法进行归纳总结,介绍了部分转化、全部转化、分步结晶、膜分离等方法处理脱硫废液的原理及方法,并对其存在的问题进行分析。

  14. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni2P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni2P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni2P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni2P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni2P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni2P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO2 supported three-dimensional Ni2P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni2P/SiO2

  15. Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Titania Nanomaterial for Desulfurization of Model Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik A. Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reported on the development of novel nanomaterials of multiwalled carbon nanotubes doped with titania (CNT/TiO2 for the adsorptive desulfurization of model fuel oils. Various analytical techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were used for the characterization of the nanomaterials. The initial results indicated the effectiveness of the prepared CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials in removing sulfur compounds from model fuel oil. The adsorption of DBT, BT, and thiophene from model fuel onto the derived sorbents was performed using batch mode system. These CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials initially afforded approximately 45% removal of DBT, 55% BT, and more than 65% thiophene compounds from model fuels. The CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials provided an excellent activity towards interaction with organosulfur compounds. More experiments are underway to optimize the parameters for the adsorptive desulfurization processes. We believe that these nanomaterials as adsorbents will find useful applications in petroleum industry because of their operational simplicity, high efficiency, and high capacity.

  16. Catalytic seawater flue gas desulfurization process: an experimental pilot plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Vidal B.; P. Ollero; F.J. Gutierrez Ortiz; A. Villanueva [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2007-10-15

    In previous articles by the authors on seawater S(IV) oxidation kinetics, a significant catalytic effect was demonstrated by means of a commercially available activated carbon. The aims of this study carried out at pilot plant scale were to assess the use of high-efficiency structured packing and to validate the positive results obtained previously in laboratory studies. A comparison between a packed tower and a spray column was made by maintaining the same desulfurization efficiency. A 47% reduction in seawater flow can be obtained with a packed tower. This option seems to be more economical, with a reduction in operation costs of least of 33%. With the appropriate activated carbon, it is possible to reach a greater oxidation rate at a low pH level than by operating conventionally at a high pH level without a catalyst. A preliminary technical and financial comparison between the advanced seawater desulfurization process (equipped with a packed tower and a catalytic oxidation plant) and the conventional process (spray tower and noncatalytic oxidation) was carried out. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  18. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of liquid fuels and its industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-08-01

    Latest environmental regulations require a very deep desulfurization to meet the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD, 15 ppm sulfur) specifications. Due to the disadvantages of hydrotreating technology on the slashing production conditions, costs and safety as well as environmental protection, the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) as an alternative technology has been developed. UAOD process selectively oxidizes sulfur in common thiophenes in diesel to sulfoxides and sulfones which can be removed via selective adsorption or extractant. SulphCo has successfully used a 5000 barrel/day mobile "Sonocracking" unit to duplicate on a commercial scale its proprietary process that applies ultrasonics at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The UAOD technology estimate capital costs less than half the cost of a new high-pressure hydrotreater. The physical and chemical mechanisms of UAOD process are illustrated, and the effective factors, such as ultrasonic frequency and power, oxidants, catalysts, phase-transfer agent, extractant and adsorbent, on reaction kinetics and product recovery are discussed in this review. PMID:20022546

  19. [Application of activated carbon from waste tea in desulfurization and denitrification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Zhang, Bin; Deng, Wen

    2014-10-01

    The effects of pore structure, graphite and surface structure of waste tea activated carbon on its desulfurization and denitrification performance were investigated. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption process were also studied. The results showed that less graphitization, lower micropore size and more nitrogenous basic group of adsorbent enhanced its desulfurization ability. When well- developed mesopores were present in adsorbent, the NO removal efficiency was decreased, while more nitrogenous basic groups promoted the removal rate of NO. When SO2 and NO were removed together, competing adsorption occurred. After oxygen and steam were introduced to the flue gas, the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were increased. The adsorption of SO2 and NO onto waste tea activated carbon was physical adsorption without O2 and H2O, while the vapor promoted chemical adsorption of SO2 in the presence of water and oxygen. The adsorption process of the material can be well described by Bangham's kinetic equation, and the value of R2 was no less than 0.989. O2 and water vapor slowed the adsorption rates of SO2 and NO. PMID:25693369

  20. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebello, Andrea M; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R; Bezerra, Tercia; Gamisans, Xavier; Lafuente, Javier; Baeza, Mireia; Gabriel, David

    2014-09-15

    Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H2S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130s, H2S loading rate of 52gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1) and pH 2.50-2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75s and the maximum EC 100gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1). Stepwise increases of the inlet H2S concentration up to 10,000 ppmv lead to a maximum EC of 220gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1). The H2S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70-80% of the total H2S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H2S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H2S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred. PMID:25151242

  1. Performance and characterization of a newly developed self-agitated anaerobic reactor with biological desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You

    2011-05-01

    The continuous operation of a newly developed methane fermentation reactor, which requires no electricity for the agitation of the fermentation liquid was investigated, and the extent of the biological desulfurization was monitored. Inside the reactor, the continual change in the liquid level and the self-agitation, occurring between 5 and 16 times every day, distributed the organic load near the inlet port of the reactor, as well as providing a nutrient supply to the hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria. At different COD(Cr) loading rates (5, 7, 10 kg m(3)d(-1)), the reactor achieved a biogas production yield of 0.72-0.82 m(3)g(-1)-TS, a COD(Cr) reduction of 79.4-85.5% and an average of 99% hydrogen sulfide removal. This investigation demonstrated that the self-agitated reactor is comparable in digestion performance to the completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) investigated in a previous study, and that the desulfurization performance was significantly enhanced compared to the CSTR. PMID:21398119

  2. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuna, E-mail: zhangshujuan@tust.edu.cn [College of Textile Engineering, Zhejiang Industry Polytechnic College, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Limin, E-mail: tjpu2012@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wu, Xiaoqing [Institute of Composite Materials and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composite Materials, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Fang, Sheng, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni{sub 2}P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni{sub 2}P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni{sub 2}P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO{sub 2} supported three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2}.

  3. 煤炭洗选脱硫技术%Coal Washing and Desulfurization Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华斌; 胡芳

    2014-01-01

    All kinds of coal desulfurization technology are introduced ,providing a scientific basis for the combination of multiple washing and desulfurization techniques ,such as dense medium , jigging and float-ing .Our pithead coal preparation plant employed the combined techniques to obtain varied washing prod-ucts for reasonable valid use of coal resources , and reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants emissions while burning them to protect the ecological environment ,realizing high efficiency and purification coal re-sources .%介绍了各种煤炭脱硫技术,为重介质法、跳汰法、浮选法等多种洗选脱硫方法的联合提供科学依据。本矿井选煤厂采用该脱硫方法,获得了不同品种的洗选产品,合理有效利用煤炭资源,大大减少洗选产品燃烧时二氧化硫及其它污染物的排放,保护生态环境,实现了煤炭资源的高效洁净利用。

  4. Sulfite oxidation in seawater flue gas desulfurization by a pulsed corona discharge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, N.A.; Zhang, X.W.; Lei, L.C. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2009-12-10

    For seawater flue gas desulfurization (SWFGD), oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) in the effluent of the gas desulfurization (FGD) system is very critical for its industrial application, because the additional S(IV) results in high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value. This paper reports a novel pulsed corona discharge oxidation process to convert S(IV) to S(VI) by use of a cylindrical wetted-wall pulsed high voltage reactor. Several important parameters, including pH values, flow rate of the solution, voltage, electrode radius and the length of the plasma region, were investigated for S(IV) oxidation and energy efficiency (G) of the process. After discharge for 12 min, with the electrode radius of 8 mm, pH value of 3, flow rate of 40 Lh{sup -1}, more than 95% of S(IV) was oxidized and the energy efficiency was about 5.8 x 10{sup -9} mol J{sup -1}. Compared with the traditional air oxidation process, the plasma-induced oxidation is a promising and attractive technology for the SWFGD system.

  5. Use of carbonate rocks for flue gas desulfurization: Reactive dissolution of limestone particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedimentary rocks, such as limestone, are widely utilized in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes because of their ability to form sulfur compounds. The most common system adopted for FGD is the wet scrubbing process, in which the dissolution rate of sedimentary rocks represents one of the most important factors. Evaluation of the dissolution and the reactivity of solid particles involved is therefore a key factor for FGD process design and plant operation. The rate of dissolution affects the cost of makeup and waste disposal. For this reason a method to test different qualities of raw materials can give us a better understanding of the desulfurization process and reasonable economical effects. In the present work the dissolution of carbonate rocks was investigated by utilizing hydrochloric acid and the mass transport phenomena involved in batch stirred tank reactors (BSTRs) were modeled. By evaluating the ratio of convective to diffusive mass transport and the ratio of momentum and mass diffusivity, it was possible to relate the quality of raw materials in terms of a defined Time Of Exposure (TOE). The model involved takes into account the variation of the particle size distribution derived from the allocation of the scattered light energy using the Fraunhofer diffraction theory. Improvements from previous studies were done .

  6. Amelioration of alkali soil using flue gas desulfurization byproducts: Productivity and environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts are used to ameliorate alkali soil. The average application rates for soils with low exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), mid ESP, and high ESP are 20.9, 30.6, and 59.3 Mg ha-1, respectively. The experimental results obtained for 3 consecutive years reveal that the emergence ratios and yields of the crops were 1.1-7.6 times and 1.1-13.9 times those of the untreated control, respectively. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cd, As, and Hg in the treated soils are far below the background values stipulated by the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995). Their concentrations in the seeds of corn and alfalfa grown in the treated soils are far below the tolerance limits regulated by National Food Standards of China. The results of this research demonstrate that the amelioration of alkali soils using FGD byproducts is promising. - Flue gas desulfurization byproducts used to ameliorate alkali soils increased plant growth and did not contaminate soils and plants grown in the soil

  7. Scandium-Triflate/Metal-Organic Frameworks: Remarkable Adsorbents for Desulfurization and Denitrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Scandium-triflate (Sc(OTf)3) was introduced for the first time on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), to utilize acidic Sc(OTf)3 for adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation of fuel containing benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), quinoline (QUI), and indole (IND). A remarkable improvement in the adsorption capacity (about 65% based on the weight of adsorbents; 90% based on the surface area of the adsorbents) was observed with the Sc(OTf)3/MOFs as compared to the virgin MOFs for the adsorption of BT from liquid fuel. The basic QUI was also adsorbed preferentially onto the acidic Sc(OTf)3/MOFs. However, nonsupported Sc(OTf)3 showed negligible adsorption capacities. The improved adsorptive performance for BT, DBT, and QUI might be derived from acid-base interactions between the acidic Sc(OTf)3 and basic adsorbates. On the other hand, the Sc(OTf)3, loaded on MOFs, reduced the adsorption capacity for neutral IND due to lack of interaction between the neutral adsorbate and acidic adsorbent and the reduced porosities of the modified adsorbents. The reusability of the adsorbents was found satisfactory up to the fourth run. On the basis of the result, it is suggested that metal-triflates, such as Sc(OTf)3, can be prospective materials for adsorptive desulfurization/denitrogenation of fuels when supported on porous materials such as MOFs. PMID:26575418

  8. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  9. Desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbents with various adhesive carrier particles for a semidry CFB-FGD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Changfu; Li, Yuan

    2013-03-19

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) experiments were conducted using rapidly hydrated sorbents with four different adhesive carrier particles: circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB circulation ash), fly ash from the first electrical field of the electrostatic precipitator of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB ESP ash), fly ash from a chain boiler (chain boiler ash), and river sand smaller than 1 mm. The influences of various adhesive carrier particles and operating conditions on the desulfurization characteristics of the sorbents were investigated, including sprayed water, reaction temperature, and the ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S). The experimental results indicated that the rapidly hydrated sorbents had better desulfurization characteristics by using adhesive carrier particles which possessed better pore, adhesion, and fluidization characteristics. The desulfurization efficiency of the system increased as the reaction temperature decreased, it improved from 35% to 90% as the mass flow rate of the sprayed water increased from 0 to 10 kg/h, and it increased from 65.6% to 82.7% as Ca/S increased from 1.0 to 2.0. Based on these findings, a new semidry circulating fluidized bed (CFB)-FGD system using rapidly hydrated sorbent was developed. Using the rapidly hydrated sorbent, this system uses a cyclone separator instead of an ESP or a bag filter to recycle the sorbent particles, thereby decreasing the system flow resistance, saving investment and operating costs of the solids collection equipment. PMID:23398211

  10. Experimental study on the reuse of spent rapidly hydrated sorbent for circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu

    2011-11-01

    Rapidly hydrated sorbent, prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime, is a highly effective sorbent for moderate temperature circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) process. The residence time of fine calcium-containing particles in CFB reactors increases by adhering on the surface of larger adhesive carrier particles, which contributes to higher sorbent calcium conversion ratio. The circulation ash of CFB boilers (α-adhesive carrier particles) and the spent sorbent (β and γ-adhesive carrier particles) were used as adhesive carrier particles for producing the rapidly hydrated sorbent. Particle physical characteristic analysis, abrasion characteristics in fluidized bed and desulfurization characteristics in TGA and CFB-FGD systems were investigated for various types of rapidly hydrated sorbent (α, β, and γ-sorbent). The adhesion ability of γ-sorbent was 50.1% higher than that of α-sorbent. The abrasion ratio of β and γ-sorbent was 16.7% lower than that of α-sorbent. The desulfurization abilities of the three sorbent in TGA were almost same. The desulfurization efficiency in the CFB-FGD system was up to 95% at the bed temperature of 750 °C for the β-sorbent. PMID:21928832

  11. Desulfurization and Dechlorination Characteristics of Ca-Base Sorbents in Fluidized Bed for Co-Firing of Waste and Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takahiro; Liu, Zhihong; Hirata, Tetsuya; Ayabe, Muneo; Huang, Weiguang

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the desulfurization and dechlorination characteristics of seashell and limestone in two waste-coal co-firing circulating fluidized beds of 50 kg⁄h with different heights (15 m and 6 m). The tested wastes were Japanese RDF and Chinese waste, whilst the employed coals had varied fuel ratios of either 4.5 or 8.8. It was shown that the efficiencies of desulfurization and dechlorination were both higher for seashell than for limestone. At four times and beyond of the stoichiometric ratio of Ca over sulfur and chlorine, i.e. at Ca⁄(S+2Cl) › 4.0, the efficiencies of seashell for desulfurization and dechlorination reached more than 99 % and 80 %, respectively. Under the quoted conditions these efficiencies were only 95 % and 70 % for limestone. Meanwhile, it was found that the calcined seashell had a mean pore size four times bigger than that of calcined limestone, and this was considered to be the cause for the preceding different efficiencies. That is, when the bigger pores existing in calcined seashell allowed the desulfurization and dechlorination reactions to take place throughout the sorbent particles, those reactions were possible only on particles‧ surface for limestone. Furthermore, the work clarified that the dusulfurization and dechlorination efficiencies for the tested different wastes, coals and circulating fluidized beds could be unified according to Ca⁄(S+2Cl) ratio.

  12. MINERAL CONCENTRATIONS OF FORAGE LEGUMES AND GRASSES GROWN IN ACIDIC SOIL AMENDED WITH FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, ...

  13. A metal-organic framework with immobilized Ag(i) for highly efficient desulfurization of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minhui; Chang, Ganggang; Su, Ye; Xing, Huabin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong; Bao, Zongbi; Chen, Banglin

    2015-08-01

    A metal-organic framework immobilized with Ag(i) sites, namely, (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3Ag, was successfully developed as a highly efficient desulfurization adsorbent because of the strong binding of these Ag(i) sites for thiophene derivatives. PMID:26136210

  14. Photocatalytic Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by TiO2 in [BMIm]Cu2CI3 Ionic Liguid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fatang; Liu Ruihong; Sun Zhimin

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of gasoline in [BMIm]Cu2C13 ionic liquid was studied.A 500-W high-pressure mercury lamp was used as the light source for irradiation,nano-TiO2 was used as the photocatalyst and air was introduced by a gas pump to supply 02 as the oxidant.Influence of the ratio of V(ionic liquid) to V(oil) and the TiO2 addition on the desulfurization rate of gasoline was investigated.An oxidative kinetics equation was founded.The results showed that the [BMIm]CuaCI3 ionic liquid was an effective extractant for the desulfurization of gasoline.The appropriate TiO2 addition was 0.05 g in 50 mL of reaction mixture.The yield of desulfurized gasoline could reach 98.2% after being subjected to reaction for 2 h under the conditions of adopting a ratio of V(ionic liquid): V(oil)=1:4,an air flow of 100 mL/min and a TiO2 addition dosage of 0.05 g.The kinetics reaction for photo-oxidation of gasoline was a first-order reaction with an apparent rate constant of 1.9664 h-1 and a half-time of 0.3525 h.

  15. A green surfactant-assisted synthesis of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with excellent catalytic properties for oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuting; Li, Fen; Sun, Qiming; Wang, Ning; Jia, Mingjun; Yu, Jihong

    2016-02-25

    Hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with uniform intracrystalline mesopores have been successfully synthesized through the hydrothermal method by using the green and cheap surfactant Triton X-100 as the mesoporous template. The resultant materials exhibit remarkably enhanced catalytic activity in oxidative desulfurization reactions compared to the conventional TS-1 zeolite. PMID:26881277

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

  17. A template-free solvent-mediated synthesis of high surface area boron nitride nanosheets for aerobic oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peiwen; Zhu, Wenshuai; Chao, Yanhong; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhu, Huiyuan; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Huaming; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNs) with rather high specific surface area (SSA) are important two-dimensional layer-structured materials. Here, a solvent-mediated synthesis of h-BNNs revealed a template-free lattice plane control strategy that induced high SSA nanoporous structured h-BNNs with outstanding aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance. PMID:26502800

  18. Structural Elucidation of DNA-Protein Crosslinks Using Reductive Desulfurization and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.

    2014-01-01

    Structural characterization of DNA-protein crosslinks involving cysteine using reductive desulfurization in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is highlighted. The novel approach was used to identify hydrolytically stable DNA-protein lesions involving alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT).

  19. Biocatalytic synthesis of flavones and hydroxyl-small molecules by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the cyanobacterial CYP110E1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Takuya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria possess several cytochrome P450s, but very little is known about their catalytic functions. CYP110 genes unique to cyanaobacteria are widely distributed in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria including nitrogen-fixing genera Nostoc and Anabaena. We screened the biocatalytic functions of all P450s from three cyanobacterial strains of genus Nostoc or Anabaena using a series of small molecules that contain flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, low-molecular-weight drugs, and other aromatic compounds. Results Escherichia coli cells carrying each P450 gene that was inserted into the pRED vector, containing the RhFRed reductase domain sequence from Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 9784 P450RhF (CYP116B2, were co-cultured with substrates and products were identified when bioconversion reactions proceeded. Consequently, CYP110E1 of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, located in close proximity to the first branch point in the phylogenetic tree of the CYP110 family, was found to be promiscuous for the substrate range mediating the biotransformation of various small molecules. Naringenin and (hydroxyl flavanones were respectively converted to apigenin and (hydroxyl flavones, by functioning as a flavone synthase. Such an activity is reported for the first time in prokaryotic P450s. Additionally, CYP110E1 biotransformed the notable sesquiterpene zerumbone, anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and flurbiprofen (methylester forms, and some aryl compounds such as 1-methoxy and 1-ethoxy naphthalene to produce hydroxylated compounds that are difficult to synthesize chemically, including novel compounds. Conclusion We elucidated that the CYP110E1 gene, C-terminally fused to the P450RhF RhFRed reductase domain sequence, is functionally expressed in E. coli to synthesize a robust monooxygenase, which shows promiscuous substrate specificity (affinity for various small molecules, allowing the biosynthesis of not only flavones (from flavanones but also a variety of

  20. Coal desulfurization by bacterial treatment and column flotation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A review of the literature showed that bacterial leaching, using the microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, was a very effective technique for removing pyrite from coal, as it could dissolve even the finest pyrite particles without the need for expensive reagents or extreme processing conditions. Unfortunately, bacterial leaching is also rather slow, and so the initial goal of this research was to decrease the leaching time as much as possible. However, this still left the bacteria needing approximately a week to remove half of the pyritic sulfur, and so a faster technique was sought. Since it had been reported in the literature that T. ferrooxidans could be used to depress the flotation of pyrite during froth flotation of coal, this was investigated further. By studying the recovery mechanisms of coal-pyrite in froth flotation, it was found that pyrite was being recovered by entrainment and by locking to coal particles, not by true flotation of hydrophobic pyrite. Therefore, no pyrite depressant could be of any significant benefit for keeping pyrite out of the coal froth product, and it was much more important to prevent entrainment from occurring. Countercurrent flotation columns were invented to essentially eliminate entrainment effects, by washing the froth and reducing mixing of the froth and tailings products. Existing flotation columns tend to be quite simple, and in order to give reasonable product quality they must be very tall (typically 30--45 feet). As a result, they have difficulty in handling the high froth volumes which occur in coal flotation, and are awkward to install in existing plants. The bulk of this project therefore concentrated on developing an improved coal flotation column, and testing it under actual plant conditions.

  1. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC PARAMETERS OF MIXTURES DESULFURIZING THE MADE WITH CaO, MgO, SiO2 AND CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nylo de Aguiar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of marble residue mixtures utilisation on desulfurization of pig iron. The desulfurization was carried out using lime, marble residue, fluorite and pig iron. Different mixtures of these materials were added into a bath of pig iron at 1,450°C. Metal samples were collected via vacuum samplers at times of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes, in order to check the variation of sulfur content. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the metal and the desulfurizer mixture, the sulfide capacity of mixtures, the sulfur partition coefficient and the sulfur mass transport coefficient values were calculated.The results show the technical feasibility of using marble waste as desulfurizer agent.

  2. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montebello, Andrea M.; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R.; Bezerra, Tercia [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gamisans, Xavier [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resources, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Lafuente, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Baeza, Mireia [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gabriel, David, E-mail: david.gabriel@uab.cat [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H{sub 2}S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H{sub 2}S loading rate of 52 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Stepwise increases of the inlet H{sub 2}S concentration up to 10,000 ppm{sub v} lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. The H{sub 2}S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H{sub 2}S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H{sub 2}S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H{sub 2}S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred.

  3. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  4. The dissolution process of solid calcium hydroxide under the conditions of flue gas desulfurization. Der Feststoffloeseprozess von Calciumhydroxid unter den Bedingungen der Rauchgasentschwefelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhland, F. (Technische Hochschule Leuna-Merseburg, Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Verfahrenstechnik)

    1991-01-01

    The process of solid dissolution in slurry scrubbers for the flue gas desulfurization affects SO{sub 2} absorption and ultimates calciumhydroxide utilisation. The process of dissolution was been observed without and with SO{sub 2} absorption under the aspect of modelling the desulfurization process. The dissolution rate was calculated using known mass transfer modells. The rate of dissolution was correlated as a function of energy dissipation, pH value and concentration of calcium sulfite. (orig.).

  5. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M.K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G N; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the e...

  6. Influences of operating conditions on biocatalytic activity and reusability of Novozym 435 for esterification of free fatty acids with short-chain alcohols:A case study of palm fatty acid distillate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sawittree Mulalee; Pongrumpa Srisuwan; Muenduen Phisalaphong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of operating conditions on biocatalytic activity and stability of Novozym 435 for repeated-batch biodiesel production from free fatty acid (FFA) were investigated. Thermal deactivation caused by increased operating temperature from 45 to 50 °C could seriously affect the reusability of Novozym 435. The deactivation of Novozym 435 during the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol tended to be stronger than that in the system with methanol. Under the optimal conditions, considering both biocatalytic activity and stability of the enzyme, Novozym 435 could be reused for 13 cycles for biodiesel productions from oleic acid and absolute alcohols (methanol and ethanol) with FFA conversions of at least 90%. The presence of 4%–5%water in ethanol significantly affected the reusability of Novozym 435. Changes in the surface morphology of Novozym 435 during the esterification with various conditions were observed. It was revealed that the reduc-tion in catalytic activity was related to the swel ing degree of the catalyst surface. Additionally, biodiesel produc-tion from low cost renewable feedstocks, such as palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) and 95%ethanol was examined. The esterification of PFAD with 95%ethanol catalyzed by Novozym 435 in 10-repeated batch operation showed the similar results in FFA conversion as compared to those using oleic acid. Novozym 435 remained active and could maintain 97.6%of its initial conversion after being used for 10 batches.

  7. Preparing investigations for determining the mechanism in the desulfurization of biogas with a biologic laundry process; Vorbereitende Untersuchungen zur Ermittlung der Mechanismen in der Entschwefelung von Biogas mit einem biologischen Waschverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzowsky, Kristoffer

    2010-05-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration examines an innovative desulfurization process of biogas from agricultural biogas plants. For this purpose, an existing pilot plant was operated at a 200-L experimental biogas digester. It is used to record and classify physical and biological processes in the desulfurization process. The degradation efficiency of the biological desulfurization process is determined. Recommendations for an optimized pilot plant will be given.

  8. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal. Sixth quarterly report, September 16--December 15, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1989-12-14

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds., In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  9. Transport—Reaction Process in the Reaction of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanYan; DuuJongLee; 等

    2000-01-01

    A theoreticasl investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization.A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed,which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.BHased on this model,the reaction rate and t6he absorbent utilization can be calculated.The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time,the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa,the optimum initial radius and absorent concentration are 210-310μm and 23% respectively.The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  10. Identification and determination of selenosulfate and selenocyanate in flue gas desulfurization waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Panayot K; Charters, Jeffrey W; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    In this work, 13 selenium species in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waters from coal-fired power plants were separated and quantified using anion-exchange chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the first time, we identified both selenosulfate (SeSO(3)(2-)) and selenocyanate (SeCN(-)) in such waters, using retention time matching and confirmation by electrospray mass spectrometry. Besides selenite and selenate, selenosulfate was the most frequently occurring selenium species. It occurred in most samples and constituted a major fraction (up to 63%) of the total selenium concentration in waters obtained from plants employing inhibited oxidation scrubbers. Selenocyanate occurred in about half of the tested samples, but was only a minor species (up to 6% of the total selenium concentration). Nine additional Se-containing compounds were found in FGD waters, but they remain unidentified at this point. PMID:22206507

  11. Modification of Bitumen with Desulfurized Crumb Rubber in the Present of Reactive Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhigang; ZHANG Yuzhen; KONG Xianming

    2005-01-01

    Bitumen was modified with desulfurized crumb rubber (DCR) in the present of reactive additives. The effect of the kinds and content of the reactive additive on properties of DCR modified bitumen (DCRMB) was investigated. The morphology of DCRMB was characterized by SEM and the changes of the chemical structure of DCRMB without and with the addition of the reactive additive were analyzed by FTIR. The experimented results show that the softening point,the elasticity recovery and the storage stability of DCRMB were improved significantly by the addition of the reactive additive. This is because that a network structure of rubber in DCRMB was formed and the chemical reaction between C=C double bonds in bitumen and DCR has happened after the reactive additive was added into DCRMB.

  12. Surface characterization of adsorbents in ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Omid; Yen, Teh Fu

    2007-09-01

    Surface properties of two different phases of alumina were studied through SEM images. Characterization of amorphous acidic alumina and crystalline boehmite by XRD explains the differences in adsorption capacities of each sample. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provide further results regarding the ordering in amorphous and crystalline samples of alumina. Quantitative measurements from SANS are used for pore size calculations. Higher disorder provides more topological traps, irregularities, and hidden grooves for higher adsorption capacity. An isotherm model was derived for adsorption of dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) by amorphous acidic alumina to predict and calculate the adsorption of sulfur compounds. The Langmuir-Freundlich model covers a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Experiments prove that amorphous acidic alumina is the adsorbent of choice for selective adsorption in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF). PMID:17543320

  13. Modeling of SO/sub 2/ removal in spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damle, A.S.; Sparks, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the SO/sub 2/ removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a slurry droplet and absorption/reaction of SO/sub 2/ in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transfer rate relations. Dissolution kinetics of lime particles within a slurry droplet is included in determining the overall SO/sub 2/ removal rate. The model identifies several parameters which need to be estimated or determined from experimental data. The model predictions of the effects of major parameters, such as approach to saturation and stoichiometric ratio on the SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency, follow observed trends. Comparison of the model predictions with one set of pilot-plant data shows very good agreement.

  14. Use of flue gas desulfurization gypsum for leaching Cd and Pb in reclaimed tidal flat soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Li, Xian; Tong, Ze-Jun; Li, Qu-Sheng; He, Bao-Yan; Wang, Li-Li; Guo, Shi-Hong; Xu, Zhi-Min

    2016-04-01

    A soil column leaching experiment was conducted to eliminate heavy metals from reclaimed tidal flat soil. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum was used for leaching. The highest removal rates of Cd and Pb in the upper soil layers (0-30 cm) were 52.7 and 30.5 %, respectively. Most of the exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cd and Pb were removed. The optimum FGD gypsum application rate was 7.05 kg·m(-2), and the optimum leaching water amount for the application was 217.74 L·m(-2). The application of FGD gypsum (two times) and the extension of the leaching interval time to 20 days increased the heavy metal removal rate in the upper soil layers. The heavy metals desorbed from the upper soil layers were re-adsorbed and fixed in the 30-70 cm soil layers. PMID:26758303

  15. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DESULFURIZATION OF ZHONG LIANG SHAN HIGH SULFUR COAL BY FLOTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志伟; 黄波; 曹炅

    1994-01-01

    Emission of large amount of SO2 from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious envjsonmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of bigh sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desuifurtzation with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shah was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sultur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0. 84%, with 72.22% recovery ofcombustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurlzatlon Efficiency Index Eofor comprehensive evaluation of dcsuifurlzation process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters.

  17. Experimental Research on Desulfurization of Fine Coal Using an Enhanced Centrifugal Gravity Separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO You-jun; LUO Zhen-fu; ZHAO Yue-min; TAO Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A desulphurization experimental study under the effects of compounding physical force fields has been described for < 0.5 mm fine particles of high sulfur coal. A statistical test using the Box-Behnken Design of experiments was conducted to evaluate the effects of individual operating variables and their interactions on desulfurization of fine coal using an enhanced centrifugal gravity separator. A model describing the relation between desulphurization efficiency of pyrite sulfur and different operating variables has been designed. The interactions between different factors on the pyrite sulfur desulphurization efficiency have been analysed. The optimal test conditions for desulfarization are extracted from the Design-Expert 6.0 software. Finally, the advantage of centrifugal gravity separation for fine coal is pointed out.

  18. MOSSBAUER ANALYSIS ON THE MICROWAVE—MAGNETIC DESULFURIZATION OF RAW COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏

    1994-01-01

    The selective dielectric heating of microwave energy to convert a portion of each pyrite particle to moderately magnetic pyrrhotite has been suggested to enhance the magnetic separation of inorganic sulfur from coal.The results for Mossbauer analyses show that the considerable amount of pyrrhotite produced during microwave irradiation,carrying with it some of non-magnetic pyrite(unconverted),ferrous sulfate,and troilite,is completely removed from coal after magnetic separation.The optimum desulfurization efficiency can be attained by appropriately controlling the irradiation time to maximize the amount of pyrrhotite formed pyrite decomposition.Excessive irradiation would be ddisadvantageous for improving magnetic separation due to the further decomposition of pyrrhotite to antiferromagnetic troilite.

  19. Study of gypsum crystal nucleation and growth rates in simulated flue gas desulfurization liquors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, A.D.; Etherton, D.

    1981-06-01

    The kinetics of gypsum crystal nucleation and growth rates were measured in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber liquors. Variables studied were parent seed crystal size and mass; the organic additives citric acid, adipic acid, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, and Calgon CL246 polyacrylic acid formulation; and pH. Citric acid produced gypsum crystals with a more favorable columnar structure. Lower pH resulted in increased nucleation rates. Stable secondary nucleation was observed in the presence of retained parent gypsum seed crystals of size >150 ..mu..m. Growth and nucleation rates were correlated using reaction kinetic models. These kinetics were then used in rigorous computer simulations to predict crystal-size distribution (CSD) with different scrubber configurations. Scrubber process configurations employing classified product removal were calculated to produce a gypsum sludge having a mean particle size up to twice as large as the particle size with unclassified operation.

  20. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  1. Application of Two Cobalt-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Oxidative Desulfurization Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohammad Yaser; Bagheri, Minoo; Morsali, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Two new porous cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks, [Co6(oba)5(OH)2(H2O)2(DMF)4]n · 5DMF (TMU-10) and [Co3(oba)3(O) (Py)0.5] n · 4DMF · Py (TMU-12) have been synthesized by solvothermal method using a nonlinear dicarboxylate ligand. Under mild reaction conditions, these compounds exhibited good catalytic activity and reusability in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction of model oil which was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT) in n-hexane. FT-IR and Mass analysis showed that the main product of DBT oxidation is its corresponding sulfone, which was adsorbed on the surfaces of catalysts. The activation energy was obtained as 13.4 kJ/mol. PMID:26571113

  2. Electrochemical flue gas desulfurization: Reactions in a pyrosulfate-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new electrolyte has been found suitable for use in an electrochemical membrane cell for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The electrolyte is primarily K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ as oxidation enhancer. This electrolyte has a melting point near 300/sup 0/C which is compatible with flue gas exiting the economizer of coal-burning power plants. Standard electrochemical tests have revealed high exchange current densities around 30 mA/cm/sup 2/, in the free electrolyte. Sulfur dioxide is found to be removed from simulated flue gas in a multiple-step process, the first of which is electrochemical reduction of pyrosulfate

  3. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  4. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%

  5. Research on Identification and Screen of Microbial Desulfurization Strains for Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojuan, Tian; Lingtian, Tang; Li'e, Peng; Xinghong, Li

    The oil-contaminated soil sample was acquired from Shengli Oilfield and Jidong Oilfield and cultured with enrichment technology. Then 21 desulfurization strains were separated from the sample, from which a high efficiency desulfurization strain TV9704 was selected. The strain could neither grow with n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, liquid paraffin, naphthalene or diesel as a carbon source and energy source, nor obviously reduce oil combustion value. It could use thiophene or dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the sole sulfur source. In the experiment, the concentrations of thiophene and DBT were measured by UV spectrophotometer. After being cultured in the culture medium with an initial concentration of 63.2 mmol/L respectively for 48 h and 144 h, the degradation rates of the strain TV9704 on thiophene were 39.0% and 63.8%; the DBT with an initial concentration of 2.7 mmol/L was degraded by 1.46 mmol/L after cultured for 72 h. When sodium acetate and glycerol were chosen as carbon source, the ethanol could enhance the degradation rate of TV9704 on DBT significantly. Strain TV9704 was identified by China Industrial Culture Collection Center (CICC) as a Bacillus sp., Gram-positive, obligate aerobic, which forms a circular orange colony on the nutrition gravy plate. The 16SrDNA gene sequencing test and analysis was carried out on strain TV9704, finding that its homologies with the most similar species Bacillus aquimaris and Bacillus marisflavi were 99.2% and 98.2% respectively, but a larger difference existed between their cell morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical characteristics, therefore strain TV9704 may be a new species because it was impossible to be categorized to any population.

  6. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  7. Coal desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  8. Anaerobic desulfurization of ground rubber with the thermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus--a new method for rubber recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredberg, K; Persson, J; Christiansson, M; Stenberg, B; Holst, O

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic sulfur-reducing archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus was investigated regarding its capacity to desulfurize rubber material. The microorganism's sensitivity towards common rubber elastomers and additives was tested and several were shown to be toxic to P. furiosus. The microorganism was shown to utilize sulfur in vulcanized natural rubber and an increase in cell density was obtained when cultivated in the presence of spent tire rubber. Ethanol-leached cryo-ground tire rubber treated with P. furiosus for 10 days was vulcanized together with virgin rubber material (15% w/w) and the mechanical properties of the resulting material were determined. The increase in the stress at break value and the decrease in swell ratio and stress relaxation rate obtained for material containing microbially treated rubber (compared to untreated material) show the positive effects of microbial desulfurization on rubber. PMID:11234957

  9. Effect of Calcium Oxide Additive on the Performance of Iron Oxide Sorbent for High-Temperature Coal Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Fan; Kechang Xie; Ju Shangguan; Fang Shen; Chunhu Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of calcium oxide additive in iron oxide sorbent for hot gas desulfurization was investigated by XRD and TPR techniques. XRD characterization showed that CaO was highly dispersed after the calcination of sorbents. Calcium sulfate formed in the desulfurization was decomposed and regenerated to CaO by reacting with CO before the next sulfidation process. Calcium participated in every sulfidation/regeneration cycle and contributed to the enhancement of sulfur capacity. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of the sorbent increased with the increase of the content of calcium. Calcium played a role of retarding reduction. Therefore, the addition of calcium oxide additive will benefit the utilization of iron oxide sorbent in strongly reducing atmospheres.

  10. Design and Application of Control System for KR Desulfurization in Hot Metal Pretreatment of Xuanhua Iron and Steel Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    The KR desulfurization is applied in hot metal pretreatment of Xuanhua Iron and Steel Corporation, and its control system is composed by the Preparing and adding control system, the stirring head lifting control system, and the control system of rotational speed, etc. Combined with the debugging process, the whole control system is deeply investigated. Indeed, the PLC system produced by AB Corporation is illustrated; the approach of controlling the rotational speed and lifting is introduced. ...

  11. Effect of Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization on the Soluble Salts Composition and Chemical Properties of Sodic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two...

  12. Synthesis of Special Morphology ZnO Materials and the Performance for Reaction Adsorption Desulfurization of Thiophene

    OpenAIRE

    Jingcheng Zhang; Jun Nan; Zhangyong Liu; Haibin Yu; Shan Geng; Yulin Shi; Xiaolong Qu; Chenguang Liu; Hongguang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Special morphology ZnO materials with smaller crystallite size were synthesized by hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation method, and the corresponding Ni/ZnO adsorbents were prepared by incipient impregnation method. The materials obtained were characterized by FE-SEM and XRD methods. The structure and the morphology of the porous materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and TEM. Reactive adsorption desulfurization (RADS) of model gasoline using thiophene as model s...

  13. Utilization of a by-product produced from oxidative desulfurization process over Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonjoo; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Do Heui; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the use of Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts to upgrade a by-product of oxidative desulfurization (ODS). Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts were characterized through N2 adsorption, XRD, CO2-temperature-programmed desorption, and XRF. Cs-mesoporous silica prepared by the direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance than a Cs/MCM-41 catalyst by impregnation method for the catalytic decomposition of sulfone compounds produced from ODS process. PMID:21456272

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar; Varma, Mahesh N.; Diwakar Z. Shende; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Kailas L. Wasewar

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried ou...

  15. Effect of Influent HRT on Pretreatment of Sulfate-Laden Food Wastewater for Desulfurization-Denitrification Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Jian-Guo Lin; Xiao Liang; Lei Liu

    2014-01-01

    In order to treat wastewater rich in sulfate and organic carbon, an anaerobic attached-growth bioreactor was set up. It was the pretreatment of mixotrophic desulfurization-denitrification process and the effect of influent HRT was considered. The HRT was decreased from 128 to 6.2 h, while the sulfate removal rate, the organic carbon removal rate and sulfide generating rate were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the suitable HRT in sulfate reduction stage for the pretreatment of ...

  16. The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Dual Growth Kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under Acidic Conditions for Biogas Desulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeong-Kyu Namgung; JiHyeon Song

    2015-01-01

    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO ...

  17. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Flue Gas Desulfurization From Coal Bottom Ash: Effect of Absorbent Preparation Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Chin Li, Lee Keat Teong, Subhash Bhatia and Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    An active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal bottom ash, calcium oxide (CaO) and calcium sulfate by hydro-thermal process. The absorbent was examined for its micro-structural properties. The experiments conducted were based on Design Of Experiments (DOE) according to 23 factorial design. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as ratio of CaO to bottom ash (A), hydration temperature (B) and hydration period (C) towards the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Tel...

  18. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  19. Multiphase Modeling of Bottom-Stirred Ladle for Prediction of Slag-Steel Interface and Estimation of Desulfurization Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Umesh; Anapagaddi, Ravikiran; Mangal, Saurabh; Padmanabhan, Kuppuswamy Anantha; Singh, Amarendra Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Ladle furnace is a key unit in which various phenomena such as deoxidation, desulfurization, inclusion removal, and homogenization of alloy composition and temperature take place. Therefore, the processes present in the ladle play an important role in determining the quality of steel. Prediction of flow behavior of the phases present in the ladle furnace is needed to understand the phenomena that take place there and accordingly control the process parameters. In this study, first a mathematical model is developed to analyze the transient three-phase flow present. Argon gas bottom-stirred ladle with off-centered plugs has been used in this study. Volume of fluid method is used in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to capture the behavior of slag, steel, and argon interfaces. The results are validated with data from literature. Eye opening and slag-steel interfacial area are calculated for different operating conditions and are compared with experimental and simulated results cited in literature. Desulfurization rate is then predicted using chemical kinetic equations, interfacial area, calculated from CFD model, and thermodynamic data, obtained from the Thermo-Calc software. Using the model, it is demonstrated that the double plug purging is more suitable than the single plug purging for the same level of total flow. The advantage is more distinct at higher flow rates as it leads higher interfacial area, needed for desulfurization and smaller eye openings (lower oxygen/nitrogen pickup).

  20. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  1. Multiphase Modeling of Bottom-Stirred Ladle for Prediction of Slag-Steel Interface and Estimation of Desulfurization Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Umesh; Anapagaddi, Ravikiran; Mangal, Saurabh; Padmanabhan, Kuppuswamy Anantha; Singh, Amarendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Ladle furnace is a key unit in which various phenomena such as deoxidation, desulfurization, inclusion removal, and homogenization of alloy composition and temperature take place. Therefore, the processes present in the ladle play an important role in determining the quality of steel. Prediction of flow behavior of the phases present in the ladle furnace is needed to understand the phenomena that take place there and accordingly control the process parameters. In this study, first a mathematical model is developed to analyze the transient three-phase flow present. Argon gas bottom-stirred ladle with off-centered plugs has been used in this study. Volume of fluid method is used in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to capture the behavior of slag, steel, and argon interfaces. The results are validated with data from literature. Eye opening and slag-steel interfacial area are calculated for different operating conditions and are compared with experimental and simulated results cited in literature. Desulfurization rate is then predicted using chemical kinetic equations, interfacial area, calculated from CFD model, and thermodynamic data, obtained from the Thermo-Calc software. Using the model, it is demonstrated that the double plug purging is more suitable than the single plug purging for the same level of total flow. The advantage is more distinct at higher flow rates as it leads higher interfacial area, needed for desulfurization and smaller eye openings (lower oxygen/nitrogen pickup).

  2. Desulfurization of liquid fuels by adsorption on carbon-based sorbents and ultrasound-assisted sorbent regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhe; Yang, Ralph T

    2007-03-27

    Several carbon-based adsorbents, CuCl/AC, PdCl2/AC, and Pd/AC (where AC denotes activated carbon), were studied for desulfurization of a model jet fuel by selective adsorption of thiophenic molecules. Comparisons with gamma-Al2O3 support and desulfurization of a commercial jet fuel were also studied. The results showed that the selective sulfur adsorption capacity of PdCl2 was higher than that of CuCl and Pd(0), in agreement with molecular orbital results. It was also found that the activated carbon is the best support for pi-complexation sorbents to remove sulfur-containing compounds, i.e., benzothiophene and methylbenzothiophene. Among all the adsorbents studied, PdCl2/AC had the highest capacity for desulfurization. A significant synergistic effect was observed between the carbon substrate and the supported pi-complexation sorbent, and this effect was explained by a geometric effect. The saturated sorbent was regenerated by desorption assisted by ultrasound with a solvent of 30 wt % benzene and 70 wt % n-octane. The results showed that the amount of sulfur desorbed was higher with ultrasound, 65 wt % desorption vs 45 wt % without ultrasound in a static system at 50 degrees C. PMID:17315903

  3. Research on Road Performance of Desulfurized Rubber Asphalt and Mixture%脱硫橡胶沥青及其混合料性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小利; 张文刚; 杜旭斌

    2013-01-01

    In order to discuss the road performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt and mixture,swelling mechanism of desulfurized rubber asphalt was studied first,and then performance testing of KLMY90#,normal rubber asphalt and desulfurized rubber asphalt were taken,after that,penetration,shear strength and cohesive strength of desulfurized rubber asphalt mortar were test,road performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt mixture were test at last.The study show that,there is no rubber particle core,but lots of chemical reaction in desulfurized rubber asphalt; the performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt is better than normal rubber asphalt without high viscosity.Easy isolation and poor high temperature storage stability; shear strength and cohesive strength of desulfurized rubber asphalt mortar is better; and desulfurized rubber asphalt mixture have good road performance.%为了研究脱硫橡胶沥青及其混合料的性能,研究首先对脱硫橡胶沥青的溶胀机理与溶胀特点展开研究,其次对脱硫橡胶沥青与KLMY90#基质沥青、普通橡胶沥青(40目)进行性能对比性试验,再对脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆的锥入度、抗剪强度、粘结强度进行试验研究,最终对脱硫橡胶沥青混合料的路用性能进行检测.研究结果表明:脱硫橡胶沥青中不存在橡胶颗粒核心且溶胀过程中伴有大量的化学反应;脱硫橡胶沥青各项性能均优于普通橡胶沥青,且克服了普通橡胶沥青高黏度、易离析、高温贮存稳定性差等缺点;脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆抗剪强度大、与矿料粘结力强;脱硫橡胶沥青混合料具有良好的路用性能.

  4. Suitability assessment of a continuous process combining thermo-mechano-chemical and bio-catalytic action in a single pilot-scale twin-screw extruder for six different biomass sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbossche, Virginie; Brault, Julien; Hernandez-Melendez, Oscar; Evon, Philippe; Barzana, Eduardo; Vilarem, Gérard; Rigal, Luc

    2016-07-01

    A process has been validated for the deconstruction of lignocellulose on a pilot scale installation using six types of biomass selected for their sustainability, accessibility, worldwide availability, and differences of chemical composition and physical structure. The process combines thermo-mechano-chemical and bio-catalytic action in a single twin-screw extruder. Three treatment phases were sequentially performed: an alkaline pretreatment, a neutralization step coupled with an extraction-separation phase and a bioextrusion treatment. Alkaline pretreatment destructured the wall polymers after just a few minutes and allowed the initial extraction of 18-54% of the hemicelluloses and 9-41% of the lignin. The bioextrusion step induced the start of enzymatic hydrolysis and increased the proportion of soluble organic matter. Extension of saccharification for 24h at high consistency (20%) and without the addition of new enzyme resulted in the production of 39-84% of the potential glucose. PMID:27015021

  5. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%. PMID:16257208

  6. Biogas desulfurization with a new developed doped activated carbon. 20 month pilot test; Biogasfeinentschwefelung mittels neu entwickelter dotierter Aktivkohle. 20-monatiger Praxistest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossow, Silvana; Deerberg, Goerge; Goetze, Toralf; Kanswohl, Norbert; Nelles, Michael [Univ. Rostock (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft

    2009-05-15

    Doped activated carbon is a special developed activated carbon for the desulfurization of technical gases. Based on its special adsorption properties, it is able to bond a large amount of hydrogen sulfide. By the special manufacturing method it was possible to optimize further the performance for the desulfurization of gases. In a biogas plant with an installed electric capacity of 2 MW the functionality of the doped activated carbon was proofed in a real biogas stream in a 20 month pilot test. The activated carbon was used in a special adsorption system that was tunes on the requirement of the activated carbon and on the site of installation. Because the biogas plant was in the starting period, all the time there were variable operation conditions. In spite of the variable conditions the doped activated carbon shows a permanent complete desulfurization, as in the executed laboratory experiments. By the use of the desulfurization system the concentration of hydrogen sulfide is decreased less than 1 ppm. The prejudices with are often caused by hydrogen sulphide could not identify until now. A positive evidence of the excellent desulfurization is the doubling of the oil lifetime of the block heating station. (orig.)

  7. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  8. Progress on Biocatalytic Reaction in Various Ionic Liquid Mediums%不同离子液体反应介质在生物催化中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜伟燕; 李娜; 王寿江

    2012-01-01

      离子液体(ILs)因其独特物理化学性质成为新型反应溶剂和催化剂,在生物催化反应中有着广阔的应用前景。根据不同 ILs 的水溶性,其与水可形成4种反应介质,即微水 ILs 单相体系、亲水性 ILs-水单相体系、疏水性 ILs-水两相体系和 ILs 微乳液体系。本文分别介绍了不同 ILs 反应体系中生物催化剂的催化活性、稳定性和选择性,综述了这些体系中的生物催化反应研究进展。%  Ionic liquids (ILs) are new reaction mediums and catalysts for biocatalytic reaction due to their excellent physical and chemical characteristics. ILs can form 4 kinds of reaction mediums with water based on their water solubility, that is, nearly anhydrous ILs systems, hydrophilic ILs-water systems, hydrophobic ILs-water two-phase systems, and water-in-ILs microemulsions. In this article, the activity, stability and selectivity of biocatalysts in the four ILs-containing mediums are summarized and the research progresses of biocatalytic reaction in the systems are discussed.

  9. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzin Nejad, N., E-mail: Farzinnejadn@ripi.ir [Petroleum Refining Technology Development Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran 14857-33111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, E.; Amini, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g{sup −1} of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles. - Highlights: • Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil with magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent, Fe-OMC, was studied. • Maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub max}) of Fe-OMC for DBT was found to be 111.1 mg g{sup −1}. • Freundlich isotherm best represents the equilibrium adsorption data. • Rate of DBT adsorption process onto Fe-OMC is controlled by at least two steps.

  10. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

  11. Quantitative, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of flue gas desulfurization by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperche, Valérie; Bigham, Jerry M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that simple fractionation and selective dissolution techniques can be used to provide detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses of flue gas desulfurization by-products. The material studied was a mine grout prepared as a 1:1 mixture (wt./wt.) of fly ash (FA) and filter cake (FC) with hydrated lime (50 g kg(-1)) added to improve handling. The hydrated lime was composed mostly of calcite (CaCO3), portlandite [Ca(OH)2], lime (CaO), and brucite [Mg(OH)2] (515, 321, 55, and 35 g kg(-1), respectively) and had low (hydrated lime. The FA contained both magnetic (222 g kg(-1)) and nonmagnetic (778 g kg(-1)) fractions. The former was composed mostly of hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and glass (272, 293, and 287 g kg(-1), respectively), whereas the latter was enriched in glass, quartz, and mullite (Al6Si2O13) (515, 243, and 140 g kg(-1), respectively). Etching with 1% HF showed that 60 to 100% of trace elements were concentrated in the glass, although some metals (Co, Cr, and Mn) were clearly enriched in the magnetic phase. The aged grout contained 147 g kg(-1) ettringite [Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 x 26H2O] in addition to 314 g kg(-1) hannebachite and 537 g kg(-1) insoluble phases (mullite, quartz, hematite, magnetite, and glass). PMID:12026103

  12. Influence of surface phenomena in oxidative desulfurization with WOx/ZrO2 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-García, E.; Canizal, G.; Velumani, S.; Ramírez-Verduzco, L. F.; Murrieta-Guevara, F.; Ascencio, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Oil refinery related catalysis, particularly hydro desulfurization is viewed as a mature technology, but still we view that more efforts have to be made to boost the efficiency of the existing catalysts. So in this article we report the use of WOx/ZrO2 catalysts for the oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a more effective material in nanometer scales. The WOx/ZrO2 samples were prepared by solid impregnation of ZrO2-x(OH)2x with ammonium metatungstate solution maintaining the pH at 10. Detailed structural and surface morphological analyses were carried out using Raman spectroscopy and Atomic force microscopy. In order to understand the catalytic activity which is largely influenced by the surface morphology, an interpretation based on the experimental results is given. The results showed an important correlation between the catalytic efficiency with the morphology of the surface which is identified as arrays of planes with steps of around 10 nm with the structures showing faceting with a preferential angle of 90°. It was established that when the number of W atoms in the surface increase the catalytic efficiency also increases. Thus we conclude that the material efficiency as a catalyst is directly related with the surface structure.

  13. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H₂O₂ for metal-free oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-01

    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ∼ 90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. PMID:26561755

  14. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m2 g−1), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm3 g−1) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g−1 of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles. - Highlights: • Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil with magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent, Fe-OMC, was studied. • Maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of Fe-OMC for DBT was found to be 111.1 mg g−1. • Freundlich isotherm best represents the equilibrium adsorption data. • Rate of DBT adsorption process onto Fe-OMC is controlled by at least two steps

  15. Sulfite oxidation catalyzed by cobalt ions in flue gas desulfurization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatza, Despina; Prisciandaro, Marina; Lancia, Amedeo; Musmarra, Dino

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of calcium bisulfite oxidation, a key step in the wet limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, in the presence of catalysts (e.g., cobalt ions and a mixture of ferrous and cobalt ions). A fundamental approach is followed, by reproducing a simplified synthetic FGD liquor in which both catalyst ions, alone or mixed together, are present. A laboratory-scale apparatus is used, in which sulfurous solution is contacted with a gas phase at a fixed oxygen partial pressure (21.3 kPa) and at different temperature levels (25, 45, and 55 degrees C). The experimental results are analyzed using the theory of gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction, showing that the slow reaction regime is explored and the transition from the kinetic to the diffusional subregime is identified. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in the presence of other catalytic species (manganese and ferrous ions), showing that cobalt is effective in catalyzing the oxidation of calcium bisulfite to sulfate, but to a minor extent with respect to iron and manganese. PMID:20564992

  16. Mechanism for the formation of elemental sulfur from aqueous sulfide in chemical and microbiological desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steudel, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    1996-04-01

    A detailed reaction mechanism is proposed for the formation of crystalline elemental sulfur from aqueous sulfide by oxidation with transition-metal ions like V{sup 5}, Fe{sup 3}, Cu{sup 2}, etc. The first step is the formation of HS{center_dot} radicals by one-electron oxidation of HS{sup {minus}} ions. These radicals exist at pH values near 7 mainly as S{center_dot}{sup {minus}}. Their spontaneous decay results in the formation of the disulfide ion S{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}}. The further oxidation of disulfide either by S{center_dot}{sup {minus}} radicals or by the transition-metal ions yields higher polysulfide ions from which the homocyclic sulfur molecules S{sub 6}, S{sub 7}, and S{sub 8} are formed. In water these hydrophobic molecules form clusters which grow to droplets of liquid sulfur (sulfur sol). Depending on the composition of the aqueous phase, crystallization of the liquid sulfur as either {alpha}- or {beta}-S{sub 8} is rapid or delayed. Surfactants delay this solidification, while certain cations promote it. All these reactions are proposed to take place in desulfurization plants working by the Stretford, Sulfolin, Lo-Cat, SulFerox, or Bio-SR processes. In addition, the sulfur produced from sulfide by oxidizing sulfur bacteria is formed by the same mechanism, which now explains many observations made previously (including the formation of the byproducts thiosulfate, polythionates, and sulfate).

  17. SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and coal fly ash as basic components of prefabricated building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Antonio; Marroccoli, Milena; Calabrese, Daniela; Valenti, Gian Lorenzo; Montagnaro, Fabio

    2013-03-01

    The manufacture of prefabricated building materials containing binding products such as ettringite (6CaO·Al2O3·3SO3·32H2O) and calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) can give, in addition to other well-defined industrial activities, the opportunity of using wastes and by-products as raw materials, thus contributing to further saving of natural resources and protection of the environment. Two ternary mixtures, composed by 40% flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum or natural gypsum (as a reference material), 35% calcium hydroxide and 25% coal fly ash, were submitted to laboratory hydrothermal treatments carried out within time and temperature ranges of 2h-7days and 55-85°C, respectively. The formation of (i) ettringite, by hydration of calcium sulfate given by FGD or natural gypsum, alumina of fly ash and part of calcium hydroxide, and (ii) CSH, by hydration of silica contained in fly ash and residual lime, was observed within both the reacting systems. For the FGD gypsum-based mixture, the conversion toward ettringite and CSH was highest at 70°C and increased with curing time. Some discrepancies in the hydration behavior between the mixtures were ascribed to differences in mineralogical composition between natural and FGD gypsum. PMID:23219474

  19. Probing the kinetics for thiol desulfurization: The reactions of 2-methyl-2-propanethiol on Mo(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, B.C.; Uvdal, P.; Friend, C.M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-05-28

    The reactions of 2-methyl-2-propanethiol on Mo(110) were studied using temperature programmed reaction, high resolution electron energy loss, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The sulfur-hydrogen bond breaks upon adsorption at 120 K, yielding adsorbed 2-methyl-2-propyl thiolate and hydrogen. Thiolate hydrogenolysis produces isobutane, while cleavage of the C-S and selective C-H bond breaking {beta} to the sulfur yields isobutene. Nonselective decomposition to adsorbed carbon, sulfur, and gaseous dihydrogen is a competing channel. At reaction saturation, the selectivity for hydrocarbon for hydrocarbon formation patterns is 80%. The specific butane and butene isomers were identified on the basis of the differences in the fragmentation patterns of the various isomers when an electron energy of 27 eV was used in the mass spectrometer. The isometric selectivity corroborates the authors general mechanism for thiolate reaction. Isobutane formation preceded ethane formation for a 2-methyl-2-propanethiol/ethanethiol mixture. The kinetics for 2-methyl-2-propyl thiolate desulfurization were found to increase with increasing 2-methyl-2-propyl thiolate coverage. 38 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Desulfurization of thiophene on Au/TiC(001): Au-C interactions and charge polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, José A; Liu, Ping; Takahashi, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Kenichi; Viñes, Francesc; Illas, Francesc

    2009-06-24

    Photoemission and first-principles DF calculations were used to study the interaction of thiophene with TiC(001) and Au/TiC(001) surfaces. The adsorption strength of thiophene on TiC(001) is weak, and the molecule desorbs at temperatures below 200 K. The molecule binds to Ti centers of TiC(001) through its sulfur atom with negligible structural perturbations. In spite of the very poor desulfurization performance of TiC(001) or Au(111), a Au/TiC(001) system displays a hydrodesulfurization activity higher than that of conventional Ni/MoS(x) catalysts. The AuTiC(001) interactions induce a polarization of electron density around Au which substantially increases the chemical reactivity of this metal. Au nanoparticles drastically increase the hydrodesulfurization activity of TiC(001) by enhancing the bonding energy of thiophene and by helping in the dissociation of H(2) to produce the hydrogen necessary for the hydrogenolysis of C-S bonds and the removal of sulfur. H(2) spontaneously dissociates on small two-dimensional clusters of gold in contact with TiC(001). On these systems, the adsorption energy of thiophene is 0.45-0.65 eV larger than that on TiC(001) or Au(111). Thiophene binds in a eta(5) configuration with a large elongation (approximately 0.2 A) of the C-S bonds. PMID:19530731