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Sample records for biocatalytic desulfurization project

  1. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  2. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  3. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Collins; David Nunn

    2003-10-01

    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate

  4. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemi......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase...... and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline...

  5. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  6. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  7. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  8. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  9. Biocatalytic conversion of epoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Erik; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Epoxides are attractive intermediates for producing chiral compounds. Important biocatalytic reactions involving epoxides include epoxide hydrolase mediated kinetic resolution, leading to the formation of diols and enantiopure remaining substrates, and enantioconvergent enzymatic hydrolysis, which g

  10. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  11. Pushing Forward Industrialization of Thermal Power Desulfuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces present state of industrialization development in flue gas desulfuration, including technological selection, state of design and contracting capability, localization of equipment, etc. in China. It points out main problems currently existed and presents proposals on promotion of desulfuration technology with selfowned intellectual property right, perfection of demonstrative projects and pushing forward localization of desulfuration equipment.

  12. Biocatalytic portfolio of Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Basidiomycota fungi have received little attention for applications in biocatalysis and biotechnology and remain greatly understudied despite their importance for carbon recycling, ecosystem functioning and medicinal properties. The steady influx of genome data has facilitated detailed studies aimed at understanding the evolution and function of fungal lignocellulose degradation. These studies and recent explorations into the secondary metabolomes have uncovered large portfolios of enzymes useful for biocatalysis and biosynthesis. This review will provide an overview of the biocatalytic repertoires of Basidiomycota characterized to date with the hope of motivation more research into the chemical toolkits of this diverse group of fungi. PMID:26812494

  13. Oxidase-based biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Hemalata; Woodley, John; Krühne, Ulrich

    Biocatalytic processes are gaining significant focus in frontiers where they offer unique advantages(selectivity and mild operating conditions) over chemical catalysts. It is therefore not surprising that therehave been many industrial biocatalytic processes implemented.Despite past successes......, the implementation of a new biocatalytic process still presents some challenges (demands placed on the biocatalyst) in terms of the requirements to make a viable industrial process. Inorder for a biocatalytic process to be economically successful, it is necessary that certain a set of targetmetrics (product titre...... the reaction species (substrate and product volatility for example) and the process (such as oxygen supply, ability to control pH) and are classified as reaction-related and process-related constraintsrespectively. Although the development of biocatalyst and process engineering tools offers a number...

  14. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  15. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  17. Oxidative desulfurization of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aida, T.; Yamamoto, D. [Kinki Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The desulfurization of diesel fuels such as light or heavy oils is going to be critically important to sustain our modernized life. We had initiated research projects for developing efficient chemical desulfurization processes of coal, and revealed that the oxidation reaction significantly enhanced the chemical reactivity of the organic sulfur functionalities in coal, and it made them easy to remove from a solid coal. For instance, the alkaline fusion under oxygen gas, {open_quotes}Oxy-Alkalinolysis{close_quotes}, achieved the sulfur removal up to 95-98% for most of the coals. To use such drastic change of the chemical and physical properties of organic sulfur compounds by oxidation is our strategy for developing an efficient desulfurization process for liquid fuels. This paper present the results of the study on the desulfurization process using oxidation reactions for liquid fuels.

  18. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report number 17, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas. To demonstrate the technical viability of the LIFAC process to economically reduce sulfur emissions from the Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, LIFAC NA is conducting a three-phase project: design; long lead procurement and construction; and operations. Reporting efforts and data analysis were the main focus of the project team during this reporting period. The LIFAC system has been purged and preserved and the process was not operated during the Quarter. However, results from earlier testing were received and are contained in this report.

  19. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  20. Model visualization for evaluation of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, HEM; Lewis, DJ; McRobbie, I;

    2008-01-01

    Biocatalysis offers great potential as an additional, and in some cases as an alternative, synthetic tool for organic chemists, especially as a route to introduce chirality. However, the implementation of scalable biocatalytic processes nearly always requires the introduction of process and....../or biocatalyst enhancements to ensure effective scale-up. This paper describes a paradigm for the purpose of evaluating biocatalytic processes in order to provide guidance on process and biocatalyst modification. The paradigm is illustrated with the biocatalytic synthesis of S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (S......,S-EDDS), a biodegradable chelant, and is characterised by the use of model visualization using `windows of operation"....

  1. Biocatalytic Route to Surface Active Lipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving...... a biphasic system as the substrates used may differs in polarity. In some instances, chemical synthetic route are used. Attempts are made to study the biocatalytic route to surface active lipid including various factors affecting synthesis of such compounds. The surface active lipids produced may have...

  2. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 10, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. in comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide -- 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: Relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO{sub 2} removed basis are less; produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and is relatively simple to operate. The site for the LIFAC demonstration is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley 2 pulverized coal-fired power station (60 MW), located in Richmond, Indiana.

  3. Improving Enzyme Activity and Broadening Selectivity for Biological Desulfurization and Upgrading of Petroleum Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijeet P. Borole; Choo Y. Hamilton; Karen Miller; Brian Davison; Matthew Grossman; Robert Shong

    2003-05-12

    The objective of this project was to develop improved biocatalysts for desulfurization and upgrading of petroleum feedstocks. The goal was to improve the activity and broaden the selectivity of desulfurization enzymes using directed evolution as a tool as well as to explore the impact of ring-opening on biological desulfurization

  4. The development of microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Karube, Isao [University of Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1999-02-01

    The production of electricity by biocatalytic fuel cells has been feasible for almost two decades and can produce electric power at a practical level. These fuel cells use immobilized microorganisms or enzymes as catalysts, and glucose as a fuel. A microfabricated enzyme battery has recently been made that is designed to function as a power supply for microsurgery robots or artificial organs. (author)

  5. Biocatalytic process development using microfluidic miniaturized systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in biocatalytic processes means there is a clear need for a new systematic development paradigm which encompasses both protein engineering and process engineering. This paper argues that through the use of a new microfluidic platform, data can be collected more rapidly and...

  6. Efficient Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Pan, Jiang; Ma, Bao-Di; Xu, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Chiral chemicals are a group of important chiral synthons for the synthesis of a series of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fine chemicals. In past decades, a number of biocatalytic approaches have been developed for the green and effective synthesis of various chiral chemicals. However, the practical application of these biocatalytic processes is still hindered by the lack of highly efficient and robust biocatalysts, which usually results in the low volumetric productivity and high cost of the bioprocesses. Further step forward of biocatalysis in industrial application strongly requires the development of versatile and highly efficient biocatalysts, aiming to increase the process efficiency and facilitate the downstream processing. Recently, the fast growth of genome sequences in the database in post-genomic era offers great opportunities for accessing numerous biocatalysts with practical application potential, and the so-called genome mining approach provides time-effective and highly specific strategy for the fast identification of target enzymes with desired properties and outperforms the traditional screening of soil samples for microbial enzyme producers of interest. A number of biocatalytic processes with industrial application potential were developed thereafter. Further development of protein engineering strategies, process optimization, and cooperative work between biologists, organic chemists, and engineers is expected to make biocatalysis technology the first choice approach for the eco-friendly, highly efficient, and cost-effective synthesis of chiral chemicals in the near future. PMID:25537446

  7. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  8. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  9. Engineering of Biocatalysts and Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana; Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Discovering and developing new biocatalytic reactions and biocatalysts has been the major focus of the activities in the EC FP7 BIOTRAINS network. However, industrial implementation of these new reactions requires engineering of both the biocatalysts and the associated processes, to achieve...... the necessary targets for economic and sustainable feasibility of full-scale processes. The possible engineering solutions can most rapidly be identified using a series of tools and in this article we will describe some of these as well as giving a perspective on the future of this important element of process...

  10. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  11. Fluidized bed desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindram, M.; Kallvinskas, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    High sulfur content carbonaceous material, such as coal is desulfurized by continuous fluidized suspension in a reactor with chlorine gas, inert dechlorinating gas and hydrogen gas. A source of chlorine gas, a source of inert gas and a source of hydrogen gas are connected to the bottom inlet through a manifold and a heater. A flow controler operates servos in a manner to continuously and sequentially suspend coal in the three gases. The sulfur content is reduced at least 50% by the treatment.

  12. Biocatalytic Self-Cleaning Polymer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Schulze

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer membrane surfaces have been equipped with the digestive enzyme trypsin. Enzyme immobilization was performed by electron beam irradiation in aqueous media within a one-step method. Using this method, trypsin was covalently and side-unspecific attached to the membrane surface. Thus, the use of preceding polymer functionalization and the use of toxic solvents or reagents can be avoided. The resulting membranes showed significantly improved antifouling properties as demonstrated by repeated filtration of protein solutions. Furthermore, the biocatalytic membrane can be simply “switched on” to actively degrade a fouling layer on the membrane surface and regain the initial permeability. The membrane pore structure (pore size and porosity was neither damaged by the electron beam treatment nor blocked by the enzyme loading, ensuring a stable membrane performance.

  13. A methodology for development of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana

    in process development is selecting between different process alternatives. The development effort for a novel process is considerable and thus, an increasing number of conceptual process design methods are now applied in chemical industries. Since the natural environment of the biocatalyst is often very...... interpretable results to enable rational design choices of different available process technologies. In the particular case of the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines, the reaction constraints (thermodynamic equilibrium) must be solved prior to implementation and these fix the hard boundaries of the operating......The potential advantages displayed by biocatalytic processes for organic synthesis (such as exquisite selectivity under mild operating conditions), have prompted the increasing number of processes running on a commercial scale. However, biocatalysis is still a fairly underutilised technology...

  14. Biocatalytic desulfurization capabilities of a mixed culture during non-destructive utilization of recalcitrant organosulfur compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael eIsmail

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biodesulfurization potential of a mixed culture AK6 enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons-polluted soil with dibenzothiophene (DBT as a sulfur source. In addition to DBT, AK6 utilized the following compounds as sulfur sources: 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT, benzothiophene (BT, and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT. None of these compounds supported the growth of AK6 as the sole carbon and sulfur source. AK6 could not grow on dibenzylsulfide (DBS as a sulfur source. The AK6 community structure changed according to the provided sulfur source. The major DGGE bands represented members of the genera Sphingobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus. Sphingobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant across all cultures utilizing any of the tested thiophenic S-compounds. Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus spp. were restricted to the 4-MDBT culture. The 4-MDBT culture had the highest species richness and diversity. Biodesulfurization of DBT by resting cells of AK6 produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP in addition to trace amounts of phenylacetate. AK6 transformed DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl with a specific activity of 9 ± 0.6 µM 2-HBP g dry cell weight-1 h-1. PCR confirmed the presence in the AK6 community of the sulfur-specific (4S pathway genes dszB and dszC. Mixed cultures hold a better potential than axenic ones for the development of a biodesulfurization technology.

  15. Biocatalytic Desulfurization Capabilities of a Mixed Culture during Non-Destructive Utilization of Recalcitrant Organosulfur Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; El-Sayed, Wael S; Abdul Raheem, Abdul Salam; Mohamed, Magdy E; El Nayal, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biodesulfurization potential of a mixed culture AK6 enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons-polluted soil with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur source. In addition to DBT, AK6 utilized the following compounds as sulfur sources: 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT), benzothiophene (BT), and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT). None of these compounds supported the growth of AK6 as the sole carbon and sulfur source. AK6 could not grow on dibenzylsulfide (DBS) as a sulfur source. The AK6 community structure changed according to the provided sulfur source. The major DGGE bands represented members of the genera Sphingobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, and Rhodococcus. Sphingobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant across all cultures utilizing any of the tested thiophenic S-compounds. Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus spp. were restricted to the 4-MDBT culture. The 4-MDBT culture had the highest species richness and diversity. Biodesulfurization of DBT by resting cells of AK6 produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in addition to trace amounts of phenylacetate. AK6 transformed DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl with a specific activity of 9 ± 0.6 μM 2-HBP g dry cell weight(-1) h(-1). PCR confirmed the presence in the AK6 community of the sulfur-specific (4S) pathway genes dszB and dszC. Mixed cultures hold a better potential than axenic ones for the development of a biodesulfurization technology. PMID:26973637

  16. Oxidative desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, S.; Lacount, R.B.; Warzinski, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    Both pyritic and organic sulfur in coal can be removed by a variety of oxidation techniques, including treatment with NO/sub x/, peroxygen compounds, air in the presence of specific organic media, or air and water at elevated temperature and pressure. The most promising method involves contacting an aqueous slurry of coal with air at pressures up to 1000 psi and temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C. Coals from different geographic areas of the US have been treated with air and water in this way, resulting in removal of more than 90% of pyritic sulfur and up to 40% of organic sulfur as sulfuric acid, which is separated from the desulfurized coal by filtration. Fuel value losses are usually less than 10%. Costs for processing coal by this procedure will be somewhere between the less efficient, less thorough and less costly physical coal cleaning methods and the more thorough but much more costly coal conversion techniques. Oxidative desulfurization potentially can upgrade up to 40% of the bituminous coal in the US to environmentally acceptable boiler fuel and can bring most of the rest of the bituminous coals at least close to acceptability with relatively little loss in total fuel value.

  17. Preparation of microbial desulfurization catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A Rhodococcus sp. 1awq, a bacterium isolated from the soil cleaving the C-S bond of dibenzothiophene (DBT) via specific pathway, was investigated for cell growth and for its role in desulfurization. Clearly, the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, inhibited the growth of the strain, the synthesis of the desulfurization enzymes, and the activity of the enzymes. The effects of sulfate on the DBT degradation enzymes were examined in the Rhodococcus sp. 1awq growth system with DBT; the sulfate served, concurrently, as the sulfur source. The condition of the resting cells that were used in desulfurization, was also studied. The optimal concentration of the resting cells and the reaction conditions were determined. It was documented that there is no difference between desulfurization activity for resting cells cultured with sulfate as the sole sulfur source and that with the mixture of DBT and sulfate as the sulfur source.

  18. PSE opportunities in biocatalytic process design and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist;

    2012-01-01

    to pharmaceuticals and other chemical products, since enzymes usually work in an aqueous solution and under mild conditions. Nevertheless the implementation of a biocatalytic reaction and the integration of a biocatalytic reaction into an otherwise chemical catalytic sequence is a complex task where PSE tools have......Biocatalysis (the use of one or more isolated enzymes in soluble or immobilized form, as well as enzymes contained within resting whole-cells) is a rapidly growing area of process technology. The introduction of biocatalysis presents new opportunities to develop ‘green’ synthetic routes...... a particularly important role to play. In this paper we will present a variety of PSE tools including computational fluid dynamics (CFD), operating windows, kinetic modelling, economic analysis and environmental assessment to support the development of economically viable biocatalytic processes....

  19. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-07-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{micro}m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  20. Microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Afferden, M.; Schacht, S.; Beyer, M.; Klein, J.

    1988-01-01

    Concerning the sulfur removal from coal before combustion there is considerable interest in microbial methods as pyrite oxidation and elimination of organically bound sulfur from coal. Using organic sulfur compounds relevant for coal the mechanism of desulfurization was investigated. The authors isolated a defined mixed culture (FODO) able to utilize dibenzothiophene as sole sulfur source for growth, while benzoate was used as carbon source. The mixed culture FODO consists of an Alcaligenes denitrificans subspecies and a Brevibacterium species. Two metabolites of the degradation and dibenzothiophene-5-dioxide. The subsequent degradation of dibenzothiophene-5-dioxide used as sole sulfur source results in a release of sulfate ions into the medium. The results suggest a sulfur specific oxidative mechanism for removal of sulfur from dibenzothiophene.

  1. Microscale technology and biocatalytic processes: Opportunities and challenges for synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland; Plazl, Igor; Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the expanding presence of microscale technology in chemical synthesis and energy production as well as in biomedical devices and analytical and diagnostic tools, its potential in biocatalytic processes for pharmaceutical and fine chemicals, as well as related industries, has not yet been...... fully exploited. The aim of this review is to shed light on the strategic advantages of this promising technology for the development and realization of biocatalytic processes and subsequent product recovery steps, demonstrated with examples from the literature. Constraints, opportunities......, and the future outlook for the implementation of these key green engineering methods and the role of supporting tools such as mathematical models to establish sustainable production processes are discussed....

  2. Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, G.

    2012-09-15

    In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)

  3. Biocatalytic Separation of N-7/N-9 Guanine Nucleosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sunil K; Sharma, Vivek K; Olsen, Carl Erik;

    2010-01-01

    Vorbrüggen coupling of trimethylsilylated 2-N-isobutanoylguanine with peracetylated pentofuranose derivatives generally gives inseparable N-7/N-9 glycosyl mixtures. We have shown that the two isomers can be separated biocatalytically by Novozyme-435-mediated selective deacetylation of the 5'-O...

  4. Biocatalytic Refining of Soybean Oil into Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our mission is to develop new, value-added uses for commodity crops and oils. We chose to fulfill this mission while adhering as closely as possible to the tenants of “green” chemistry. We have developed patented, all-natural oils called Feruloyl Soy Glycerols (FSG) from the biocatalytic transester...

  5. Experimental determination of thermodynamic equilibrium in biocatalytic transamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Kroutil, Wolfgang;

    2012-01-01

    The equilibrium constant is a critical parameter for making rational design choices in biocatalytic transamination for the synthesis of chiral amines. However, very few reports are available in the scientific literature determining the equilibrium constant (K) for the transamination of ketones...

  6. Desulfurization of Jordanian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxy desulfurization process and caustic treatment were applied in this work to remove sulfur from Jordanian oil shale. The oxy desulfurization process has been studied in a batch process using a high pressure autoclave, with constant stirring speed, and oxygen and water were used as desulfurizing reagents. Temperature, oxygen pressure, batch time, and particle size were found to be important process variables, while solid/liquid ratio was found to have no significant effect on the desulfurization process. The response of different types of oil shale to this process varied, and the effect of the process variables on the removal of total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon were studied. An optimum condition for oxy desulfurization of El-Lajjun oil shale, which gave maximum sulfur removal with low loss of carbon, was determined from the results of this work. The continuous reaction model was found to be valid, and the rate of oxidation for El-Lajjun oil shale was of the first order with respect to total sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon. For pyritic sulfur oxidation, the shrinking core model was found to hold and the rate of reaction controlled by diffusion through product ash layer. An activation energy of total sulfur, organic sulfur, pyritic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon oxidation was calculated for the temperature range of 130 -190 degrees celsius. In caustic treatment process, aqueous sodium hydroxide at 160 degrees celsius was used to remove the sulfur from El-Lajjun oil shale. The variables tested (sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time) were found to have a significant effect. The carbon losses in this process were less than in the oxy desulfurization process. 51 refs., 64 figs., 121 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  7. Biocatalytic membranes for ultrafiltration treatment of wastewater containing dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalova, V.V.; Bryk, M.T.; Nigmatullin, R.R.; Gvozdyak, P.I.; Udilova, O.F. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of ' ' Kyiv-Mohyla Academy' ' , Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2000-12-01

    A possibility to prepare the biofunctional membranes showing the biocatalytic properties and use those in post-treatment of wastewater containing synthetic dyes have been established. Selected Pseudomonas mendocina and Bacillus subtilis cultures were used as biocatalysts for dye destruction. It has been established that cells in spore form are able to survive in N-methylpyrrolidone that allow to use method of polymer solution casting for membrane preparation. The optimal conditions for entrapping of whole cells of microorganisms into the polymer matrix have been determined. Membrane biocatalytic activity has been studied depending on method of casting solution preparation, biocatalyst loading and operating parameters. Dye destruction occurs both in membrane pores and on membrane surface. Membrane obtained provide discolouring of treated solutions (permeate). The dye concentration in retentate depends on the trans-membrane fluxes. The concentration in retentate need not be observed at relatively low fluxes (up to 20 l/m{sup 2} h). (orig.)

  8. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  9. A Reusable Calcium-Based Sorbent for Desulfurizing Hot Coal Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.; Hasler, D.J.L.

    2002-09-19

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. The sorbent should be strong, durable, inexpensive to manufacture, and capable of being reused many times. To achieve these objectives the project has focused on the development of the very promising core-in-shell sorbent.

  10. Enzyme-polymer composites with high biocatalytic activity and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungbae; Kosto, Timothy J.; Manimala, Joseph C.; Nauman, E B.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2004-08-22

    We have applied vacuum-spraying and electrospinning to incorporate an enzyme into a polymer matrix, creating a novel and highly active biocatalytic composite. As a unique technical approach, enzymes were co-dissolved in toluene with polymers, and the solvent was then rapidly removed by injecting the mixture into a vacuum chamber or by electrospinning. Subsequent crosslinking of the enzyme with glutaraldehyde resulted in stable entrapped enzyme within the polymeric matrices. For example, an amorphous composite of alpha-chymotrypsin and polyethylene showed no significant loss of enzymatic activity in aqueous buffer for one month. Nanofibers of alpha-chymotrypsin and polystyrene also showed no decrease in activity for more than two weeks. The normalized activity of amorphous composite in organic solvents was 3-13 times higher than that of native alpha-chymotrypsin. The activity of nanofibers was 5-7 times higher than that of amorphous composite in aqueous buffer solution. The composites of alpha-chymotrypsin and polymers demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining a wide variety of active and stable biocatalytic materials with many combinations of enzymes and polymers.

  11. A mathematical model of a spray-dryer flue gas desulfurization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, A.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L. [Univ. of Seville (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    At a pilot installed at the Los Barrios Power Plant (Cadiz, Spain), a research project was carried out to study, among other things, the desulfurization of flue gas by means of a spray dryer under different operating conditions. At the same time, and as a tool for evaluating the experimental results and for reaching reliable conclusions, we developed a spray dryer simulation model based on a theoretical approximation to the behaviour of these desulfurization units. This mathematical model was translated into a computer code, creating a computer simulation tool that will allow us to investigate some spray dryer design parameters and their operational conditions.

  12. Oxidative processes of desulfurization of liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Martín, José Miguel; Capel Sánchez, María del Carmen; Pérez Presas, Patricia; García Fierro, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns have introduced a need to remove sulfur-containing compounds from light oil. As oxidative desulfurization is conducted under very mild reaction conditions, much attention has recently been devoted to this process. In this contribution, the developments in selective removal of organosulfur compounds present in liquid fuels via oxidative desulfurization, including both chemical oxidation and biodesulfurization, are reviewed. At the end of each section, a brief ...

  13. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  14. BENCH SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF MEYERS PROCESS FOR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of coal desulfurization experiments to determine the feasibility and advantages of combining gravity separation of coal with chemical desulfurization. The investigations led to the definition of the Gravichem Process, a combination physical/chemical coal ...

  15. Smelting Oxidation Desulfurization of Copper Slags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; HU Jian-hang; WANG Hua

    2012-01-01

    According to the mechanism of sulfur removal easily through oxidation, the process of smelting oxidation desulfurization of copper slags is studied, which supplies a new thinking for obtaining the molten iron of lower sulfur content by smelting reduction of copper slags. Special attention is given to the effects of the holding temperature, the holding time and CaF2, CaO addition amounts on the desulfurization rate of copper slags. The results indicate that the rate of copper slags smelting oxidation desulfurization depends on the matte mass transfer rate through the slag phase. After the oxidation treatment, sulfur of copper slags can be removed as SO2 efficiently. Amount of Ca2+ of copper slags affects the desulfurization rate greatly, and the slag desulfurization rate is reduced by adding a certain amount of CaF2 and CaO. Compared with CaF2, CaO is negative to slags sulfur removal with equal Ca2+ addition. Under the air flow of 0.3 U/min, the sulfur content of copper slags can be reduced to 0. 004 67% in the condition of the holding time of 3 min and the holding temperature of 1 500 ℃. The sulfur content of molten iron is reduced to 0. 000 8 % in the smelting reduction of treated slags, and the problem of high sulfur content of molten iron obtained by smelting reduction with copper slag has been successively solved.

  16. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Jablonski, A.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble) as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong influence on the reaction time and efficiency of desulfurization. The results of this work prove that marble type is very important in the choice of sorbent for a desulfurization process. A magnesian limestone showed a better performance than a dolomite. Therefore, the magnesian limestone is more efficient for a shorter particle residence time, which is characteristic of the bubbling fluidized bed.

  17. A Study and Application of Biocatalytic Synthesis of (S-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper first uses the environmental friendly whole cell of biocatalyst pichia pastoris SIT2014 to asymmetrically synthesized anti-tumor drug of chiral intermediate (S-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine.. Improve the final biocatalytic reduction yield to 85.4% based on the study of fermentation optimization and biocatalytic asymmetrical reduction system for pichia pastoris. The ee value of obtained reduction product (S-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine hits over 99%. The study of this article is a successful case where the biocatalyst is applied to the green synthesis of chiral intermediate of anti-tumor drug.

  18. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a

  19. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  20. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Ramos, J.A.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. RESULTS: The laccase-li

  1. Biocatalytic Resolution of para-Nitrostyrene Oxide by Resting Cells of Different Aspergillus niger Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金浩; 李祖义; 王清

    2001-01-01

    Biocatalytic resolution of racemic para-nitrostyrene oxide was accomplished by employing the epoxide hydrolases from the whole cells of several Aspergillus niger (A. niger) strains. In the cases investigated, excellent selectivity was achieved with such strains as A, niger 5450, A. niger 5320.

  2. Application of environmental and economic metrics to guide the development of biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima Ramos, Joana; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    The increasing industrial interest in biocatalytic processes is predominantly driven by the need for selective chemistry, with high reaction yield (Y-reaction) and few side reactions, as well as the need for optically pure chiral molecules (in particularly in the pharmaceutical industry). Interes...

  3. Desulfurization of Nickel Pyrrhotite by Steam in the Microwave Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Desulfurization of Ni pyrrhotite by steam in the microwave field was studied. According to the experimental data, the desulfurization rate by microwave heating is faster than that by conventional one. The desulfurization reaction is in a non-isothermal state and in a diffusion control because of the effect of chemical reaction heat, phase formation and intrinsic properties of materials of microwave absorbability. When the flow rate of steam was in the range of 180~220 mL/min, the temperature and desulfurization rate approached to a maximum and the activation energy to a minimum.

  4. {sup 29}Si-NMR study of the absorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Hideshi; Kanuka, Nariyasu; Kanai, Ryu-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The flue gas from a coal fired boiler contains a high concentration of SO{sub 2} which should be removed before emitted from a chimney for protection of environment from pollution. A wet desulfurization system is commonly adopted for flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in the absorbent, but needs a large amount of water. As dry FDD systems, a duct injection and a slurry spraying are adopted. The efficiency, however, is not so high as compared to a wet FGD system. Recently, the SO{sub 2} absorbent which exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in a dry FGD process was prepared from a coal fly-ash, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaSO{sub 4} by hydrothermal reaction. In this project, we studied the structural changes of the absorbent during the hydrothermal reation and sulfur dioxide absorption by silicon 29-MASNMR.

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  6. AN ADVANCED COAL DESULFURIZATION PROCESS——SELECTIVE FLOCCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璋; 刘红缨; 吴军; 陈彩茶

    1997-01-01

    Selective flocculation is an idea separation method to separate ultrafine pyrite from coal. A number of selective flocculation separation tests under different conditions have been done and the results are very encouraging. The results also show that desulfurization and deashing can be finished simultaneously in selective flocculation process. It is an advanced coal desulfurization process.

  7. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Alcohols and Amino Acids for Development of Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ramesh N.

    2013-01-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates and drugs has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes derived there from for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enatioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthe...

  8. Biocatalytic anode for glucose oxidation utilizing carbon nanotubes for direct electron transfer with glucose oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaze, Abhay; Hussain, Nighat; Tang, Chi [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Rusling, James [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06032 (United States); School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Covalently linked layers of glucose oxidase, single-wall carbon nanotubes and poly-L-lysine on pyrolytic graphite resulted in a stable biofuel cell anode featuring direct electron transfer from the enzyme. Catalytic response observed upon addition of glucose was due to electrochemical oxidation of FADH{sub 2} under aerobic conditions. The electrode potential depended on glucose concentration. This system has essential attributes of an anode in a mediator-free biocatalytic fuel cell. (author)

  9. Recent achievements in developing the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Hannes; Steffen-Munsberg, Fabian; Höhne, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Novel enzyme activities and chemoenzymatic reaction concepts have considerably expanded the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis. Creating new activities or extending the scope of existing enzymes by protein engineering is a common trend in biocatalysis and in chiral amine synthesis specifically. For instance, an amine dehydrogenase that allows for the direct asymmetric amination of ketones with ammonia was created by mutagenesis of an l-amino acid dehydrogenase. Another trend in chiral amine chemistry is the development of strategies allowing for the synthesis of secondary amines. For example the smart choice of substrates for amine transaminases provided access to secondary amines by chemoenzymatic reactions. Furthermore novel biocatalysts for the synthesis of secondary amines such as imine reductases and Pictet-Spenglerases have been identified and applied. Recent examples showed that the biocatalytic amine synthesis is emerging from simple model reactions towards industrial scale preparation of pharmaceutical relevant substances, for instance, as shown in the synthesis of a Janus kinase 2 inhibitor using an amine transaminase. A comparison of important process parameters such as turnover number and space-time yield demonstrates that biocatalytic strategies for asymmetric reductive amination are maturing and can already compete with established chemical methods. PMID:24721252

  10. Thermal-oxidative desulfurization of solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalandadze, N.D. (INKhEhL AN SSSR (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates effects of coal oxidation in fluidized beds at increased temperatures on sulfur content. Coal from the Podmoskovnyi basin with a sulfur content of 6.28% (of which 4.68% is pyrites, 0.86% is organic sulfur) was heated in a fluidized bed to 450 C. Temperature effects on sulfur content in coal were analyzed. Oxidation removed up to 96% of pyritic sulfur from coal. Maximum desulfurization effects were produced by coal treatment at 380 C for 15 min. Use of oxidation of pyritic sulfur at 360-400 C with subsequent coal combustion with limestone and other additives is recommended for reducing sulfur emission from furnaces. 9 refs.

  11. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhong; Yan Cao; Wenying Li; Kechang Xie; Wei-Ping Pan

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se).The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues.It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal.A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS).It has been determined that Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 μg/L, respectively.The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples.Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is nigh in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(Ⅳ)).The toxicity of Se(Ⅳ) is the strongest of all Se species.Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  12. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk. PMID:21476358

  13. NID dry desulfurization system -- An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahman, S.; Bengtsson, S.

    1998-07-01

    The development of ABB's low cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been reported in various papers during 1997. The system combines low cost and simple operation with very good performance and is targeted especially for the emerging markets in Asia and East Europe. This method is capable of achieving 90+% SO{sub 2} removal, irrespective of sulphur content in the fuel. The system is further easy to retrofit at existing sites; it has a minimum space requirement. An important feature of the dry FGD technology, sometimes not highlighted enough, is the fact that particulate collection of fly ash is facilitated by the FGD system at no extra capital charge. The flue gas temperature after a DFGD system also often allows the flue gas to be passed on to an existing stack without reheat. ``NID'' is an acronym for ``Novel Integrated Desulfurization'', indicative of the innovative nature of this FGD technology enabled by the integration of several subfunctionalities into one unit. The first two commercial plants were installed by the Polish power company Elektrownia Laziska. These full scale units were commissioned during 1996. A third unit at a diesel power station in Finland is at the time of writing in the commissioning stage.

  14. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2000-12-15

    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  15. Desulfurization of chalcopyrite and molybdenite by atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molybdenite (MoS2) desulfurization by monatomic hydrogen in 625-800 K range was studied using helium as diluent gas. Desulfurization degree at 680 K equals 9%. Temperature growth elevates sulfur content in molybdenite. The effect of initial molybdenite enrichment with temperature growth up to 800 K is probably caused by removal of reduced molybdenum capable to form oxide in the presence of traces of oxygen contained in inert diluent gas

  16. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project on simplified desulfurizers; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kan`i datsuryu setsubi ni kakawaru jissho jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, a desulfurizer is introduced in Thailand as diffusion activities in the demonstration program. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants. For this desulfurizer, lime mud mainly composed of lime stone is used as an absorber. SO2 in the flue gas is absorbed by the slurry of lime mud, to form calcium sulfite. The calcium sulfite blown in the bottom of recycling tank is oxidized by oxygen in the air, to form gypsum. The gypsum is recovered as a by-product. In this fiscal year, a feeder of lime stone, spray nozzles, and various analysis apparatuses were supplied. Supervisors for electric instrumentation/control were also dispatched as well as for main body construction, to carry out the instrumentation setting works, check of sequences, and adjustment of apparatuses. After the test operation, supervisors for the demonstration operation were dispatched up to March 1998, to conduct the cooperation works between Japan and Thailand sides. Thus, successful and successive demonstration operation was confirmed. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Fractal desulfurization kinetics of high-sulfur coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longjun; Peng Tiefeng; Zhang Dingyue; Zhang Fukai

    2012-01-01

    The pore structure characteristics of high-sulfur coal from Wansheng in Chongqing have been studied by a nitrogen adsorption method (BET).The effects of grinding and pre-treating with nitric acid on the inorganic sulfur content of coal have been investigated.Organic sulfur in coal pretreated with nitric acid was desulfurized by using propylene-glycol-KOH (PG-KOH).Fractal kinetic properties of these two desulfurization procedures were investigated by using fractal geometric theory.The results show that both the specific surface area and pore volume increased with the decrease in particle diameter.The microspore surface of coal had fractal characteristics; the fractal dimension was 2.48.The sulfur content decreased with the decrease in particle diameter by grinding.After pretreatment with nitric acid,the desulfurization ratio (DFR) of inorganic sulfur increased to over 99% and the DFR of total sulfur to over 70%.The desulfurization procedure of inorganic sulfur had fractal kinetic characteristics; its reactive fractal dimension was 2.94.The organic sulfur desulfurization procedure by PG-KOH was also tallied with fractal kinetic properties; the reactive fractal dimension was 2.57.The effect of temperature on the desulfurization ratio of organic sulfur can be described with an Arrhenius empirical equation.The rate constant,pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the reaction increased with the decrease in particle diameter.

  18. Experimental Study on Deep Desulfurizer in LF Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long; PEI Fen; CHEN Yut; LI Shi-qi

    2012-01-01

    CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO was selected as the slag system for desulfurization in LF process.The reaction between steel and slag during desulfurization has been simulated by using Factsage software to study the influence of component on the sulfur distribution ratio.In order to research the influence of CaO content,aluminum powder content and its granularity on desulfurization,laboratory experiments have been carried out in a 200 kg inductive furnace.Results showed that the optimal composition of deep desulfurizer is wCaO=64% and aluminium powder 10% with a granularity of 30 μm.Industrial trials showed that the main composition range of final slag in LF process is wCaO=53.0%-57.0%,wAl2O3=23.4%-25.1%,wSiO2=8.1%-10.0%,and wCaF2=3.2%-4.7%.The sulfur mass percent in steel is lower than 0.0008% with a desulfurization rate above 89%.According to the result of industrial production,this desulfurizer could meet the production requirement for ultra-low sulfur steel,of which sulfur mass percent is under 0.0015%

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  20. Optimisation of Experimental Conditions for Ex-Bed Desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Ruiz, E.; Otero, J.

    2010-12-22

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.3 Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds Abatement of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The assignment of CIEMAT in Task 6.3 has dealt with the experimental study of ex-bed desulfurization at high temperature and high pressure. Based on a review of the state of the art, a zinc oxide sorbent was chosen as a promising candidate for bulk sulfur removal in highly reducing gases such as those from coal and waste oxygen gasification or for a polishing stage in low sulfur content gases, which is typically the case in biomass gasification gases. The work accomplished has included the study of the sulfidation and regeneration stages in order to determine successful operating conditions and the assessment of the long term performance of the sorbent over subsequent sulfidation and regeneration cycles. (Author) 36 refs.

  1. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  2. Towards biochemical filters with a sigmoidal response to pH changes: buffered biocatalytic signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Marcos; Privman, Vladimir; Arugula, Mary A.; Melnikov, Dmitriy; Bocharova, Vera; Katz, Evgeny

    We realize a biochemical filtering process by introducing a buffer in a biocatalytic signal-transduction logic system based on the function of an enzyme, esterase. The input, ethyl butyrate, is converted into butyric acid-the output signal, which in turn is measured by the drop in the pH value. The developed approach offers a versatile "network element" for increasing the complexity of biochemical information processing systems. Evaluation of an optimal regime for quality filtering is accomplished in the framework of a kinetic rate-equation model.

  3. Chemotherapy pro-drug activation by biocatalytic virus-like nanoparticles containing cytochrome P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Lorena; Cadena-Nava, Rubén D; Palomares, Laura A; Ruiz-Garcia, Jaime; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J M T; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2014-06-10

    This work shows, for the first time, the encapsulation of a highly relevant protein in the biomedical field into virus-like particles (VLPs). A bacterial CYP variant was effectively encapsulated in VLPs constituted of coat protein from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). The catalytic VLPs are able to transform the chemotherapeutic pro-drug, tamoxifen, and the emerging pro-drug resveratrol. The chemical nature of the products was identified, confirming similar active products than those obtained with human CYP. The enzymatic VLPs remain stable after the catalytic reaction. The potential use of these biocatalytic nanoparticles as targeted CYP carriers for the activation of chemotherapy drugs is discussed. PMID:24835096

  4. Towards biochemical filters with a sigmoidal response to pH changes: buffered biocatalytic signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Marcos; Privman, Vladimir; Arugula, Mary A; Melnikov, Dmitriy; Bocharova, Vera; Katz, Evgeny

    2011-03-14

    We realize a biochemical filtering process by introducing a buffer in a biocatalytic signal-transduction logic system based on the function of an enzyme, esterase. The input, ethyl butyrate, is converted into butyric acid--the output signal, which in turn is measured by the drop in the pH value. The developed approach offers a versatile "network element" for increasing the complexity of biochemical information processing systems. Evaluation of an optimal regime for quality filtering is accomplished in the framework of a kinetic rate-equation model.

  5. Application and Development Trend of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD Process: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Jamil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1927, the limestone desulfurization process was first applied in the Barthes and Bansside Power Plants (total 120MW beside the Thames River in UK to protect high-rise building in London. Up to now, over 10 desulfurization processes have been launched and applied. Based on the desulfurizing agent being used, there include calcium process (limestone/lime, ammonia process, magnesium process, sodium process, alkali alumina process, copper oxide/zinc process, active carbon process, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate process, etc. The calcium process is commercially available and widely used in the world, i.e. more than 90%. Flue gas desulfurization processes, survey made by the coal research institute under the International Energy Agency shows that the wet-process desulfurization accounts for 85% of total installed capacity of flue gas desulfurization units across the world. The wet-process desulfurization is mainly applied in countries, like Japan (98%, USA (92%, Germany (90%, etc. The limestone-gypsum wet desulfurization process, the most mature technology, the most applications, the most reliable operation in the world, may have rate of desulfurization of more than 90%. Currently, the flue gas desulfurization technology used at thermal power plants at home and abroad tends to be higher rate of desulfurization, bigger installed capacity, more advanced technology, lower investment, less land acquisition, lower operation cost, higher level of automation, more excellent reliability, etc. This paper briefs current situations and trends of flue gas desulfurization technology also append short descript of different type of FDG and their category.

  6. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo-Ramos Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. Results The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPPDA and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid (ABTS, and appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the decolorization and detoxification of the widely used textile dye malachite green. Conclusions The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst.

  7. Recent advances on halohydrin dehalogenases-from enzyme identification to novel biocatalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallmey, Anett; Schallmey, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are industrially relevant enzymes that catalyze the reversible dehalogenation of vicinal haloalcohols with formation of the corresponding epoxides. In the reverse reaction, also other negatively charged nucleophiles such as azide, cyanide, or nitrite are accepted besides halides to open the epoxide ring. Thus, novel C-N, C-C, or C-O bonds can be formed by halohydrin dehalogenases, which makes them attractive biocatalysts for the production of various β-substituted alcohols. Despite the fact that only five individual halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme sequences have been known until recently enabling their heterologous production, a large number of different biocatalytic applications have been reported using these enzymes. The recent characterization of specific sequence motifs has facilitated the identification of novel halohydrin dehalogenase sequences available in public databases and has largely increased the number of recombinantly available enzymes. These will help to extend the biocatalytic repertoire of this enzyme family and to foster novel biotechnological applications and developments in the future. This review gives a general overview on the halohydrin dehalogenase enzyme family and their biochemical properties and further focuses on recent developments in halohydrin dehalogenase biocatalysis and protein engineering. PMID:27502414

  8. Biocatalytic carbon capture via reversible reaction cycle catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shunxiang; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zhao, Xueyan; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2014-09-12

    The practice of carbon capture and storage (CCS) requires efficient capture and separation of carbon dioxide from its gaseous mixtures such as flue gas, followed by releasing it as a pure gas which can be subsequently compressed and injected into underground storage sites. This has been mostly achieved via reversible thermochemical reactions which are generally energy-intensive. The current work examines a biocatalytic approach for carbon capture using an NADP(H)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which catalyzes reversibly carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. Different from chemical carbon capture processes that rely on thermal energy to realize purification of carbon dioxide, the biocatalytic strategy utilizes pH to leverage the reaction equilibrium, thereby realizing energy-efficient carbon capture under ambient conditions. Results showed that over 25 mol of carbon dioxide could be captured and purified from its gas mixture for each gram of ICDH applied for each carboxylation/decarboxylation reaction cycle by varying pH between 6 and 9. This work demonstrates the promising potentials of pH-sensitive biocatalysis as a green-chemistry route for carbon capture.

  9. Adsorptive desulfurization over hierarchical beta zeolite by alkaline treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuping Tian; Xiaojian Yang; Yanchun Shi; Cuiying Jia; Yongying Chen

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical beta zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios of 16 to 25 were obtained by alkaline treatment in NaOH solution.The effects of treatment temperature on crystallinity,textural properties and chemical composites were studied by XRD,N2 sorption,FT-IR and XRF techniques.The desulfurization performance of parent and alkaline-treated beta zeolites was investigated by static absorption in four model fuels,containing four sulfur compounds of different molecular sizes like thiophene (TP),3-methylthiophene (3-MT),benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT),respectively.The crystallinity was observed to be successfully maintained when the treatment temperature was below 50℃.Mesoporosity of beta zeolite was evidently developed with alkaline treatment.The formation of mesopore remarkably improved the desulfurization performance for TP,3-MT,BT and DBT,especially for DBT with larger molecular diameter.Though the addition of toluene in the model fuels resulted in a significant drop of the desulfurization performance of mesoporous beta zeolite,the introduction of cerium ions to some extent mitigated the effect of toluene,which means that both the adsorbents porous structure and the adsorption mode are responsible for the desulfurization performance.The adsorbent of cerium ion-exchanged mesoporous beta showed about 80% recovery of desulfurization after the first regeneration.

  10. Study on the Flow of Particle Agglomerates in Desulfurization Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Jian-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the flow feature of particle agglomerates in a desulfurization tower, a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the gas-solid two phase flow in the tower is carried out by use of the LES model and the cohesive particles kinetics theory. Based on the experimental model of the internal circulation multistage spray desulfurization tower, the simulation successfully captures the key flow features in a desulfurization tower, find that: agglomerates forming a stable fluidization and stable internal circulation in the tower, present a typical ring-nuclear flow distribution trend. And the effects of the inlet gas velocity and inlet mass flux to the internal circulation are also analyzed.

  11. Desulfurization of coal by an electrochemical-reduction flotation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; XU Wen-juan; ZHONG Shi-teng; ZONG Zhi-min

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for sulfur removal from coal by electrochemical reduction flotation in an aqueous NaCI solution were determined from orthogonal experiments. The effect of electrolytic conditions on the desulfurization ratio was also studied.The electrochemical-reduction processed coal was examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis. The results show that electrochemical reduction converts hydrophobic pyrite in Nantong coal into hydrophilic FeS and S2 and leads to an increase in the concentration of hydroxyl groups and aliphatic moieties and a corresponding decrease in carboxyl and carbonyl groups, which enhances the flotation desulfurization of the coal.

  12. Immobilized biocatalytic process development and potential application in membrane separation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sudip; Rusli, Handajaya; Nath, Arijit; Sikder, Jaya; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Curcio, Stefano; Drioli, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors have been widely used in different industries including food, fine chemicals, biological, biomedical, pharmaceuticals, environmental treatment and so on. This article gives an overview of the different immobilized enzymatic processes and their advantages over the conventional chemical catalysts. The application of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) reduces the energy consumption, and system size, in line with process intensification. The performances of MBR are considerably influenced by substrate concentration, immobilized matrix material, types of immobilization and the type of reactor. Advantages of a membrane associated bioreactor over a free-enzyme biochemical reaction, and a packed bed reactor are, large surface area of immobilization matrix, reuse of enzymes, better product recovery along with heterogeneous reactions, and continuous operation of the reactor. The present research work highlights immobilization techniques, reactor setup, enzyme stability under immobilized conditions, the hydrodynamics of MBR, and its application, particularly, in the field of sugar, starch, drinks, milk, pharmaceutical industries and energy generation.

  13. A process optimization for bio-catalytic production of substituted catechols (3-nitrocatechol and 3-methylcatechol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwary Bhupendra N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substituted catechols are important precursors for large-scale synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other industrial products. Most of the reported chemical synthesis methods are expensive and insufficient at industrial level. However, biological processes for production of substituted catechols could be highly selective and suitable for industrial purposes. Results We have optimized a process for bio-catalytic production of 3-substituted catechols viz. 3-nitrocatechol (3-NC and 3-methylcatechol (3-MC at pilot scale. Amongst the screened strains, two strains viz. Pseudomonas putida strain (F1 and recombinant Escherichia coli expression clone (pDTG602 harboring first two genes of toluene degradation pathway were found to accumulate 3-NC and 3-MC respectively. Various parameters such as amount of nutrients, pH, temperature, substrate concentration, aeration, inoculums size, culture volume, toxicity of substrate and product, down stream extraction, single step and two-step biotransformation were optimized at laboratory scale to obtain high yields of 3-substituted catechols. Subsequently, pilot scale studies were performed in 2.5 liter bioreactor. The rate of product accumulation at pilot scale significantly increased up to ~90-95% with time and high yields of 3-NC (10 mM and 3-MC (12 mM were obtained. Conclusion The biocatalytic production of 3-substituted catechols viz. 3-NC and 3-MC depend on some crucial parameters to obtain maximum yields of the product at pilot scale. The process optimized for production of 3-substituted catechols by using the organisms P. putida (F1 and recombinant E. coli expression clone (pDTG602 may be useful for industrial application.

  14. Comparison of desulfurization kinetics of copper oxide sorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁青春; 邓勇; 王飞; 冯跃斌; 杨斌; 徐宝强; 刘大春

    2015-01-01

    Desulfurization experiments of CuO,γ-Al2O3 and CuO/γ-Al2O3 were made in simulated flue gas by means of thermogravimetric analysis. It is found that reaction activities of CuO supported onγ-Al2O3 could be highly improved. Desulfurization kinetics of CuO/γ-Al2O3 was studied in the temperature range of 250 °C−400 °C and SO2 concentration of 0.1%−0.9%. The experimental data were tested and compared with kinetics models of volume reaction model (VRM), grain size model (GSM), random pore model (RPM) and pore-blocking model (PBM). Correlation analysis shows that VRM and RPM models do not fit experimental data well. GSM contradicts with the changes in the physical and chemical properties of CuO/γ-Al2O3 as the desulfurization proceeds. It is found that PBM is consistent with the change of pore structure of CuO/γ-Al2O3 sorbent during desulfurization process and predicts the conversion-time curves of the sorbent well. Meanwhile, kinetics parameters are obtained and discussed.

  15. Mechanical, Hygric and Thermal Properties of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tesárek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference measurements of basic mechanical, thermal and hygric parameters of hardened flue gas desulfurization gypsum are carried out. Moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined with the primary aim of comparison with data obtained for various types of modified gypsum in the future. 

  16. Nano-magnetic particles as multifunctional microreactor for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xinai; Yao, Dongdong [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Li, Hong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China); Yang, Juxiang [Department of Chemistry, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, Xi' an 710065 (China); Hu, Daodao, E-mail: daodaohu@snnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An easy-separated amphiphilic catalyst with small size was prepared for deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst demonstrates high performance in the deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material could make integration of micro-reactor and micro-extractor into one system. - Abstract: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide using a recyclable amphiphilic catalyst has been studied. The catalyst was synthesized by surfacely covering magnetic silica nanospheres (MSN) with the complexes between 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (AEM) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The morphology and components of the composite material were characterized by TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively. The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. The results showed that the composite nanospheres have core/shell structure with the properties of amphiphilicity and superparamagnetism. The composite nanospheres have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of dibenzothiophene to corresponding sulfones by hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions. The sulfur level could be lowered from 487 ppm to less than 0.8 ppm under optimal conditions. Additionally, the amphiphilic catalyst and the oxidized product could be simultaneously separated from medium by external magnetism, and the recovered composite material could be recycled for three times with almost constant activity.

  17. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  18. Desulfurizing absorbent for flue gas and its absorption mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new desulfurizing absorbent for flue gas, i.e., anorganic physical solvent of DMSO(dimethyl sulfoxide) mixed with arelatively small amount of chemical solvent(Mn2+) was studied.Compared with pure physical solvent of DMSO, the purificationefficiency of the new absorbent has been much improved. And itsabsorption and reaction mechanism are discussed.

  19. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-xiang; Wang, Xin-hua; Wang, Mao; Wang, Wan-jun

    2014-12-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity ( B) and Al2O3 content ( B = 3.5-5.0; 20wt%-25wt% Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity ( C S) of the slag were calculated. Then slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution ( L S). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%-25wt% has high activity of CaO ( a CaO), with no deterioration of C S compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured L S between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt% is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  20. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-xiang Yu; Xin-hua Wang; Mao Wang; Wan-jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity (B) and Al2O3 content (B=3.5−5.0;20wt%−25wt%Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity (CS) of the slag were calculated. Then slag−metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution (LS). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO−Al2O3−SiO2−MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%−25wt%has high activity of CaO (aCaO), with no deterioration of CS compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured LS between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt%is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  1. Kureha-sodium acetate gypsum method, flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, T.; Noguchi, K.

    1975-01-01

    The Kureha Chemical Co. previously developed two flue gas desulfurization techniques, the sodium sulfite method and sodium sulfite-gypsum method, which after being installed at various factories have given good desulfurization results. However, the previous methods had disadvantages either of costly operation or of being non-closed systems. A third method has been developed and is now under experimental operation. The new method utilizes sodium acetate to absorb sulfur dioxide and its reaction products are acetic acid and sodium sulfite. The former product is reacted with calcium carbonate to produce calcium acetate which is further reacted with sodium sulfate to produce gypsum and sodium acetate. Sodium sulfate is produced by air oxidation and sodium sulfite, therefore the desulfurization process is made in a closed system and the only chemical consumed is inexpensive calcium carbonate. Since the sodium acetate aqueous solution is a weak alkali, the SO/sub 2/ absorption is of high efficiency. When the pH of the absorbing solution was greater than 5.0, the desulfurization efficiency was nearly 100 percent, and the SO/sub 2/ level in the treated flue gas was less than 10 ppM when an initial SO/sub 2/ concentration of 1200 to 1300 ppM was used. The acetic acid concentration in the treated flue gas was less than 5 ppM. The 100 percent reaction between sodium sulfate and calcium acetate proceeded within 4 to 5 hr. No special heating step in the desulfurization process was necessary, and the above results could be obtained under reaction temperatures between 50 and 60/sup 0/C.

  2. Progress of the technique of coal microwave desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuxiang Tao; Ning Xu; Maohua Xie; Longfei Tang

    2014-01-01

    With the advantages of its fast speed, effective and moderate controllable conditions, desulfurization of coal by microwave has become research focus in the field of clean coal technology. Coal is a homogeneous mixture which consists of various components with different dielectric properties, so their abilities to absorb microwaves are different, and the sulfur-containing components are better absorbers of microwave, which makes them can be selectively heated and reacted under microwave irradiation. There still remain controversies on the principle of microwave desulfurization at present, thermal effects or non-thermal effects. The point of thermal effects of microwave is mainly base on its characters of rapidly and selectly heating. While, in view of non-thermal effect, direct interactions between the microwave electromagnetic field and sulfur containing components are proposed. It is a fundamental problem to determine the dielectric properties of coal and the sulfur-containing components to reveal the interaction of microwave and sulfur-containing compounds. However, the test of dielectric property of coal is affected by many factors, which makes it difficult to measure dielectric properties accurately. In order to achieve better desulfurization effect, the researchers employ methods of adding chemical additives such as acid, alkali, oxidant, reductant, or changing the reaction atmosphere, or combining with other methods such as magnetic separation, ultrasonic and microorganism. Researchers in this field have also put forward several processes, and have obtained a number of patents. Obscurity of microwave desulfurization mechanism, uncertainties in qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing functional groups in coal, and the lack of special microwave equipment have limited further development of microwave desulfurization technology.

  3. Optimizing the biocatalytic productivity of an engineered sialidase from Trypanosoma rangeli for 3′-sialyllactose production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Luo, Jianquan; Nyffenegger, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    -fold biocatalytic productivity increase compared to using free Tr6 in a batch reactor giving 306mg 3′-sialyllactose/mg Tr6 after seven consecutive reaction runs. The 3′-sialyllactose yield on α-2,3-bound sialic acid in CGMP was 74%. Using circular dichroism, a temperature denaturation midpoint of Tr6......, Tm, of 57.2°C was determined. The thermal stability of free Tr6 was similarly high and the Tr6 was stable at the reaction temperature (25°C) for at least 24h.......-linked Tr6, and (iv) Tr6 catalysis in a membrane reactor. Tr6 immobilized on MNPs gave a biocatalytic productivity of 84mg 3′-sialyllactose/mg Tr6 after seven consecutive reaction runs. Calcium-alginate and membrane immobilization were inefficient. Using free Tr6 in a 10kDa membrane reactor produced a 9...

  4. Enzyme immobilization by fouling in ultrafiltration membranes: Impact of membrane configuration and type on flux behavior and biocatalytic conversion efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Meyer, Anne S.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil;

    2014-01-01

    polysulphone membrane allowed for the highest flux during the reaction with the enzyme-immobilized membrane. At the same time, the lowest enzyme loading and low reaction stability were achieved for this membrane. Satisfactory enzyme loadings, stable conversions, but low flux rates were obtained for the PLTK......Enzyme-immobilization in membranes accomplished by fostering membrane fouling was evaluated. Four different membrane configurations and five membranes were compared for immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in terms of enzyme loading, permeate flux and final biocatalytic conversion....... The membrane configuration impacted the efficiency of the enzyme-immobilization as well as the biocatalytic-membrane reaction, and the “sandwich mode”, with an extra polypropylene support above the membrane skin layer, worked best due to its high flux and stable conversion. Among the membranes, a GR51PP...

  5. Preparation of Biocatalytic Microparticles by Interfacial Self-Assembly of Enzyme-Nanoparticle Conjugates Around a Cross-Linkable Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andler, S M; Wang, L-S; Goddard, J M; Rotello, V M

    2016-01-01

    Rational design of hierarchical interfacial assembly of reusable biocatalytic microparticles is described in this chapter. Specifically, purified enzymes and functionalized nanoparticles are electrostatically assembled at the interface of cross-linked microparticles which are formed through ring opening metathesis polymerization. The diameters of microparticle assemblies average 10μm, and they show enhanced kinetic efficiency as well as improved stability against heat, pH, and solvent denaturation when compared to stabilities of the corresponding native enzymes.

  6. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Rosalinda; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-03-14

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%), which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  7. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Duan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30% were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL/V(Oil /V(H2O2 = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 °C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  8. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration. PMID:19924069

  9. Selection of adsorbents for in-situ coupling technology of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In-situ coupling of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new desulfurization technol- ogy for fossil oil. It has the merits of high-selectivity of biodesulfurization and high-rate of adsorptive desulfurization. It is carried out by assembling nano-adsorbents onto surfaces of microbial cells. In this work, In-situ coupling desulfurization technology of widely used desulfurization adsorbents of γ-Al2O3, Na-Y molecular sieves, and active carbon with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 were studied. Results show that Na-Y molecular sieves restrain the activity of R-8 cells and active carbon cannot desorb the sub- strate dibenzothiophene (DBT). Thus, they are not applicable to in-situ coupling desulfurization tech- nology. Gamma-Al2O3 can adsorb DBT from oil phase quickly, and then desorb it and transfer it to R-8 cells for biodegradation, thus increasing desulfurization rate. It is also found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 increases desulfurization rate more than regular-sized γ-Al2O3. Therefore, nano- γ-Al2O3 is regarded as the better adsorbent for this in-situ coupling desulfurization technology.

  10. Comparison of deep desulfurization methods in alumina production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战伟; 李旺兴; 马文会; 尹中林; 武国宝

    2015-01-01

    Several methods of deep desulfurization in alumina production process were studied, and the costs of these methods were compared. It is found that most of the S2− in sodium aluminate solution can be removed by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide in digestion process, and in this way the effect of S2− on alumina product quality is eliminated. However, the removal efficiency of2-23SOin sodium aluminate solution is very low by this method. Both S2− and2-23SO in sodium aluminate solution can be removed completely by wet oxidation method in digestion process. The cost of desulfurization by wet oxidation is lower than by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide. The results of this research reveal that wet oxidation is an economical and feasible method for the removal of sulfur in alumina production process to improve alumina quality, and provide valuable guidelines for alumina production by high-sulfur bauxite.

  11. Experimental and mechanism studies on seawater flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (Seawater FGD) process has a number of advantages, but the study on mechanism of seawater FGD is little. The effects of absorbing efficiency of SO2 by the constant component and part of trace transition elements in seawater are studied by the experiment. The results indicate that the effect factors of absorption of SO2 by seawater are alkaline, ion intensity, catalysis of Cl- and transition metal ions Fe, Mn. The degree of effect is alkaline > the catalysis of Cl-, Fe2+ and Mn > ion intensity. The mechanisms of catalysis oxidation for S(IV) by Cl, Feand Mnare discussed. According to the results, some measures can be used to improved the capability of desulfurization.

  12. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial concentration of sulfur on the desulfurization kinetics. In the second part of this paper an analysis of the industrial data for injection of calcium carbide using this model is described. From a mathematical model that describes the characteristics of a system, it is possible to predict the behavior of the variables involved in the process, resulting in savings of time and money. Discretization is realized through the finite difference method combined with interpolation in the border domain by Taylor series.

  13. Study on Oxidative Desulfurization Performance of Mesoporous Alumina Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li

    2009-01-01

    This article refers to the study on the performance of mesoporous silica used as the catalyst for oxidative desulfurization reactions. The test results revealed that under mild reaction conditions using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidizing agent the content of dibenzothiophene (DBT) contained in oil samples could be reduced from 5000 ppm to less than 5 ppm. Furthermore, the mesoporons silica material can be easily regenerated and recycled.

  14. Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosád Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.

  15. Mesoporous Inorganic Materials For The Desulfurization Of Jet Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino, Jessica Marie

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of the U.S. military is to use solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a power source during military silent watch missions. Fueling these SOFCs with JP-8, the military's primary fuel type, would be ideal. However, the organosulfur compounds present quickly poison the expensive fuel cell and reformer components, drastically limiting the lifetime of the SOFC. Furthermore, current desulfurization technology is unable to produce ultra-low sulfur content JP-8 fuel required for solid oxide ...

  16. Mathematical Model of Natural Gas Desulfurization Based on Membrane Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuli; Ma Jun; Wang Ganyu; Zhou Heng

    2014-01-01

    Models of mass transfer kinetics combined with mass transfer differential equation and mass transfer resistance equation were established on the basis of double-iflm theory. Mass transfer process of H2S absorption by means of polypro-pylene hydrophobic microporous hollow ifber membrane contactor was simulated using MDEA (N-methyldiethanolamine) as the absorption liquid and corresponding experiments of natural gas desulfurization were performed. The simulation re-sults indicated that the removal rate of hydrogen sulifde showed positive dependence on the absorption liquid concentration and gas pressure. However, the desulfurization rate showed negative dependence on gas lfow. The simulated values were in good agreement with the experimental results. The in-tube concentration of hydrogen sulifde at the same point increased with increase in the gas velocity. Axial concentration of hydrogen sulifde decreased rapidly at the beginning, and the de-crease saw a slowdown during the latter half period. Hydrogen sulifde concentration dropped quickly in the radial direction, and the reduction in the radial direction was weakened with the increase of axial length due to the gradual reduction of hy-drogen sulifde concentration along the tube. The desulfurization rate under given operating conditions can be predicted by this model, and the theoretical basis for membrane module design can also be provided.

  17. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  18. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  19. Two-Input Enzymatic Logic Gates Made Sigmoid by Modifications of the Biocatalytic Reaction Cascades

    CERN Document Server

    Zavalov, Oleksandr; Halamek, Jan; Halamkova, Lenka; Korkmaz, Sevim; Arugula, Mary A; Chinnapareddy, Soujanya; Katz, Evgeny; Privman, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Computing based on biochemical processes is a newest rapidly developing field of unconventional information and signal processing. In this paper we present results of our research in the field of biochemical computing and summarize the obtained numerical and experimental data for implementations of the standard two-input OR and AND gates with double-sigmoid shape of the output signal. This form of response was obtained as a function of the two inputs in each of the realized biochemical systems. The enzymatic gate processes in the first system were activated with two chemical inputs and resulted in optically detected chromogen oxidation, which happens when either one or both of the inputs are present. In this case, the biochemical system is functioning as the OR gate. We demonstrate that the addition of a "filtering" biocatalytic process leads to a considerable reduction of the noise transmission factor and the resulting gate response has sigmoid shape in both inputs. The second system was developed for functi...

  20. Separation, immobilization, and biocatalytic utilization of proteins by a supramolecular membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Krieg

    Full Text Available Membrane separation of biomolecules and their application in biocatalysis is becoming increasingly important for biotechnology, demanding the development of new biocompatible materials with novel properties. In the present study, an entirely noncovalent water-based material is used as a membrane for size-selective separation, immobilization, and biocatalytic utilization of proteins. The membrane shows stable performance under physiological conditions, allowing filtration of protein mixtures with a 150 kDa molecular weight cutoff (∼8 nm hydrodynamic diameter cutoff. Due to the biocompatibility of the membrane, filtered proteins stay functionally active and retained proteins can be partially recovered. Upon filtration, large enzymes become immobilized within the membrane. They exhibit stable activity when subjected to a constant flux of substrates for prolonged periods of time, which can be used to carry out heterogeneous biocatalysis. The noncovalent membrane material can be easily disassembled, purified, reassembled, and reused, showing reproducible performance after recycling. The robustness, recyclability, versatility, and biocompatibility of the supramolecular membrane may open new avenues for manipulating biological systems.

  1. Biocatalytic methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide in an anaerobic three-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M; Koschack, T; Busch, G

    2015-02-01

    A new type of anaerobic trickle-bed reactor was used for biocatalytic methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide under mesophilic temperatures and ambient pressure in a continuous process. The conversion of gaseous substrates through immobilized hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea in a biofilm is a unique feature of this type of reactor. Due to the formation of a three-phase system on the carrier surface and operation as a plug flow reactor without gas recirculation, a complete reaction could be observed. With a methane concentration higher than c(CH4) = 98%, the product gas exhibits a very high quality. A specific methane production of P(CH4) = 1.49 Nm(3)/(m(3)(SV) d) was achieved at a hydraulic loading rate of LR(H2) = 6.0 Nm(3)/(m(3)(SV) d). The relation between trickle flow through the reactor and productivity could be shown. An application for methane enrichment in combination with biogas facilities as a source of carbon dioxide has also been positively proven.

  2. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-01

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels. PMID:26051675

  3. Ternary System of Fe-based Ionic Liquid, Ethanol and Water for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解美莹; 李沛沛; 郭惠锋; 高丽霞; 余江

    2012-01-01

    Fe-based ionic liquid (Fe-IL) was synthesized by mixing FeCl3·6H2O and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Bmim]C1 in this paper. The phase diagram of a ternary Fe-IL, ethanol and water system was investigated to construct a ternary desulfurization solution for wet flue gas desulfurization. The effects of flow rate and concentration of SO2, reaction temperature, pH and Fe-IL fraction in aqueous desulfurization solution on the desulfiariza- tion efficiency were investigated. The results shows that the best composition of ternary desulfurization solution of Fe-IL, ethanol and water is 1 : 1.5 : 3 by volume ratio, and pH should be controlled at 2.0. Under such conditions, a desulfurization rate greater than 90% could be obtained. The product of sulfuric acid had inhibition effect on the wet desulfurization process. With applying this new ternary desulfurization solution, not only the catalyst Fe-IL can be recycled and reused, but also the product sulfuric acid can be separated directly from the ternary desulfurization system.

  4. Commercial Test of Multi-functional Desulfurizing Agent TS-01 for Gasoline in FCC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhi; Wu Yingjian; Yu Weisheng

    2003-01-01

    Experimental use of multi-functional desulfurizing agent TS-01 for FCC gasoline in the FCC unitof SINOPEC Jiujiang Company shows that the multi-functional desulfurizing agent can effectivelyremove various kinds of sulfur in FCC gasoline and diesel fuel and fulfill passivation on heavy metals.

  5. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  6. The desulfurization behavior of mineral matter in ash during coal combustion at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tian-hua; Li, Run-dong; Li, Yan-ji; Zhou, Jun-huz; Cen, Ke-fa [Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang (China)

    2007-02-15

    In allusion to the desulfurization characteristic of coal ash, the desulfurization of the ash and CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} added to Changguang coal with different proportions at high temperature was studied. Sulphoaluminate as the main desulfurization product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and SEM visualization. Experimental results indicate that higher proportion of ash added can improve the desulfurization efficiency. The sulphoaluminate content in residue increases with increasing the addition of ash. The desulfurization efficiency of the additive CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is up to 24% at 1300{sup o}C, at the same time the sulphoaluminate is detected in the residue. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh isolates of bacteria presumptively identified as R. erythropolis unequivocally have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. The production of OH-BP from either DBT or DBTO{sub 2} was confirmed by difference spectroscopy, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. The temperature, pH, and means of supplying the thiophenic or sulfonic sole source of sulfur were optimized. The maximal rate of growth of the organism, its affinity for sulfone, and the extent to which substrate was converted to product were determined by using batch, fed batch, and continuous cultures. For strain N1-36, the maximum specific growth rate was 0.235 hr{sup -1} which corresponds to a minimal generation time of 2.95 hr. The K{sub s} was estimated to be 0.39 {mu}M. With 100 {mu}M DBT as the sole sulfur source, approximately 40 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth); with 100 {mu}M DBTO{sub 2} as the sole sulfur source, approximately 70 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth). The desulfurization activity is repressed by SO{sub 4}{sup =} OH-BP does not serve as a carbon source. The DbtS{sup +} phenotype of the R. erythropolis isolates is stable and discrete. The isolates selectively remove sulfur from DBT, a compound which models a refractory form of organic sulfur in compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. The desulfurization occurs with no oxidation of carbon-carbon bonds. The stability and specificity (along with genetic regulation) indicate that microbial desulfurization in a real phenomenon in which a noxious element is removed without significantly affecting the calorific value of the substrate. Additional characterization (and optimization) would provide the basis of a very important form of fossil fuel beneficiation.

  8. Peroxidase-active cell free extract from onion solid wastes: biocatalytic properties and putative pathway of ferulic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agha, Ayman; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2008-09-01

    The exploitation of food residuals can be a major contribution in reducing the polluting load of food industry waste and in developing novel added-value products. Plant food residues including trimmings and peels might contain a range of enzymes capable of transforming bioorganic molecules, and thus they may have potential uses in several biocatalytic processes, including green organic synthesis, modification of food physicochemical properties, bioremediation, etc. Although the use of bacterial and fungal enzymes has gained attention in studies pertaining to biocatalytic applications, plant enzymes have been given less consideration or even disregarded. Therefore, we investigated the use of a crude peroxidase preparation from solid onion by-products for oxidizing ferulic acid, a widespread phenolic acid, various derivatives of which may occur in food wastes. The highest enzyme activity was observed at a pH value of 4, but considerable activity was retained up to a pH value of 6. Favorable temperatures for increased activity varied between 20-40 degrees C, 30 degrees C being the optimal. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of a homogenate/H(2)O(2)-treated ferulic acid solution showed the formation of a dimer as a major oxidation product. PMID:18930006

  9. Branched zinc oxide nanorods arrays modified paper electrode for electrochemical immunosensing by combining biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2015-12-15

    Branched zinc oxide nanorods (BZR) arrays, an array with high charge carries collection efficiency and specific surface area, are grown on the reduced graphene oxide-paper working electrode for the first time to construct a paper-based electrochemical (EC) immunosensor. Typically, the BZR are fabricated via a simple hydrothermal process, which can provide abundant sites for antibodies loading. By combining the large surface area of porous zinc oxide (PZS) and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), PZS-AuNPs (PZS@Au) nanocomposites are designed to label horseradish peroxide (HRP) and antigens. After a competitive reaction between antigens and PZS@Au nanocomposites labeled antigens, the signal labels are introduced into the immunosensor, in which, HRP participate in biocatalytic precipitation process. The produced precipitate reduces the electrode surface area and hinders the electron transfer. With the increase of concentration of antigens, the signal labels introduced into the sensor decrease, thus, a signal-on immunoassay for α-fetoprotein detection is constructed. The proposed paper-based EC immunosensor combines enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode for the first time, and possesses a wide linear range from 0.2 pg mL(-1) to 500 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.08 pg mL(-1). In addition, the proposed method is simple, sensitive and specific and can be a promising platform for other protein detection.

  10. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Erhong Duan; Dishun Zhao; Yanan Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H2O2) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 °C, the time 30 min. The ...

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of Desulfurization of Fine Coal by Electrochemical Reduction Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; ZHU Hong; ZHANG Yu

    2003-01-01

    Problems in desulfurization of coal by electrochemical reduction is analyzed and calculated. The result shows that 1) the △rGm function of the reaction of pyrite into FeS and the modifying reaction decreasing the oxygenous functions on coal surface is smaller than zero in a spontaneous reaction, and greater than zero in a nonspontaneous reaction; 2) the △rGm value can be adjusted by pH and the dosage of electrolyte to make it be greater than zero , which is favorable for the modifying reaction and useful for desulfurization of coal. The research has provided a theoretical foundation for determining reasonable technical parameters of desulfurization

  12. Study on Desulfurization of Gasoline by Electrochemical Oxidation and Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenbo; Wang Shujun; Liu Hongyan; Wang Zhenxin

    2006-01-01

    In order to further reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, a new desulfurization process was proposed by using catalytic oxidation and extraction realized in an electrochemical fluidized reactor. The fluidized layer of loaded catalyst particles consisted of lead dioxide (PbO2) supported on activated carbon particles (PbO2/C) and the electrolyte was aqueous NaOH solution. The PbO2/C particle anodes could remarkably accelerate the electrochemical reaction rate and promote the electrochemical catalysis of sulfur compounds. The sulfur compounds were at first oxidized to sulfones or sulfoxides, which were then removed after extraction. The experimental results indicated that the optimal desulfurization conditions were as follows: The cell voltage was 3.2 V, the concentration of hydroxyl ions in electrolyte was 0.12 mol/L, and the feed rate was 300 mL/min. Under these conditions the concentration of sulfur in gasoline was reduced from 310 ppm to 70 ppm. Based on these experimental results, a mechanism of indirect electrochemically catalytic oxidation was proposed.

  13. Oxidative desulfurization of simulated light fuel oil and untreated kerosene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehkordi, Asghar Molaei; Kiaei, Zahra; Sobati, Mohammad Amin [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box: 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-03-15

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the oxidative desulfurization of model sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene in toluene as a simulated light fuel oil with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant and various acids as the catalyst. The influences of various parameters including reaction temperature (T), acid to sulfur molar ratio (Acid/S), oxidant to sulfur molar ratio (O/S), type of acid, and the presence of sodium tungstate and commercial activated carbon as a co-catalyst on the fractional conversion of the model sulfur compounds were investigated. The experimental data obtained were used to determine the reaction rate constant of the model sulfur compounds and the corresponding activation energy. Moreover, the adsorption of model sulfur compounds on the commercial activated carbons supplied by Jacobi Co. (Sweden, AquaSorb 101) was studied and the effects of different parameters such as temperature, and various chemical treatments on the adsorption of the sulfur compounds were investigated. Furthermore, the oxidative desulfurization of untreated kerosene with the total sulfur content of 1700 ppmw produced by an Iranian refining company (Isfahan refinery) was successfully investigated. These experiments were performed using formic acid as the catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant at the mild operating conditions of T = 50 C, O/S 5, and the Acid/S = 10. It was realized that about 87% of the total sulfur content of untreated kerosene could be removed after 30 min oxidation followed by liquid-liquid extraction. (author)

  14. Research on optimal domestication of thiobacillus ferooxidans and desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G.; Tao, X.; Zhang, X.; ??? Luo, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2006-07-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of biodesulfurization and reduce the reaction time, based on the high selectivity adsorption and oxidation characteristic of thiobacillus ferooxidans (T.f.) for pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in coal, the strain of T.f. was acclimatized by changing concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and adding FeS{sub 2} and glucose in the 9 K medium. The optimal conditions of growth were investigated and used in the biodesulfurization experiments. The results show that the normal growth of T.f. was achieved after two turns of acclimatization. The desulfurization efficiency is the best under the conditions of 10% inoculation, 1.85 pH value and 27{sup o}C. The smaller the size of coal particle is, the effective the biodesulfurization is. The maximum sulphur removal from coal of 76.2% was obtained after reaction time of 7 days. The mechanisms of desulfurization with T.f. can be explained by the cooperation reaction of dissolved oxygen, bacteria and Fe{sup 3+}. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Study of fluidized-bed desulfurization with zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindley, T

    1991-01-01

    Previous work established the technical feasibility of desulfurizing the hot product gases of coal gasification with fixed beds of a regenerable zinc ferrite sorbent. This process, intended for integration with coal gasifiers and gas turbines, has been tested and studied in considerable detail in a process development unit. Though possessing the advantages of high-sulfur absorption at low-sulfur breakthrough and the lack of sorbent attrition characteristic of a stationary bed, fixed beds also have inherent disadvantages: susceptibility to plugging by particles and a large diluent requirement during regeneration to control the reaction zone temperature. Therefore, METC conducted a scoping laboratory test program to determine the desulfurizing capability of fluid beds of zinc ferrite. Results from this program are presented. The results generally demonstrated that fluid beds of zinc ferrite have the potential to lower the H{sub 2}S level in hot gas from 10,000 to 10 ppmv. To achieve this at a high-sorbent sulfur loading would require two fluid-bed stages. Sorbent attrition appears to be acceptably low. Planned future activities include tests at high pressure with both simulated gas and in a gasifier sidestream.

  16. Desulfurization Activated Phosphorothioate DNAzyme for the Detection of Thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2015-10-20

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal situated between mercury and lead in the periodic table. While its neighbors have been thoroughly studied for DNA-based sensing, little is known about thallium detection. In this work, in vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes is carried out using Tl(3+) as the target metal cofactor. Both normal DNA and phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA are tested for this purpose. While no Tl(3+)-dependent DNAzymes are obtained, a DNA oligonucleotide containing a single PS-modified RNA nucleotide is found to cleave by ∼7% by Tl(3+) at the RNA position. The remaining 93% are desulfurized. By hybridization of this PS-modified oligonucleotide with the Tm7 DNAzyme, the cleavage yield increases to ∼40% in the presence of Tl(3+) and Er(3+). Tm7 is an Er(3+)-dependent RNA-cleaving DNAzyme. It cleaves only the normal substrate but is completely inactive using the PS-modified substrate. Tl(3+) desulfurizes the PS substrate to the normal substrate to be cleaved by Tm7 and Er(3+). This system is engineered into a catalytic beacon for Tl(3+) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM, which is below its maximal contamination limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (10 nM). PMID:26393365

  17. Preparation of activated ceria and its desulfurization performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-chun Yu; Yong Deng; Fei Wang; Yue-bin Feng; Xiu-min Chen; Bin Yang; Da-chun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Activated ceria (CeO2/γ-Al2O3) prepared by impregnation was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM), and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The desulfurization of the activated ceria was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results showed that ceria could be highly dispersed or crystallized on the surface ofγ-alumina. The reduction temperatures of 0.1CeO2/γ-Al2O3, 0.45CeO2/γ-Al2O3, and CeO2 ranged from 250°C to 470°C, 330°C to 550°C, and 350°C to 550°C, respectively. The reduction peak tem-perature of 0.45CeO2/γ-Al2O3 was higher than that of 0.1CeO2/γ-Al2O3, which was consistent with the reduction temperature of CeO2. O2 participated in the reaction between ceria and sulfur dioxide. The desulfurization product was cerium(III) sulfate. The intensity of the hy-droxyl band decreased with the formation of sulfate species.

  18. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning. PMID:24456468

  20. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  2. Using sugar factory carbonatation lime for flue-gas desulfurization; Utilisation des ecumes de sucrerie pour la desulfuration des fumees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolignier, J.C.; Martin, G. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1999-10-01

    Studies have been carried out by the Institut Francais du Petrole and Babcock Entreprise to demonstrate that sugar factory carbonization lime can be used as a desulfurization agent in the Aude boiler, which is a new combustion apparatus designed to use high sulfur fuels. Tests have been conducted both in the laboratory and on a near-industrial-scale 10 MW boiler. Sugar factory carbonatation lime provides greater desulfurization efficiency than that obtained using finely crushed natural limestone. Furthermore, the nitrogen contained in the carbonatation lime reduces NO{sub x} emissions through selective non-catalytic reduction. Those who use high sulfur content fuels, and who are faced with increasingly stringent legislation, could reduce their annual outlays for absorbents by using sugar factory carbonatation lime. In addition, sugar producers could open up a new channel for using their carbonatation lime. The high water content of carbonatation lime rules out long distance transport. Calculations have been carried out to indicate at whet distance carbonatation lime becomes more expensive than limestone. (authors) 11 refs.

  3. Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene in the presence of iron chlorideionic liquid catalyst and ultrasound waves

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Sadat Seyedi; Manouchehr Bahmaei; Amir Farshi

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene refinery in Tehran with sulfur content of 0/293% with iron chloride - hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonic liquid catalysts in the presence of acetic acid - formic acid and an oxidizinghydrogen peroxide has been studied. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of moles of sulfur oxidation (no/ ns),mole ratio of moles of acid per mol of sulfur (nacid/ ns (on the desulfurization of kerosene checked(the molar ratio of o...

  4. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Gao, Ruimin [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Zhao, Jianshe, E-mail: jszhao@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Wang, Junlong [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2015-05-15

    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.

  5. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  7. Biocatalytic self-assembly of supramolecular charge-transfer nanostructures based on n-type semiconductor-appended peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Berdugo, Cristina; Javid, Nadeem; Frederix, Pim W J M; Ulijn, Rein V

    2014-06-01

    The reversible in situ formation of a self-assembly building block (naphthalenediimide (NDI)-dipeptide conjugate) by enzymatic condensation of NDI-functionalized tyrosine (NDI-Y) and phenylalanine-amide (F-NH2) to form NDI-YF-NH2 is described. This coupled biocatalytic condensation/assembly approach is thermodynamically driven and gives rise to nanostructures with optimized supramolecular interactions as evidenced by substantial aggregation induced emission upon assembly. Furthermore, in the presence of di-hydroxy/alkoxy naphthalene donors, efficient charge-transfer complexes are produced. The dynamic formation of NDI-YF-NH2 and electronic and H-bonding interactions are analyzed and characterized by different methods. Microscopy (TEM and AFM) and rheology are used to characterize the formed nanostructures. Dynamic nanostructures, whose formation and function are driven by free-energy minimization, are inherently self-healing and provide opportunities for the development of aqueous adaptive nanotechnology. PMID:24788665

  8. Biocatalytic polymer thin films: optimization of the multilayered architecture towards in situ synthesis of anti-proliferative drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Sidsel Ø.; Fejerskov, Betina; Zelikin, Alexander N.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the assembly of multi-layered polyelectrolyte thin films containing an immobilized enzyme to perform conversion of externally administered prodrugs and achieve delivery of the resulting therapeutics to adhering cells. Towards this goal, multi-layered coatings were assembled using poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride). Activity of the incorporated enzyme was quantified as a function of the assembly conditions, position of the enzyme within the multi-layered architecture, concentration of the enzyme in the adsorption solution, and concentration of the administered prodrug. Biocatalytic coatings exhibited sustained levels of enzymatic activity over at least one week of incubation in physiological buffers without signs of loss of activity of the enzyme. Developed enzyme-containing polymer films afforded zero-order release of the in situ synthesized cargo with kinetics of synthesis (nM per hour) covering at least 3 orders of magnitude. Internalization of the synthesized product by adhering cells was visualized using a fluorogenic enzyme substrate. Therapeutic utility of biocatalytic coatings was demonstrated using a myoblast cell line and a prodrug for the anti-proliferative agent, 5-fluorouridine. Taken together, this work presents a novel approach to delivery of small molecule drugs using multi-layered polymer thin films with utility in surface-mediated drug delivery, assembly of therapeutic implantable devices, and tissue engineering.We report on the assembly of multi-layered polyelectrolyte thin films containing an immobilized enzyme to perform conversion of externally administered prodrugs and achieve delivery of the resulting therapeutics to adhering cells. Towards this goal, multi-layered coatings were assembled using poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride). Activity of the incorporated enzyme was quantified as a function of the assembly conditions, position of the enzyme within the multi

  9. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. 1978-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1978-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    The two part bibliography covers aspects of coal and petroleum fuel desulfurization relating to coal preparation, coal liquids, the gasification of coal, and crude oil preparation, where the processes specifically accomplish desulfurization before combustion of the fuel. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 173 abstracts, 54 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. Tunneling of redox enzymes to design nano-probes for monitoring NAD(+) dependent bio-catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshath, Uchangi Satyaprasad; Bhatt, Praveena

    2016-11-15

    Monitoring of bio-catalytic events by using nano-probes is of immense interest due to unique optical properties of metal nanoparticles. In the present study, tunneling of enzyme activity was achieved using redox cofactors namely oxidized cytochrome-c (Cyt-c) and Co-enzyme-Q (Co-Q) immobilized on Quantum dots (QDs) which acted as a bio-probe for NAD(+) dependent dehydrogenase catalyzed reaction. We studied how electron transfer from substrate to non-native electron acceptors can differentially modify photoluminescence properties of CdTe QDs. Two probes were designed, QD-Ox-Cyt-c and QD-Ox-Co-Q, which were found to quench the fluorescence of QDs. However, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) catalyzed reduction of Cyt-c and Co-Q on the surface of QDs lead to fluorescence turn-on of CdTe QDs. This phenomenon was successfully used for the detection of HCHO in the range of 0.01-100,000ng/mL (LOD of 0.01ng/mL) using both QD-Ox-Cyt-c (R(2)=0.93) and QD-Ox-Co-Q (R(2)=0.96). Further probe performance and stability in samples like milk, wine and fruit juice matrix were studied and we could detect HCHO in range of 0.001-100,000ng/mL (LOD of 0.001ng/mL) with good stability and sensitivity of probe in real samples (R(2)=0.97). Appreciable recovery and detection sensitivity in the presence of metal ions suggests that the developed nano-probes can be used successfully for monitoring dehydrogenase based bio-catalytic events even in the absence of NAD(+). Proposed method is advantageous over classical methods as clean up/ derivatization of samples is not required for formaldehyde detection. PMID:27179565

  11. Oxidative desulfurization of askale coal by nitric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guru, M. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Efficient use of fossil fuels is of utmost importance in a world that depends on these for the greatest part of its energy needs. Although lignite is a widely used fossil fuel, its sulfur content limits its consumption. This study aims to capture combustible sulfur in the ash by oxidizing it with solution of nitric acid solution. Thus, the combustible sulfur in the coal was converted to sulfate form in the ash. Parameters affecting the conversion of sulfur were determined to be nitric acid concentration, reaction time and mean particle size at constant (near room) temperature and shaking rate. The maximum desulfurization efficiency reached was 38.7% of the original combustible sulfur with 0.3 M nitric acid solution, 16 h of reaction time and 0.1 mm mean particle size.

  12. Oxidative desulfurization of Tufanbeyli coal by hydrogen peroxide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guru, M.; Sarioz, B.V.; Cakanyildirim, C. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    It is becoming popular to use fossil fuels efficiently since the necessary energy is mostly supplied from fossil fuels. Altough there are high lignite reserves, high sulfur content limits the efficient use of them. In this article, we aimed to convert combustible sulfur in coal to non-combustible sulfate form in the ash by oxidizing it with a hydrogen peroxide solution. The parameters affecting the sulfur conversion were determined to be: hydrogen peroxide concentration, reaction time, mean particle size at constant room temperature and shaking rate. The maximum desulfurization efficiency reached was 74% of the original combustible sulfur with 15% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide solution, 12 hours of reaction time, and 0.25 mm mean particle size.

  13. Low-temperature desulfurizing reaction with Cu-containing sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kwang Bok; Choi, Eun Mi; Song, Yi Keun; Rhee, Young Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Taejeon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The sorbents containing Cu O as an active material were prepared and their effectiveness in desulfurization was investigated at low temperatures(350-550 degree C). M.I.5 and MnO{sub 2} were chosen as additives and SiO{sub 2} was chosen as support material. In the low temperature regeneration reaction, sulfate was formed, which could not be decomposed until regeneration temperature reached 650 degree C. Sulfidation reaction rate decreased as calcination temperature increased. Promoting effect of MoO{sub 3} was not observed throughout the sulfidation/regeneration reaction. When SiO{sub 2} content was below 25% of sorbents composition, sulfur loading of above 10% could be obtained. Mass transfer inhibition by sulfiding gas was observed for the sorbents containing no SiO{sub 2}. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Flue gas desulfurization by a powder-particle spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini, M.; Hatamipour, M.S. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    The powder-particle spouted bed process is one of the semi-dry processes that have been developed for flue gas desulfurization. In this study, which is designed for SO{sub 2} removal by a powder-particle spouted bed, the reaction term is included in one-dimensional and streamtube models that were presented previously for spouted beds. Hydrated lime is used as the sorbent in this process. The predictions of the models are compared with some published experimental data and it is found that the developed models are valid. The results of two models are compared with each other and their various properties are evaluated. The effects of different operating conditions on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency are also investigated and preferred operating conditions are discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  16. Engineering Design of Flue Gas Desulfurization in Thermal Power Plant%火电厂烟气脱硫工程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦宝

    2012-01-01

    在石灰石/石膏湿法脱硫工程实际应用中,影响脱硫效率的因素很多,主要问题包括结垢堵塞、设备和管道的腐蚀等正确处理这些问题是保证烟气脱硫(FGD)系统长期稳定可靠运行的关键。相应的技术措施需综合考虑技术上的可行性和经济上的合理性等诸多因素,设计、设备选型、营运等各个阶段各个因素之间互相影响。如何优化设方案,降低投资和运行检修费用,需要综合加以考虑。提出的方案是根据已运行项目的工程实际结果得出的结论,具有一定的实用和参考价值。%In practical application of limestone/gypsum wet flue gas desulfurization project, there are many influencing factors affecting desulfurization efficiency including scaling and clogging, equipment and pipeline corrosion and so on. properly treatments to these problems are key points to ensure years of stable and reliable run of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The appropriate technical measures should take technical feasibility and economic ration',dity into account. Design, equipment selection, operation stages and other factors are interactional, so it should take all factors into consideration to optimize design, reduce investment and operation and maintenance cost. The scheme proposed in this paper is based on the conclusion draw from running project, and it has certain practical and referential value.

  17. Hybrid membrane with TiO2 based bio-catalytic nanoparticle suspension system for the degradation of bisphenol-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingwei; Dong, Guangxi; Luu, Belinda; Sengpiel, Robert G; Ye, Yun; Wessling, Matthias; Chen, Vicki

    2014-10-01

    The removal of micropollutant in wastewater treatment has become a key environmental challenge for many industrialized countries. One approach is to use enzymes such as laccase for the degradation of micropollutants such as bisphenol-A. In this work, laccase was covalently immobilized on APTES modified TiO2 nanoparticles, and the effects of particle modification on the bio-catalytic performance were examined and optimized. These bio-catalytic particles were then suspended in a hybrid membrane reactor for BPA removal with good BPA degradation efficiency observed. Substantial improvement in laccase stability was achieved in the hybrid system compared with free laccase under simulated harsh industrial wastewater treatment conditions (such as a wide range of pH and presence of inhibitors). Kinetic study provided insight of the effect of immobilization on the bio-degradation reaction. PMID:25084046

  18. Biocatalytic synthesis of flavones and hydroxyl-small molecules by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the cyanobacterial CYP110E1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Makino Takuya; Otomatsu Toshihiko; Shindo Kazutoshi; Kitamura Emi; Sandmann Gerhard; Harada Hisashi; Misawa Norihiko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cyanobacteria possess several cytochrome P450s, but very little is known about their catalytic functions. CYP110 genes unique to cyanaobacteria are widely distributed in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria including nitrogen-fixing genera Nostoc and Anabaena. We screened the biocatalytic functions of all P450s from three cyanobacterial strains of genus Nostoc or Anabaena using a series of small molecules that contain flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, low-molecular-weight drugs, and...

  19. Biocatalytic Conversion of Avermectin to 4″-Oxo-Avermectin: Improvement of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Specificity by Directed Evolution▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefzer, Axel; Jungmann, Volker; Molnár, István; Botejue, Ajit; Buckel, Dagmar; Frey, Gerhard; Hill, D. Steven; Jörg, Mario; Ligon, James M.; Mason, Dylan; Moore, David; Pachlatko, J. Paul; Richardson, Toby H.; Spangenberg, Petra; Wall, Mark A.; Zirkle, Ross; Stege, Justin T.

    2007-01-01

    Discovery of the CYP107Z subfamily of cytochrome P450 oxidases (CYPs) led to an alternative biocatalytic synthesis of 4″-oxo-avermectin, a key intermediate for the commercial production of the semisynthetic insecticide emamectin. However, under industrial process conditions, these wild-type CYPs showed lower yields due to side product formation. Molecular evolution employing GeneReassembly was used to improve the regiospecificity of these enzymes by a combination of random mutagenesis, protein structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis, and recombination of multiple natural and synthetic CYP107Z gene fragments. To assess the specificity of CYP mutants, a miniaturized, whole-cell biocatalytic reaction system that allowed high-throughput screening of large numbers of variants was developed. In an iterative process consisting of four successive rounds of GeneReassembly evolution, enzyme variants with significantly improved specificity for the production of 4″-oxo-avermectin were identified; these variants could be employed for a more economical industrial biocatalytic process to manufacture emamectin. PMID:17483257

  20. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D.P.

    1994-07-01

    The primary objective of this research project is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of known high temperature desulfurization sorbents. The contract was awarded to LSU on April 12, 1994, and this quarterly report covers accomplishments during the first 2 1/2 months of the project. Effort during the initial 2 1/2 month period has been limited to Tasks 1 and 2, and involves a search of the literature to identify concepts for producing elemental sulfur during regeneration of known metal oxide sorbents and a thermodynamic evaluation of these concepts. While searching and evaluating the literature is a continuing process, concentrated effort on that phase is now complete and a detailed summary is included in this report. Three possible concepts for the direct production of elemental sulfur were identified in the LSU proposal, and the literature search has not uncovered any additional concepts. Thus, the three concepts being investigated involve: (1) regeneration with SO{sub 2}, (2) regeneration with mixtures Of 02 and H{sub 2}O, and (3) regeneration with H{sub 2}O. While concept (3) directly produces H{sub 2}S instead of elemental sulfur, the concept is included because the possibility exists for converting H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. Each of the concepts will ultimately be compared to the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) under development by RTI. DSRP involves initial sorbent regeneration to SO{sub 2}, and the inclusion of additional processing steps to reduce the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur.

  1. Ultrasonic and microwave co-enhanced oxidative desulfurization of organic sulphur from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi Jie; Ren Jun; Wang Jian-cheng; Bao Wei-ren; Xie Ke-chang [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province

    2008-04-15

    Four kinds of coal were treated with different oxidants - H{sub 2}O{sub 2}+HAc, FeCl{sub 3}+EDTA and MnO{sub 2}+ EDTA - under ultrasonic and microwave irradiation. The effect of particle size of coal, power and treatment time of ultrasonic and microwave radiation, composition and quantity of oxidative agents on the desulfurization rate of coals were investigated. The results show that the desulfurization rate of coal is related to these treatment parameters and the rate of desulfurization increases with increasing extraction time, the power of ultrasonic and microwave radiation and the quantity of oxidants. It decreases remarkably with an increase in particle size. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2}+HAc oxidant shows better oxidative performance than FeCl{sub 3}+EDTA and MnO{sub 2}+EDTA. Under optimized treatment conditions (with a concentration of coal 3/60 (g/mL), size of coal {<=} 0.10 mm, ultrasonic radiation of 540 W for 70 min, microwave radiation of 280 W for 30 min and a ratio of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide of 1:1) a desulfurization rate of 65% is obtained in Wangzhuang coal. The rate of desulfurization varies with different coals, which is likely to be associated with the existing forms of sulphur. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Deep desulfurization of full range and low boiling diesel streams from Kuwait Lower Fars heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Al-Hindi, A.; Stanislaus, A. [Petroleum and Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2007-09-15

    Information on feed quality and, in particular, various types of sulfur compounds present in the diesel (gas oil) fractions produced form different crudes and their HDS reactivities under different operating conditions are of a great value for the optimization and economics of the deep HDS process. This paper deals with deep desulfurization of gas oils obtained from a new heavy Kuwaiti crude, namely, Lower Fars (LF) which will be processed in the future at Kuwaiti refineries. Comparative studies were carried out to examine the extent of deep HDS, and the quality of diesel product using two gas oil feeds with different boiling ranges. The results revealed that the full range diesel feed stream produced from the LF crude was very difficult to desulfurize due to its low quality caused by high aromatics content (low feed saturation) together with the presence of high concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds and sterically hindered alkyl DBTs. The low-boiling range gas oil showed better desulfurization compared with the full range gas oil, however, deep desulfurization to 50 ppm sulfur was not achieved even at a temperature as high as 380 C for both feeds. The desulfurized diesel product from the low-boiling gas-oil feed was better in quality with respect to the S, N and PNA contents and cetane index than the full-range gas-oil feed. (author)

  3. Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

    2010-06-15

    A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g). PMID:20481549

  4. Deep desulfurization of diesel fuels by catalytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guoxian; CHEN Hui; LU Shanxiang; ZHU Zhongnan

    2007-01-01

    Reaction feed was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT),which was selected as a model organosulfur compound in diesel fuels,in n-octane.The oxidant was a 30 wt-% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide.Catalytic performance of the activated carbons with saturation adsorption of DBT was investigated in the presence of formic acid.In addition,the effects of activated carbon dosage,formic acid concentration,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide,initial concentration of DBT and reaction temperature on the oxidation of DBT were investigated.Experimental results indicated that performic acid and the hydroxyl radicals produced are coupled to oxidize DBT with a conversion ratio of 100%.Catalytic performance of the combination of activated carbon and formic acid is higher than that ofouly formic acid.The concentration of formic acid,activated carbon dosage,initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide and reaction temperature affect the oxidative removal of DBT.The higher the initial concentration of DBT in the n-octane solution,the more difficult the deep desulfurization by oxidation is.

  5. Oxidative desulfurization of synthetic diesel using supported catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedeno Caero, Luis; Jorge, F.; Navarro, A.; Gutierrez-Alejandre, Aida [UNICAT, Depto. de Ing. Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-09-15

    Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a synthetic diesel was carried out at mild conditions (atmospheric pressure and 60{sup o}C) in presence of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Two main aspects were studied: the effect of the oxidant reagent and the presence of nitrogen compounds on ODS of benzothiophenic compounds prevailing in diesel, such as benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene and alkyl substituted in positions 4 and 6. Results show that activity is improved when using hydrogen peroxide, as oxidant reagent, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as catalyst. This result was attributed to the high decomposition of peroxide due to the presence of catalyst. In presence of nitrogen compounds, the ODS activity decreases in the order: quinoline>indole>carbazole. In order to explain this effect, successive chemisorption of DBT and quinoline on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was evaluated by FT-IR, and the results show that DBT is displaced by quinoline, occupying the adsorption sites of catalyst. N-compound effect could be explained by strong adsorption of nitrogen compounds on catalytic sites. (author)

  6. Catalyst for simultaneous desulfurization and dewaxing of residua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleck, S.M.

    1989-02-28

    A catalytic composition for simultaneously desulfurizing and dewaxing petroleum residua is described, comprising from about 1% to about 10% by weight a nickel or cobalt oxide or sulfate component and from about 2 to about 20% by weight molybdenum. The mole ratio of the nickel or cobalt oxide or sulfide to molybdenum is about 0.25 to about 2.0, on a base selected from the group consisting of alumina, silica, silica-alumina or mixtures thereof. The base is mixed with a crystalline zeolite having the structure of ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-12, ZSM-35 or ZSM-38, having a crystal framework density of not less than about 1.6 grams/cubic centimeter in an amount equal to between about 15 and less than 65 percent by weight of the catalyst composition, having a surface are between about 199 and about 276m/sup 2//g and having an average pore diameter between about 75 and about 119 Angstroms, for simultaneously reducing sulfur content and pour point of petroleum residua.

  7. Oxidative desulfurization of synthetic diesel using supported catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caero, Luis Cedeno; Hernandez, Emiliano [UNICAT, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pedraza, Francisco; Murrieta, Florentino [Programa de Tratamiento en Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-10-30

    In this work, an experimental study was carried out to obtain the reactivity of different organic sulfur compounds and to examine the effect of various parameters, such as temperature, solvent and the amount of oxidant reagent in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction. The oxidation was performed through a vanadium based catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions, atmospheric pressure and temperature range of 303-343K. The sulfur compounds studied were: 2-methylthiophene (2-MT), 2,5-dimethylthiophene (2,5-DMT), benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). All of them are typical thiophenic sulfur compounds present in diesel fuels. A synthetic diesel was prepared with these compounds in hexadecane. The experimental results showed that oxidation reactivities decreased according to the following order: DBT>BT>4-MDBT>2-MT>2,5-DMT>4,6-DMDBT. A fraction of the S compounds removed from the diesel phase, was not transformed to its corresponding sulfone, under these experimental conditions. It is only removed as sulfur compound by extraction, without ODS reaction. The surplus amount of oxidant promoted the equilibrium reaction, but the thermal decomposition of oxidant and oxidation reactions produces water, which inhibits the ODS reactions. Therefore, the controlled addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} improves ODS reactivity of sulfur compounds.

  8. Radiation-chemical desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-chemical desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases is a highly promising method for removing SO2 and NOx from gases emerging from the combustion of coal and heating oils, from the heat treatment of ores, etc. Its principle is as follows. Into the flue gases, freed from solid particles, are injected a suitable base and water. The gaseous mixture, or aerosol, enters a reactor in which it is exposed to accelerated electrons. The latter thermalize gradually and their energy is transferred to the surrounding molecules, whereby radiolysis is initiated. The primary products are positively charged ions, secondary electrons, excited states of molecules and free radicals. Some amount of negatively charged ions is also formed. These particles enter into fast reactions with the molecules, and as a result, SO2 and NOx are oxidized and transformed into acids (H2SO4, HNO3) which ultimately react with the base to give salts as the final products. In suitable conditions the final products are formed in the solid state and can be removed by filtration, electrostatic separation, etc. The topic is treated in detail with respect to its physico-chemical and radiation-chemical principles as well as its characteristics and technical implementation, and a survey of research, demonstration and pilot-plant units aimed at its industrial application is given. The method is considered promising in Czechoslovak conditions and deserves attention of technologists as well as national economy experts. (P.A.). 7 figs., 3 tabs., 49 refs

  9. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1991-06-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems require the development of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier down to very low levels. The objective of this investigation was to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite, a leading regenerable sorbent, for fluidized-bed applications. Fluidized sorbent beds offer significant potential in IGCC systems because of their ability to control the highly exothermic regeneration involved. However, fluidized beds require a durable, attrition-resistant sorbent in the 100--300 {mu}m size range. A bench-scale high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor (7.6-cm I.D.) system capable of operating up to 24 atm and 800{degree}C was designed, built and tested. A total of 175 sulfidation-regeneration cycles were carried out using KRW-type coal gas with various zinc ferrite formulations. A number of sorbent manufacturing techniques including spray drying, impregnation, crushing and screening, and granulation were investigated. While fluidizable sorbents prepared by crushing durable pellets and screening had acceptable sulfur capacity, they underwent excessive attrition during multicycle testing. The sorbent formulations prepared by a proprietary technique were found to have excellent attrition resistance and acceptable chemical reactivity during multicycle testing. However, zinc ferrite was found to be limited to 550{degree}C, beyond which excessive sorbent weakening due to chemical transformations, e.g., iron oxide reduction, was observed.

  10. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of EX-SO3 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 110 {micro}m particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-550 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  11. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil using tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiong; Lin, Song; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Sujun; Xiong, Jun-Ru

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the ultrasonic assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil with TBHP/MoO3 system. The operational parameters for the desulfurization procedure such as ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic wave amplitude, catalyst initial concentration and oxidation agent initial concentration were studied. The experimental results show that the present oxidation system was very efficient for the desulfurization of bunker-C oil and ~35% sulfur was removed which was dependent on operational parameters. The application of ultrasonic irradiation allowed sulfur removal in a shorter time. The stronger the solvent polarity is, the higher the sulfur removal rate, but the recovery rate of oil is lower. The sulfur compounds in bunker-C oil reacted with TBHP to produce corresponding sulfoxide, and further oxidation produced the corresponding sulfone. PMID:23538118

  13. Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel with Hydrogen Peroxide Using Na2WO4 s Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xin; Long Jun; Xu Benjing; Xie Chaogang

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative desulfurization was performed on Na2WO4 catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid under mild reaction conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature range of 293-343 K). Different organic com-pounds including benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4, 6-dimethyl dibenzothiophene (4, 6-DMDBT) were used to investigate the reactivity of this catalyst, and the effect of various parameters, such as temperature, solvents and the amount of oxidant reagent used in oxidative desulfurization reaction, was also examined. The results showed that the Na2WO4-H2O2 system was very effective for oxidative desulfurization, and the oxidation of BT, DBT and 4, 6-DMDBT was influ-enced by different parameters.

  14. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. [Pyrococcus furiosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  15. Determination of Salt Impurities in MDEA Solution Used in Desulfurization of Highly Sulphurous Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yucheng; Zhang Bo; Chen Mingyan; Wu Danni; Zhou Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The foaming phenomenon of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solution used in desulfurization process occurs frequently in the natural-gas puriifcation plant. The foaming phenomenon has a strong impact on operation of the process unit. The salt impurities are the main reason for causing the foaming of MDEA solution, so the full analysis of salt impuri-ties is necessary. A method for comprehensive analysis of salt impurities in MDEA solution used in desulfurization process was established. Anions and non-metallic cations of MDEA solution were determined by different conditions of ion chro-matograph, respectively. Metallic cations of the solution were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with the N2O-C2H2 lfame absorption. The analytical results of salt impurities in the desulfurization solution can provide a theoretical basis for an accurate analysis of the factors affecting the foaming of MDEA to unveil further control measures.

  16. Application of High Shear Agitation for Desulfurization of Gasoline Using Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dishun; ZhangZhigang; Wang Jialei; Wang Na; Li Xiangyu

    2006-01-01

    The high shear agitation device was first adopted for gasoline desulfurization by ionic liquids. The effect of benzylimidazol fluoborate in desulfurization of gasoline and the influence of moisture on deuslfurization rate were investigated. The experimental results showed that the ionic liquid could effectively decrease the sulfur content of gasoline and the optimal conditions were as follows: The reaction could be carried out at room temperature, a volumetric ratio between oil and the liquid of 2∶1, a volumetric ratio between water and ionic liquid of 0.04∶1, a rotational speed of 5 krad/s, and a reaction time of 1 minute. The desulfurization rate of gasoline reached 53.6%, and the gasoline yield was up to 97.3%. The ionic liquid could be recycled for repeated use, and the use of high shear agitation for gasoline would have good prospects.

  17. Desulfurization technologies for flue gases from power stations, technological and financial characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms on life environment, caused by aero pollution, for the last decades enforced fast development of technologies for filtration of gases that come from thermal power plants and other objects. SO2, that appear as one of outputs of fossil fuels combustion, and also processing of sulphide ore, is a main component of acid rains. Acid rains represent one of the most risky factors, responsible for dryne of woods and changing of flora and fauna on land and in water. Starting from 1931 year when on the thermal power plant BATTERSEA STATION, property of London Power, first scrubbers were monnted for filtration of flue gases of SO2 , and up till today, many procedures are developed for desulfurization of flue gases. For easier coping with numerous technologies for desulfurization , various classifications were made. By state of aggregation of the absorption agent , the technologies for desulfurization of gases are divided in wet , semidry and dry procedures. Wet procedures are technologies with highness rate of desulfurization of 90-95 % and most flexible of the quality of fuel whose flue gases are filtered. Presently they have high price of 90-220 $/kw installed power. According to American sources, their price at the world market is forecasted that till 2000 year will reach price of 100 $/kw. Dry technologies for desulfurization of flue gases are last technologies. The rate of desulfurization is 50-60 % and its prise is 76 -113 $/kw. Their negative side is high variable costs 250 - 388 $/ ton SO2 (at wet procedures variable costs 76 - 157 $/ton SO2). Semidry technologies by financial and technological characteristics are wet and dry procedures. (Author)

  18. Effect of impregnation methods on sorbents made from lignite for desulfurization at middle temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurong; Dong; Xiurong; Ren; Meijun; Wang; Qiang; He; Liping; Chang; Weiren; Bao

    2013-01-01

    With lignite after vacuum drying as the raw material,a series of Zn-based sorbents were prepared by static impregnation,ultrasonic-assisted impregnation,bubbling-assisted impregnation and high-pressure impregnation.The physical properties and the desulfurization performances of Zn-based sorbents were studied systematically by XRD,BET,AAS characterization techniques and the fixed-bed desulfurization evaluation apparatus.The sorbents obtained by high-pressure impregnation method have a larger specific surface area,pore volume and pore diameter comparing with other methods,which is conducive to the sulfidation reaction of hydrogen sulfide gas in the sorbent.The effects of pressure during the high-pressure impregnation and concentration of Zn(NO3)2 precursor solution on the sorbents properties and desulfurization behavior were investigated.The higher the impregnation pressure and the concentration of impregnation solution are,the greater the amount of the active components are uploaded.However,overhigh impregnation pressure can cause collapse and blocking of the carrier pore.The optimal operating condition of high-pressure impregnation method for preparing the sorbents was the impregnation pressure of 20 atm and the solution concentration of 41%.Under that condition,the sorbent had the best desulfurization ability with a sulfur capacity of 13.94 gS/100 gsorbent and a breakthrough time of 54 h.Its desulfurization precision and efficiency of removing H2S before sorbent breakthrough from the middle temperature gases of 400℃ can reach<5 ppm and>99%,respectively.Sorbents could be regenerated under the condition of 1 vol%O2,20 vol% H2O,0.5 vol% NH3,and N2balance gas.The regenerated sorbent could be used for repeated absorption of H2S with a slight decrease in desulfurization effect.

  19. Biochemical mechanisms for the desulfurization of coal-relevant organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afferden, M. van; Tappe, D.; Beyer, M.; Trueper, H.G.; Klein, J. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Two microbial strains ([ital Brevibacterium] sp. DO, [ital Pseudomonas aeruginosa] OS1) were isolated for their ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzyl methyl sulfide (BMS). Enrichment was achieved by a sulfur-selective screening system using the model compounds as the sole source of sulfur for bacterial growth. [ital Brevibacterium] sp. DO utilizes DBT as a sole source of sulfur, carbon and energy for growth, whereas [ital Pseudomonas aeruginosa] OS1 metabolizes BMS to only a small extent under sulfur-selective conditions. Investigations of the regulation of enzymes involved in the desulfurization of coal-relevant sulfur compounds indicate that in nature at least two mechanisms exist: 'carbon regulation' and 'sulfur regulation'. The biochemical mechanisms leading to the desulfurization of BMS and DBT are similar. The sulfur atom of both compounds is initially oxidized to the corresponding sulfone, and cleavage of the C-S bond proceeds via the formation of a chemically unstable hemimercaptal (S-oxidized form) by oxidation of the carbon atom adjacent to the sulfur atom. These results indicate that oxidation of sulfur to its highest oxidation state may be the precondition for the oxidative cleavage of the covalent C-S bonds. By isotope-labelling experiments using [sup 18]O[sub 2], the initial enzymes were identified as sulfoxygenases that use molecular oxygen. Cleavage of the C-S bond of DBT and BMS leads to the formation of organic sulfinic acids as intermediates. With DBT the sulfinic acid is desulfurized probably by hydrolysis; this results in the formation of sulfite and benzoate. The desulfurization of BMS proceeds by sulfonic acid-oxidation. The applicability of these biochemical mechanisms to the microbial desulfurization of coal is discussed. 39 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO2 will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO2 is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2011-01-01

    desulfurization (FGD) process under operating conditions corresponding to oxy-fuel firing. The most important output parameters were the overall degree of desulfurization and the residual limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry. Pilot-scale experiments quantified that the introduction of a flue gas with 90....... Unresolved issues, such as determination of the optimal recycle location of flue gas, the flue gas cleaning steps required (SO2, NOx, and particles), and the impact of an oxy-fuel flue gas on the cleaning steps, also persist. The aim of this work was to study the performance of the wet flue gas...

  2. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solution oxidation were detected.

  3. Biocatalytic Properties and Structural Analysis of Eugenol Oxidase from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1: A Versatile Oxidative Biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Thai; de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Binda, Claudia; Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Mattevi, Andrea; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-07-15

    Eugenol oxidase (EUGO) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 had previously been shown to convert only a limited set of phenolic compounds. In this study, we have explored the biocatalytic potential of this flavoprotein oxidase, resulting in a broadened substrate scope and a deeper insight into its structural properties. In addition to the oxidation of vanillyl alcohol and the hydroxylation of eugenol, EUGO can efficiently catalyze the dehydrogenation of various phenolic ketones and the selective oxidation of a racemic secondary alcohol-4-(1-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxyphenol. EUGO was also found to perform the kinetic resolution of a racemic secondary alcohol. Crystal structures of the enzyme in complexes with isoeugenol, coniferyl alcohol, vanillin, and benzoate have been determined. The catalytic center is a remarkable solvent-inaccessible cavity on the si side of the flavin cofactor. Structural comparison with vanillyl alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum highlights a few localized changes that correlate with the selectivity of EUGO for phenolic substrates bearing relatively small p-substituents while tolerating o-methoxy substituents. PMID:27123962

  4. Biotechnological production of fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides: Prokaryotic fucosyltransferases and their use in biocatalytic cascades or whole cell conversion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschacher, Barbara; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-10-10

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) constitute a class of complex carbohydrates unique to mother's milk and are strongly correlated to the health benefits of breastfeeding in infants. HMOs are important as functional ingredients of advanced infant formula and have attracted broad interest for use in health-related human nutrition. About 50% of the HMOs structures contain l-fucosyl residues, which are introduced into nascent oligosaccharides by enzymatic transfer from GDP-l-fucose. To overcome limitation in the current availability of fucosylated HMOs, biotechnological approaches for their production have been developed. Functional expression of the fucosyltransferase(s) and effective supply of GDP-l-fucose, respectively, are both bottlenecks of the biocatalytic routes of synthesis. Strategies of in vitro and in vivo production of fucosylated HMOs are reviewed here. Besides metabolic engineering for enhanced HMO production in whole cells, the focus is on the characteristics and the heterologous overexpression of prokaryotic α1,2- and α1,3/4-fucosyltransferases. Up to 20g/L of fucosylated HMOs were obtained in optimized production systems. Optimized expression enabled recovery of purified fucosyltransferases in a yield of up to 45mg/L culture for α1,2-fucosyltransferases and of up to 200mg protein/L culture for α1,3/4-fucosyltransferases.

  5. Ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical immunoassay of antibody against tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen amplified by functionalized graphene derivates and enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Liu, Mingshuai; Mao, Yaning; Xu, Yunpeng; Niu, Shuyan

    2014-09-15

    Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are often found on the surface of cancer cells. The determination of the carbohydrate components of glycoconjugates is challenging because of the chemical complexity of glycan chains. Through monitoring corresponding antibody, we can get a good solution for clinical diagnosis. Here breast tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens Tn were used as a model and a new photoelectrochemical biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of antibody against Tn was developed. To enhance the sensitivity, both graphene oxide and graphene were used during the construction of biosensor. Through the formation of immunocomplex and the insoluble biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) product, photocurrent intensity was decreased greatly and the antibody could be detected from 0.5 to 500 pg/mL with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-13) g/mL. At the same time, the developed biosensor showed acceptable selectivity and could be used in the complex matrix. Compared with the traditional glycoarray method, this PEC method is more sensitive (5 orders of magnitude), and thus provides another platform to monitor the immune response to carbohydrate epitopes at different stages during differentiation, metastasis, or treatment.

  6. Adsorption of enzymes to stimuli-responsive polymer brushes: Influence of brush conformation on adsorbed amount and biocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Meike; Bittrich, Eva; König, Ulla; Rajeev, Bhadra Lakshmi; Müller, Martin; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Thomas, Sabu; Stamm, Manfred; Uhlmann, Petra

    2016-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte brushes can be utilized to immobilize enzymes on macroscopic surfaces. This report investigates the influence of the pH value of the surrounding medium on the amount and the activity of enzymes adsorbed to poly(2-vinylpyridine) and poly(acrylic acid) brushes, as well as the creation of thermoresponsive biocatalytically active coatings via the adsorption of enzymes onto a mixed brush consisting of a polyelectrolyte and temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacryl amide). Spectroscopic ellipsometry and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to monitor the adsorption process. Additionally, infrared spectra are evaluated in terms of the secondary structure of the enzymes. Glucose oxidase is used as a model enzyme, where the enzymatic activity is measured after different adsorption conditions. Poly(acrylic acid) brushes generally adsorb larger amounts of enzyme, while less glucose oxidase is found on poly(2-vinylpyridine), which however exhibits higher specific activity. This difference in activity could be attributed to a difference in secondary structure of the adsorbed enzyme. For glucose oxidase adsorbed to mixed brushes, switching of enzymatic activity between an active state at 20°C and a less active state at 40°C as compared to the free enzyme in solution is observed. However, this switching is strongly depending on pH in mixed brushes of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(N-isopropylacryl amide) due to interactions between the polymers. PMID:27447452

  7. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  8. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh Bahuguna; Madhuri K. Lily; Ashok Munjal; Ravindra N. Singh; Koushalya Dangwal

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil.The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No.GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively.The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT.However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation.The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7.In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT.Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  9. Kinetic modeling of oxidative desulfurization and catalyst deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.W.

    1986-01-01

    An oxidative-desulfurization (ODS) process was used to remove sulfur from diesel oils. The oxidants used were nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid. The feedstock under investigation was Atmospheric Gas Oil (AGO). Extraction of the oxidized oil with el-butyrolactone was used to remove additional sulfur from the oil. For a given solvent-to-oil (S/O) ratio, the extraction results from oxidized AGO showed higher sulfur removal than from the unoxidized oil. The ODS reactions are chain, free radical, auto-catalytic polymerization reactions similar to those in the sediment formation in fuel oil upon storage. Removal of sulfur by oxidation is from the deposition of co-product (residue) with high sulfur content. Increasing the oxidant concentration leads to increased residue formation, resulting in greater sulfur removal. A mathematical kinetic model is presented to describe the kinetics of sulfur removal in the oxidation of AGO using a CSTR. This model employs lumping of the sulfur compounds in the oil into three groups, according to their retention times in the gas chromatograph. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds usually poison catalysts in hydrocarbon processing. Models were developed to predict the cracking rate and catalyst activity in the cracking of cumene in the presence of organic nitrogen-containing poisons. A new mathematical definition of catalyst activity was used, including the adsorbed poison on active sites. Experimental data were used to fit the derived models, with excellent results. Finally, the use of exponential integral techniques to solve, analytically, the band-aging catalyst deactivation problem in an adiabatic fixed bed reactor is presented.

  10. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level. PMID:26368800

  11. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level.

  12. Studies on oxidative desulfurization (Part 1). Phase-transfer catalyzed oxidation of organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toritani, Koji; Nishida, Hiroshi; Sonoda, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    1987-03-25

    For application to the desulfurization of coal liquids, selective oxidations of organically bound sulfur were examined under phase-transfer catalyzed conditions. A range of inorganic oxidants were applied to phenyl sulfide, benzyl sulfide, dibenzothiophene, and benzo(b) thiophene. Peroxydisulfate in concentrated sulfuric acid was the most efficent compared to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfur dioxides. (2 figs, 3 tabs, 12 refs)

  13. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  14. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  15. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of an Industrial Gas Suspension Absorber for Flue Gas Desulfurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio;

    2016-01-01

    In this work, semidry desulfurization of flue gas using a gas suspension absorber (GSA) is studied. A simple dynamic model which can properly represent the GSA was developed. In order to model the reaction kinetics, an empirical reaction rate expression was introduced. The reaction rate expression...

  17. Ultra-deep Desulfurization of Diesel Highlighted as 2004 Major Advance in Green Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The sulfur levels in diesel have been increasingly restricted in the world out of environmental considerations. Environmental regulations to be applied by 2006 in Europe, the US and other countries, for instance, limit the level to less than 15 ppm. To meet these stringent conditions, novel desulfurization processes are needed to ensure sustainable and economically acceptable technology.

  18. Extractive Deep Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Lewis-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of green solvents, known as ionic liquids (ILs, has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of traditional hydrodesulfurization method. In present work, eleven Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized and employed as promising extractants for deep desulfurization of the liquid fuel containing dibenzothiophene (DBT to test the desulfurization efficiency. [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 was the most promising ionic liquid and performed the best among studied ionic liquids under the same operating conditions. It can remove dibenzothiophene from the model liquid fuel in the single-stage extraction process with the maximum desulfurization efficiency of 75.6%. It was also found that [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 may be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency of 47.3%. Huge saving on energy can be achieved if we make use of this ionic liquids behavior in process design, instead of regenerating ionic liquids after every time of extraction.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  20. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

  1. Effects of fluidized gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum on non-target freshwater and sediment dwelling organims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluidized gas desulfurization gypsum is a popular agricultural soil amendment used to increase calcium and sulfur contents, and reduce aluminum toxicity. Due to its surface application in conservation tillage systems and high solubility, the soluble components of gypsum may be transferred with agri...

  2. SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - SPRAY DRYER PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Described spray dryer flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from flue gas by an atomized lime slurry [Ca(OH)2]. he hot flue gas dries the droplets to form a dry waste product, while the absorbent reacts with sulfur d...

  3. MODELING OF SO2 REMOVAL IN SPRAY-DRYER FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the SO2 removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a sorbent droplet and absorption/reaction of SO2 in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transf...

  4. Tyramine-based enzymatic conjugate repeats for ultrasensitive immunoassay accompanying tyramine signal amplification with enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Tang, Yun; Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Tang, Dianping

    2014-08-19

    A new impedimetric immunoassay protocol based on enzyme-triggered formation of tyramine-enzyme repeats on gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was designed for highly sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, as a model) by virtue of utilizing enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation toward 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) on anti-CEA antibody (Ab1)-modified immunosensor. Initially, AuNP was functionalized with horseradish peroxidase and detection antibody (HRP-AuNP-Ab2), and then HRP-tyramine conjugate was utilized for the formation of tyramine-HRP repeats through the triggering of the immobilized HRP on the AuNP with the aid of H2O2. In the presence of target CEA, the carried HRP-tyramine repeats accompanying the sandwiched immunocomplex catalyzed the 4-CN oxidation to produce an insoluble precipitation on the immunosensor, thus causing a local alteration of the conductivity. Three signal-transduction tags including HRP-Ab2, HRP-AuNP-Ab2, and HRP-AuNP-Ab2 with HRP-tyramine repeats were employed for target CEA evaluation, and improved analytical properties were achieved by HRP-AuNP-Ab2 with HRP-tyramine repeats. Using the unique signal-transduction tag, the analytical performance of the impedimetric immunoassay was studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the impedimetric immunosensor displayed a wide dynamic working range of between 0.5 pg mL(-1) and 40 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.38 pg mL(-1) relative to target CEA. The coefficients of variation (CVs) were ≤9.3% and 13.3% for the intra-assay and interassay, respectively. The levels of CEA in eight clinical serum specimens were measured by using the developed impedimetric immunosensor. The obtained results correlated well with those from the electrochemiluminescent (ECL)-based immunoassay with a correlation coefficient of 0.998.

  5. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  6. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  7. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  8. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83-13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185-0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  9. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  10. Study on Desulfurization of SO_2 by Attapulgite/Calcium Oxide Compond Desulfurization Agent%凹凸棒石复合氧化钙脱硫剂脱除SO_2的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞树荣; 张婷; 戴虎虎; 王毅; 冯辉霞; 赵霞

    2009-01-01

    采用甘肃临泽产凹凸棒石(ATTP)与CaO复合,制成了具有吸附催化作用的脱硫剂.实验主要研究了CaO含量、脱硫剂含水率、床层温度对脱硫效率的影响.试验结果表明,CaO含量为20%~30%,脱硫荆含水率在20%-30%、床层温度为常温时,凹凸棒石基新型脱硫剂脱硫效果最好,硫容最大可达17.12%.%Attapulgite(ATTP), produced in Gansu Linze, and metal oxides CaO, which was used as a conventional desulfurizer, were used to prepare a kind of new desulfurizer. The influences of content of CaO, water content rate of desulfurizer, bed temperature on desulfurization had been studied. As a rusult, the sulfur tolerance of the desulfurizer reached 17.12%, when CaO is about 20%~30%, water content rate of desulfurizer is about 20%~30% and bed temperature is nomal.

  11. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  12. A complementary and synergistic effect of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏; 吴幼青

    1996-01-01

    57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate the evolution of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization. The results of phase analyses show that Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent is rapidly reduced in hot fuel gas and decomposed to new phases of highly dispersed microcrystalline elemental iron and zinc oxide, both of which become the active desulfurization constituents. A complementary and synergistic effect between active iron acting as a high sulfur capacity constituent and active zinc oxide acting as a deep refining desulfurization constituent exists in this type of sorbent for hot fuel gas desulfurization.

  13. Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel via dual activation by a protic ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Wang, Shunan; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Guo, Baocun

    2014-08-30

    A novel and green carboxylate-anion-based protic ionic liquid (PIL), [Hnmp]HCOO, was prepared through a simple and atom economic neutralization reaction between N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium (NMP) and formic acids. Both FT-IR spectra and (1)H NMR confirmed its simple salt structure. [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited so high catalytic activity that the dibenzothiophene (DBT) removal reached 99% at 50°C in 3h under conditions of VPIL/Vmodel oil=1:10 and H2O2/DBT (O/S, molar ratio)=5. The catalytic oxidation reactivity of S-compounds was found to be in the order of DBT>4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT)>benzothiophene (BT). The investigation on mechanism showed that oxidative desulfurization was realized through dual activation of PIL. Moreover, [Hnmp]HCOO can be recycled for five times with an unnoticeable decrease in desulfurization activity. PMID:25064259

  14. High polymer materials for flue gas desulfurization equipment - assessment of international know-how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.-G. (Technische Hochschule, Koethen (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Anlagenbau, WB Werkstoff- und Fertigungstechnik)

    1990-07-01

    Reviews available internal coating methods for flue gas desulfurization equipment exposed to aggressive compounds (sulfur dioxide and chlorides) that are released from brown coal combustion and other processes. Technologies for steel surface corrosion protection include vulcanization by chlorinated or isoprene rubber, coating by glass flakes or application of glass fiber reinforced vinyl ester resins. Composition of glass flake coatings are explained as well as methods of spray coating. Glass flakes are mixed with Novolak vinyl ester resins or other binder. Glass fiber reinforced vinyl ester resin is applied for pipes, scrubbers and other parts of desulfurization equipment, predominantly in smaller size. Efforts are made at using this material for larger equipment sections. Introduction of higher quality ECR glass fibers compared to regular E type glass fibers further increased fields of application. New manufacturing methods are being developed aimed at producing additional equipment sections from this material. 26 refs.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications.

  16. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (similar to 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  17. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Braganca; J.L. Castellan [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidised bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (about 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Numerical and experimental study on flue gas desulfurization in the underfeed circulating spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, M.; Jin, B.S.; Zhong, W.Q.; Yang, Y.P.; Xiao, R. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2010-05-01

    An underfeed circulating spouted bed (UCSB) reactor was used as a desulfurization apparatus. In this study, an attempt was made to build a mathematical 3D model which couples the complicated flow and chemical reactions in the interest of system analysis and sulfur removal data analysis. A simplified reaction model was developed to describe the SO{sub 2} absorption process. Humidifying, evaporation, neutralization reaction have been considered in the model while the dissolution and ionization of calcium hydroxide are neglected. The effect of operating parameters including feed style, injecting velocity, jet water flow rate, humidifying style on sulfur removal efficiency were investigated. The results show that the calculation gives a good description of the experimental data under the range of operating conditions. It indicates that the model is successful in predicting the desulfurization efficiency of the UCSB system.

  19. A New Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Process-Underfeed Circulating Spouted Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, M.; Jin, B. S.; Yang, Y. P.

    Applying an underfeed system, the underfeed circulating spouted bed was designed as a desulfurization reactor. The main objective of the technology is to improve the mixing effect and distribution uniformity of solid particles, and therefore to advance the desulfurization efficiency and calcium utility. In this article, a series of experimental studies were conducted to investigate the fluidization behavior of the solid-gas two-phase flow in the riser. The results show that the technology can distinctly improve the distribution of gas velocity and particle flux on sections compared with the facefeed style. Analysis of pressure fluctuation signals indicates that the operation parameters have significant influence on the flow field in the reaction bed. The existence of injecting flow near the underfeed nozzle has an evident effect on strengthening the particle mixing.

  20. Deep Extractive Desulfurization of Gasoline with Ionic Liquids Based on Metal Halide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haojie; He Jianxun; Yang Cairong; Zhang Hang

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid [Et3NH]Cl-FeCl3/CuCl was synthesized by mixing [Et3NH]Cl, anhydrous FeCl3 and anhydrous CuCl, and the desulfurization activity of this ionic liquid was tested. It exhibited remarkable ability in effective desulfurization of model gasoline (thiophene in n-octane) and lfuid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline, and the sulfur removal of thiophene in model oil (V(IL):V(oil)=0.08) could reach 93.9%in 50 min at 50℃. Low-sulfur (﹤10μg/g) FCC gasoline could be obtained after three extraction runs at an ionic liquid/oil volume ratio of 0.1, with the yield of FCC gasoline reaching 94.3%. The ionic liquid could be recycled 5 times with merely a slight decrease in activity.

  1. Low temperature oxidative desulfurization with hierarchically mesoporous titaniumsilicate Ti-SBA-2 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengxiang; Wang, Wenxuan; Liu, Ni; Xu, Xueyan; Wang, Danhong; Zhang, Minghui; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Tiehong

    2015-07-21

    Hierarchically porous Ti-SBA-2 with high framework Ti content (up to 5 wt%) was firstly synthesized by employing organic mesomorphous complexes of a cationic surfactant (CTAB) and an anionic polyelectrolyte (PAA) as templates. The material exhibited excellent performance in oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel at low temperature (40 °C or 25 °C) due to the unique hierarchically porous structure and high framework Ti content. PMID:26096231

  2. Oxidative desulfurization of fuels catalyzed by Fenton-like ionic liquids at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunqing; Zhu, Wenshuai; Li, Huaming; Yin, Sheng; Liu, Hua; Xie, Qingjie

    2011-03-21

    Oxidation of the sulfur-containing compounds benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) has been studied in a desulfurization system composed of model oil, hydrogen peroxide, and different types of ionic liquids [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/CuCl(2), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/ZnCl(2), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/SnCl(2), [(C(4)H(9))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [C(10)H(21)(CH(3))(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [(C(10)H(21))(2)(CH(3))(2)N]Cl/FeCl(3). Deep desulfurization is achieved in the Fenton-like ionic liquid [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) at 25 °C for 1 h. The desulfurization of DBT reaches 97.9%, in consuming very low amount of [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) (only 0.702 mmol). The reaction conditions, for example, the amount of [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) or H(2)O(2), the temperature, and the molar ratio of FeCl(3) to [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl, are investigated for this system. The oxidation reactivity of the different sulfur-containing compounds is found to decrease in the order of DBT>BT>4,6-DMDBT. The desulfurization system can be recycled six times without significant decrease in activity. The sulfur level of FCC gasoline could be reduced from 360 ppm to 110 ppm. PMID:21394927

  3. o-Iodoxybenzoic acid mediated oxidative desulfurization initiated domino reactions for synthesis of azoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pramod S; Pathare, Sagar P; Akamanchi, Krishnacharaya G

    2012-04-20

    A systematic exploration of thiophilic ability of o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) for oxidative desulfurization to trigger domino reactions leading to new methodologies for synthesis of different azoles is described. A variety of highly substituted oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles, triazoles, and tetrazoles have been successfully synthesized in good to excellent yields, starting from readily accessible thiosemicarbazides, bis-diarylthiourea, 1,3-disubtituted thiourea, and thioamides. PMID:22423599

  4. Desulfurization of fuels with ionic liquids by extraction and oxidative extraction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cabo, Borja

    2014-01-01

    The excessive emission of pollutants to the atmosphere has been a problem during the last few decades due to, among other reasons, the massive use of transports. In order to avoid this problem, many methods are being investigated as an alternative to the classical hydrodesulfurization technique, such as adsorption, biodesulfurization, extraction and oxidation. The extractive desulfurization is one of the most promising alternatives. Moreover, its enhancement with selective oxidation of sulfur...

  5. Experimental Study on Demercurization Performance of Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO, Jingjing; YANG, Linjun; YAN, Jinpei

    2009-01-01

    The demercurization performance of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system was investigated by measuring mercury concentrations at the inlet and outlet of WFGD system with a QM201H mercury analyzer. The selected desulfurizer included NH_3·H_2O, NaOH, Na_2CO_3, Ca(OH)_2 and CaCO_3. The influences of adding oxidant and coagulant such as KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions were also studied.The results show that elemental mercury is the main component of gaseous mercury in coal-fired flue gas, and the proportion of oxidized mercury is less than 36%. Oxidized mercury could be removed by WFGD system efficiently,and the removal efficiency could amount to 81.1%-92.6%. However, the concentration of elemental mercury slightly increased at the outlet of WFGD as a result of its insolubility and re-emission. Therefore, the removal efficiency of gaseous mercury is only 13.3%-18.3%. The mercury removal efficiency of WFGD system increased with increasing the liquid-gas ratio. In addition, adding KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions could increase the mercury removal efficiency obviously. Various additives have different effects, and Na_2S is demonstrated to be the most efficient, in which a mercury removal efficiency of 67.2% can be reached.

  6. Desulfurization of pyrolysis fuel produced from waste lube oils, tyres and plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Lal Baeza, Ana María; Bolonio Martín, David; Llamas Lois, Alberto; Lapuerta, M.; Canoira López, Laureano

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur compounds remaining in petroleum fractions from topping, hydroskimming or deep conversion processes are a growing concern for oil refiners since in the lapse of a few years the sulphur specification for motor fuels has dropped from 500 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg in most European countries. This increasingly stringent regulation has forced refineries to greatly improve their hydrodesulfurization units, increasing the desulfurization rates and thus consuming huge amounts of hydrogen.

  7. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Changes in sulfur form during coal desulfurization with microwave:Effect on coal properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ning; Tao Xiuxiang

    2015-01-01

    The changes in sulfur form in coal were analyzed by sulfur K-XANES (K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structures) spectra before and after the coal microwave desulfurization in a NaOH solution. After the desulfurization, the pyritic sulfur content of coal decreased significantly from 53.6%to 39.2%, while the sulfate sulfur content increased from 17.3% to 34.6%. Only a small amount of thiophene sulfur (20.1–16.1%) was removed. Some sulfur-containing components were oxidized to sulfate sulfur. Under the opti-mum conditions, the ash content decreased, while the volatile content increased. The calorific value of coal slightly decreased with a slight variation in the amplitudes. The overall structure of coal did not change significantly based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analyses. Thus, the desulfuriza-tion of coal with microwave irradiation in a NaOH solution did not significantly change the properties of coal.

  9. Oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel using amphiphilic quaternary ammonium phosphomolybdate catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jianghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zeng, Danlin; Tang, Yan [College of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Meng; Li, Yanjun [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Phosphomolybdic acid (HPMo) modified respectively with tetramethyl ammonium chloride (TMAC), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DTAC) and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HTAC) as the catalysts were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. The catalysts were evaluated for the oxidative desulfurization of benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and straight-run diesel using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. Results show that all of the catalysts keep the Keggin structures and are finely dispersed with mixing of quaternary ammonium salts. Hexadecyl chains are more favorable to wrap up DBT to the catalytic center and form stable emulsion system with higher conversion rates of DBT. The shorter dodecyl chains can wrap up BT more suitably and bring smaller steric hindrance, which display higher conversion rates of BT. The oxidative reactions fit apparent first-order kinetics, and the apparent activation energies of DBT are much lower than those of BT. The desulfurization rate of straight-run diesel can be up to 84.4% with the recovery rate of 98.1% catalyzed by [HPMo][HTAC]{sub 2} in 2 h. When increasing the extraction times, the desulfurization rates increase, but the recovery rates of diesel decrease significantly. (author)

  10. Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel via dual activation by a protic ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Hongying, E-mail: hylv@ytu.edu.cn; Wang, Shunan; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Guo, Baocun

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • A protic ionic liquid, [Hnmp]HCOO, was used as in ODS. • The mechanism of ODS was involved in dual activation by the PIL. • The [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited high catalytic activity in ODS. • The amounts of PILs and oxidant dosage play vital roles in desulfurization system. • This system can be recycled five times with an unnoticeable decrease in activity. - Abstract: A novel and green carboxylate-anion-based protic ionic liquid (PIL), [Hnmp]HCOO, was prepared through a simple and atom economic neutralization reaction between N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium (NMP) and formic acids. Both FT-IR spectra and {sup 1}H NMR confirmed its simple salt structure. [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited so high catalytic activity that the dibenzothiophene (DBT) removal reached 99% at 50 °C in 3 h under conditions of V{sub PIL}/V{sub model} {sub oil} = 1:10 and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/DBT (O/S, molar ratio) = 5. The catalytic oxidation reactivity of S-compounds was found to be in the order of DBT > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) > benzothiophene (BT). The investigation on mechanism showed that oxidative desulfurization was realized through dual activation of PIL. Moreover, [Hnmp]HCOO can be recycled for five times with an unnoticeable decrease in desulfurization activity.

  11. Competitive adsorption desulfurization performance over K - Doped NiY zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haizheng; Han, Xiaona; Huang, Haokai; Wang, Yuxian; Zhao, Liang; Cao, Liyuan; Shen, Baojian; Gao, Jinsen; Xu, Chunming

    2016-12-01

    NiY and KNiY were successfully prepared by impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The competitive adsorption mechanisms of adsorbents were studied by in situ FTIR to explain different desulfurization performance which was evaluated in a miniature fixed-bed flow by gasoline model compounds with 1-hexene or toluene. NiY and KNiY adsorbents showed better desulfurization performance than HY zeolite due to the high selectivity of loaded active metals. Especially, KNiY adsorbent showed its advantages in desulfurization performance with 5vol% olefins or 5vol% aromatics involvement. It could be assigned that introduced K cation enhanced dispersion and content of active Ni species on the surface which made Ni species reduce easily. On the other hand, adsorption mechanisms showed that the protonation reactions of thiophene and 1-hexene occurred on the Brönsted acid sites of NiY, which resulted in pore blockage and the coverage of adsorption active centers. By doping K cation on NiY, the amount of the Brönsted acid sites of NiY was decreased and protonation reactions were weaken. Therefore, the negative effects of Brönsted acid sites were reduced.

  12. Desulfurization of jet fuel for fuel cell-based APU systems in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Pasel, J.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To prevent the catalysts in fuel cell systems from poisoning by sulfur containing substances the fuel to be used must be desulfurized to a maximum of 10 ppmw of sulfur. Since the conventional hydrodesulfurization process employed in the refinery industry is not suitable for mobile fuel cell applications (e.g. auxiliary power units, APUs), the present study aims at developing an alternative process and determining its technical feasibility. A large number of processes were assessed with respect to their application in fuel cell APUs. The results revealed that a two-step process combining pervaporation and adsorption is a suitable process for the on-board desulfurization of jet fuel. The investigations to evaluate this process are presented in this paper. Seven different membrane materials and ten sorbent materials were screened to choose the most suitable candidates. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to optimize the operating conditions and to collect data for a pilot plant design. Different jet fuel qualities with up to 1650 ppmw of sulfur can be desulfurized to a level of 10 ppmw. (orig.)

  13. Effect of flue gas desulfurization residue on plant establishment and soil and leachate quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punshon, T.; Adriano, D.C.; Weber, J.T. [University of Georgia, Savannah, GA (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2001-06-01

    Effects on soil quality and crop establishment after incorporation of flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) into soil as an amendment was assessed in a mesocosm study. Mesocosm units received applications equivalent to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% FGD residue. Germination, biomass production, and elemental composition of corn, radish and cotton were determined. The quality of leachates and soil were also determined periodically. Flue gas desulfurization residue did not affect germination and all application rates stimulated aboveground biomass. Plants grown in FGD-amended soil contained significantly elevated tissue concentrations of As, B, Se, and Mo. The FGD residue elevated surface soil pH from 5.5 to 8.1. Leachate pH was unaffected by FGD, but salinity rose sharply with increasing application rates of FGD. Leachates contained higher concentrations of B, with small increases in Se and As. Flue gas desulfurization residue application caused an increase in total B, As, Mo, Se and extractable Ca in the soil, but decreased Mn and Zn. Using FGD residues could have beneficial effects on crop establishment without detrimental effects on soil or leachate quality, at an optimum rate of approximately 2.5%. This material could alleviate surface acidity, and B and Mo deficiencies in plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  15. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by a newly isolated Corynebacterium sp.ZD-1 in aqueous phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Miao-dong; LI Wei; WANG Da-hui; SHI Yao

    2004-01-01

    Sulfur emission through fuel combustion is a global problem because it is a major cause of acid rain. Crud oil contains many heterocyclic organic sulfur compounds, among which dibenzothiophene(DBT) and DBTs bearing alkyl substitutions usually are representative compounds. A strain was isolated from refinery sludge and identified as Corynebacterium ZD-1. The behavior of DBT degradation by ZD-1 in aqueous phase was investigated. Corynebacterium ZD-1 could metabolize DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl(2-HBP) as the dead-end metabolite through a sulfur-specific pathway. In shake flask culture, ZD-1 had its maximal desulfurization activity in the late exponential growth phase and the specific production rate of 2-HBP was about 0.14(mmol·kg dry cell-1·min-1, mmol·KDC-1·min-1). Active resting cells for desulfurization should be prepared only in this period. 2-HBP inhibited the growth of strain ZD-1, the production of DBT degradation enzymes, and the activity of enzymes. Sulfate inhibited the production of dibenzothiophene(DBT) degradation enzymes but had no effect on the enzymes' activity. The production rates of 2-HBP at lower cell densities were higher and the maximum amount conversion of DBT to 2-HBP(0.067 mmol/L) after 8 h was gained at 9.2(g dry cell/L) rather higher cell density. The results indicated that this newly isolated strain could be a promising biocatalyst for DBT desulfurization.

  16. Competitive adsorption desulfurization performance over K - Doped NiY zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haizheng; Han, Xiaona; Huang, Haokai; Wang, Yuxian; Zhao, Liang; Cao, Liyuan; Shen, Baojian; Gao, Jinsen; Xu, Chunming

    2016-12-01

    NiY and KNiY were successfully prepared by impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The competitive adsorption mechanisms of adsorbents were studied by in situ FTIR to explain different desulfurization performance which was evaluated in a miniature fixed-bed flow by gasoline model compounds with 1-hexene or toluene. NiY and KNiY adsorbents showed better desulfurization performance than HY zeolite due to the high selectivity of loaded active metals. Especially, KNiY adsorbent showed its advantages in desulfurization performance with 5vol% olefins or 5vol% aromatics involvement. It could be assigned that introduced K cation enhanced dispersion and content of active Ni species on the surface which made Ni species reduce easily. On the other hand, adsorption mechanisms showed that the protonation reactions of thiophene and 1-hexene occurred on the Brönsted acid sites of NiY, which resulted in pore blockage and the coverage of adsorption active centers. By doping K cation on NiY, the amount of the Brönsted acid sites of NiY was decreased and protonation reactions were weaken. Therefore, the negative effects of Brönsted acid sites were reduced. PMID:27552418

  17. Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene in the presence of iron chlorideionic liquid catalyst and ultrasound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Seyedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative Desulfurization of kerosene refinery in Tehran with sulfur content of 0/293% with iron chloride - hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonic liquid catalysts in the presence of acetic acid - formic acid and an oxidizinghydrogen peroxide has been studied. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, reaction time, mole ratio of moles of sulfur oxidation (no/ ns,mole ratio of moles of acid per mol of sulfur (nacid/ ns (on the desulfurization of kerosene checked(the molar ratio of oxidant to 15-40 and 20-80 mole ratio of sulfur to sulfur acidThe results showed that the optimal conditions for the removal of sulfur from iron chloride catalyst system kerosene by 93% and sulfur content of residual 128 ppm is obtained. The effect of ultrasonic waves on system performance oxidationwas studied, the results showed that the percentage of desulfurization systems, oxidation of acetic acid- hydrogen peroxide in combination with ultrasound (96% and without ultrasound was 93%, which indicates improved performance oxidation The presence of ultrasound.

  18. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  19. Bioprocessing of crude oils and desulfurization using electro-spray reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.; Borole, A.P.

    1998-07-01

    Biological removal of organic sulfur from petroleum feedstocks offers an attractive alternative to conventional thermochemical treatment due to the mild operating conditions afforded by the biocatalyst. Electro-spray bioreactors were investigated for use in desulfurization due to their reported operational cost savings relative to mechanically agitated reactors and their capability of forming emulsions < 5 {micro}m. Here, the rates dibenzothiophene (DBT) oxidation to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in hexadecane, by Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8 are compared in the two reactor systems. Desulfurization rates ranged from 1.0 and 5.0 mg 2-HBP/(dry g cells-h), independent of the reactor employed. The batch stirred reactor was capable of forming a very fine emulsion in the presence of the biocatalyst IGTS8, similar to that formed in the electro-spray reactors, presumably due to the fact that the biocatalyst produces its own surfactant. While electro-spray reactors did not prove to be advantageous for the IGTS8 desulfurization system, it may prove advantageous for systems which do not produce surface-active bioagents in addition to being mass transport limited.

  20. Desulfurization of petroleum by Co-60 gamma irradiation and analysis of products using GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur is an undesirable hetero-atom that has negative on motor engines if present in quantities between 50 and 180.000 ppm. Research has shown that sour petroleum can be 'sweetened' by gamma irradiation to de-sulfurize the crude oil. In this research we will report experimental results of desulfurizing petroleum locally procured. The objective is to improve the quality of product delivered to the motor market and also reduce the environmental pollution due to SO2 emissions from engines. The gamma irradiated (de-sulfurized petroleum was chemically analyzed using GC-MS. The preliminary results show that the petroleum is polymerized by gamma radiation to higher molecular mass. The un-irradiated petroleum had a sulfur concentration of 3.24% and 0.020% wt after gamma irradiation. The sulfur content was reduced by a factor of about 160 when dose was increased from zero to 50 kGys. GC-MS Chromatographs are presented for the identified hydrocarbons after gamma irradiation. (authors)

  1. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  2. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  3. Proteomics and Metabolomics Analyses to Elucidate the Desulfurization Pathway of Chelatococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Naba K; Bhagowati, Pabitra; Chaudhuri, Mihir K; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2016-01-01

    Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and alkylated DBT derivatives present in transport fuel through specific cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S) bonds by a newly isolated bacterium Chelatococcus sp. is reported for the first time. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the products of DBT degradation by Chelatococcus sp. showed the transient formation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) which was subsequently converted to 2-methoxybiphenyl (2-MBP) by methylation at the hydroxyl group of 2-HBP. The relative ratio of 2-HBP and 2-MBP formed after 96 h of bacterial growth was determined at 4:1 suggesting partial conversion of 2-HBP or rapid degradation of 2-MBP. Nevertheless, the enzyme involved in this conversion process remains to be identified. This production of 2-MBP rather than 2-HBP from DBT desulfurization has a significant metabolic advantage for enhancing the growth and sulfur utilization from DBT by Chelatococcus sp. and it also reduces the environmental pollution by 2-HBP. Furthermore, desulfurization of DBT derivatives such as 4-M-DBT and 4, 6-DM-DBT by Chelatococcus sp. resulted in formation of 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-biphenyl and 2-hydroxy -3, 3/- dimethyl-biphenyl, respectively as end product. The GC and X-ray fluorescence studies revealed that Chelatococcus sp. after 24 h of treatment at 37°C reduced the total sulfur content of diesel fuel by 12% by per gram resting cells, without compromising the quality of fuel. The LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digested intracellular proteins of Chelatococcus sp. when grown in DBT demonstrated the biosynthesis of 4S pathway desulfurizing enzymes viz. monoxygenases (DszC, DszA), desulfinase (DszB), and an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (DszD). Besides, several other intracellular proteins of Chelatococcus sp. having diverse biological functions were also identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Many of these enzymes are directly involved with desulfurization process whereas the other enzymes/proteins support growth

  4. Biocatalytic preparation and absolute configuration of enantiomerically pure fungistatic anti-2-benzylindane derivatives. Study of the detoxification mechanism by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Rivilla, Cristina; Aleu, Josefina; Grande Benito, Manuel; Collado, Isidro G

    2010-08-21

    Enantiomerically pure 2-benzylindane derivatives were prepared using biocatalytic methods and their absolute configuration determined. (1R,2S)-2-Benzylindan-1-ol ((1R,2S)-2) and (S)-2-benzylindan-1-one ((S)-3) were produced by fermenting baker's yeast. Lipase-mediated esterifications and hydrolysis of the corresponding racemic substrates gave rise to the enantiopure compounds (1S,2R)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1S,2R)-2) and (1R,2S)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1R,2S)-2), respectively. The antifungal activity of these products against two strains of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea was tested. The metabolism of anti-(+/-)-2-benzylindan-1-ol (anti-(+/-)-2) by B. cinerea as part of the fungal detoxification mechanism is also described and revealed interesting differences in the genome of both strains.

  5. Improvement of sodium-rich soil by gypsum from desulfurization process of coal combustion furnace in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadakata, M.; Iino, F.; Shiratori, J.; Hanaoka, H.; Ogawa, T.; Nitta, Y.; Matsumoto, S. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The authors propose using calcium sulfate from desulfurization process in China to improve sodium-rich soil (sodic soil) which leads to desertification, so that sodic soil, can be used for agriculture and the desulfurization process will become prevalent in China. The object of this research was to investigate the effect of desulfurization gypsum on the growth of wheat and corn in sodic soil in pots and in a field in the northern part of China. It showed 0.5 wt% of desulfurization gypsum provides a greater harvest than the control. The effect of the waste from semi-dry desulfurization process was also examined. The semi-dry FGD gypsum also could improve sodic soil at a mix ratio of 0.5 wt%. However, this was at the risk of damaging vegetation from the strong alkalinity. On the other hand, carbonation of the semi-dry FGD gypsum alleviated the strong alkalinity and provided better plant growth. 1 ref., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effect of Fe2O3 Addition in MgO-CaO Refractory on Desulfurization of Liquid Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yao-wu; LI Nan; CHEN Fang-yu

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Fe2O3 addition in MgO-CaO refractory on desulfurization of liquid iron were studied by SEM, EDA and chemical analysis. Fe2O3 of 1 % and 4 % were added to MgO-CaO refractory as the lining of graphite crucible in which 150 g iron powder with sulfur of 0.15 % was charged. It is found that when the sample is heated at 1 600 ℃ for 40 min, 60 min and 90 min, the addition with Fe2O3 of 1 % improves desulfurization greatly. However, the desulfurization ratio of the refractory with Fe2O3 addition of 4 % is less than that with Fe2O3 addition of 1 %. For the soaking time of 90 min, the desulfurization ratio is less than those of 40 min and 60 min. These phenomena were explained by the contrary roles of O2- and Fe2+ formed by reaction between liquid iron and Fe2O3 on desulfurization.

  7. Bioorganometallic chemistry: biocatalytic oxidation reactions with biomimetic nad+/nadh co-factors and [cp*rh(bpy)h]+ for selective organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Jochen; Hollman, Frank; Ho, The Vinh; Schnyder, Adrian; Fish, Richard H.; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-03-09

    The biocatalytic, regioselective hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl to the corresponding catechol was accomplished utilizing the monooxygenase 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA). The necessary natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) co-factor for this biocatalytic process was replaced by a biomimetic co-factor, N-benzylnicotinamide bromide, 1a. The interaction between the flavin (FAD) containing HbpA enzyme and the corresponding biomimetic NADH compound, N-benzyl-1,4-dihdronicotinamide, 1b, for hydride transfers, was shown to readily occur. The in situ recycling of the reduced NADH biomimic 1b from 1a was accomplished with [Cp*Rh(bpy)H](Cl); however, productive coupling of this regeneration reaction to the enzymatic hydroxylation reaction was not totally successful, due to a deactivation process concerning the HbpA enzyme peripheral groups; i.e., -SH or -NH{sub 2} possibly reacting with the precatalyst, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)](Cl){sub 2}, and thus inhibiting the co-factor regeneration process. The deactivation mechanism was studied, and a promising strategy of derivatizing these peripheral -SH or -NH{sub 2} groups with a polymer containing epoxide was successful in circumventing the undesired interaction between HbpA and the precatalyst. This latter strategy allowed tandem co-factor regeneration using 1a or 2a, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)](Cl){sub 2}, and formate ion, in conjunction with the polymer bound, FAD containing HbpA enzyme to provide the catechol product.

  8. 柴油氧化脱硫强化技术研究进展%Progress in Enhanced Technologies in the Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越; 杨丽娜; 刘志华; 徐俊博

    2011-01-01

    柴油氧化脱硫工艺简单,经济性强,受到了研究者的广泛关注。介绍了近年来柴油氧化脱硫中主要的强化技术及应用情况,主要包括离子液体氧化脱硫、超声波氧化脱硫、微波氧化脱硫、外加磁场氧化脱硫、光化学氧化脱硫和电化学氧化脱硫,分析了不同方法的优点和缺点,指出离子液体氧化脱硫是一种绿色和高效的脱硫工艺,应进一步加强理论研究,为工业生产奠定基础。%The oxidative desulfurization of diesel is a simple process with high economic value and has attracted much attention of researchers. The recent progress in enhanced technologies in the oxidative desulfurization of diesel and its application were reviewed. The enhanced technologies mainly include ionic liquids oxidation desulfurization, ultrasonic oxidation desulfurization, microwave oxidation desulfurization, oxidation desulfurization in the external magnetic field, photocatalytic oxidation desulfurization and electrochemical oxidation desulfurization. The advantages and disadvantages of each enhanced technology were introduced. It is proposed that ionic liquids oxidation desulfurization is a green, efficient desulfurization process. The theoretical research should be further strengthened to build the foundation for industrial production.

  9. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Rosazza, John P. N.

    2000-01-01

    The conversions of vanillic acid and O-benzylvanillic acid to vanillin were examined by using whole cells and enzyme preparations of Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646. With growing cultures, vanillic acid was decarboxylated (69% yield) to guaiacol and reduced (11% yield) to vanillyl alcohol. In resting Nocardia cells in buffer, 4-O-benzylvanillic acid was converted to the corresponding alcohol product without decarboxylation. Purified Nocardia carboxylic acid reductase, an ATP and NADPH-dependent...

  10. Biocatalytic weapons against micropollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Agathos, Spiros N.; Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology in the frame of the Knowledge-Based Bio and Green Economy (EMB2012)

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are present in areas of significant urbanization and affect treated and untreated wastewater, groundwater, drinking water as well as associated environmental matrices like sludges and sediments. The occurrence of these compounds at very low but environmentally relevant concentrations has earned them the collective term “micropollutants” while an important subgroup is causing concern because of t...

  11. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-12-31

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  12. Study on the reaction activity of CuO/y-Al2O3 for dry flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG Chao; ZHENG Ying; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2004-01-01

    The copper oxide bed regenerable adsorber process can efficiently remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas with no solid or liquid byproducts. This paper investigates the dry flue gas desulfurization activities of the CuO/γ-Al2O3 under different operation conditions finding that the dispersion degree of copper oxide can achieve a threshold value, which is 0.47mg/m2 carriers. The conclusion confirms that the sulfur capacity of desulfurizer is associated with flue gas' space velocity, reaction temperature, copper content and the structure of sorbent pellet, etc. And with the condition of the desulfurization reaction temperature 673 K, the space velocity 11 200 h-1 and the S/Cu mole ratio under 1, the sulfur removal efficiency can go upwards to 95%.

  13. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...... operation has been carried out. Foaming caused by 0.03 g SDS/(L slurry) reduced the desulfurization degree from 84 to 74% and the solids and limestone concentrations of the slurry from 58 to 48 g/(L slurry) and from 1.4 to 1.0 g/(L slurry), respectively. These effects were attributed to the foaming...... transferring small particles to the foam layer present on top of the slurry in the holding tank. The addition of 0.03 g antifoams/(L slurry) to SDS foam eliminated the foam, but the desulfurization degree remained low. Potential mechanisms for the observed behavior are analyzed. (c) 2014 American Institute of...

  14. Research Progress on Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oils%燃料油氧化脱硫研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 张明杰

    2013-01-01

    脱硫技术已成为国内外提高燃料油质量的关键因素.传统加氢脱硫技术(HDS)虽然能达到深度脱硫的目的,但耗氢量大、设备投资大、操作费用高,难以满足低硫清洁燃料油的生产需要;氧化脱硫技术(ODS)因其在较温和的条件下即可得到超低硫燃料油而引起人们的广泛关注.简单介绍了氧化脱硫机理,重点概述了H2O2氧化法、分子氧氧化法、有机过氧化物氧化法、高铁酸钾氧化法脱除燃料油中噻吩类硫化物的最新研究成果,并分析了各种方法的优缺点.%The desulfurization technology has become the key factor of improving the fuel oils quality at home and abroad. Although traditional hydrogenation desulfurization(HDS) can achieve the purpose of desulfurization, it is difficult to meet the needs of production of low sulfur and clean fuel oils because of larger consumption of hydrogen,bigger equipment investment,higher cost of operation. Oxidative desulfurization(ODS) can get ultra-low sulfur fuel oils under mild conditions. The mechanism of oxidative desulfurization was introduced. The latest research of H2O2 oxidation,molecular oxygen oxidation,organic peroxide oxidation and potassium ferrate oxidation desulfurization technology were summarized in this paper. And the advantages and disadvantages of different methods were analyzed.

  15. Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing of high sulfur coals by oxidation with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing process for cleaning high sulfur coals. • The process removes inorganic as well as organic sulfur components from high sulfur coals. • The process has less risk to chemists and other surroundings. - Abstract: The environmental consequences of energy production from coals are well known, and are driving the development of desulfurization technologies. In this investigation, ionic liquids were examined for extractive desulfurization and de-ashing in industrially important high sulfur sub-bituminous Indian coals. The ionic liquids, namely, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) and 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL2) were employed for desulfurization of a few Indian coal samples in presence of HCOOH/H2O2 and V2O5. Results show the maximum removal of 50.20% of the total sulfur, 48.00% of the organic sulfur, and 70.37 wt% of the ash in this process. The ionic liquids were recovered and subsequently used for further desulfurization. FT-IR spectra reveal the transformation of organic sulfur functionalities into the sulfoxides (S=O) and sulfones (-SO2) due to the oxidative reactions. The sulfate, pyrite and sulfides (aryls) signals in the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the oxidized coal samples showed sulfur transformation during the desulfurization process. The study demonstrates the removal of significant amount of inorganic as well as organic sulfur (aryls) components from the original high sulfur coal samples to make them cleaner

  16. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by nickel(0) complexes: evidence for electron transfer in oxidative additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.; Hallenbeck, L.E.; Han, K.I.

    1983-09-09

    Two equivalents of the complex (2,2'-bipyridyl)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel(0) cleave dibenzothiophene in homogeneous media to form nickel-substituted biphenyl derivatives and nickel sulfide. The cleavage proceeds more readily in tetrahydrofuran (THF) than in benzene solution, and excess amine (either bipyridyl or pyridine) retards the reaction. Neither biphenylene nor 2-phenylbenzenethiol was a detectable transient in the desulfurization process. The possible fleeting formation of biphenylene was ruled out by a study of the desulfurized products obtained from the 2,8-dimethyl and the 3,7-dimethyl derivatives of dibenzothiophene. A possible role of nickel hydride in some of the C-S bond cleavage is suspected from the observed effects of either acid or lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH/sub 4/) used in the workup of the reaction mixture. The reaction is not catalytic in nickel when an excess of LiAlH/sub 4/ is used; indicating that Ni(0) cannot be regenerated from NiS under these conditions. The observed cleavage of approx. 50% of the dibenzothiophene by 2 equiv of (2,2'-bipyridyl)(1,5-cyclooctadiene) nickel ((C/sub 10/H/sub 8/N/sub 2/)Ni(C/sub 8/H/sub 12/)) is ascribed to the gradual formation of bis(cyclooctadiene) nickel ((C/sub 10/H/sub 8/N/sub 2/)/sub 2/Ni) which is ineffectual in cleaving dibenzothiophene. Finally, the relative reactivity of the dibenzothiophenes (dibenzothiophene > 2,8-dimethyldibenzothiophene >> 3,7-dimethyldibenzothiophene), the relative effectiveness of amine donors or solvents, and the observed hydrogen abstraction from the solvent are interpreted in terms of an electron-transfer mode of action by the nickel(0) desulfurizing agent.

  17. An extremely rapid, convenient and mild coal desulfurization new process: Sodium borohydride reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Jia, Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The present work describes the desulfurization of coal using mildly reductive method. Both a Yanzhou and a Yanshan coal (referred to as YZ and YS coal, respectively), were treated in an aqueous media employing sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as reducing agent, which is a well known hydrogen storage. Reaction variables investigated include concentration of reductant, time, pH of initial media, temperature, stirring rate and particle size. The calorific values and ignition temperatures of the coal samples before and after treatment were determined. Results show that the total sulfur removal improved with the increase in the concentration of NaBH{sub 4}, shaking rate and temperature and with the decrease in the particle size. Meanwhile, decreasing the particle size from - 250 to - 109 {mu}m increased the organic sulfur removal by more than six times for either of the coal samples. Considering economic rationality and operational convenience, the desulfurization conditions determined were 1.6 mM of NaBH{sub 4} concentration, - 109 {mu}m of particle size, neutral pH of initial media, 1 min of treated time, 100 rpm of shaking rate, 30 C of temperature. This led to 23.8% and 59.0% reduction in the pyritic, 70.4% and 100% reduction in the sulfate, and 11.0% and 15.0% reduction in the organic sulfur, giving 31.3% and 40.8% reduction in the total sulfur for the YZ coal and the YS coal, respectively. Moreover, this resulted in the increase in the calorific values by 3.4-6.9% and the decrease in the ignition temperatures by 2-21 C for the coal samples. The desulfurization method described here is extremely rapid, convenient, inexpensive and mild, and therefore, has considerable technological interest. (author)

  18. Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by a low-cost adsorbent dry desulfurization slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; You, Ruirong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Yu, Yan, E-mail: yuyan_1972@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, New Campus, Minhou, Fujian Province 350108 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Dry desulfurization slag, solid waste, was an efficient adsorbent for lead removal. • The adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} onto dry desulfurization slag was generally monolayer. • The rate limiting step in the adsorption process of Pb{sup 2+} was chemisorption. • Pb{sup 2+} was absorbed onto the surface of the sample adsorbent only. • The adsorbent was low-cost and could be recycled. - Abstract: A collectable and non-sintered material prepared as hollow cylindrical shaped pellet from dry desulfurization slag (FGD ash) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for wastewater treatments is tested. The characteristic results of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) show that –OH, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, SO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} are the possible functional groups responsible for Pb uptake. Adsorption data indicate that Pb removal is pH dependent and optimal at pH 6, with a very rapid initial removal that reaches equilibrium in about 90 min. A maximum removal of 99.2% is seen for 5 mg/L (pH of 6); higher initial Pb concentrations reduce overall removal efficiencies, but generate higher surface loadings. Adsorption process correlates well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models, although the Langmuir isotherm is more favored, providing a maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of 130.2 mg/g (13 wt%). Pseudo-second order rate kinetic model best describes the Pb removal, and calculated R{sub L} values between 0 and 1, indicate a favored adsorption process that is chemisorption limited. SEM and EDAX analysis of the surface and fracture surface show that Pb occurs as surface precipitates and that Pb is not distributed to the inner core of the pellet. This study demonstrates that dry FGD ash could be successfully used for wastewater Pb removal.

  19. Mechanism of flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using the highly reactive absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Yi; SUN; Xiaojun; XU; Peiyao; MA; Shuangchen; WANG; L

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash, industry-grade lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive were used to prepare the "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using the highly reactive absorbent in the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Removal efficiencies of 94.5% for SO2 and 64.2% for NO were obtained respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, common highly reactive absorbent, "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The white flake layers were observed in the SEM images about surfaces of the common highly reactive absorbent and "Oxygen- riched" one, and the particle surfaces of the spent absorbent were porous. The content of calcium on surface was higher than that of the average in the highly reactive absorbent. The manganese compound additive dispersed uniformly on the surfaces of the "Oxygen- riched" highly reactive absorbent. There was a sulfur peak in the energy spectra pictures of the spent absorbent. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods, and the results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the absorbent except sulfur species, and SO2 and NO were removed by chemical absorption according to the experimental results of X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis. Sulfate being the main desulfurization products, nitrite was the main denitrification ones during the process, in which NO was oxidized rapidly to NO2 and absorbed by the chemical reaction.

  20. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H2S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H2S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H2S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H2S loading rate of 52 g S–H2S m−3 h−1 and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H2S m−3 h−1. Stepwise increases of the inlet H2S concentration up to 10,000 ppmv lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H2S m−3 h−1. The H2S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H2S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H2S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H2S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred

  1. Rapid Regeneration of Chelated Iron Desulfurization Solution Using Electrochemical Reactor with Rotating Cylindrical Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永; 刘有智; 祁贵生

    2014-01-01

    A new electrochemical reactor with rotating cylindrical electrodes was designed and used to increase the regeneration efficiency of chelated iron desulfurization solution. The influence of operating parameters, such as the rotation speed of electrode, voltage, and inlet air and liquid flow rates, on the regeneration rate was investigated. Compared with the traditional tank-type reactor, the regeneration rate with the new electrochemical reactor was in-creased significantly. Under the optimum conditions, the regeneration rate was increased from 45.3% to 84.8%. Experimental results of continuous operation indicated that the new electrochemical regeneration method had some merits including higher regeneration efficiency, smaller equipment size and good stability in operation.

  2. OH radicals generated by DC corona discharge for improving the pulsed discharge desulfuration efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LI Guo-feng; WU Yan; WANG Ning-hui; HUANG Qiu-nan

    2004-01-01

    Positive DC corona discharge is formed with needle-plate electrode configuration, in which the water vapor is ejected though the needle points. The purpose is to increase the numbers of the water-based radicals, ionize the water molecule and improve the desulfuration efficiency of pulsed corona reactor. The water ions were determined by four stages molecular beam mass spectrometer and diagnose the water-based radicals by emission spectrograph. A conclusion on formation of ions and radicals with DC corona discharges can be drawn.

  3. THE APPLICATION OF REVERSE FLOCCULATION METHOD IN HIGH SULFUR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏; 张素清

    1999-01-01

    The reverse flocculation method for removing pyritic sulfur from high sulfur coals has been conceptually developed and investigated. The tentative tests on China high sulfur coals have shown that this advanced physical separation technique can be very efficient in coal desulfurization, provided the process parameters are properly optimized. Under the circumstances of acquiring high coal recovery, the total sulfur rejection with four kinds of coal samples normally falls in the range 5?% to 71% by one-step reverse flocculation, and within the range 40% to 59% by one-step normal flocculation process.

  4. Froth flotation pretreatment for enhancing desulfurization of coal with sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdurrahman Saydut; Yalcin Tonbul; Akin Baysal; M. Zahir Duz; Candan Hamamci [Iowa State University, Ames, IO (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Froth flotation (FF) pretreatment of coal from Hazro, Turkey, for enhancing desulfurization with sodium hydroxide was investigated. FF reduced following contents of coal: ash, 58.54; pyritic sulfur, 79.34; and volatile matter, 56.98%. The coal flotation was 69.59%. FF could not remove organic sulfur. Coal concentration obtained from flotation was leached using aqueous Nah. and its organic sulfur content was reduced by 59.27%. Hence using combination of two methods, total sulfur, ash and volatile matter contents was reduced by 88.06%, 63.13% and 77.32%, respectively.

  5. An experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a pilot spray dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Canadas, L. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm{sup 3}/h spray-drying desulfurization pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/S ratio, approach to saturation temperature, unit load changes, and the utilization of seawater as make-up water on both spray dryer behavior and treated flue gas properties were analyzed. This experimental study allows us to reach some conclusions about how to achieve optimum operating conditions and to assess the impact of spray drying on a downstream ESP. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Highly stable and regenerable Mn-based/SBA-15 sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F.M. [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, B.S., E-mail: bingsiliu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Y.; Guo, Y.H.; Wan, Z.Y.; Subhan, Fazle [Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of mesoporous Cu{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z}/SBA-15 sorbents were fabricated for hot coal gas desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 sorbent with high breakthrough sulfur capacity is high stable and regenerable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of SBA-15 constrained the sintering and pulverization of sorbents. - Abstract: A series of mesoporous xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents with different Cu/Mn atomic ratios were prepared by wet impregnation method and their desulfurization performance in hot coal gas was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the range of 700-850 Degree-Sign C. The successive nine desulfurization-regeneration cycles at 800 Degree-Sign C revealed that 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 presented high performance with durable regeneration ability due to the high dispersion of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles incorporated with a certain amount of copper oxides. The breakthrough sulfur capacity of 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 observed 800 Degree-Sign C is 13.8 g S/100 g sorbents, which is remarkably higher than these of 40 wt%LaFeO{sub 3}/SBA-15 (4.8 g S/100 g sorbents) and 50 wt%LaFe{sub 2}O{sub x}/MCM-41 (5.58 g S/100 g sorbents) used only at 500-550 Degree-Sign C. This suggested that the loading of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} active species with high thermal stability to SBA-15 support significantly increased sulfur capacity at relatively higher sulfidation temperature. The fresh and used xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, XPS, XAES, TG/DSC and HRTEM techniques, confirmed that the structure of the sorbents remained intact before and after hot coal gas desulfurization.

  7. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  8. 铝酸钡与氢氧化钡脱硫过程比较%Comparison of Barium Aluminate and Barium Hydroxide Desulfurization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念炳; 黎志英; 丁彤

    2012-01-01

    The seed precipitation liquor was desulfurized with barium aluminate and barium hydroxide respectively. The desulfurization slag was characterized by XRD analysis, and the desulfurization process was compared. The results show that barium hydroxide exceeds barium aluminate with better desulfurization in terms of effect, speed and duration. In the desulfurization process with barium aluminate, 2BaO · Al2O3 · 5H2O is firstly produced in the reaction of barium aluminate with alkali, and then it reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate. To compare, Ba(OH)2 · 8H2O directly reacts with sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate in the desulfurization process with barium hydroxide. Both of desulfurization reaction processes can be described with "shrinking core model".%用铝酸钡和氢氧化钡对种分母液进行脱硫试验,对脱硫渣进行XRD分析,并比较脱硫过程.结果表明,氢氧化钡的脱硫效果更好,脱硫完成时间更短,速率更快;铝酸钡先与碱液反应生成2BaO·Al2O3·5H2O,再与硫碱和碳碱反应,而氢氧化钡直接与硫碱和碳碱反应,脱硫过程均可用未反应核模型描述.

  9. 氧化镁脱硫工艺简介及影响脱硫率原因浅析%Magnesium Oxide Desulfurization Process and Influencing Factors for Desulfurization Degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冉; 段军旎; 李方; 李士刚

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,following the high speed development of domestic economy,the extensive consumptionof resources has caused poor air quality,which brings unfavorable influence on people’s health.Therefore,the nation has attached great importance on environmental protection.As a result,emissions from enterprises,especially desulfurization facilities of boilers are being strictly restricted.The magnesium oxide desulfuration mode,technical requirements and rea-sons affecting desulfurization effect were analyzed,aiming to provide reference to the increasing of magnesium oxide desul-furization rate.%近年来,粗放式能源消耗模式致使大气质量变差,也给民众的身心健康带来了不利影响。为此,国家加强了对环境保护的重视,严格控制企业排放,特别是对锅炉的脱硫设施制定了严格的要求。就氧化镁脱硫方式、工艺要求及使用过程中影响脱硫效果的原因进行分析,为提高氧化镁脱硫率提供借鉴。

  10. Numerical Simulation of Desulfurization Behavior in Gas-Stirred Systems Based on Computation Fluid Dynamics-Simultaneous Reaction Model (CFD-SRM) Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2014-10-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-simultaneous reaction model (CFD-SRM) coupled model has been proposed to describe the desulfurization behavior in a gas-stirred ladle. For the desulfurization thermodynamics, different models were investigated to determine sulfide capacity and oxygen activity. For the desulfurization kinetic, the effect of bubbly plume flow, as well as oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are considered. The thermodynamic and kinetic modification coefficients are proposed to fit the measured data, respectively. Finally, the effects of slag basicity and gas flow rate on the desulfurization efficiency are investigated. The results show that as the interfacial reactions (Al2O3)-(FeO)-(SiO2)-(MnO)-[S]-[O] simultaneous kinetic equilibrium is adopted to determine the oxygen activity, and the Young's model with the modification coefficient R th of 1.5 is adopted to determine slag sulfide capacity, the predicted sulfur distribution ratio LS agrees well with the measured data. With an increase of the gas blowing time, the predicted desulfurization rate gradually decreased, and when the modification parameter R k is 0.8, the predicted sulfur content changing with time in ladle agrees well with the measured data. If the oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are not considered in this model, then the sulfur removal rate in the ladle would be overestimated, and this trend would become more obvious with an increase of the gas flow rate and decrease of the slag layer height. With the slag basicity increasing, the total desulfurization ratio increases; however, the total desulfurization ratio changes weakly as the slag basicity exceeds 7. With the increase of the gas flow rate, the desulfurization ratio first increases and then decreases. When the gas flow rate is 200 NL/min, the desulfurization ratio reaches a maximum value in an 80-ton gas-stirred ladle.

  11. Development of secondary salt recovery technology from desulfurization waste water%脱硫废液中副盐回收技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建孝; 杨建杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a conclusion for dry desulfurization and wet desulfurization ,introduces the principle and methods of desulfurization waste water treatment such as partial conversion ,com-plete conversion , multistep crystallization and diaphragm separation , and analyzes the problems of each method .%对干法脱硫和湿法脱硫方法进行归纳总结,介绍了部分转化、全部转化、分步结晶、膜分离等方法处理脱硫废液的原理及方法,并对其存在的问题进行分析。

  12. Effect of the water-vapor content on the oxidative desulfurization of sulfur-rich coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Pysh' yev; K. Shevchuk; L. Chmielarz; P. Kutrowski; A. Pattek-Janczyk [Lviv Polytecnik National University, Lviv (Ukraine). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2007-01-15

    Ukrainian sulfur-rich coal containing about 3.6 mass % of sulfur was studied. The desulfurization process was performed in the fluidized-bed reactor in dry (4 vol % of H{sub 2}O vapor) and wet (30-70 vol % of H{sub 2}O vapor) atmospheres in the temperature range of 350-450{sup o}C. A significant influence of the water-vapor content in the reaction mixture on the sulfur removal during the oxidative desulfurization of the coal was observed especially at low temperatures. The extent of FeS{sub 2} oxidation, the main sulfur-containing compound, was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The Moessbauer data revealed different iron-containing products (FeSO{sub 4}nH{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Fe{sub 1-x}S) formed in the course of the process carried out in dry and wet atmospheres. The promoting effect of water vapor on the pyrite transformation was observed especially at low temperatures. The mechanism of this promotion on the molecular scale was proposed. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of liquid fuels and its industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-08-01

    Latest environmental regulations require a very deep desulfurization to meet the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD, 15 ppm sulfur) specifications. Due to the disadvantages of hydrotreating technology on the slashing production conditions, costs and safety as well as environmental protection, the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) as an alternative technology has been developed. UAOD process selectively oxidizes sulfur in common thiophenes in diesel to sulfoxides and sulfones which can be removed via selective adsorption or extractant. SulphCo has successfully used a 5000 barrel/day mobile "Sonocracking" unit to duplicate on a commercial scale its proprietary process that applies ultrasonics at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The UAOD technology estimate capital costs less than half the cost of a new high-pressure hydrotreater. The physical and chemical mechanisms of UAOD process are illustrated, and the effective factors, such as ultrasonic frequency and power, oxidants, catalysts, phase-transfer agent, extractant and adsorbent, on reaction kinetics and product recovery are discussed in this review. PMID:20022546

  14. An Oxidative Desulfurization Catalyst Based on Bimodal Mesoporous Silica Containing Quaternary Ammonium Heteropolyphosphamolybdenum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian; Wu Haishun; Yang Lina; Ma Bo

    2016-01-01

    A bimodal mesoporous silica (BMMS) modiifed with amphiphilic compound (C19H42N)3(PMo12O40) (CTA-PMO) was prepared by the two-step impregnation method. Firstly, H3PMo12O40 was introduced into the bimodal mesoporous silica via impregnation, then C19H42NBr (CTAB) was grafted on the surface of BMMS containing H3PMo12O40 based on the chemical reaction between quaternary ammonium compound and the phosphomolybdic acid, and then the catalyst CTA-PMO/BMMS was obtained. The samples were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and desorption, FTIR,31P-NMR, 29Si-NMR and TEM analyses. It is shown that the catalyst has a typical bimodal mesoporous structure, in which the small mesopore diameter is about 3.0 nm and the large mesopore diameter is about 5.0 nm. The chemical interaction happens between the Keggin structure and silica group of BMMS. Compared with the mono-modal porous Hβ and SBA-15 zeolites modiifed with CTA-PMO, CTA-PMO/BMMS showed better catalytic activity in the oxidative conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT), and the desulfurization rate can reach about 94% with the help of extraction, and the catalyst can be separated by ifltration and reused directly. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization mechanism on CTA-PMO/BMMS was proposed and veriifed.

  15. Desulfurization of diesel by oxidation/extraction scheme. Influence of the extraction solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Verduzco, L.F.; Torres-Garcia, E.; Gomez-Quintana, R.; Gonzalez-Pena, V.; Murrieta-Guevara, F. [Programa de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, CP 07730 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-11-24

    Due to the future specifications for sulfur content in middle distillate like diesel, a lot of research work has been done to develop alternative methods for desulfurization. This work presents the results for the desulfurization of diesel by an oxidation and extraction (O/E) scheme. This process can be considered like a post-treatment to the traditional hydrodesulfurization. A diesel with 320ppmw of total sulfur was employed to evaluate the elimination of sulfur compounds. The oxidation reaction was carried out with hydrogen peroxide at 30wt.%, in a heterogeneous system with a WO{sub x}/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst at 15wt.% of W; the extraction was performed with four polar solvents. The experiments were done in a batch reactor at 333K and atmospheric pressure. As an average, the sulfur content in the diesel after treatment was 90ppmw. A speciation of the sulfur compounds before and after O/E scheme was also included. Additionally, solubility data of dibenzothiophene sulfone in the polar solvents as a function of temperature were obtained.

  16. Performance and characterization of a newly developed self-agitated anaerobic reactor with biological desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You

    2011-05-01

    The continuous operation of a newly developed methane fermentation reactor, which requires no electricity for the agitation of the fermentation liquid was investigated, and the extent of the biological desulfurization was monitored. Inside the reactor, the continual change in the liquid level and the self-agitation, occurring between 5 and 16 times every day, distributed the organic load near the inlet port of the reactor, as well as providing a nutrient supply to the hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria. At different COD(Cr) loading rates (5, 7, 10 kg m(3)d(-1)), the reactor achieved a biogas production yield of 0.72-0.82 m(3)g(-1)-TS, a COD(Cr) reduction of 79.4-85.5% and an average of 99% hydrogen sulfide removal. This investigation demonstrated that the self-agitated reactor is comparable in digestion performance to the completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) investigated in a previous study, and that the desulfurization performance was significantly enhanced compared to the CSTR.

  17. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  18. Sulfite oxidation in seawater flue gas desulfurization by a pulsed corona discharge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, N.A.; Zhang, X.W.; Lei, L.C. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2009-12-10

    For seawater flue gas desulfurization (SWFGD), oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) in the effluent of the gas desulfurization (FGD) system is very critical for its industrial application, because the additional S(IV) results in high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value. This paper reports a novel pulsed corona discharge oxidation process to convert S(IV) to S(VI) by use of a cylindrical wetted-wall pulsed high voltage reactor. Several important parameters, including pH values, flow rate of the solution, voltage, electrode radius and the length of the plasma region, were investigated for S(IV) oxidation and energy efficiency (G) of the process. After discharge for 12 min, with the electrode radius of 8 mm, pH value of 3, flow rate of 40 Lh{sup -1}, more than 95% of S(IV) was oxidized and the energy efficiency was about 5.8 x 10{sup -9} mol J{sup -1}. Compared with the traditional air oxidation process, the plasma-induced oxidation is a promising and attractive technology for the SWFGD system.

  19. Scandium-Triflate/Metal-Organic Frameworks: Remarkable Adsorbents for Desulfurization and Denitrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Scandium-triflate (Sc(OTf)3) was introduced for the first time on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), to utilize acidic Sc(OTf)3 for adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation of fuel containing benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), quinoline (QUI), and indole (IND). A remarkable improvement in the adsorption capacity (about 65% based on the weight of adsorbents; 90% based on the surface area of the adsorbents) was observed with the Sc(OTf)3/MOFs as compared to the virgin MOFs for the adsorption of BT from liquid fuel. The basic QUI was also adsorbed preferentially onto the acidic Sc(OTf)3/MOFs. However, nonsupported Sc(OTf)3 showed negligible adsorption capacities. The improved adsorptive performance for BT, DBT, and QUI might be derived from acid-base interactions between the acidic Sc(OTf)3 and basic adsorbates. On the other hand, the Sc(OTf)3, loaded on MOFs, reduced the adsorption capacity for neutral IND due to lack of interaction between the neutral adsorbate and acidic adsorbent and the reduced porosities of the modified adsorbents. The reusability of the adsorbents was found satisfactory up to the fourth run. On the basis of the result, it is suggested that metal-triflates, such as Sc(OTf)3, can be prospective materials for adsorptive desulfurization/denitrogenation of fuels when supported on porous materials such as MOFs. PMID:26575418

  20. Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Titania Nanomaterial for Desulfurization of Model Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik A. Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reported on the development of novel nanomaterials of multiwalled carbon nanotubes doped with titania (CNT/TiO2 for the adsorptive desulfurization of model fuel oils. Various analytical techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were used for the characterization of the nanomaterials. The initial results indicated the effectiveness of the prepared CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials in removing sulfur compounds from model fuel oil. The adsorption of DBT, BT, and thiophene from model fuel onto the derived sorbents was performed using batch mode system. These CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials initially afforded approximately 45% removal of DBT, 55% BT, and more than 65% thiophene compounds from model fuels. The CNT/TiO2 nanomaterials provided an excellent activity towards interaction with organosulfur compounds. More experiments are underway to optimize the parameters for the adsorptive desulfurization processes. We believe that these nanomaterials as adsorbents will find useful applications in petroleum industry because of their operational simplicity, high efficiency, and high capacity.

  1. 煤炭洗选脱硫技术%Coal Washing and Desulfurization Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华斌; 胡芳

    2014-01-01

    All kinds of coal desulfurization technology are introduced ,providing a scientific basis for the combination of multiple washing and desulfurization techniques ,such as dense medium , jigging and float-ing .Our pithead coal preparation plant employed the combined techniques to obtain varied washing prod-ucts for reasonable valid use of coal resources , and reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants emissions while burning them to protect the ecological environment ,realizing high efficiency and purification coal re-sources .%介绍了各种煤炭脱硫技术,为重介质法、跳汰法、浮选法等多种洗选脱硫方法的联合提供科学依据。本矿井选煤厂采用该脱硫方法,获得了不同品种的洗选产品,合理有效利用煤炭资源,大大减少洗选产品燃烧时二氧化硫及其它污染物的排放,保护生态环境,实现了煤炭资源的高效洁净利用。

  2. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  3. A green surfactant-assisted synthesis of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with excellent catalytic properties for oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuting; Li, Fen; Sun, Qiming; Wang, Ning; Jia, Mingjun; Yu, Jihong

    2016-02-25

    Hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with uniform intracrystalline mesopores have been successfully synthesized through the hydrothermal method by using the green and cheap surfactant Triton X-100 as the mesoporous template. The resultant materials exhibit remarkably enhanced catalytic activity in oxidative desulfurization reactions compared to the conventional TS-1 zeolite. PMID:26881277

  4. Photocatalytic Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by TiO2 in [BMIm]Cu2CI3 Ionic Liguid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fatang; Liu Ruihong; Sun Zhimin

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of gasoline in [BMIm]Cu2C13 ionic liquid was studied.A 500-W high-pressure mercury lamp was used as the light source for irradiation,nano-TiO2 was used as the photocatalyst and air was introduced by a gas pump to supply 02 as the oxidant.Influence of the ratio of V(ionic liquid) to V(oil) and the TiO2 addition on the desulfurization rate of gasoline was investigated.An oxidative kinetics equation was founded.The results showed that the [BMIm]CuaCI3 ionic liquid was an effective extractant for the desulfurization of gasoline.The appropriate TiO2 addition was 0.05 g in 50 mL of reaction mixture.The yield of desulfurized gasoline could reach 98.2% after being subjected to reaction for 2 h under the conditions of adopting a ratio of V(ionic liquid): V(oil)=1:4,an air flow of 100 mL/min and a TiO2 addition dosage of 0.05 g.The kinetics reaction for photo-oxidation of gasoline was a first-order reaction with an apparent rate constant of 1.9664 h-1 and a half-time of 0.3525 h.

  5. A template-free solvent-mediated synthesis of high surface area boron nitride nanosheets for aerobic oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peiwen; Zhu, Wenshuai; Chao, Yanhong; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhu, Huiyuan; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Huaming; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNs) with rather high specific surface area (SSA) are important two-dimensional layer-structured materials. Here, a solvent-mediated synthesis of h-BNNs revealed a template-free lattice plane control strategy that induced high SSA nanoporous structured h-BNNs with outstanding aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance. PMID:26502800

  6. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  7. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83—13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185—0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  8. Recovery of lead from lead paste in spent lead acid battery by hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunjian; Qiu, Keqiang

    2015-06-01

    Lead sulfate, lead oxides and lead metal are the main component of lead paste in spent lead acid battery. When lead sulfate was desulfurized and transformed into lead carbonate by sodium carbonate, lead metal and lead oxides remained unchanged. Lead carbonate is easily decomposed to lead oxide and carbon dioxide under high temperature. Namely, vacuum thermal process is the reduction reaction of lead oxides. A compatible environmental process consisted of hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction to recycle lead was investigated in this research. Lead paste was firstly desulfurized with sodium carbonate, by which, the content of sulfur declined from 7.87% to 0.26%. Then, the desulfurized lead paste was reduced by charcoal under vacuum. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., vacuum thermal reduction at temperature 850°C under 20 Pa for 45 min, a 22.11×10(-2) g cm(-2) min(-1) reduction rate, and a 98.13% direct recovery ratio of fine lead (99.77%) had been achieved, respectively.

  9. Experimental study on the reuse of spent rapidly hydrated sorbent for circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu

    2011-11-01

    Rapidly hydrated sorbent, prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime, is a highly effective sorbent for moderate temperature circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) process. The residence time of fine calcium-containing particles in CFB reactors increases by adhering on the surface of larger adhesive carrier particles, which contributes to higher sorbent calcium conversion ratio. The circulation ash of CFB boilers (α-adhesive carrier particles) and the spent sorbent (β and γ-adhesive carrier particles) were used as adhesive carrier particles for producing the rapidly hydrated sorbent. Particle physical characteristic analysis, abrasion characteristics in fluidized bed and desulfurization characteristics in TGA and CFB-FGD systems were investigated for various types of rapidly hydrated sorbent (α, β, and γ-sorbent). The adhesion ability of γ-sorbent was 50.1% higher than that of α-sorbent. The abrasion ratio of β and γ-sorbent was 16.7% lower than that of α-sorbent. The desulfurization abilities of the three sorbent in TGA were almost same. The desulfurization efficiency in the CFB-FGD system was up to 95% at the bed temperature of 750 °C for the β-sorbent. PMID:21928832

  10. Synthesis of rare earth metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) and their properties of adsorption desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘想; 王景艳; 李庆远; 蒋赛; 张天浩; 季生福

    2014-01-01

    The rare earth metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) materials, Ln(BTC)(H2O)·(DMF), were synthesized using the rare earth metal (Ln=Sm, Eu, Tb, Y) and 1,3,5-trimesic acid (BTC) as a metal ion center and ligand, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the Ln-MOFs structural features. The property of adsorption desul-furization of Ln-MOFs materials was evaluated with thiophene/n-octane as model oil. The results showed that Ln-MOFs with rare earth metals Sm, Eu, Tb and Y had perfect crystalline and good adsorption desulfurization ability. Y(BTC)(H2O)·(DMF) material had a comparatively better activity for the adsorption desulfurization with desulfurization rate up to 80.7%and the sulfur adsorption ca-pacity was found 30.7 mgS/g(Y-MOFs). The Ln-MOFs materials had excellent reusability.

  11. Impact of impregnation pressure on desulfurization performance of Zn-based sorbents supported on semi-coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianrong Zheng; Weiren Bao; Qingmai Jin; Ruiyuan He; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure impregnation,a new preparation method for sorbents to remove H2S from hot coal gas,is introduced in this paper.Semi-coke (SC) and ZnO is selected as the support and active component of sorbent,respectively.The sorbent preparation process includes high-pressure impregnation,filtration,ovendry and calcination.The aim of this research is to primarily study the effects of the impregnation pressure on physical properties and desulfurization ability of the sorbent.The desulfurization experiment was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 500 ℃ and a simulated coal gas used in this work was composed of CO (33 vol%),H2 (39 vol%),H2S (300 ppm in volume),and N2 (balance).Experimental results show that the pore structure of the SC support can be improved effectively and ZnO active component can be uniformly dispersed on the support,with the small particle size of 10-500 nm.Sorbents prepared using high-pressure impregnation have better desulfurization capacity and their active components have higher utilization rate.P20-ZnSC sorbent,obtained by high-pressure impregnation at 20 atm,has the best desulfurization ability with a sulfur capacity of 7.54 g S/100g sorbent and a breakthrough time of 44 h.Its desulfurization precision and efficiency of removing H2S from the middle temperature gases can reach < 1 ppm and >99.7%,respectively,before sorbent breakthrough.

  12. Coal desulfurization by bacterial treatment and column flotation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A review of the literature showed that bacterial leaching, using the microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, was a very effective technique for removing pyrite from coal, as it could dissolve even the finest pyrite particles without the need for expensive reagents or extreme processing conditions. Unfortunately, bacterial leaching is also rather slow, and so the initial goal of this research was to decrease the leaching time as much as possible. However, this still left the bacteria needing approximately a week to remove half of the pyritic sulfur, and so a faster technique was sought. Since it had been reported in the literature that T. ferrooxidans could be used to depress the flotation of pyrite during froth flotation of coal, this was investigated further. By studying the recovery mechanisms of coal-pyrite in froth flotation, it was found that pyrite was being recovered by entrainment and by locking to coal particles, not by true flotation of hydrophobic pyrite. Therefore, no pyrite depressant could be of any significant benefit for keeping pyrite out of the coal froth product, and it was much more important to prevent entrainment from occurring. Countercurrent flotation columns were invented to essentially eliminate entrainment effects, by washing the froth and reducing mixing of the froth and tailings products. Existing flotation columns tend to be quite simple, and in order to give reasonable product quality they must be very tall (typically 30--45 feet). As a result, they have difficulty in handling the high froth volumes which occur in coal flotation, and are awkward to install in existing plants. The bulk of this project therefore concentrated on developing an improved coal flotation column, and testing it under actual plant conditions.

  13. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a one- or two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently converting to elemental sulfur up to 98 percent or more of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) contained in the regeneration offgas streams produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. The DSRP reacts the regeneration offgas with a small slipstream of coal gas to effect the desired reduction. In this project the DSRP was demonstrated with actual coal gas (as opposed to the simulated laboratory mixtures used in previous studies) in a 75-mm, 1-L size fixed-bed reactor. Integrated with this testing, a US Department of Energy/Research Triangle Institute (DOE/RTI) patented zinc titanate-based fluidizable sorbent formulation was tested in a 75-mm (3-in.) diameter fluidized-bed reactor, and the regeneration offgas from that test was treated with the bench-unit DSRP. The testing was conducted at the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown in conjunction with test campaigns of the pilot-scale gasifier there. The test apparatus was housed in a mobile laboratory built in a specially equipped office trailer that facilitated moving the equipment from RTI in North Carolina to the West Virginia test site. A long duration test of the DSRP using actual coal gas and simulated regeneration offgas showed no degradation in efficiency of conversion to elemental sulfur after 160 h of catalyst exposure. An additional exposure (200 h) of that same catalyst charge at the General Electric pilot gasifier showed only a small decline in performance. That problem is believed to have been caused by tar and soot deposits on the catalyst, which were caused by the high tar content of the atypical fixed-bed gasifier gas. A six-fold larger, single-stage skid-mounted DSRP apparatus was fabricated for additional, larger-scale slipstream testing.

  14. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Flavor Ester “Pentyl Valerate” Using Candida rugosa Lipase Immobilized in Microemulsion Based Organogels: Effect of Parameters and Reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Raghavendra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentyl valerate was synthesized biocatalytically using Candida rugosa lipase (CRL immobilized in microemulsion based organogels (MBGs. The optimum conditions were found to be pH 7.0, temperature of 37°C, ratio of concentration of water to surfactant (Wo of 60, and the surfactant sodium bis-2-(ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT for MBG preparation. Although kinetic studies revealed that the enzyme in free form had high affinity towards substrates (Km = 23.2 mM for pentanol and 76.92 mM for valeric acid whereas, after immobilization, the Km values increased considerably (74.07 mM for pentanol and 83.3 mM for valeric acid resulting in a slower reaction rate, the maximum conversion was much higher in case of immobilized enzyme (~99% as compared to free enzyme (~19%. Simultaneous effects of important parameters were studied using response surface methodology (RSM conjugated with Box-Behnken design (BBD with five variables (process parameters, namely, enzyme concentration, initial water content (Wo, solvent used for MBG preparation, substrate ratio and time, and response as the final product formation, that is, pentyl valerate (%. The MBGs were reused for 10 consecutive cycles for ester synthesis. Efficacy of AOT/isooctane as dehydrating agent for extracting excess water from MBGs was found to exert a positive effect on the esterification reaction.

  15. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  16. Combination of deep eutectic solvent and ionic liquid to improve biocatalytic reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Du, Peng-Xuan; Zong, Min-Hua; Li, Ning; Lou, Wen-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The efficient anti-Prelog asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cells was successfully performed in a biphasic system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) and water-immiscible ionic liquid (IL). Various DESs exerted different effects on the synthesis of (R)-2-octanol. Choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ChCl/EG) exhibited good biocompatibility and could moderately increase the cell membrane permeability thus leading to the better results. Adding ChCl/EG increased the optimal substrate concentration from 40 mM to 60 mM and the product e.e. kept above 99.9%. To further improve the reaction efficiency, water-immiscible ILs were introduced to the reaction system and an enhanced substrate concentration (1.5 M) was observed with C4MIM·PF6. Additionally, the cells manifested good operational stability in the reaction system. Thus, the efficient biocatalytic process with ChCl/EG and C4MIM·PF6 was promising for efficient synthesis of (R)-2-octanol.

  17. Combination of deep eutectic solvent and ionic liquid to improve biocatalytic reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Du, Peng-Xuan; Zong, Min-Hua; Li, Ning; Lou, Wen-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The efficient anti-Prelog asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cells was successfully performed in a biphasic system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) and water-immiscible ionic liquid (IL). Various DESs exerted different effects on the synthesis of (R)-2-octanol. Choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ChCl/EG) exhibited good biocompatibility and could moderately increase the cell membrane permeability thus leading to the better results. Adding ChCl/EG increased the optimal substrate concentration from 40 mM to 60 mM and the product e.e. kept above 99.9%. To further improve the reaction efficiency, water-immiscible ILs were introduced to the reaction system and an enhanced substrate concentration (1.5 M) was observed with C4MIM·PF6. Additionally, the cells manifested good operational stability in the reaction system. Thus, the efficient biocatalytic process with ChCl/EG and C4MIM·PF6 was promising for efficient synthesis of (R)-2-octanol. PMID:27185089

  18. BIOCATALYTIC POLYESTER SYNTHESIS: ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND END-GROUP FUNCTIONALITY. (R825338)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Process for oxidative removal of carbonic acid from waste water of stack gas desulfurization plants. Verfahren zur oxidativen Entfernung von Carbonsaeuren in den Abwaessern von Rauchgasentschwefelungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-06-23

    This is a process for the removal of carbonic acid in wash water of stack gas desulfurization plants characterized by the fact that a means of oxidation, preferably sodium hypochloride (NaOCl) is added.

  20. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC PARAMETERS OF MIXTURES DESULFURIZING THE MADE WITH CaO, MgO, SiO2 AND CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nylo de Aguiar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of marble residue mixtures utilisation on desulfurization of pig iron. The desulfurization was carried out using lime, marble residue, fluorite and pig iron. Different mixtures of these materials were added into a bath of pig iron at 1,450°C. Metal samples were collected via vacuum samplers at times of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes, in order to check the variation of sulfur content. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the metal and the desulfurizer mixture, the sulfide capacity of mixtures, the sulfur partition coefficient and the sulfur mass transport coefficient values were calculated.The results show the technical feasibility of using marble waste as desulfurizer agent.

  1. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  2. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montebello, Andrea M.; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R.; Bezerra, Tercia [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gamisans, Xavier [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resources, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Lafuente, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Baeza, Mireia [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gabriel, David, E-mail: david.gabriel@uab.cat [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H{sub 2}S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H{sub 2}S loading rate of 52 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Stepwise increases of the inlet H{sub 2}S concentration up to 10,000 ppm{sub v} lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. The H{sub 2}S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H{sub 2}S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H{sub 2}S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H{sub 2}S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred.

  3. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M.K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G N; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the e...

  4. The dissolution process of solid calcium hydroxide under the conditions of flue gas desulfurization. Der Feststoffloeseprozess von Calciumhydroxid unter den Bedingungen der Rauchgasentschwefelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhland, F. (Technische Hochschule Leuna-Merseburg, Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Verfahrenstechnik)

    1991-01-01

    The process of solid dissolution in slurry scrubbers for the flue gas desulfurization affects SO{sub 2} absorption and ultimates calciumhydroxide utilisation. The process of dissolution was been observed without and with SO{sub 2} absorption under the aspect of modelling the desulfurization process. The dissolution rate was calculated using known mass transfer modells. The rate of dissolution was correlated as a function of energy dissipation, pH value and concentration of calcium sulfite. (orig.).

  5. Enhance efficiency of tetraoctylammonium fluoride applied to ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Meng-Wei; Yen, Teh-Fu [University of Southern California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2531 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process has been applied to a number of diesel fuels containing varying amounts of sulfur content. The transition metal complex and quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) phase transfer agents have been applied with aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent. High yield of 3-bromobenzothiophene, and 2-bromobenzothiphene sulfone has been found from phase transfer agents containing tetraoctylammonium bromide. No contaminates such as bromo compound derivates had been isolated when the new fluoride phase transfer agent was used. Selectivity was particularly high for this process as demonstrated by selective ions mass spectrometry. The experiment also demonstrated that the catalyst could be recovered for reuse. Furthermore, the hydrogen peroxide provides a good performance, and the oxidation will proceed as low as 0.25%. (author)

  6. Surface characterization of adsorbents in ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Omid; Yen, Teh Fu

    2007-09-01

    Surface properties of two different phases of alumina were studied through SEM images. Characterization of amorphous acidic alumina and crystalline boehmite by XRD explains the differences in adsorption capacities of each sample. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provide further results regarding the ordering in amorphous and crystalline samples of alumina. Quantitative measurements from SANS are used for pore size calculations. Higher disorder provides more topological traps, irregularities, and hidden grooves for higher adsorption capacity. An isotherm model was derived for adsorption of dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) by amorphous acidic alumina to predict and calculate the adsorption of sulfur compounds. The Langmuir-Freundlich model covers a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Experiments prove that amorphous acidic alumina is the adsorbent of choice for selective adsorption in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF). PMID:17543320

  7. Oxidative desulfurization of diesel with TBHP/isobutyl aldehyde/air oxidation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Chengyong; Lin, Peng; Lu, Xiaoping [Institute of Sonochemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Oxidative desulfurization of hydrogenation diesel (40 mL) was studied using air as oxidant, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as radical initiator at ambient pressure and moderate temperature in the presence of isobutyl aldehyde. TBHP could accelerate the production of carbonyl radical and its peroxidation. When the molar fraction of TBHP was 5 mmol, the conversion of DBT could reach 96.1% in the present of 20 mmol isobutyl aldehyde and air, which was more than that of 85.5% without initiator. The air was an effective oxidant and acetonitrile was an optimal solvent in this process. The sulfur content of the hydrogenation diesel could be reduced from 403 to 13 ppm (96.8% removed) under the synergistic effect of air, TBHP and isobutyl aldehyde. (author)

  8. A new method for obtaining ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel via ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Mei; B.W. Mei; Teh Fu Yen [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2003-03-01

    Due to the requirement of stringent rules for ultra-low sulfur content of diesel fuels, it is necessary to develop alternative methods for desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil. Using appropriate oxidants and catalysts with the assistance of ultrasound irradiation, model compounds such as dibenzothiophene can be quantitatively oxidized in minutes. For diesel fuels containing various levels of sulfur content, and through the use of catalytic oxidation and ultrasonication followed by solvent extraction, removal efficiency of sulfur-bearing compounds can reach or exceed 99% in a short contact time at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This simple approach can be the basis for obtaining ultra-low sulfur-containing diesel oil. GC-PFPD, GC MS, and GC-SIMDIS were used to monitor the change of organic sulfur compounds and hydrocarbons in diesels during the process. 35 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Application of Two Cobalt-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Oxidative Desulfurization Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohammad Yaser; Bagheri, Minoo; Morsali, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Two new porous cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks, [Co6(oba)5(OH)2(H2O)2(DMF)4]n · 5DMF (TMU-10) and [Co3(oba)3(O) (Py)0.5] n · 4DMF · Py (TMU-12) have been synthesized by solvothermal method using a nonlinear dicarboxylate ligand. Under mild reaction conditions, these compounds exhibited good catalytic activity and reusability in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction of model oil which was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT) in n-hexane. FT-IR and Mass analysis showed that the main product of DBT oxidation is its corresponding sulfone, which was adsorbed on the surfaces of catalysts. The activation energy was obtained as 13.4 kJ/mol. PMID:26571113

  10. Experimental approach and techniques for the evaluation of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, T.W. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gohara, W.F. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fluid mechanics within wet flue desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers involve several complex two-phase gas/liquid interactions. The fluid flow directly affects scrubber pressure drop, mist eliminator water removal, and the SO{sub 2} mass transfer/chemical reaction process. Current industrial efforts to develop cost-effective high-efficiency wet FGD scrubbers are focusing, in part, on optimizing the fluid mechanics. The development of an experimental approach and test facility for understanding and optimizing wet scrubber flow characteristics is discussed in this paper. Specifically, scaling procedures for downsizing a wet scrubber for the laboratory environment with field data comparisons are summarized. Furthermore, experimental techniques for the measurement of wet scrubber flow distribution, pressure drop, spray nozzle droplet size characteristics and wet scrubber liquid-to-gas ratio are discussed. Finally, the characteristics and capabilities of a new hydraulic test facility for wet FGD scrubbers are presented. (author)

  11. MOSSBAUER ANALYSIS ON THE MICROWAVE—MAGNETIC DESULFURIZATION OF RAW COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏

    1994-01-01

    The selective dielectric heating of microwave energy to convert a portion of each pyrite particle to moderately magnetic pyrrhotite has been suggested to enhance the magnetic separation of inorganic sulfur from coal.The results for Mossbauer analyses show that the considerable amount of pyrrhotite produced during microwave irradiation,carrying with it some of non-magnetic pyrite(unconverted),ferrous sulfate,and troilite,is completely removed from coal after magnetic separation.The optimum desulfurization efficiency can be attained by appropriately controlling the irradiation time to maximize the amount of pyrrhotite formed pyrite decomposition.Excessive irradiation would be ddisadvantageous for improving magnetic separation due to the further decomposition of pyrrhotite to antiferromagnetic troilite.

  12. Transport—Reaction Process in the Reaction of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanYan; DuuJongLee; 等

    2000-01-01

    A theoreticasl investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization.A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed,which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.BHased on this model,the reaction rate and t6he absorbent utilization can be calculated.The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time,the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa,the optimum initial radius and absorent concentration are 210-310μm and 23% respectively.The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  13. Tentative Study on a New Way of Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 杜大仲; 任南琪; 程翔; 刘春爽

    2005-01-01

    Thiobacillus denitrificans, a kind of autotrophic facultative bacteria, can oxidize sulfide into elemental sulfur or sulfate when nitrate was adopted as its electron accepter and carbon dioxide as its carbon resource under anoxic or anaerobic environment. In this way, nitrate is converted into nitrogen. In addition, Thiobacillus denitrificans can accumulate sulfur extracellularly. In this study, in a process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification, a strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans is employed as sulfur-producer in the treatment of wastewater containing sulfide and nitrate. The key factors affecting this process are investigated through batch tests. The experimental results indicate that the sulfide concentration and the ratio of sulfide to nitrate (S2-/NO3-) in the influent are the key factors, and their suitable values are suggested to be 5/3 and no more than 300mg·L-1, respectively, in order to achieve high conversion of sulfur.

  14. Modification of Bitumen with Desulfurized Crumb Rubber in the Present of Reactive Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhigang; ZHANG Yuzhen; KONG Xianming

    2005-01-01

    Bitumen was modified with desulfurized crumb rubber (DCR) in the present of reactive additives. The effect of the kinds and content of the reactive additive on properties of DCR modified bitumen (DCRMB) was investigated. The morphology of DCRMB was characterized by SEM and the changes of the chemical structure of DCRMB without and with the addition of the reactive additive were analyzed by FTIR. The experimented results show that the softening point,the elasticity recovery and the storage stability of DCRMB were improved significantly by the addition of the reactive additive. This is because that a network structure of rubber in DCRMB was formed and the chemical reaction between C=C double bonds in bitumen and DCR has happened after the reactive additive was added into DCRMB.

  15. Material Properties of Marine Hydrogenous Ferromanganese Crust and Its Performance in Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Marine hydrogenous ferromanganese crust, an important metal resource in the future, has significant potential in various applications as a type of natural nano-structured material. By employing scanning electronic microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, Xray fluorescence spectrometer and X-ray diffraction methods, the micro-structure, surface properties and chemical composition of several plate-like ferromanganese crusts sampled from the northwestern Pacific were investigated comprehensively. Although obvious differences were observed from different layers, the crust is a typical porous material with high specific surface area, unique pore structure and abundant transition elements. Furthermore, the performance of natural crust in desulfurization process was preliminarily tested in laboratory experiments. The sulfur capacities of the crust are 13.1%and 18.1% at room temperature and 350 ℃, respectively. The crust can be used not only as a metal resource, but also as an environmental material.

  16. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DESULFURIZATION OF ZHONG LIANG SHAN HIGH SULFUR COAL BY FLOTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志伟; 黄波; 曹炅

    1994-01-01

    Emission of large amount of SO2 from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious envjsonmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of bigh sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desuifurtzation with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shah was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sultur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0. 84%, with 72.22% recovery ofcombustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurlzatlon Efficiency Index Eofor comprehensive evaluation of dcsuifurlzation process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters.

  18. Experimental Research on Desulfurization of Fine Coal Using an Enhanced Centrifugal Gravity Separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO You-jun; LUO Zhen-fu; ZHAO Yue-min; TAO Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A desulphurization experimental study under the effects of compounding physical force fields has been described for < 0.5 mm fine particles of high sulfur coal. A statistical test using the Box-Behnken Design of experiments was conducted to evaluate the effects of individual operating variables and their interactions on desulfurization of fine coal using an enhanced centrifugal gravity separator. A model describing the relation between desulphurization efficiency of pyrite sulfur and different operating variables has been designed. The interactions between different factors on the pyrite sulfur desulphurization efficiency have been analysed. The optimal test conditions for desulfarization are extracted from the Design-Expert 6.0 software. Finally, the advantage of centrifugal gravity separation for fine coal is pointed out.

  19. Adsorption of Magnesium Sulfate from Desulfurization Industrial Wastewater by Nano-Cerium Loaded Recycled Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Sun; Bak, Somi; Seo, Seong-Gyu; Choi, Jeongdong; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    In this research, the recycled aggregates (RAs) from blast furnace were solidified with nano-cerium (Ce), and applied to reduce the ionic species (e.g., magnesium sulfate) in the desulfurization industrial wastewater. Static batch experiments were performed based on different loading of recycled aggregates. Sulfate sorption isotherm studies were performed by Langmuir adsorption model. The physical morphologies were determined using scanning electron microscope. The results presented that the partial ions were captured with the different loading of the recycled aggregates during the batch tests. It was observed that 8 hr batch reaction equilibrated the electrical conductivity reduction, and 13% mass loading was estimated an optimal dosage of adsorbent. This study showed the nano-Ce loaded RAs could reduce ionic species in wastewater, and expected to be an economical adsorbent for wastewater treatment process. PMID:27433701

  20. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  1. Modeling of SO/sub 2/ removal in spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damle, A.S.; Sparks, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the SO/sub 2/ removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a slurry droplet and absorption/reaction of SO/sub 2/ in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transfer rate relations. Dissolution kinetics of lime particles within a slurry droplet is included in determining the overall SO/sub 2/ removal rate. The model identifies several parameters which need to be estimated or determined from experimental data. The model predictions of the effects of major parameters, such as approach to saturation and stoichiometric ratio on the SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency, follow observed trends. Comparison of the model predictions with one set of pilot-plant data shows very good agreement.

  2. Surface characterization of adsorbents in ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Omid; Yen, Teh Fu

    2007-09-01

    Surface properties of two different phases of alumina were studied through SEM images. Characterization of amorphous acidic alumina and crystalline boehmite by XRD explains the differences in adsorption capacities of each sample. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) provide further results regarding the ordering in amorphous and crystalline samples of alumina. Quantitative measurements from SANS are used for pore size calculations. Higher disorder provides more topological traps, irregularities, and hidden grooves for higher adsorption capacity. An isotherm model was derived for adsorption of dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO) by amorphous acidic alumina to predict and calculate the adsorption of sulfur compounds. The Langmuir-Freundlich model covers a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Experiments prove that amorphous acidic alumina is the adsorbent of choice for selective adsorption in the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process to produce ultra-low-sulfur fuel (ULSF).

  3. 90`s for the 90`s: High efficiency dry flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, T.E.; Buschmann, J.C. [ABB Environmental Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments with additional State regulation have pushed the requirements for SO{sub 2} reduction on coal fired boiler emissions to 90% and above. The development and application of spray dryer reactors in the 1990`s to meet these increasingly difficult requirements has continued. This paper describes two spray dryer absorption processes which are capable of high efficiency. A cost benefit comparison between the two is included. Specific design features at several plants are presented. Full scale application and operation of spray dryer reactors with fabric filters on coal fired boilers has demonstrated that the dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) process is a proven technology for high SO{sub 2} removal. Low capital cost coupled with high SO{sub 2} removal makes the DFGD process attractive, competitive and proven for meeting the performance requirements in the 1990`s.

  4. Research on improvement in Zn-based sorbent for hot gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cui-qing; BU Xue-peng; YING You-ju; PENG Wan-wang

    2005-01-01

    Two Zn-based sorbents, L-991 and L-992 used for hot 9as desulfurization (HGD) were introduced. Zn/Ti ratio of the two sorbent was 1:1 and 2:3 resptively and a certain proportion of Cu and Mn metal oxide were added into L-992, which provided better performance than L-991 in aspects of suitable work temperature, sulfur capacity and agglomeration on the surface of sorbent particles. The evaluation tests were done on both sorbents include multi cycles tests. ARD and SEM analysis were done on fresh and post tests sorbent. During continuous sulfidation/regeneration, the H2S concentration can be reduced from about 10 g/m3 to less than 20 mg/m3, the H2S removal efficiency >99%.

  5. Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene based on molecular oxygen and iron phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinrui; Li, Juan; Wang, Xiuna; Jin, Kun; Ma, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Direct oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) based on molecular oxygen and iron tetranitrophthalocyanine (FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}) catalyst was performed in hydrocarbon solvent under water-free condition for deep desulfurization. Conversion of DBT in decalin reached 98.7 wt.% at 100 C and 0.3 MPa of initial pressure with 1 wt.% of FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4} over the whole solution for 2 h. In addition to FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}, another two catalysts, FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}NH{sub 2} and FePc(NH{sub 2}){sub 4}, were synthesized to investigate the effect of substituents of iron phthalocyanines on their catalytic activities. The results show that the catalytic activity of these phthalocyanines decreases in the order of FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4} > FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}NH{sub 2} > FePc(NH{sub 2}){sub 4}, indicating that the electron-donating group has negative effect on the catalytic properties. Activity of FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4} was kept unchanged after 5 runs of oxidation; whereas, activity of FePc(NH{sub 2}){sub 4} decreased because of its decomposition. Moreover, FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}NH{sub 2} was supported on a polyacrylic cationic exchange resin and its activity was remarkably enhanced to the level of FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4}. Oxidative desulfurization of a model fuel, 500 {mu}g/g solution of DBT in decalin, was performed based on the catalytic oxidation using molecular oxygen and FePc(NO{sub 2}){sub 4} catalyst. The lowest sulfur content in the model fuel could be decreased to less than 4 {mu}g/g after the treatment of this oxidation and a combined adsorption. (author)

  6. Research on Identification and Screen of Microbial Desulfurization Strains for Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojuan, Tian; Lingtian, Tang; Li'e, Peng; Xinghong, Li

    The oil-contaminated soil sample was acquired from Shengli Oilfield and Jidong Oilfield and cultured with enrichment technology. Then 21 desulfurization strains were separated from the sample, from which a high efficiency desulfurization strain TV9704 was selected. The strain could neither grow with n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, liquid paraffin, naphthalene or diesel as a carbon source and energy source, nor obviously reduce oil combustion value. It could use thiophene or dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the sole sulfur source. In the experiment, the concentrations of thiophene and DBT were measured by UV spectrophotometer. After being cultured in the culture medium with an initial concentration of 63.2 mmol/L respectively for 48 h and 144 h, the degradation rates of the strain TV9704 on thiophene were 39.0% and 63.8%; the DBT with an initial concentration of 2.7 mmol/L was degraded by 1.46 mmol/L after cultured for 72 h. When sodium acetate and glycerol were chosen as carbon source, the ethanol could enhance the degradation rate of TV9704 on DBT significantly. Strain TV9704 was identified by China Industrial Culture Collection Center (CICC) as a Bacillus sp., Gram-positive, obligate aerobic, which forms a circular orange colony on the nutrition gravy plate. The 16SrDNA gene sequencing test and analysis was carried out on strain TV9704, finding that its homologies with the most similar species Bacillus aquimaris and Bacillus marisflavi were 99.2% and 98.2% respectively, but a larger difference existed between their cell morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical characteristics, therefore strain TV9704 may be a new species because it was impossible to be categorized to any population.

  7. A Multidisciplinary Approach Toward the Rapid and Preparative-Scale Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols: A Concise Transketolase-/omega-Transaminase-Mediated Synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-Aminopentane-1,3-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M.E.B; Chen, B.H.; Hibbert, E.G;

    2010-01-01

    establishment of biocatalytic routes to chiral aminodiols taking the original synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-aminopentane-1,3-diol as a specific example. An engineered variant of Escherichi coli transketolase (D469T) was used for the initial asymmetric ynthesis of (3S)-1,3-dihydroxypentan-2-one from the achiral...... substrates propanal and hydroxypyruvate. A bioinformatics led strategy was then used to identify and clone an ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum (DSM30191) capable of converting the product of the transketolase-catalysed step to the required (2S,3S)-2-aminopentane-1,3-diol using isopropylamine...

  8. Effect of Calcium Oxide Additive on the Performance of Iron Oxide Sorbent for High-Temperature Coal Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Fan; Kechang Xie; Ju Shangguan; Fang Shen; Chunhu Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of calcium oxide additive in iron oxide sorbent for hot gas desulfurization was investigated by XRD and TPR techniques. XRD characterization showed that CaO was highly dispersed after the calcination of sorbents. Calcium sulfate formed in the desulfurization was decomposed and regenerated to CaO by reacting with CO before the next sulfidation process. Calcium participated in every sulfidation/regeneration cycle and contributed to the enhancement of sulfur capacity. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of the sorbent increased with the increase of the content of calcium. Calcium played a role of retarding reduction. Therefore, the addition of calcium oxide additive will benefit the utilization of iron oxide sorbent in strongly reducing atmospheres.

  9. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; XU PeiYao; SUN XiaoJun; WANG LiDong

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash, industry lime, and an oxidizing additive M. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification. Removal efficiencies of 95.5% for SO2 and 64.8% for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  10. Immobilisation and characterisation of biocatalytic co-factor recycling enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase, on aldehyde functional ReSyn™ polymer microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twala, Busisiwe V; Sewell, B Trevor; Jordaan, Justin

    2012-05-10

    The use of enzymes in industrial applications is limited by their instability, cost and difficulty in their recovery and re-use. Immobilisation is a technique which has been shown to alleviate these limitations in biocatalysis. Here we describe the immobilisation of two biocatalytically relevant co-factor recycling enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and NADH oxidase (NOD) on aldehyde functional ReSyn™ polymer microspheres with varying functional group densities. The successful immobilisation of the enzymes on this new high capacity microsphere technology resulted in the maintenance of activity of ∼40% for GDH and a maximum of 15.4% for NOD. The microsphere variant with highest functional group density of ∼3500 μmol g⁻¹ displayed the highest specific activity for the immobilisation of both enzymes at 33.22 U mg⁻¹ and 6.75 U mg⁻¹ for GDH and NOD with respective loading capacities of 51% (0.51 mg mg⁻¹) and 129% (1.29 mg mg⁻¹). The immobilised GDH further displayed improved activity in the acidic pH range. Both enzymes displayed improved pH and thermal stability with the most pronounced thermal stability for GDH displayed on ReSyn™ A during temperature incubation at 65 °C with a 13.59 fold increase, and NOD with a 2.25-fold improvement at 45 °C on the same microsphere variant. An important finding is the suitability of the microspheres for stabilisation of the multimeric protein GDH.

  11. Biocatalytic synthesis of flavones and hydroxyl-small molecules by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the cyanobacterial CYP110E1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Takuya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria possess several cytochrome P450s, but very little is known about their catalytic functions. CYP110 genes unique to cyanaobacteria are widely distributed in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria including nitrogen-fixing genera Nostoc and Anabaena. We screened the biocatalytic functions of all P450s from three cyanobacterial strains of genus Nostoc or Anabaena using a series of small molecules that contain flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, low-molecular-weight drugs, and other aromatic compounds. Results Escherichia coli cells carrying each P450 gene that was inserted into the pRED vector, containing the RhFRed reductase domain sequence from Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 9784 P450RhF (CYP116B2, were co-cultured with substrates and products were identified when bioconversion reactions proceeded. Consequently, CYP110E1 of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, located in close proximity to the first branch point in the phylogenetic tree of the CYP110 family, was found to be promiscuous for the substrate range mediating the biotransformation of various small molecules. Naringenin and (hydroxyl flavanones were respectively converted to apigenin and (hydroxyl flavones, by functioning as a flavone synthase. Such an activity is reported for the first time in prokaryotic P450s. Additionally, CYP110E1 biotransformed the notable sesquiterpene zerumbone, anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and flurbiprofen (methylester forms, and some aryl compounds such as 1-methoxy and 1-ethoxy naphthalene to produce hydroxylated compounds that are difficult to synthesize chemically, including novel compounds. Conclusion We elucidated that the CYP110E1 gene, C-terminally fused to the P450RhF RhFRed reductase domain sequence, is functionally expressed in E. coli to synthesize a robust monooxygenase, which shows promiscuous substrate specificity (affinity for various small molecules, allowing the biosynthesis of not only flavones (from flavanones but also a variety of

  12. Utilization of a By-product Produced from Oxidative Desulfurization Process over Cs-Mesoporous Silica Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonjoo; Jeong, Kwang Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Do Heui; Jeon, Jong Ki

    2011-02-28

    We investigated the use of Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts to upgrade a by-product of oxidative desulfurization (ODS). Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts were chaeacterized through N2 adsorption, XRD, CO2-temperature-programmed desorption, and XRF. Cs-mesoporous silica prepared by the direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance than a Cs/MCM-41 catalyst by impregnation method for the catalytic decomposition of sulfone compounds produced from ODS process.

  13. Utilization of a by-product produced from oxidative desulfurization process over Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonjoo; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Do Heui; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the use of Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts to upgrade a by-product of oxidative desulfurization (ODS). Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts were characterized through N2 adsorption, XRD, CO2-temperature-programmed desorption, and XRF. Cs-mesoporous silica prepared by the direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance than a Cs/MCM-41 catalyst by impregnation method for the catalytic decomposition of sulfone compounds produced from ODS process. PMID:21456272

  14. Advances in adsorbents for gasoline desulfurization%汽油吸附脱硫剂的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒静; 任丽丽; 徐骞

    2009-01-01

    日益严格的环保法规对生产低硫和超低硫清洁汽油技术提出了更高的要求.传统的加氢脱硫投资大,成本高.开发成本低、操作条件温和非加氢脱硫技术成为一种趋势.吸附脱硫技术具有操作简单、投资少、适合于深度脱硫和无污染等优点,工业应用前景广阔.综述了活性炭、改性分子筛、金属氧化物和改性黏土等多种吸附剂在制备、吸附机理、改性和脱硫效果等方面的研究和应用,对现有吸附脱硫剂存在的问题进行了讨论,展望了其应用前景.%With the law and regulation of environmental protection becoming increasingly stringent, the requirement for the technology of low sulfur and ultra-low sulfur clean gasoline production is becoming strict. There exists higher investment and operating cost in the conventional hydrodesulphurization tech-nologies. The nonhydrogenation technologies of adsorptive desulfurization is of extensive application prospects due to simple operation, less investment, no pollution and suitable for deep desulfurization. The preparation, mechanism of adsorption, modification, application and effects of desulfurization of several typical absorbent, such as activated carbon, modified molecular sieves, metal oxides, and modified clay, were reviewed. The existing problems of adsorbents were discussed and the prospects of adsorptive desul-furization were outlined.

  15. Deep extractive and oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene with C5H9NO·SnCl2 coordinated ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-tang; Kou, Cheng-guang; Sun, Zhi-min; Hao, Ying-juan; Liu, Rui-hong; Zhao, Di-shun

    2012-02-29

    A new C5H9NO·SnCl2 coordinated ionic liquid (IL) was prepared by reacting N-methyl-pyrrolidone with anhydrous SnCl2. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) via extraction and oxidation with C5H9NO·SnCl2 IL as extractant, H2O2 and equal mol of CH3COOH as oxidants was investigated. The Nernst partition coefficients k(N) of C5H9NO·SnCl2 IL for the DBT in n-octane was above 5.0, showing its excellent extraction ability. During the oxidative desulfurization process, the optimal molar ratio of H2O2/DBT was six. Sulfur removal of DBT in n-octane was 94.8% in 30 min at 30 °C under the conditions of H2O2/DBT molar ratio of six and V (IL):V (oil)=1:3. Moreover, the sulfur removal increased with increasing temperature because of the high reaction rate constant, low viscosity, and high solubility of dibenzothiophene-sulfone in the IL. The kinetics of oxidative desulfurization of DBT was also investigated, and the apparent activation energy was found to be 32.5 kJ/mol. The IL could be recycled six times without a significant decrease in activity. PMID:22230756

  16. Investigations in physical mechanism of the oxidative desulfurization process assisted simultaneously by phase transfer agent and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasarkar, Jaykumar B; Chakma, Sankar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2015-05-01

    This paper attempts to discern the physical mechanism of the oxidative desulfurization process simultaneously assisted by ultrasound and phase transfer agent (PTA). With different experimental protocols, an attempt is made to deduce individual beneficial effects of PTA and ultrasound on the oxidative desulfurization system, and also the synergy between the effects of PTA and ultrasound. Effect of PTA is more marked for mechanically stirred system due to mass transfer limitations, while intense emulsification due to ultrasound helps overcome the mass transfer limitations and reduces the extent of enhancement of oxidation by PTA. Despite application of PTA and ultrasound, the intrinsic factors and properties of the reactants such as polarity (and hence partition coefficient) and diffusivity have a crucial effect on the extent of oxidation. The intrinsic reactivity of the oxidant also plays a vital role, as seen from the extent of oxidation achieved with performic acid and peracetic acid. The interfacial transport of oxidant in the form of oxidant-PTA complex reduces the undesired consumption of oxidant by the reducing species formed during transient cavitation in organic medium, which helps effective utilization of oxidant towards desulfurization. PMID:25465876

  17. Multiphase Modeling of Bottom-Stirred Ladle for Prediction of Slag-Steel Interface and Estimation of Desulfurization Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Umesh; Anapagaddi, Ravikiran; Mangal, Saurabh; Padmanabhan, Kuppuswamy Anantha; Singh, Amarendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Ladle furnace is a key unit in which various phenomena such as deoxidation, desulfurization, inclusion removal, and homogenization of alloy composition and temperature take place. Therefore, the processes present in the ladle play an important role in determining the quality of steel. Prediction of flow behavior of the phases present in the ladle furnace is needed to understand the phenomena that take place there and accordingly control the process parameters. In this study, first a mathematical model is developed to analyze the transient three-phase flow present. Argon gas bottom-stirred ladle with off-centered plugs has been used in this study. Volume of fluid method is used in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to capture the behavior of slag, steel, and argon interfaces. The results are validated with data from literature. Eye opening and slag-steel interfacial area are calculated for different operating conditions and are compared with experimental and simulated results cited in literature. Desulfurization rate is then predicted using chemical kinetic equations, interfacial area, calculated from CFD model, and thermodynamic data, obtained from the Thermo-Calc software. Using the model, it is demonstrated that the double plug purging is more suitable than the single plug purging for the same level of total flow. The advantage is more distinct at higher flow rates as it leads higher interfacial area, needed for desulfurization and smaller eye openings (lower oxygen/nitrogen pickup).

  18. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  19. Investigation on Modification of NaY Zeolite and Its Behaviors in Selective Adsorptive Desulfurization of FCC gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Heli; Song Lijuan; Gao Xiang; Wang Hongguo; Zhang Xiaotong; Sun Zhaolin

    2009-01-01

    NaY zeolite was modified with oxalic acid, and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite was obtained via liquid phase ion exchange between the modified NaY zeolite and cerium nitrate. The Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite was obtained via liquid phase ion exchange between NaY zeolite and cerium nitrate. The performance of two Y zeolites ICe(Ⅳ)Y(1) and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2)] was compared through static selective adsorptive desulfurization of FCC gasoline at room tem-perature and normal pressure. The sulfur compounds and contents of the FCC gasoline were analyzed by microcoulometry and GC-SCD chromatogram. The results showed that the effect of adsorptive desulfurization of FCC gasoline achieved by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite was better than that of Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite. The rate for adsorp-tive desulfurization of FCC gasoline by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite and Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite was 85.0% and 62.4%, respectively. The Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1) zeolite could adsorb DMTs, which could not be adsorbed by Ce(Ⅳ)Y(2) zeolite. The rate of regeneration of extruded Ce(Ⅳ)Y(1)zeolite was 95.5%.

  20. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  1. Influences of operating conditions on biocatalytic activity and reusability of Novozym 435 for esterification of free fatty acids with short-chain alcohols:A case study of palm fatty acid distillate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sawittree Mulalee; Pongrumpa Srisuwan; Muenduen Phisalaphong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of operating conditions on biocatalytic activity and stability of Novozym 435 for repeated-batch biodiesel production from free fatty acid (FFA) were investigated. Thermal deactivation caused by increased operating temperature from 45 to 50 °C could seriously affect the reusability of Novozym 435. The deactivation of Novozym 435 during the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol tended to be stronger than that in the system with methanol. Under the optimal conditions, considering both biocatalytic activity and stability of the enzyme, Novozym 435 could be reused for 13 cycles for biodiesel productions from oleic acid and absolute alcohols (methanol and ethanol) with FFA conversions of at least 90%. The presence of 4%–5%water in ethanol significantly affected the reusability of Novozym 435. Changes in the surface morphology of Novozym 435 during the esterification with various conditions were observed. It was revealed that the reduc-tion in catalytic activity was related to the swel ing degree of the catalyst surface. Additionally, biodiesel produc-tion from low cost renewable feedstocks, such as palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) and 95%ethanol was examined. The esterification of PFAD with 95%ethanol catalyzed by Novozym 435 in 10-repeated batch operation showed the similar results in FFA conversion as compared to those using oleic acid. Novozym 435 remained active and could maintain 97.6%of its initial conversion after being used for 10 batches.

  2. Research on Road Performance of Desulfurized Rubber Asphalt and Mixture%脱硫橡胶沥青及其混合料性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小利; 张文刚; 杜旭斌

    2013-01-01

    In order to discuss the road performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt and mixture,swelling mechanism of desulfurized rubber asphalt was studied first,and then performance testing of KLMY90#,normal rubber asphalt and desulfurized rubber asphalt were taken,after that,penetration,shear strength and cohesive strength of desulfurized rubber asphalt mortar were test,road performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt mixture were test at last.The study show that,there is no rubber particle core,but lots of chemical reaction in desulfurized rubber asphalt; the performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt is better than normal rubber asphalt without high viscosity.Easy isolation and poor high temperature storage stability; shear strength and cohesive strength of desulfurized rubber asphalt mortar is better; and desulfurized rubber asphalt mixture have good road performance.%为了研究脱硫橡胶沥青及其混合料的性能,研究首先对脱硫橡胶沥青的溶胀机理与溶胀特点展开研究,其次对脱硫橡胶沥青与KLMY90#基质沥青、普通橡胶沥青(40目)进行性能对比性试验,再对脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆的锥入度、抗剪强度、粘结强度进行试验研究,最终对脱硫橡胶沥青混合料的路用性能进行检测.研究结果表明:脱硫橡胶沥青中不存在橡胶颗粒核心且溶胀过程中伴有大量的化学反应;脱硫橡胶沥青各项性能均优于普通橡胶沥青,且克服了普通橡胶沥青高黏度、易离析、高温贮存稳定性差等缺点;脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆抗剪强度大、与矿料粘结力强;脱硫橡胶沥青混合料具有良好的路用性能.

  3. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oils%燃油氧化脱硫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宗轩; 吕宏缨; 张永娜; 李灿

    2011-01-01

    综述了燃油的氧化脱硫,包括一些具有吸引力的氧化脱硫方法,如H2O2/有机酸,H2O2/杂多酸,H2O2/含钛分子筛和其它非过氧化氢体系(如叔丁基过氧化物等).对本课题组开发的新型乳液催化氧化脱硫体系进行了详细的介绍.在乳液体系中,界面问的传质限制被大大降低.在温和条件下,双亲性乳液催化剂可以将柴油中的含硫化合物选择氧化成其相应的砜类化合物.氧化得到的砜可以使用极性萃取剂将其从油品中除去.经过氧化和萃取之后,加氢柴油中的硫含量可以从几百μg/g降低至0.1μg/g,而直馏柴油中的硫含量则可以从6000μg/g降低至30μ/g.%Several attractive approaches toward oxidative desulfurization of fuel oils, such as using H2O2/organic acids, H2O2/heteropolyacid,H2O2/Ti-containing zeolites, and other non-hydrogen peroxide systems (e.g., t-butyl hydroperoxide etc.) are reviewed. A new alternative oxidative desulfurization process using emulsion catalysts was developed mainly by our group, is introduced in detail. Limitations because of interphase mass transfer are greatly reduced in the emulsion reaction medium. The amphiphilic emulsion catalysts can selectively oxidize the sulfur-containing molecules present in diesel to their corresponding sulfones when using H2O2 as the oxidant under mild conditions. The sulfones in the oxidized fuel oils can be removed by a polar extractant. The sulfur level of a prehydrotreated diesel can be lowered from a few hundred μg/g to 0.1 μg/g after oxidation and subsequent extraction whereas the sulfur level of a straight-run diesel can be decreased from 6000 to 30 μg/g after oxidation and extraction.

  4. 氧化铁常温脱硫研究综述%A review on studies of ambient temperature ferric oxide desulfurizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺恩云; 樊惠玲; 王小玲; 王龙江; 李叶; 黄冠

    2014-01-01

    氧化铁脱硫剂具有廉价易得,硫容高,再生简单等优点,因而受到广大科研工作者广泛关注。综述了氧化铁常温脱硫及再生原理,脱硫剂的制备,以及脱硫剂表面 pH 值、水含量等工艺参数对氧化铁脱硫性能的影响。并提出γ-Fe2O3是常温脱硫研究的新方向。%Ferric oxide desulfurizers have many advantages, such as cheapness, high sulfur capacity and easy regeneration, so researchers show great interest in the study on them. The principles of ferric oxide ambient temperature desulfurization and regeneration, the preparation of desulfurizers, and the effects of sorbent surface pH value, water content and other parameters on desulfurization performances of ferric oxides were reviewed. And it was proposed that γ-Fe2O3 should be a new direction for the research of ambient temperature desulfurization.

  5. An oxidative desulfurization method using ultrasound/Fenton's reagent for obtaining low and/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yongchuan; Qi, Yutai [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 115001 (China); Zhao, Dezhi [Department of Petroleum Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang, Huicheng [Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals of SINOPEC Corp., Fushun 113001 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The total development trend in the world is towards continuously lower of sulfur content as a quality standard of diesel fuels. Integrating of an oxidative desulfurization unit with a conventional hydrotreating unit can bring benefits to producing low and/or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels. Using the hydrotreated Middle East diesel fuel as a feedstock, four processes of the oxidative desulfurization have been studied: a hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid system and a Fenton's reagent system both without/with ultrasound. Results showed that the oxidative desulfurization reaction mechanics fitted apparent first-order kinetics. The addition of Fenton's reagent could enhance the oxidative desulfurization efficiency for diesel fuels and sono-oxidation treatment in combination with Fenton's reagent shows a good synergistic effect. Under our best operating condition for the oxidative desulfurization: temperature 313 K, ultrasonic power 200 W, ultrasonic frequency 28 kHz, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 0.05 mol/mol, pH 2.10 in aqueous phase and reaction time 15 min, the sulfur content in the diesel fuels was decreased from 568.75 {mu}g/g to 9.50 {mu}g/g. (author)

  6. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  7. Overview on Microbial Desulfurization for Pyrite Cinder%硫铁矿烧渣的微生物脱硫概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文博; 邹平; 孙珮石

    2013-01-01

    对硫酸渣微生物氧化脱硫研究进行了综述,主要包括硫酸渣的特性、脱硫工艺、脱硫微生物种类、细菌氧化机理、微生物脱硫影响因素、硫酸渣生物氧化脱硫现状和存在问题等,展望了该技术未来的研究方向及应用前景.%The research on microbial oxidation desulfurization for pyrite cinder is summarized in this paper, which mainly includes the characteristics of pyrite cinder, desulfuration process, desulfurization microbial species, bacterial oxidation mechanism, the influence factors of microbial desulfurization, the present situation and the existing problems of pyrite cinder's biological oxidation desulfurization, and so on, the future direction of the research and the application prospect are also forecasted in this paper.

  8. Oxidation inhibition of sulfite in dual alkali flue gas desulfurization system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Jian-song; WU Zhong-biao; CHENG Chang-jie; GUAN Bao-hong; ZHAO Wei-rong

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory-scale well-mixed thermostatic reactor with continuously blasting air was used to investigate the oxidation inhibition of sulfite in dual alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The effects of operating parameters such as pH value and catalyst concentration on the oxidation were studied. Sodium thiosulfate was used in the system, and was found that it significantly inhabited the sulfite oxidation. In the absence of catalyst, sodium thiosulfate at 12.67 mmol/L had an inhibition efficiency of approximately 98%. While in the presence of catalyst, sodium thiosulfate at 26.72 mmol/L had an inhibition efficiency less than 85.0%. The oxidation reaction order of sulfite in the sodium thiosulfate was determined to be -1.90 and -0.55 in the absence and presence of the catalyst, respectively. Apparent activation energy of oxidation inhibition was calculated to be 53.9 kJ/mol. Pilot tests showed that the consumption rate of thiosulfate agreed well with the laboratory-scale experimental results.

  9. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H₂O₂ for metal-free oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-01

    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ∼ 90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. PMID:26561755

  10. Oxidative desulfurization-fluorination of thioethers. Application for the synthesis of fluorinated nitrogen containing building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenberg, Verena; Fröhlich, Roland; Haufe, Günter

    2010-12-21

    An oxidative desulfurization-fluorination protocol has been used to synthesize (2S)-2-(difluoromethyl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (6a) and (2S)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (7a) from the (2S)-prolinol-derived (2S)-2-(4-chlorophenylthiomethyl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (9) or (2S)-2-(dithian-2-yl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (5). Efforts to prepare 3,3-difluoroalanine similarly from an N-protected S-aryl-cysteine ester 17 gave only traces of the target compound 18. Instead, an unique N-(α,α-difluorobenzyl)-N-α',α'-dibromoglycine ester 19 was formed by an unprecedented sequence of reaction steps. A plausible mechanism is suggested involving a sulfur-assisted deoxygenation-difluorination of an imino oxygen and a haloform reaction like carbon-carbon bond fission as key-steps. Efforts to prepare (2S)-2-(fluoromethyl)-N-tosylpyrrolidine (12) from (2S)-N-tosylprolinol (3) by treatment with Fluolead™ (1-tert-butyl-4-trifluorosulfanyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene) gave only 5% of the target compound, but 95% of (3R)-3-fluoro-N-tosylpiperidine (11a) by ring enlargement. PMID:20967318

  11. Sulfite oxidation catalyzed by cobalt ions in flue gas desulfurization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatza, Despina; Prisciandaro, Marina; Lancia, Amedeo; Musmarra, Dino

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of calcium bisulfite oxidation, a key step in the wet limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, in the presence of catalysts (e.g., cobalt ions and a mixture of ferrous and cobalt ions). A fundamental approach is followed, by reproducing a simplified synthetic FGD liquor in which both catalyst ions, alone or mixed together, are present. A laboratory-scale apparatus is used, in which sulfurous solution is contacted with a gas phase at a fixed oxygen partial pressure (21.3 kPa) and at different temperature levels (25, 45, and 55 degrees C). The experimental results are analyzed using the theory of gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction, showing that the slow reaction regime is explored and the transition from the kinetic to the diffusional subregime is identified. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in the presence of other catalytic species (manganese and ferrous ions), showing that cobalt is effective in catalyzing the oxidation of calcium bisulfite to sulfate, but to a minor extent with respect to iron and manganese. PMID:20564992

  12. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  13. Mechanism for the formation of elemental sulfur from aqueous sulfide in chemical and microbiological desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steudel, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    1996-04-01

    A detailed reaction mechanism is proposed for the formation of crystalline elemental sulfur from aqueous sulfide by oxidation with transition-metal ions like V{sup 5}, Fe{sup 3}, Cu{sup 2}, etc. The first step is the formation of HS{center_dot} radicals by one-electron oxidation of HS{sup {minus}} ions. These radicals exist at pH values near 7 mainly as S{center_dot}{sup {minus}}. Their spontaneous decay results in the formation of the disulfide ion S{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}}. The further oxidation of disulfide either by S{center_dot}{sup {minus}} radicals or by the transition-metal ions yields higher polysulfide ions from which the homocyclic sulfur molecules S{sub 6}, S{sub 7}, and S{sub 8} are formed. In water these hydrophobic molecules form clusters which grow to droplets of liquid sulfur (sulfur sol). Depending on the composition of the aqueous phase, crystallization of the liquid sulfur as either {alpha}- or {beta}-S{sub 8} is rapid or delayed. Surfactants delay this solidification, while certain cations promote it. All these reactions are proposed to take place in desulfurization plants working by the Stretford, Sulfolin, Lo-Cat, SulFerox, or Bio-SR processes. In addition, the sulfur produced from sulfide by oxidizing sulfur bacteria is formed by the same mechanism, which now explains many observations made previously (including the formation of the byproducts thiosulfate, polythionates, and sulfate).

  14. SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

  15. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  16. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H(sub 2)S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H(sub 2)S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm(sup 3) differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s

  17. Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by a low-cost adsorbent dry desulfurization slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; You, Ruirong; Clark, Malcolm; Yu, Yan

    2014-09-01

    A collectable and non-sintered material prepared as hollow cylindrical shaped pellet from dry desulfurization slag (FGD ash) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for wastewater treatments is tested. The characteristic results of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) show that -OH, CO32-, SO32- and SO42- are the possible functional groups responsible for Pb uptake. Adsorption data indicate that Pb removal is pH dependent and optimal at pH 6, with a very rapid initial removal that reaches equilibrium in about 90 min. A maximum removal of 99.2% is seen for 5 mg/L (pH of 6); higher initial Pb concentrations reduce overall removal efficiencies, but generate higher surface loadings. Adsorption process correlates well with both Langmuir and Freundlich models, although the Langmuir isotherm is more favored, providing a maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of 130.2 mg/g (13 wt%). Pseudo-second order rate kinetic model best describes the Pb removal, and calculated RL values between 0 and 1, indicate a favored adsorption process that is chemisorption limited. SEM and EDAX analysis of the surface and fracture surface show that Pb occurs as surface precipitates and that Pb is not distributed to the inner core of the pellet. This study demonstrates that dry FGD ash could be successfully used for wastewater Pb removal.

  18. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m2 g−1), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm3 g−1) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g−1 of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles. - Highlights: • Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil with magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent, Fe-OMC, was studied. • Maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of Fe-OMC for DBT was found to be 111.1 mg g−1. • Freundlich isotherm best represents the equilibrium adsorption data. • Rate of DBT adsorption process onto Fe-OMC is controlled by at least two steps

  19. Probing the kinetics for thiol desulfurization: The reactions of 2-methyl-2-propanethiol on Mo(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, B.C.; Uvdal, P.; Friend, C.M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-05-28

    The reactions of 2-methyl-2-propanethiol on Mo(110) were studied using temperature programmed reaction, high resolution electron energy loss, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The sulfur-hydrogen bond breaks upon adsorption at 120 K, yielding adsorbed 2-methyl-2-propyl thiolate and hydrogen. Thiolate hydrogenolysis produces isobutane, while cleavage of the C-S and selective C-H bond breaking {beta} to the sulfur yields isobutene. Nonselective decomposition to adsorbed carbon, sulfur, and gaseous dihydrogen is a competing channel. At reaction saturation, the selectivity for hydrocarbon for hydrocarbon formation patterns is 80%. The specific butane and butene isomers were identified on the basis of the differences in the fragmentation patterns of the various isomers when an electron energy of 27 eV was used in the mass spectrometer. The isometric selectivity corroborates the authors general mechanism for thiolate reaction. Isobutane formation preceded ethane formation for a 2-methyl-2-propanethiol/ethanethiol mixture. The kinetics for 2-methyl-2-propyl thiolate desulfurization were found to increase with increasing 2-methyl-2-propyl thiolate coverage. 38 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Silica-gel Supported V Complexes:Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Oxidative Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎俊波; 刘习文; 曹灿灿; 郭嘉; 潘志权

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, a series of catalyst SGn-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] (SG=silica gel, PAMAM=poly-amidoamine, MSA=5-methyl salicylaldehyde, n=0, 1, 2, 3) was prepared and their structures were fully charac-terized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP) etc. XPS revealed that the metal V and SGn-PAMAM-MSA combined more closely after the formation of Schiff base derivatives. Their cata-lytic activities for oxidation of dibenzothiophene were evaluated using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. The results showed that the catalyst SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] presented good catalytic activity and recycling time. Mean-while, the optimal condition for the catalytic oxidation of SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] was also investigated, which showed that when the oxidation temperature was 90 °C, time was 60 min, the O/S was 3︰1, and the mass content of catalyst was 1%, the rate of desulfurization could reach 85.2%. Moreover, the catalyst can be recycled several times without significant decline in catalytic activity.

  1. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

  2. Quantitative, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of flue gas desulfurization by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperche, Valérie; Bigham, Jerry M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that simple fractionation and selective dissolution techniques can be used to provide detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses of flue gas desulfurization by-products. The material studied was a mine grout prepared as a 1:1 mixture (wt./wt.) of fly ash (FA) and filter cake (FC) with hydrated lime (50 g kg(-1)) added to improve handling. The hydrated lime was composed mostly of calcite (CaCO3), portlandite [Ca(OH)2], lime (CaO), and brucite [Mg(OH)2] (515, 321, 55, and 35 g kg(-1), respectively) and had low (hydrated lime. The FA contained both magnetic (222 g kg(-1)) and nonmagnetic (778 g kg(-1)) fractions. The former was composed mostly of hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and glass (272, 293, and 287 g kg(-1), respectively), whereas the latter was enriched in glass, quartz, and mullite (Al6Si2O13) (515, 243, and 140 g kg(-1), respectively). Etching with 1% HF showed that 60 to 100% of trace elements were concentrated in the glass, although some metals (Co, Cr, and Mn) were clearly enriched in the magnetic phase. The aged grout contained 147 g kg(-1) ettringite [Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 x 26H2O] in addition to 314 g kg(-1) hannebachite and 537 g kg(-1) insoluble phases (mullite, quartz, hematite, magnetite, and glass). PMID:12026103

  3. Experimental study on the simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by duct injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; FU Yan-chun; MA Shuang-chen; HUANG Jian-jun

    2004-01-01

    The highly active absorbent with oxidization based on fly ash, lime and additive was prepared.Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using fixture bed and duct injection.The influencial factors for the absorptive capacity of the absorbent were studied. The absorptive capacities of 120.7mg for SO2 and 43.7 mg for NOx were achieved at a Ca/(S + N) molar ratio 1.2, respectively, corresponding removal efficiencies of 87% and 76%, while spent absorbent appeared in the form of dry powder. The optimal temperature and humidity of flue gas treated with this process were shown to be approximately 50℃, and 5%respectively. The mechanism of removal for SO2 and NOx was investigated. In comparison with traditional dry FGD,this process appears to have lower cost, less complicated configuration and simpler disposal of used absorbent. The valuable references can be provided for industrial application by this process. The foreground of application will be vast in China and in the world.

  4. Investigation on Mercury Reemission from Limestone-Gypsum Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanmin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD systems caused by the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0 and lead to a damping of the cobenefit mercury removal efficiency by WFGD systems. The experiment on Hg0 reemission from limestone-gypsum WFGD slurry was carried out by changing the operating conditions such as the pH, temperature, Cl− concentrations, and oxygen concentrations. The partitioning behavior of mercury in the solid and liquid byproducts was also discussed. The experimental results indicated that the Hg0 reemission rate from WFGD slurry increased as the operational temperatures and pH values increased. The Hg0 reemission rates decreased as the O2 concentration of flue gas and Cl− concentration of WFGD slurry increased. The concentrations of O2 in flue gas have an evident effect on the mercury retention in the solid byproducts. The temperature and Cl− concentration have a slight effect on the mercury partitioning in the byproducts. No evident relation was found between mercury retention in the solid byproducts and the pH. The present findings could be valuable for industrial application of characterizing and optimizing mercury control in wet FGD systems.

  5. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzin Nejad, N., E-mail: Farzinnejadn@ripi.ir [Petroleum Refining Technology Development Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran 14857-33111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, E.; Amini, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g{sup −1} of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles. - Highlights: • Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil with magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent, Fe-OMC, was studied. • Maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub max}) of Fe-OMC for DBT was found to be 111.1 mg g{sup −1}. • Freundlich isotherm best represents the equilibrium adsorption data. • Rate of DBT adsorption process onto Fe-OMC is controlled by at least two steps.

  6. Effect of pH Value on the Desulfurization Process in Flue Gas Desulfurization%烟气脱硫中pH值对脱硫过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华

    2014-01-01

    Wet Limestone - gypsum flue gas desulfurization system (FGD system) is currently dominant in the domestic coal-fired power plant FGD system. FGD is designed to chemically remove sulfur dioxide in the flue gas leaving the flue gas will be purified. pH value as a measure of gypsum slurry pH, is an important technical parameters of the desulfurization process, at the same time as an environmental indicators relate with chemical reaction. Utilization of limestone, desulfurization efficiency and quality of gypsum slurry are closely related with the control of pH value. We usually control the pH value by controlling the mixing amount of limestone (CaCO3). Increasing the pH value can increase the amount of limestone, and vice versa reduction. On operation, the stability of pH value must be maintained. Increasing the pH value will increase the alkalinity of system and desulfurization efficiency, but the utilization of limestone will be reduced, and accelerate the formation of scale, ultimately affect the quality of gypsum. Reducing the pH value will increase the acidity of the system, improve the utilization of limestone, accelerate precipitation of gypsum crystals, but it will also accelerate the corrosion of the system, make the system is unstable, and the desulfurization efficiency will be greatly reduced. Therefore, the control of slurry pH value should seek the best value to meet the requirements under the premise of the desulfurization rate and generally the pH is controlled in the best range of 5.0-5.8.%湿法石灰石-石膏烟气脱硫系统(即FGD系统)目前在国内外燃煤电站FGD系统中占绝对优势。FGD的目的是用化学方法除去烟气中的二氧化硫而使烟气得以净化。pH值作为石膏浆液酸碱度的度量,是脱硫工序中一项重要的技术参数,同时可作为一项与化学反应相关的环境指标。石灰石利用率、脱硫效率和石膏浆液品质等与pH值的控制密切相关。通常我们

  7. 再生胶改性沥青性能及其微观结构研究%Research on Performance and Microstructure of Desulfurized Rubber Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亮; 马育; 黄晓明; 马涛

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt rubber(AR) and desulfurized rubber asphalt(DRA) were prepared, their technical indexes were measured. The microstructure of both desulfurized crumb rubber(DCR) and crumb rubber(CR) were investigated. The results indicate that the viscosity of desulfurized rubber asphalt is far lower than that of asphalt rubber at high temperature, and as it can be prepared at lower temperature than asphalt rubber without peculiar smell, it is environmentally friendly. Desulfurized crumb rubber contains more additives, and more active bonds than crumb rubber. There is less cross-linking between the molecules of desulfurized crumb rubber. There is no obvious chemical combination between crumb rubber and asphalt, while chemical combination between desulfurized crumb rubber and asphalt is obvious.%制备了普通橡胶沥青和再生胶改性沥青,测定了这2种橡胶沥青的各项技术指标,并对普通橡胶粉和再生胶颗粒的微观结构进行了研究.结果表明:与普通橡胶沥青相比,再生胶改性沥青的高温黏度大大降低,制备温度也稍微下调,且制备中无异味,更加环保.再生胶颗粒交联度低,活性化学键多,与沥青之间存在明显的化学作用;而普通橡胶粉交联度高,活性化学键少,与沥青之间几乎没有化学作用.

  8. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  9. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO4), calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO42H2O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments

  10. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of diesel utilizing hydrogen peroxide and functionalized-activated carbon in a biphasic diesel-acetonitrile system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haw, Kok-Giap; Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah; Chong, Jiunn-Fat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kadir, Abdul Aziz Abdul [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the development of granular functionalized-activated carbon as catalysts in the catalytic oxidative desulfurization (Cat-ODS) of commercial Malaysian diesel using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Granular functionalized-activated carbon was prepared from oil palm shell using phosphoric acid activation method and carbonized at 500 C and 700 C for 1 h. The activated carbons were characterized using various analytical techniques to study the chemistry underlying the preparation and calcination treatment. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms exhibited the characteristic of microporous structure with some contribution of mesopore property. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy results showed that higher activation temperature leads to fewer surface functional groups due to thermal decomposition. Micrograph from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that activation at 700 C creates orderly and well developed pores. Furthermore, X-ray Diffraction patterns revealed that pyrolysis has converted crystalline cellulose structure of oil palm shell to amorphous carbon structure. The influence of the reaction temperature, the oxidation duration, the solvent, and the oxidant/sulfur molar ratio were examined. The rates of the catalytic oxidative desulfurization reaction were found to increase with the temperature, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/S molar ratio. Under the best operating condition for the catalytic oxidative desulfurization: temperature 50 C, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 g activated carbon, 3 mol ratio of hydrogen peroxide to sulfur, 2 mol ratio of acetic acid to sulfur, 3 oxidation cycles with 1 h for each cycle using acetonitrile as extraction solvent, the sulfur content in diesel was reduced from 2189 ppm to 190 ppm with 91.3% of total sulfur removed. (author)

  11. Effects of surface acidities of MCM-41 modified with MoO{sub 3} on adsorptive desulfurization of gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Xinchao, E-mail: sxc86@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Catalytic Science and Technology, Liaoning ShiHua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang Xiaotong; Yu Wenguang; Wu Yuye [Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Catalytic Science and Technology, Liaoning ShiHua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Qin Yucai [Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Catalytic Science and Technology, Liaoning ShiHua University, Fushun 113001 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, Shandong 257061 (China); Sun Zhaolin [Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Catalytic Science and Technology, Liaoning ShiHua University, Fushun 113001 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Song Lijuan, E-mail: lsong56@263.net [Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Catalytic Science and Technology, Liaoning ShiHua University, Fushun 113001 (China) and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, Shandong 257061 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3}-MCM-41 samples prepared by spontaneous monolayer dispersion and impregnation with a different MoO{sub 3} filling have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relative concentration of hydroxyl groups present on before and after containing MoO{sub 3} samples was monitored by in situ FTIR to speculate the bonding style of MoO{sub 3} and MCM-41. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface acidities of the MoO{sub 3}-MCM-41 adsorbents were investigated systematically and correlated with the desulfurization performance. - Abstract: A series of MCM-41 samples containing molybdenum oxide as active species in the mesoporous channels loaded by spontaneous monolayer dispersion (SMD) and impregnation (IM) have been prepared and characterized using XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and intelligent gravimetric analyzer (IGA). The relative number of hydroxy on the adsorbents was investigated by in situ FTIR. Surface acidities of the adsorbents were studied by infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine and correlated with reactivity for adsorptive desulfurization. The IGA technique was employed to investigate adsorption behavior of thiophene and benzene on the adsorbents at 303 K. It is shown that MoO{sub 3} can be highly dispersed up to 0.2 g g{sup -1} in the MCM-41 channels by the SMD strategy with the ordered mesoporous structure of the MoMM samples remaining intact. The ordered mesostructure of MCM-41 is, however, destroyed at higher MoO{sub 3} contents of 0.26 and 0.32 g g{sup -1} with particle sizes of 1.2 nm and 3.6 nm, respectively, observed. For the MoMI(0.2) sample prepared by the IM method, the aggregation of the MoO{sub 3} particles takes place with a particle size of 6.5 nm obtained. The results are also revealed that the dispersion extent of the MoO{sub 3} species is related to the abundant surface hydroxy of MCM-41. The host species and guest

  12. Effects of surface acidities of MCM-41 modified with MoO3 on adsorptive desulfurization of gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The MoO3-MCM-41 samples prepared by spontaneous monolayer dispersion and impregnation with a different MoO3 filling have been studied. ► The relative concentration of hydroxyl groups present on before and after containing MoO3 samples was monitored by in situ FTIR to speculate the bonding style of MoO3 and MCM-41. ► The surface acidities of the MoO3-MCM-41 adsorbents were investigated systematically and correlated with the desulfurization performance. - Abstract: A series of MCM-41 samples containing molybdenum oxide as active species in the mesoporous channels loaded by spontaneous monolayer dispersion (SMD) and impregnation (IM) have been prepared and characterized using XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and intelligent gravimetric analyzer (IGA). The relative number of hydroxy on the adsorbents was investigated by in situ FTIR. Surface acidities of the adsorbents were studied by infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine and correlated with reactivity for adsorptive desulfurization. The IGA technique was employed to investigate adsorption behavior of thiophene and benzene on the adsorbents at 303 K. It is shown that MoO3 can be highly dispersed up to 0.2 g g−1 in the MCM-41 channels by the SMD strategy with the ordered mesoporous structure of the MoMM samples remaining intact. The ordered mesostructure of MCM-41 is, however, destroyed at higher MoO3 contents of 0.26 and 0.32 g g−1 with particle sizes of 1.2 nm and 3.6 nm, respectively, observed. For the MoMI(0.2) sample prepared by the IM method, the aggregation of the MoO3 particles takes place with a particle size of 6.5 nm obtained. The results are also revealed that the dispersion extent of the MoO3 species is related to the abundant surface hydroxy of MCM-41. The host species and guest species undergo solid-state reaction to form Si-O-Mo bonds in the mixtures which enhance both the Lewis acid and Brönsted acid of the samples. It

  13. Experimental Research of Desulfurized Rubber Asphalt Mortar%脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德滨

    2013-01-01

    为了探明脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆的性能,研究制备脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆,借助脱硫橡胶溶胀模型,采用锥入度试验对脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆的高温性能展开研究,同时利用拉拔仪对其粘结性能进行研究,研究过程中采用40目橡胶沥青胶浆进行对比性试验;研究结果表明:脱硫橡胶沥青大幅度的降低了橡胶沥青的高温粘度,有利于施工和易性;脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆的抗剪强度远远大于相同胶粉掺量下的40目普通橡胶沥青胶浆,且其抗剪强度随胶粉掺量及粉胶比的增加而增大;脱硫橡胶沥青胶浆的拉拔强度略低于相同胶粉产量下的40目橡胶沥青胶浆,但两者最佳胶粉掺量下沥青胶浆拉拔强度,前者远远大于后者.%In order to explore the performance of the desulphurization rubber asphalt mortar,desulphurization rubber asphalt mortar was prepared,and its high temperature performance and adhesive property was researched by the test of cone penetration and pull-out test with desulfurization rubber swelling model,40 mesh rubber asphalt was also researched to be comparison; The results show that:desulfurization rubber asphalt could greatly reduce the high temperature viscosity of the rubber asphalt,and conducive to workability; the shear strength of desulfurization rubber asphalt mortar is far greater than the same dosage of powder under 40 mesh rubber asphalt mortar,and the shear strength increases with the dosage of powder and powder-binder ratio; the pull strength of desulfurization rubber asphalt mastic slightly lower than the same powder production under the 40 mesh rubber asphalt mastic,the former is much larger than the latter.

  14. Experimental research on the local resistance characteristics of branch pipe in dense phase pneumatic conveying desulfurized gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong Ming; Pan, Hong Li; Duan, Guang Bin; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Pneumatic conveying experiment was carried out in branch pipe branch whose angle would change. In the paper, compressed air was conveying power while dry desulfurized gypsum was conveying materials. The trend of local resistance whose gas-solid flow come through branches with different geometric structure was investigated with different gas-solid flow velocity and solids loading ratio. The result showed that the local resistance loss of branch pipe would increase with the increment of the angle between the branch pipe and the main pipe, the ratio of solid-gas in the pipe and the superficial gas velocity.

  15. Kinetics of pozzolanic reaction for preparation of flue gas desulfurizer from fly ash and Ca(OH)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingang; HU Jinbang; WANG Daobin; DUAN Zhenya

    2007-01-01

    A kinetic model of the pozzolanic reaction for the preparation of flue gas desulfurizers from fly ash and Ca(OH)2 was deduced on the basis of solid phase reaction kinetic theory.Kinetic expressions and parameters were obtained and verified by experiment.A comparison of calculated results with experimental results showed that precision in kinetic expressions was good.The apparent reaction rate constants of the pozzolanic reaction could be raised by increasing the specific surface area of fly ash and the hydration temperature,and by using a suitable additive.

  16. Oxidative degradation of organic acids conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    Organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation has been studied under flue gas desulfurization (EGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k/sub 12/, is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate after being normalized by the concentrations of organic acid and dissolved S(IV). K/sub 12/, not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen, is around 10/sup -3/ in the absence of manganese or iron. However, k/sub 12/ is increased by certain transition metals such as Co, Ni, and Fe and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnified these effects. No k/sub 12/ greater than 4 x 10/sup -3/ or smaller than 0.1 x 10/sup -3/ has been observed. A free radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics: (1) sulfate free radical is the major radical responsible to the degradation of organic acid; (2) ferrous generates sulfate radical by reacting with monoxypersulfate to enhance k/sub 12/; (3) manganous consumes sulfate radical to decrease k/sub 12/; (4) dissolved S(IV) competes with ferrous for monoxypersulfate and with manganous for sulfate radical to demonstrate the effects of dissolved S(IV) on k/sub 12/. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately three times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids; while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude faster. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide - the major product, glutaric semialdehyde - the major retained product with low manganese, glutaric acid and valeric acids - the major retained product with high manganese, lower molecular weight mono- and dicarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons.

  17. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojung; Bajaj, Bharat [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Chang Ki; Kwon, Soon-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Han-Ik [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kwang Bok, E-mail: cosy32@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungho, E-mail: sunghol@kist.re.kr [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Material Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and zinc precursor were electrospun and heat-treated for preparing zinc oxide (ZnO) modified carbon nanofibers (CNF). • A facile synthesis of composite webs resulted in uniformly loaded ZnO on the surface of CNFs. • The composites showed significant hydrogen sulfide adsorption efficiency at 300 °C. • The flexible webs can be applied for mid-temperature desulfurization. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6–29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50–80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H{sub 2}S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF.

  18. A NOVEL VAPOR-PHASE PROCESS FOR DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF NAPHTHA/DIESEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.S. Turk; R.P. Gupta; S.K. Gangwal

    2003-06-30

    Tier 2 regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require a substantial reduction in the sulfur content of gasoline. Similar regulations have been enacted for the sulfur level in on-road diesel and recently off-road diesel. The removal of this sulfur with existing and installed technology faces technical and economic challenges. These challenges created the opportunity for new emerging technologies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) with subcontract support from Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc., (KBR) used this opportunity to develop RTI's transport reactor naphtha desulfurization (TReND) process. Starting with a simple conceptual process design and some laboratory results that showed promise, RTI initiated an accelerated research program for sorbent development, process development, and marketing and commercialization. Sorbent development has resulted in the identification of an active and attrition resistant sorbent that has been prepared in commercial equipment in 100 lb batches. Process development has demonstrated both the sulfur removal performance and regeneration potential of this sorbent. Process development has scaled up testing from small laboratory to pilot plant transport reactor testing. Testing in the transport reactor pilot plant has demonstrated the attrition resistance, selective sulfur removal activity, and regeneration activity of this sorbent material. Marketing and commercialization activities have shown with the existing information that the process has significant capital and operating cost benefits over existing and other emerging technologies. The market assessment and analysis provided valuable feedback about the testing and performance requirements for the technical development program. This market analysis also provided a list of potential candidates for hosting a demonstration unit. Although the narrow window of opportunity generated by the new sulfur regulations and the conservative nature of the refining

  19. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of

  20. Effects of thyroxine on L-cysteine desulfuration in mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel M

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous thyroxine (T4 administration on the activity of rhodanese, cystathionase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of mouse liver was investigated. Three groups of mice were treated for 6 consecutive days with subcutaneous injections of T4 (50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 250 micrograms per 100 g of body wt, respectively. The other 3 groups were given 100 micrograms of T4 per 100 g of body wt for 1, 2, or 3 days. The dose of 100 micrograms T4 per 100 g of body wt given for 6 days exerted the strongest effect on the activity of all of the investigated enzymes. In comparison to the control, rhodanese activity diminished in the mitochondrial fraction by 40% (P < 0.05, cystathionase activity diminished in the cytosolic fraction by 15% (P < 0.05, and MPST activity in the mitochondrial fraction was reduced by 34% (P < 0.05, whereas cytosolic MPST activity was unaltered. Simultaneously, in the liver homogenate, elevated levels of ATP and sulfate were observed after 6 days of T4 administration. Thus, the present results seem to suggest that in the mouse liver, after 6 days of administration of 100 micrograms T4 per 100 g of body wt, the desulfuration metabolism of L-cysteine is diminished, which is probably accompanied by an increase in oxidative L-cysteine metabolism. The dose of 100 micrograms per 100 g of body wt administered for a shorter period, and the use of a lower dosage (50 micrograms T4 per 100 g of body wt for 6 days had a stimulatory effect upon MPST activity level, and an increased level of sulfane sulfur was observed.

  1. Methane production from a field-scale biofilter designed for desulfurization of biogas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolli, Mateus; da Silva, Márcio Luís Busi; Mezzari, Melissa Paola; Michelon, William; Prandini, Jean Michel; Moreira Soares, Hugo

    2016-07-15

    The development of a simple and low maintenance field-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) for desulfurization of swine wastewater-derived biogas stream that was also capable of increasing biomethane concentrations was investigated. BTF was continuously fed with wastewater effluent from an air sparged nitrification-denitrification bioreactor installed downgradient from an UASB-type digester. BTF maximum removal efficiency (RE) of 99.8% was achieved with a maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 1,509 g H2S m(-3) h(-1). Average EC obtained with inlet biogas flow rates of 0.024, 0.036 and 0.048 m(3) h(-1) was 718, 1,013 and 438 g H2S m(-3) h(-1), respectively. SO4(-2) and S(0) were the major metabolites produced from biological conversion of H2S. Additionally to the satisfactory biodesulfurization capacity, an average increase in methane concentration of ≅ 3.8 ± 1.68 g m(-3) was measured in the filtered gas stream throughout 200 days of BTF operation. RT-PCR analyses of archaea communities in the biofilm confirmed dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens thus corroborating with the observed strong correlation between CO2 removal and CH4 production. Among the three major archaea orders investigated (i.e., Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanomicrobiales), Methanobacteriales were encountered at highest concentrations (1.9 × 10(11) gene copies mL(-1)). The proposed BTF was robust efficiently removing H2S from biogas stream while concomitantly enhancing the concentration of valuable methane as source of renewable fuel. PMID:27093237

  2. Air/water oxidative desulfurization of coal and sulfur-containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzinski, R. P.; Freidman, S.; LaCount, R. B.

    1981-02-01

    Air/water Oxydesulfurization has been demonstrated in autoclave experiments at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for various coals representative of the major U. S. coal basins. The applicability at present of this treatment for producing an environmentally acceptable coal has been restricted by recently proposed SO2 emission standards for utility boilers. The product would, however, be attractive to the many smaller industrial coal users who cannot afford to operate and maintain flue gas desulfurization systems. It is also possible that the utility industry could realize a benefit by using chemically cleaned coal with partial flue gas scrubbing. The higher cost of the cleaned coal would be offset by the reduction in capital and operating costs resulting from decreased FGD requirements. The susceptibility of sulfur in coal to oxidative removal varies with the nature of the sulfur-containing species. The inorganic sulfur compounds, primarily pyrite, marcasite, and iron sulfate, are more amenable to treatment than the organically bound sulfur which exhibits varying degrees of resistance depending on its chemical environment. Air/water Oxydesulfurization consistently removes in excess of 90 percent of the pyritic sulfur; the extent and efficiency of organic sulfur removal however, depends on the type of coal and severity of treatment used. In general, the organic sulfur of the higher rank coals exhibits more resistance to treatment than that of the lower rank coals; however, the accompanying heating value is greater for the latter. Similar treatment of sulfur-containing model compounds further illustrates the relative susceptibilities of different chemical species to oxidation. Application of these data to the understanding of the complex chemistry involved in the treatment of coal is a preliminary step toward improving the efficiency of Oxydesulfurization.

  3. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and zinc precursor were electrospun and heat-treated for preparing zinc oxide (ZnO) modified carbon nanofibers (CNF). • A facile synthesis of composite webs resulted in uniformly loaded ZnO on the surface of CNFs. • The composites showed significant hydrogen sulfide adsorption efficiency at 300 °C. • The flexible webs can be applied for mid-temperature desulfurization. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6–29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50–80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H2S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF

  4. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%.

  5. Progress on Biocatalytic Reaction in Various Ionic Liquid Mediums%不同离子液体反应介质在生物催化中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜伟燕; 李娜; 王寿江

    2012-01-01

      离子液体(ILs)因其独特物理化学性质成为新型反应溶剂和催化剂,在生物催化反应中有着广阔的应用前景。根据不同 ILs 的水溶性,其与水可形成4种反应介质,即微水 ILs 单相体系、亲水性 ILs-水单相体系、疏水性 ILs-水两相体系和 ILs 微乳液体系。本文分别介绍了不同 ILs 反应体系中生物催化剂的催化活性、稳定性和选择性,综述了这些体系中的生物催化反应研究进展。%  Ionic liquids (ILs) are new reaction mediums and catalysts for biocatalytic reaction due to their excellent physical and chemical characteristics. ILs can form 4 kinds of reaction mediums with water based on their water solubility, that is, nearly anhydrous ILs systems, hydrophilic ILs-water systems, hydrophobic ILs-water two-phase systems, and water-in-ILs microemulsions. In this article, the activity, stability and selectivity of biocatalysts in the four ILs-containing mediums are summarized and the research progresses of biocatalytic reaction in the systems are discussed.

  6. Efficient H2O2/CH3COOH oxidative desulfurization/denitrification of liquid fuels in sonochemical flow-reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcio Gaudino, Emanuela; Carnaroglio, Diego; Boffa, Luisa; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Moreira, Elizabeth M; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative desulfurization/denitrification of liquid fuels has been widely investigated as an alternative or complement to common catalytic hydrorefining. In this process, all oxidation reactions occur in the heterogeneous phase (the oil and the polar phase containing the oxidant) and therefore the optimization of mass and heat transfer is of crucial importance to enhancing the oxidation rate. This goal can be achieved by performing the reaction in suitable ultrasound (US) reactors. In fact, flow and loop US reactors stand out above classic batch US reactors thanks to their greater efficiency and flexibility as well as lower energy consumption. This paper describes an efficient sonochemical oxidation with H2O2/CH3COOH at flow rates ranging from 60 to 800 ml/min of both a model compound, dibenzotiophene (DBT), and of a mild hydro-treated diesel feedstock. Four different commercially available US loop reactors (single and multi-probe) were tested, two of which were developed in the authors' laboratory. Full DBT oxidation and efficient diesel feedstock desulfurization/denitrification were observed after the separation of the polar oxidized S/N-containing compounds (S≤5 ppmw, N≤1 ppmw). Our studies confirm that high-throughput US applications benefit greatly from flow-reactors. PMID:23735892

  7. Summary of the Desulfurization Unit Revamping%我公司脱硫系统改造总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤徐

    2014-01-01

    介绍脱硫系统静电除焦流程、循环水流程、脱硫塔内件、富液槽、再生槽等的改造情况。改造后,半水煤气的净化质量大大提高,压缩机的一入活门使用周期延长,压缩机打气量增加,促使公司的技术管理水平和效益逐年提高。%Describe the revamp situation of the desulfurization unit ,which including the electrostatic decoking process ,the circulating water process ,the desulfurization tower internals ,the rich liquid tank and the regeneration tank ,etc . After revamping , the semi-water gas purification quality is greatly improved ,the operational life cycle of the first inlet valve is extended ,and the compressor capacity is increased . So the company's technical management and efficiency is increased every year .

  8. Analysis on the Oversize Blast Furnace Desulfurization and a Sulfide Capacity Prediction Model Based on Congregated Electron Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyang, Wang; Jianliang, Zhang; Gang, An; Zhengjian, Liu; Zhengming, Cheng; Junjie, Huang; Jingwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Through analyzed and regressed the actual productive desulfurization data from the oversize blast furnace (5500 m3) in north China, the relationship between the sulfur distribution parameters and the slag composition in actual production situation was investigated. As the slag and hot metal phases have their own balance sulfur content or sulfur partial pressure in gas phase, respectively, the non-equilibrium of sulfur among gas, slag, and metal phases leads to the transmission and distribution of sulfur. Combined with sulfur transmission reactions between gas, slag and metal phases, C/CO pairs equilibrium, and Wagner model, the measured sulfide capacity can be acquired using sulfur distribution ratio, sulfur activity coefficient, and oxygen activity in hot metal. Based on the theory of congregated electron phase, a new sulfide capacity prediction model (CEPM) has been developed, which has a good liner relationship with the measured sulfide capacity. Thus, using the burden structure for BF, the ironmaking slag composition can be obtained simply and can be used to reliably predict the ironmaking slag desulfurization ability a few hours later after charging under a certain temperature by CEPM.

  9. Desulfurization of flue gas using a sodium sulfite-based method: on sodium sulfite and sodium sulfite--gypsum method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, T.

    1975-03-01

    Flue gas desulfurization by the sodium sulfite method and the sodium sulfite-gypsum method developed jointly by Kureha Chem. Co. and Kawasaki Heavy Ind. Co. is described. In the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ method, the sulfur dioxide is absorbed in Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ solution producing sodium bisulfite, which is recovered as Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ crystals by adding sodium hydroxide. In the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ gypsum method, the absorption process is the same; however, the NaHSO/sub 4/ obtained is reacted with calcium carbonate producing calcium sulfite, which is subsequently either reacted with sulfuric acid giving NaHSO/sub 3/ and calcium sulfate or oxidized directly to CaSO/sub 4/. The desulfurization rate is in the range of 95.8 to 98.4%. The development process, operational procedure, operational conditions and characteristics of these methods are described with test data, operation records, and flow sheets.

  10. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Flue Gas Desulfurization From Coal Bottom Ash: Effect of Absorbent Preparation Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chin Li, Lee Keat Teong, Subhash Bhatia and Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal bottom ash, calcium oxide (CaO and calcium sulfate by hydro-thermal process. The absorbent was examined for its micro-structural properties. The experiments conducted were based on Design Of Experiments (DOE according to 23 factorial design. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as ratio of CaO to bottom ash (A, hydration temperature (B and hydration period (C towards the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the absorbent were studied. At a CaO to bottom ash ratio = 2, hydration temperature = 200 ?C and hydration period = 10 hrs, absorbent with a surface area of 90.1 m2/g was obtained. Based on the analysis of the factorial design, it was concluded that factor A and C as well as the interaction of factors ABC and BC are the significant factors that effect the BET surface area of the absorbent. A linear mathematical model that describes the relation between the independent variables and interaction between variables towards the BET specific surface area of the absorbent was also developed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the model was significant at 1% level.Key Words: Absorbent, Bottom Ash, Design Of Experiments, Desulfurization, Surface Area.

  11. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:27209038

  12. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash,industry lime,and an oxidizing additive M.Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed(CFB).The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification.Removal efficiencies of 95.5%for SO2 and 64.8%for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods.The results in- dicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species.A scanning electron microscope(SEM)and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples,including fly ash,oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent.The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was pro- posed according to the experimental results.

  13. Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica-zirconia Supported Phosphotungstic Acid and Its Catalytic Performance for Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xuemin; DAI Kai; MEI Ping

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous silica-zirconia supported phosphotungstic acid was synthesized by evaporation induced self-assembly method and used as oxidative desulfurization catalysts. The structural properties of as-prepared catalysts were characterized using various analytical techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption desorption. The experimental results showed that HPW was highly dispersed on mesoporous framework. The surface acidity of catalysts was analyzed by FTIR measurement of adsorbed pyridine.The surface Lewis acidity was improved with increasing the content of zirconium in the samples. The mesoporous composites were used as catalysts with H2O2 as oxidant for oxidative desulfurization of model fuel. The catalytic activity results showed that the surface Lewis acid sites acted as selective adsorption active sites for dibenzothiophene, which facilitated the sulfur removal from model fuel in the presence of arene. A slight decrease in activity of the recovered catalyst used in the proceeding rounds indicated the reusability of the catalyst.

  14. Fate of mercury in flue gas desulfurization gypsum determined by Temperature Programmed Decomposition and Sequential Chemical Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenwu; Zhuo, Yuqun; Fan, Yaming; Wang, Zhipeng

    2016-05-01

    A considerable amount of Hg is retained in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (WFGD) systems. For this reason, it is important to determine the species of Hg in FGD gypsum not only to understand the mechanism of Hg removal by WFGD systems but also to determine the final fate of Hg when FGD gypsum is disposed. In this study, Temperature Programmed Decomposition (TPD) and Sequential Chemical Extraction (SCE) were applied to FGD gypsum to identify the Hg species in it. The FGD gypsum samples were collected from seven coal-fired power plants in China, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 3.27μg/g. A series of pure Hg compounds were used as reference materials in TPD experiments and the results revealed that the decomposition temperatures of different Hg compounds increase in the order of Hg2Cl2mercury sulfides were the primary compounds. The results of SCE indicated that Hg was mainly distributed in the strongly complexed phase. The low Hg content in FGD gypsum increases the ambiguity of assigning extraction fractions to certain Hg species by SCE. The fact that the primary compounds in FGD gypsum are HgS phases leads the leaching of Hg in the natural environment to be quite low, but a considerable amount of Hg may be released during the industrial heating process. PMID:27155422

  15. A non-chemically selective top-down approach towards the preparation of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with improved oxidative desulfurization catalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuting; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Qiming; Wang, Ning; Jia, Mingjun; Valtchev, Valentin; Yu, Jihong

    2016-02-28

    Hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with secondary macropores have been successfully prepared by using two different fluoride-containing chemical etching post-treated routes. Hierarchical TS-1 zeolites exhibited a chemical composition similar to that of the parent material and showed remarkably enhanced catalytic activity in oxidative desulfurization reaction. PMID:26846586

  16. Copper-catalyzed oxidative desulfurization-oxygenation of thiocarbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen: an efficient method for the preparation of oxygen isotopically labeled carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Fumitoshi; Suenami, Aiko; Yoshida, Atsunori; Murai, Toshiaki

    2007-06-21

    A novel copper-catalyzed oxidative desulfurization reaction of thiocarbonyl compounds, using molecular oxygen as an oxidant and leading to formation of carbonyl compounds, has been developed, and the utility of the process is demonstrated by its application to the preparation of a carbonyl-18O labeled sialic acid derivative. PMID:17844744

  17. Design of Oxidation Regenerator for Coal-bed Methane Desulfurization%煤层气脱硫氧化再生槽的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文娟

    2013-01-01

    Before the use of the coal-bed methane, H2 S content in it must be lowered down to the demand with the desulfurizing system. This paper described the oxidation regeneration method for coal-bed methane desulfurization, and expounded the principle and technological process of the presently-used PDS wet oxidation regeneration method for coal-bed methane desulfurization, discussed the influence of some factors such as the regenerating time, temperature and the alkalinity of desulfurizing solution on the oxidation regeneration method, and based on these conditions, the structure of the oxidation regenerator and the injector were designed.%煤层气在利用之前,需要通过脱硫系统将其中的H2 S脱除至要求浓度以下。介绍了煤层气脱硫氧化再生技术,阐述了目前常用的PDS法湿式脱硫氧化再生技术的原理和工艺过程;讨论了再生时间、温度、脱硫液碱度等因素对氧化再生工艺的影响,基于这些条件,对氧化再生槽的结构、喷射器进行了设计。

  18. 电厂脱硫废水曝气装置设计优化%Power Plant Desulfurization Wastewater Aeration Device Design Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守超

    2015-01-01

    介绍了电厂常见脱硫废水处理系统的工作流程和流程优化部分,总结了多个电厂脱硫废水处理系统曝气装置的设计经验,提出了脱硫废水处理系统曝气装置设计优化的关键细节。该方案已经在多个电厂投入运行,且运行稳定、效果明显,可为相关单位的火电厂脱硫废水处理系统设计提供参考。%The power plant desulfurization wastewater treatment system common workflow and process optimization section summarizes a number of power plant desulfurization wastewater treatment system design experience aerator proposed key details desulfurization wastewater treatment system aeration device design optimization. The program has invested in a number of plant operations and stable operation, the effect is obvious, can desulfurization wastewater treatment system designed for the relevant units of thermal power plants to provide a reference.

  19. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  20. 投用脱硫槽的环保节能操作%Operation of Desulfurization Tank for Environmental Protection and Energy-Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於文

    2014-01-01

    After desulfurization tank operation optimized , the unit operation is energy-saving , emission-reduction ,consumption reducing and efficiency increasing .%通过对脱硫槽投用操作方法的优化,达到了节能减排、降耗增效的目的。

  1. 脱硫橡胶沥青溶胀原理及路用性能%Swelling Principle and Pavement Performance of Desulfurized Rubber Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅文; 袁浩; 马涛

    2012-01-01

    分别从微观和宏观对脱硫橡胶及其橡胶沥青进行了研究,并用普通废胎橡胶及其橡胶沥青进行了对比.通过溶解试验发现脱硫橡胶的溶解性远大于普通橡胶,回收脱硫橡胶中仅有极少的橡胶颗粒存在.红外光谱表明脱硫橡胶颗粒较普通废胶粉含有更多的活性化学键,具有较低的交联度.脱硫橡胶沥青在相同温度下粘度较低同时也兼具较好的稳定性.建立了脱硫橡胶沥青的溶胀模型.比较了2种橡胶沥青的路用性能,发现脱硫橡胶的粘度和低温延度要好于普通橡胶沥青,其他性能则略差,并用溶胀模型进行了解释.%The desulfurized rubber and its rubber asphalt were studied from macro and micro aspects respectively, and the performance comparison between crumb rubber asphalt and desulfurized rubber asphalt was conducted. The result of solubility test show that the solubility of desulfurized rubber is much better than that of crumb rubber, and few rubber particle existed in the recycled desulfurized rubber. The infrared spectra show that the desulfurized rubber particle contains more additives and active chemical bond compared . To crumb rubber powder, and the former has less cross-linking, resulting in lower viscosity and better stability at the same temperature. A swelling model for desulfurized rubber asphalt was established, and the pavement performance of two kinds of rubber asphalt was compared. It is found that the viscosity and low-temperature ductility of desulfurized rubber is better than those of ordinary rubber asphalt except other pavement performance, which was explained by the swelling model.

  2. Analysis of Influence Factors on Coal Desulfurization with Dielectric Barrier Discharge%煤介质阻挡放电脱硫的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许允之; 李国欣; 曹海洋

    2011-01-01

    依据介质阻挡放电理论,对原煤进行煤介质阻挡放电脱硫实验.实验结果表明,煤介质阻挡放电脱硫的影响因素与电极结构、介质成分和气隙距离等因素有关,如将介质放到放电间隙中间时脱硫的效果没有将介质直接放在放电极板上的脱硫效果好,加煤的情况下微放电的强度明显大于不加煤的微放电过程强度;脱硫效果呈"U"字型变化,由此推论,在一定的外界条件下,煤介质阻挡放电除硫有一个最佳的施加电压;随着电压的增加,放电脉冲的相位范围逐渐扩展.%According to the theory of dielectric barrier discharge, coal desulfurization experiment of dielectric barrier discharge was done.The experiment result showed that influence factors of coal desulfurization with dielectric barrier discharge are electrode structure, medium composition and air-gap distance, for example, desulfurization effect of putting medium on discharge board is better than the one of putting medium in air-gap, the intensity of microdischarge of adding coal is stronger than that the one of unadding coal; the desulfurization effect changes in "U" type, so it can be deduced that desulfurization has a best applied voltage in certain external conditions with dielectric barrier discharge; the phase scope of discharge pulse expands gradually with increase of the voltage.

  3. Preparation of crude oil desulfurizer and its performance%原油脱硫剂的研制及其效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 张俊晟; 田永宏; 戚建平; 周保平

    2014-01-01

    A novel oil-soluble/water-dispersed crude oil desulfurizer was developed. The composition of the desulfurizer was alkali metal nitrite of 36%-38%, organic aliphatic amine of 43%-47%, methanol of 15% and OP-7 of 1.5% by mass. The performance of the desulfurizer for different crude oils was evaluated by using iodometry and ultraviolet fluorescence sulfur analyzer. The results showed that the hydrogen sulfide removal rate reached up to 98% and the organic sulfur removal rate was higher than 20%. Meanwhile, the desulfurization conditions, effect and cost were compared with other commercially available desulfurizers.%研制了一种新型的油溶性-水中分散的原油脱硫剂,该剂组成为:碱金属亚硝酸盐36%~38%、有机脂族胺43%~47%、甲醇15%、OP-71.5%。利用碘量法测定了其对伊朗原油、塔里木原油和模拟原油中硫化氢的脱除效果,脱除率可达98%;利用紫外荧光定硫仪测定了其对有机硫的脱除效果,脱除率为20%以上。同时,将该剂与市售脱硫剂的脱硫条件、脱硫效果及成本进行了比较。

  4. Harvesting microalgae cultures with superabsorbent polymers: desulfurization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín del Campo, Julia S; Patiño, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    It is presented in this work a new methodology to harvest fresh water microalgae cultures by extracting the culture medium with superabsorbent polymers (SAPs). The microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown in the Sueoka culture medium, harvested with polyacrylic SAPs and re-suspended in the culture medium tris-acetate-potassium without sulfur (TAP-S) to generate hydrogen (H2 ) under anoxic conditions. The H2 production as an alternative fuel is relevant since this gas has high-energy recovery without involving carbon. Before microalgae harvesting, a number of range diameters (1-7 mm) for SAPs spherical particles were tested, and the initial rate (V0 ) and the maximal capacity (Qmax ) were determined for the Sueoka medium absorption. The SAP particles with the diameter range 2.0-2.5 mm performed the best and these were employed for the rest of the experiments. The Sueoka medium has a high salt content and the effect of the ionic strength was also studied for different medium concentrations (0-400%). The SAPs were reused in consecutive absorption/desorption cycles, maintaining their absorption capacity. Although the Sueoka medium reduces the SAPs absorption capacity to 40% compared with deionized water, the use of SAPs was very significant for the desulfurization process of C. reihardtii. The presence of C. reinhardtii at different concentrations does not affect the absorption capacity of the Sueoka culture medium by the SAPs. In order to reduce the time of the process, an increase of the SAPs concentration was tested, being 20 g of SAP per liter of medium, a condition to harvest the microalgae culture in 4 h. There were no evident cell ruptures during the harvesting process and the cells remained alive. Finally, the harvested biomass was re-suspended in TAP-S medium and kept under anaerobic conditions and illumination to produce H2 that was monitored by a PEM fuel cell. The use of SAPs for microalgae harvesting is a feasible non-invasive procedure to obtain

  5. 燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术创新和应用探讨%Discussion on technology innovation of coal -fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆虎; 吴金土

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the existing coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney corrosion technolo-gy, summed up the basic reason desulfurization chimney corrosion failures, technological innovation ideas pro-posed chimney desulfurization corrosion.And briefly describes the use of self-vulcanized butyl rubber anti-corrosion lining for coal-fired power plant desulfurization chimney antiseptic feasibility and success stories.%通过对现行燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱防腐技术分析,总结了脱硫烟囱防腐失效的原因,提出了脱硫烟囱防腐的技术创新思路。简要介绍了采用自硫化丁基橡胶防腐衬里对燃煤电厂脱硫烟囱进行防腐的可行性和成功案例。

  6. Species Differences in the Oxidative Desulfurization of a Thiouracil-Based Irreversible Myeloperoxidase Inactivator by Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Heather; Sharma, Raman; Wolford, Angela; Di, Li; Ruggeri, Roger B; Buckbinder, Leonard; Conn, Edward L; Dalvie, Deepak K; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2016-08-01

    N1-Substituted-6-arylthiouracils, represented by compound 1 [6-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-4(1H)-one], are a novel class of selective irreversible inhibitors of human myeloperoxidase. The present account is a summary of our in vitro studies on the facile oxidative desulfurization in compound 1 to a cyclic ether metabolite M1 [5-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-7H-oxazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-7-one] in NADPH-supplemented rats (t1/2 [half-life = mean ± S.D.] = 8.6 ± 0.4 minutes) and dog liver microsomes (t1/2 = 11.2 ± 0.4 minutes), but not in human liver microsomes (t1/2 > 120 minutes). The in vitro metabolic instability also manifested in moderate-to-high plasma clearances of the parent compound in rats and dogs with significant concentrations of M1 detected in circulation. Mild heat deactivation of liver microsomes or coincubation with the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) inhibitor imipramine significantly diminished M1 formation. In contrast, oxidative metabolism of compound 1 to M1 was not inhibited by the pan cytochrome P450 inactivator 1-aminobenzotriazole. Incubations with recombinant FMO isoforms (FMO1, FMO3, and FMO5) revealed that FMO1 principally catalyzed the conversion of compound 1 to M1. FMO1 is not expressed in adult human liver, which rationalizes the species difference in oxidative desulfurization. Oxidation by FMO1 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Michaelis-Menten constant, maximum rate of oxidative desulfurization, and intrinsic clearance values of 209 μM, 20.4 nmol/min/mg protein, and 82.7 μl/min/mg protein, respectively. Addition of excess glutathione essentially eliminated the conversion of compound 1 to M1 in NADPH-supplemented rat and dog liver microsomes, which suggests that the initial FMO1-mediated S-oxygenation of compound 1 yields a sulfenic acid intermediate capable of redox cycling to the parent compound in a glutathione-dependent fashion or undergoing further oxidation to a more

  7. Study on the Desulfurization of Hot Metal with Composite Reagent of Calcium Oxide and Aluminum%铁水钙铝复合脱硫的机理分析及研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国; 孙瑜; 何奕波; 沈峰满

    2012-01-01

    向铁水中加入Al可降低铁水中氧而促进脱硫反应,同时改善脱硫动力学条件.为降低脱硫成本,对钙铝复合脱硫的机理和效果进行了研究.试验结果证实:在CaO基脱硫剂中加入适量铝粉,通过钙铝复合脱硫可以提高CaO的脱硫率;Al添加量为5.0 g/kg时,脱硫率比单独使用CaO提高31.4%.Al添加量为0.6 g/kg时,20 min内可将铁水中硫含量降低到0.02%以下.通过计算,得到了不同Al添加量下的脱硫速率常数.%Al addition can not only promote the desulfurization by deoxidation in the hot metal,but also improve the kinetic conditions of desulfurization with lime.To reduce the cost of desulfurization treatment,theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted for hot metal desulfurization with composite reagent of calcium oxide and aluminum.The experiment results show that,with the addition of a certain amount Al in CaO-based desulfurizer,the desulfurization rate can be improved.With 5 g/kgFe Al addition,the desulfurization ratio can be increased by 31.4%.With 0.6 g/kgFe Al addition,the sulfur content in hot metal can be reduced to below 0.02% within 20 min.The rate constant of desulfurization reaction was also calculated for different amounts of Al addition.

  8. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Calderon

    1998-04-08

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking reactor (Process Development Unit-- PDU-11) using Calderon's proprietary technology for making commercially acceptable coke. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: 1. Testing and Designing of the Submerged Quenching Closed System for the Process; 2. Usage of the Cracked Desulfurized Gas as a Reducing Gas to Make Directly Reduced Iron (DRI) in Order to Make the Process Economics Viable; 3. Changes in the Ceramic Liners for Supporting Them in the Coking Reactor; 4. Work Towards Testing of U.S. Steel's Coal in the Existing Process Development Unit in Alliance (PDU-1); 5. Permitting.

  9. Phosphotungstic acid encapsulated in the mesocages of amine-functionalized metal-organic frameworks for catalytic oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Huang, Yuan-Biao; Lin, Zu-Jin; Cao, Rong

    2014-08-21

    Highly dispersed Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40, PTA) encapsulated in the mesocages of amine-functionalized metal-organic frameworks MIL-101(Cr)-NH2 has been prepared by an anion-exchange method. PTA anions (PW12O40(3-)) are stabilized in the mesocages via the electrostatic interaction with amino groups of the MIL-101(Cr)-NH2. The obtained catalyst (denoted PTA@MIL-101(Cr)-NH2) exhibits high catalytic activity in the extractive and catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ECODS) system under mild conditions. Moreover, it can be easily recovered and recycled several times without leaching and loss of activity. PMID:24967570

  10. Investigation of the applied chemistry of the reactions of coal and nitrogen dioxide with a particular emphasis on oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The physical and chemical changes in coal resulting from mild oxidation at ambient conditions with NO/sub 2/ were studied. Various liquid phases were used as transport media for the NO/sub 2/. Subsequent to the oxidation, the coal was subjected to a wash with aqueous Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ at ambient conditions. Particular attention was given to the desulfurization of the coal. A mathematical model of the reactions between NO/sub 2/ and coal at temperatures less than 100/sup 0/C and a pressure of 1 atm was developed from the experimental data. This model included the simultaneous diffusion and reaction of NO/sub 2/ in the solid-coal matrix and considered pore diffusion not to be controlling. The elemental composition and the energy content after processing were extensively examined. The effect of the NO/sub 2/ treatment on the pore structure was established.

  11. Desulfurization of fuel oils using an advanced oxidation method; Desulfuracion de combustibles usando un metodo de oxidacion avanzada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Rodas Grapain, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, the oxidative desulfurization of fuel oils assisted by ultrasound was analyzed. It was studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, the fuel oil to aqueous solution volumetric ratio, and type of catalyst. The Fenton-like catalysts studied were ferric chloride and copper sulfate. [Spanish] En esta investigacion se analiza la desulfuracion oxidativa de combustoleo asistida con ultrasonido. Tambien se estudia el efecto de la concentracion de peroxido de hidrogeno (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), la relacion volumetrica combustoleo/solucion acuosa y el tipo de catalizador. Los catalizadores tipo Fenton que se estudiaron fueron el cloruro ferrico (FeCl{sub 3}) y el sulfato de cobre (CuSO{sub 4}).

  12. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  13. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  14. Progresses in Research on the Oxidation Desulfurization Mechanism for Oil%油品氧化脱硫机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王露浔; 吴思军; 李越; 杨丽娜; 王天星; 王义皓; 娄井阳

    2012-01-01

    Due to the several advantages, such as low cost and high desulphurization rate, the oxidation desulphurization may become one of the main techniques of producing super low sulfur content clean fuel oil without hydrogenation in the future. Various mechanisms of oxidation desulfuriza?tion for oil are summarized, including catalytic oxidation desulfurization which employs various catalysts to oxidize the sulfur梒ontained oil into different intermediates, catalytic oxidation ionic liquids desulfurization which employs the peroxy-intermediates and sulfur-contained compound to react with each other by elementary reaction, photochemical oxidation desulfurization which adopts various photo-sensitizer, electrochemical oxidation desulfurization and biological oxidation desulfurization which uses microorganism or enzyme as catalysts, etc. It is pointed that the studies on mechanisms at present are insufficient, and some of them are not clear and definite, which need to be sludied in depth.%由于成本低、脱硫率高等优点,氧化脱硫可成为未来非加氢方法生产超低硫清洁燃料油的主要技术之一.综述了国内外一些氧化脱硫机理的现状,如用不同催化剂将含硫油品氧化成不同的中间体的催化氧化脱硫、过氧中间体与含硫化合物发生基元反应的催化氧化离子液体氧化脱硫、通过不同光敏剂发生反应的光化学氧化脱硫、以电化学接触含硫化合物电解脱硫的电化学氧化脱硫、以微生物或者微生物所含的酶为催化剂生物氧化脱硫等,并且指出目前机理研究尚有不足,有些反应机理并不明确,还有待深入研究.

  15. Skid-mounted desulfurization technological design of wellhead in Sulige Gas Field%苏里格井口橇装脱硫工艺的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑珍; 胡康; 徐文龙; 梁倚伟; 李彦彬; 谈泊; 郝晋美

    2013-01-01

    针对苏里格气田部分下古气井产气因含有硫化氢而导致气井开发受限的现状,通过调研国内外脱硫工艺,根据苏里格气田含硫单井分布、分散脱硫和低投资成本等特点,优选氧化铁干法脱硫工艺进行橇装化设计,并采用市场委托服务模式进行现场试验,对试验结果及经济效益进行分析和评价.结果表明:井口含硫天然气经橇装化设备脱硫后含硫量低于20 mg/m3,达到净化要求.脱硫剂平均更换周期为34 d,现场各项试验参数达到设计要求,橇装化工艺流程设计合理,脱硫效果显著,试验井由关井状态转变为脱硫净化生产状态,经济效益显著.%In view of the situation where the produced gas of part upper paleozoic gas well of Sulige Gas Field is restricted in development due to the presence of hydrogen sulphide, by investigating desulfurization technologies at home and abroad, according to the characteristic of Sulige Gas Field, such as distribution of single well containing sulfur, decentralized desulphurization and low investment cost, etc, this paper preferred skid mounting design with iron oxide dry desulfurization technology, and carried out field tests with a market commissioned service mode, and carried out analysis and evaluation of test results and cost-effectiveness. The results show that the sulfur content of natural air containing sulfur in the wellhead can be less than 20 mg/m3 as after desulfurization of skid-mounting equipment, satisfying purify requirements. The average replacement cycle of desulfurizer is 34 days, all field test parameters can meet the design requirements, and skid-mounting technology design is reasonable, with a significant desulfurization effect. Test wells can be converted from shut-in status into desulfurization and purifying production state, thereby achieving significant economic benefits.

  16. Application of OxidationAir Compressor in Flue Gas Desulfurization Engineering in Power Plant%浅析氧化风机在电厂烟气脱硫工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓曼

    2012-01-01

      作为整个脱硫运行中比较关键的大型设备,氧化风机的选型是否合理,直接关系整个工程的投资及运营。本文从罗茨鼓风机和离心鼓风机各自的工作原理和特点分析了两种风机在实际脱硫工程中的优缺点,同时在风机效率、噪声大小及风机传动设施方面进行了比较说明。%  As a key equipment in al flue gas desulfurization engineering, the selection of oxidation air compressor shows a direct bearing on the investment and operation in project. The paper explicates the concept of the working principle and char-acteristics and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages on the areas of fan efficiency, noise and transmission facilities of the Root`s blower and centrifugal blower.

  17. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  18. The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Dual Growth Kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under Acidic Conditions for Biogas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Kyu Namgung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%–6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration.

  19. 催化柴油氧化脱硫的研究%The Oxidative Desulfurization of Catalytic Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫方远; 韩宏志; 李越

    2013-01-01

    考察了以H2O2为氧化剂,对催化柴油进行氧化脱硫.讨论了实验方法、催化剂及用量、破乳剂、氧化剂用量和萃取剂及用量等因素对反应的影响.实验结果表明,当选用一步法氧化萃取工艺,C6为催化剂,其用量为5%(质量比),破乳剂NP6的用量为4%(体积比),氧化剂H2O2的用量为10(氧硫物质的量比),萃取剂按B∶D=1∶1组成,萃取剂油比为1时,得脱硫率为45.90%,收率为99.50%.%The oxidative desulfurization of catalytic diesel with using H2O2 as oxidant is studied. The effects of experimental method, catalysts and its dosage, demulsifier, amount of oxidant and extracting agent and its dosage on the reaction are discussed. The results show that the desulfurization rate is up to 46.90% and the yield is 99.50% when the one-step extracting process is adopted, and using C6 as catalyst which mass ratio is 5%, the amount of demulsifier NP6 is 4%, the amount of oxidant is 10(ratio of oxygen to sulfur), the extracting agent composition is B and D (the ratio is 1:1), and the volume ratio of extracting agent to oil is 1:50.

  20. The effect of oxygen supply on the dual growth kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under acidic conditions for biogas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgung, Hyeong-Kyu; Song, JiHyeon

    2015-02-01

    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%-6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration.

  1. Research Progress in Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies%烟气脱硫处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵鲁华; 黄冲; 潘一; 杨双春

    2013-01-01

      烟气脱硫是从废气中去除含硫物质如 SO2,SO3,H2S 的一种工艺,怎样脱除烟气中的含硫物质,减少含硫物质排放已逐步成为全球关注的热点。笔者主要介绍了国内外烟气脱硫处理技术研究现状及进展,包括醇胺类离子液体法、石灰石(石灰)/石膏法、双碱法、金属氧化物法、生物膜法、非生物膜法等,对各种方法进行了评价和比较,并对今后烟气脱硫处理技术的发展提出了建议。%The flue gas desulfurization is to remove sulfur substances from exhaust gas,such as SO2,SO3,H2S. It has gradually become the focus of global attention to remove sulfur containing materials in flue gas and reduce sulfur material discharge. In this paper,flue gas desulfurization treatment technologies at home and abroad were introduced, such as alcohol amine ion liquid method,lime method,dual alkali method,metal oxide method,biofilm process, non biofilm process,and so on. At last, above methods were compared and the future research suggestions were presented.

  2. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  3. Biological desulfurization and denitrogenation from organic wastewater%有机废水生物脱硫脱氮技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 杨梅; 杨永

    2012-01-01

    According to the summary of biotechnology principles and common processes for the separated desulfurization and denitrogenation from organic wastewater,two novel biotechnologies for removing sulfur and nitrogen simultaneously,which are based on sulfide-dependent denitrification(denitrification with sulfide as electron donor) and sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX(anaerobic ammonium oxidation with sulfate as electron acceptor),are introduced. The reaction mechanism,operating conditions and functional organism for the new techniques are described. It is considered that the novel process of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrogenation would be of great benefit to the treatment of organic wastewater containing high sulfate and ammonia-nitrogen in efficiency-improving, energy-saving and resource recovery.%综述了有机废水分置式生物脱硫和生物脱氮的基本原理及常见工艺,在此基础上,介绍了2种新型同步脱硫脱氮技术——基于硫化物型反硝化(以硫化物为电子供体的反硝化)和硫酸盐型厌氧氨氧化(以硫酸盐为电子受体的厌氧氨氧化)的同步脱硫脱氮法,分别从反应机理、控制条件和功能微生物等方面对其进行了阐述.新型同步脱硫脱氮技术的开发将有助于富含硫酸盐和氨氮有机废水的高效、节能处理和实现资源回收.

  4. Influence of Molecular Sieve Supported Metal Oxides on the Desulfurization in Catalytic Cracking of Sulfur-containing Model Compounds and Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申宝剑; 李海丽; 李会峰; 鲍晓军; 周小虹

    2003-01-01

    Zn, La, Zr, Sn and Ti loaded molecular sieves were prepared by impregnation method. Conversions of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene over the metal oxides modified ultra stable zeolite Y(USY), ZSM-5, β and MSU-2 molecular sieve catalysts were investigated by means of micro-activity test (MAT) experiments. The results showed that Zn and La loaded catalysts were better than the other metals, and ZSM-5 with lower SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio showed better results than those with higher SiO2/Al2O3 as far as desulfurization reaction is considered. A comparison of the desulfurization activities of the La/Zn-USY catalyst with USY catalyst indicated that the bimetal loaded USY catalyst gave good products selectivity when sulfur containing heavy oil was used as the feedstock. The sulfur content in gasoline fraction was decreased by 25%, and there was no loss in the Research Octane Number.

  5. 珠海发电厂脱硫改造及其运行调整%Desulfurization transformation and its operation adjustment of Zhuhai Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温学东; 陈汉群

    2014-01-01

    介绍珠海发电厂2×700 MW机组脱硫系统增容及取消旁路的实际改造情况,探讨了脱硫改造后系统运行的相关调整措施,确保了机组的安全、环保运行。%The actual transformation of flue gas desulfurization system capacity and canceling bypass situation in Zhuhai Power Plant 2 × 700 MW unit is introduced. At the same time after desulfurization transformation,in order to achieve the unit′s safety and environmental operation,some relevant adjustment countermeasures of FGD system are discussed.

  6. Identification of a new operon involved in desulfurization of dibenzothiophenes using a metagenomic study and cloning and functional analysis of the genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    The presence of sulphur-substituted hydrocarbons in fossil fuels are one of main reasons for the release of sulfur oxides into the environment. Dibenzothiophenes (DBT) are organic sulfur-containing molecules in crude oil, which have the potential for biological oxidation, with the sulphur being removed through an enzymatic cleavage of the CS bonds. Therefore, finding new strains that can desulfurize this compound has recently become a point of interest. In this study, three new genes involved in the bacterial desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene, which were sequenced in the course of a metagenomic study, were isolated by PCR amplification in the laboratory. The activities of these genes were then analysed following insertion into an expression vector and cloning in Escherichia coli DH5α cells. Based on the results, all three genes were actively expressed and their products could act on their corresponding substrates. PMID:27178791

  7. 催化氧化脱硫分子筛催化剂研究进展%Research progress of molecular sieve catalyst for catalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华; 穆金城

    2011-01-01

    The advance in catalytic oxidative desulfurization over molecular sieve, including TS molecular sieve catalyst, SBA molecular sieve catalyst, HMS molecular sieve catalyst, MCM molecular sieve catalyst, ZSM-5 molecular sieve catalyst, and aluminophosphate molecular sieve catalyst is summarized. Among these molecular sieve catalysts, SBA, HMS, MCM, aluminophosphate mesoporous molecular sieves catalysts have higher desulfurization rate of macromolecule sulfides and therefore have good prospect. The research of molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization should be focused on developing large pore size general molecular sieve, investigating the mechanism and reducing the cost of oxidative desulfurization.%综述了催化氧化脱硫分子筛催化剂的研究进展.介绍了TS分子筛催化剂、SBA分子筛催化剂,HMS分子筛催化剂、MCM分子筛催化剂、ZSM-5分子筛催化剂和磷酸铝分子筛催化剂上油品的氧化脱硫方法,其中SBA、HMS、MCM和磷酸铝介孔分子筛催化剂对大分子的硫化物脱除率较高,具有很好的发展前景.今后分子筛催化氧化脱硫技术研究的重要方向是进一步开发通用性好的大孔径分子筛,研究脱硫机理和降低成本.

  8. Synthesis of 2-azaindolizines by using an iodine-mediated oxidative desulfurization promoted cyclization of N-2-pyridylmethyl thioamides and an investigation of their photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Fumitoshi; Kitagawa, Asumi; Yamaguchi, Eiji; Murai, Toshiaki

    2006-11-23

    Iodine-mediated, oxidative desulfurization promoted cyclization of N-2-pyridylmethyl thioamides serves as an efficient and versatile method for the preparation of 2-azaindolizines (imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines) and rare 2-azaindolizine sulfur-bridged dimers. The 2-azaindolizines prepared in this manner are readily converted to a variety of fluorescent compounds by using transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. [reaction: see text]. PMID:17107087

  9. Novel Oxidative Desulfurization of a Model Fuel with H2O2 Catalyzed by AlPMo12O40 under Phase Transfer Catalyst-Free Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio José da Silva; Lidiane Faria dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    A novel process was developed for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) in the absence of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC) using only Keggin heteropolyacids and their aluminum salts as catalysts. Reactions were performed in biphasic mixtures of isooctane/acetonitrile, with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a model sulfur compound and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. Remarkably, only the AlPMo12O40-catalyzed reactions resulted in complete oxidation of DBT into DBT sulfone, which was totally extracted by ace...

  10. Modification of C/TiO2@MCM-41 with nickel nanoparticles for photocatalytic desulfurization enhancement of a diesel fuel model under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, M; Entezari, M H

    2015-11-01

    Ni metal nanoparticles were attached on the C/TiO2@MCM-41 (CTM-41) via facile and fast method based on dispersing of C/TiO2@MCM-41 in aqueous solution containing nickel ions by ultrasonic bath. Then, for the first time, the Ni ions were converted to Ni nanoparticles under UV light (photo-assisted deposition, PAD method), without using reducing agents and hydrogen gas. This process was carried out under the relatively mild conditions. The results showed that Ni (II) was reduced to Ni metallic nanoparticle in the size of about 2.7 nm on the surface of CTM-41 (Ni/CTM-41) with specific surface area of 754.37 m(2) g(-1). The photocatalytic ultra-deep desulfurization of a fuel-like n-octane containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was conducted over the Ni/CTM-41 nanophotocatalyst. Using this method, the total sulfur content efficiently decreased under mild conditions in one phase and without using an oxidant. The synthesized Ni/CTM-41 (3% Ni) exhibited the maximum photocatalytic desulfurization of DBT for all different ratios of Si/Ti. In contrast, the synthesized CTM-41 (without Ni) exhibited the maximum photocatalytic desulfurization of DBT only for minimum ratio of Si/Ti. The Ni/CTM-41 was characterized by several techniques including N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, TEM, and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The results confirmed that Ni was highly dispersed on the support phase. The GC-MS analysis confirmed the photocatalytic removal of DBT. Based on the experimental results, it is proposed that the hydroxyl radical and hole have key role in the photocatalytic desulfurization process. PMID:26196719

  11. Removal of SO{sub 2} in semi-dry flue gas desulfurization process with a powder-particle spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, T.; Kato, K. [Gunma University, Dept. of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Gunma (Japan); Liu, Y. [Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology, Shenyang (China)

    2004-02-01

    Wet flue gas desulfurization is a frequently-used, but expensive, technique to remove sulfur oxides from flue gas, hence not suitable for solving the acid rain problem on a global scale. For obvious economic reasons, a semi-dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, developed during the 1980s, attracted much international interest despite the fact that the semi-dry desulfurization process never reached the high levels achieved by the wet process. More recently a new type of semi-dry FGD process was developed using a powder particle spouted bed (PPSB) as a main reactor. The process consists of droplets of SO{sub 2} sorbent slurry being fed continuously into a spouted bed, where coarse inert particles are spouted with hot gas containing SO{sub 2}. In this experiment the effects of operating parameters on SO{sub 2} removal were investigated using several kinds of sorbents such as slaked lime, limestone, magnesium hydroxide and concrete pile sludge. Desulfurization efficiency was investigated with respect to major operating parameters, such as approach to saturation temperature, calcium/sulfur and magnesium/sulfur molar ratio, static bed height of coarse particles, and particle size of sorbent. Results showed that SO{sub 2} removal was strongly affected by the approach to saturation temperature, sorbent stoichiometric ratio, apparent mean residence time of gas in the bed, and sorbent particle size. Slaked lime showed the highest SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, followed by magnesium hydroxide, concrete pile sludge and limestone. More than 90 per cent of SO{sub 2} removal was relatively easily achieved despite very short apparent residence time of gas in the bed. Solvent removal efficiency could also be increased by increasing the apparent mean residence time of the gas in the bed, and by decreasing the sorbent particle size. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. 海水脱硫技术在船舶柴油机排气中的应用%Application of Seawater Desulfurization to Marine Diesel Exhaust Scrubbing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万鹤

    2013-01-01

    船舶柴油机中排放的废气硫氧化物(SO2)已成为当前大气的一大污染源.为有效应对国际海事组织日趋严格的船舶燃油含硫量和SO2排放量的限制,在分析SO2易溶于海水特性的基础上,分别对目前工业上的海水脱硫技术及其它多种烟气脱硫技术进行研究和对比,提出海水脱硫技术在船舶柴油机废气排放中应用的可行性.对海水脱硫技术工艺流程与效率进行理论设计和计算分析的结果表明,海水脱硫技术对保护大气环境和船员健康具有重大现实意义.%Emission of SOx from marine diesel engines has become a big source of air pollution.In view of the increasingly stringent limits on the sulfur content of marine fuel oil and SOx emission set by the International Maritime Organization,existing seawater desulfurization technologies and other flue gas desulfurization technologies are studied and compared.Owing to the water soluble characteristics of SO2,the feasibility of applying seawater desulfuriza tion to marine diesel exhaust scrubbing is put forward.The results of theoretical calculation and the analysis of seawater desulfurizing process show that seawater desulfurization technology can do great job for protection of atmospheric environment and crew's health.

  13. Experimental Study on Microbial Desulfurization of Pyrite Cinder%硫铁矿烧渣微生物脱硫试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文博; 邹平; 孙珮石

    2013-01-01

    The mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria was used to remove sulfur from pyrite cinder .The effects of different culture mediums ,solid-liquid ratio ,pH ,inoculum volume ,surfactant usage , temperature and particle size on the desulfurization rate were examined by shake flask experiments . The results indicated that the optimal conditions of desulfurization were solid-liquid ratio of 3∶10 , inoculation amount of 3% ,pH of 1 .5 ,rotation speed of 180 r/min and temperature of 25 ℃ .After 72 hours leaching ,the total sulfur content in the pyrite cinder was reduced significantly from 1 .78% to 0 .28% with a desulfurization rate of 86 .02% ,and iron content was enriched effectively from 53 .78%to 59 .56% .The desulfurization slag meet the requirements of ore concentrate for steelmaking .%  研究了从高硫硫铁矿烧渣中微生物脱硫,考察了培养基种类、矿浆固液质量体积比、pH、细菌接种量、表面活性剂、温度及粒度等因素对微生物脱硫的影响。试验结果表明:在菌种接种量3%、矿浆pH=1.5、温度30℃条件下对固液质量体积比3∶10的硫酸渣矿浆进行脱硫,72 h内,烧渣的硫质量分数由1.78%降至0.28%,脱硫率达86.02%,铁品位由53.78%提高到59.56%;脱硫后的烧渣符合铁精矿要求。

  14. 负载型柴油氧化脱硫催化剂的研究进展%Progress on Supported Catalysts for Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢颖; 黄克明; 梁朝林

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the progresses on the supported catalysts for oxidative desulfurization of diesel were discussed, mainly including transition metal catalysts and supported heteropoly acid catalysts. The two kinds of catalysts were compared in support type, catalytic activity and industrial application. It was concluded that zeolite and activated carbon as the supports were suitable to the oxidative desulfurization catalysts. The supported heteropoly acid catalysts had a good industrial prospect due to their high activity, low active component loss, easy separation and multiple reuse for the oxidative desulfurization of diesel.%介绍了负载型柴油氧化脱硫催化剂的研究进展,主要包括负载型过渡金属催化剂和负载型杂多酸催化剂,从催化剂的载体种类、催化活性和工业应用等方面比较了这两种催化剂的优缺点.通过比较得出,分子筛和活性炭更适合作为氧化脱硫催化剂的载体;负载型杂多酸催化剂具有活性高、活性组分不易流失、便于分离回收循环使用的优点,具有很好的工业应用前景.

  15. (18)O(2) label mechanism of sulfur generation and characterization in properties over mesoporous Sm-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B S; Wan, Z Y; Wang, F; Zhan, Y P; Tian, M; Cheung, A S C

    2014-02-28

    Using a sol-gel method, SmMeOx/MCM-41 or SBA-15 (Me=Fe, Co and Zn) and corresponding unsupported sorbents were prepared. The desulfurization performance of these sorbents was evaluated over a fixed-bed reactor and the effects of reaction temperature, feed and sorbent composition on desulfurization performance were studied. Samarium-based sorbents used to remove H2S from hot coal gas were reported for the first time. The results of successive sulfidation/regeneration cycles revealed that SmFeO3/SBA-15 sorbent was suitable for desulfurization of hot coal gas in the chemical industry. The formation of elemental sulfur during both sulfidation and regeneration processes depended strongly on the catalytic action of Sm2O2S species, which was confirmed for the first time via high sensitive time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) using 6%vol(18)O2/Ar regeneration gas and can reduce markedly procedural complexity. The sorbents were characterized using N2-adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction of H2 (H2-TPR), thermogravimetry (TG) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) techniques. PMID:24462892

  16. The Spray Drying Desulfurization Process of Precise Control of the Spray to the Influence of Output%喷雾干燥脱硫过程中喷雾的精确控制对产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳萍; 袁亚

    2013-01-01

    为研究脱硫塔内不同喷雾的精确对脱硫效率的影响,提出了基于反馈平衡方程的喷雾干燥脱硫方程和相应的数学模型,并采用仿真软件对脱硫塔内流场进行了数值模拟计算.选用精度反馈信息来调节喷雾的精度,根据统计分析法实现脱硫塔内的喷雾精度仿真,通过建立硫吸收模型,根据脱硫效果的实时信息完成喷雾调节.结果表明,数值模拟结果与实验台测量值基本相符,精确的喷雾控制有利于物料与烟气充分混合,提高脱硫效率.%For the research of desulfurization tower in different spray accurate to desulfurizing efficiency influence,proposed based on feedback balance equation of the spray drying desulfurization equation and the corresponding mathematical model,and the simulation software for desulfurization tower internalflow field is studied with the numerical simulation method.Choose precision feedback information to control the precision of the spray,according to statistics analysis method to realize desulfurization tower in the spray accuracy simulation,through the establishment of sulfur absorption model,according to the desulfurization effect of real-time information complete spray regulation.The results show that the numerical simulation results and experiment table measured value are consistent,precise spray control to material and flue gas fully mix,improve the desulfurization efficiency.

  17. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean Coal Technology program: Pinon Pine IGCC Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate an advanced IGCC system based upon the air-blown, fluidized-bed KRW gasifier with in-bed desulfurization using limestone sorbent and an external fixed- bed zinc ferrite sulfur removal system. Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPC) requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 800 ton-per-day (86-Megawatt gross), air blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration plant. The project, named the Pinon Pine IGCC Power Project, is to be located at SPPC's Tracy Station, a power generation facility located on a rural 400-acre plot about 17 miles east of Reno. The demonstration plant will produce electrical power for the utility grid. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 96 months at a total cost of $269,993,100. DOE's share of the project cost will be 50 percent, or $134,996,550

  18. Feasibility of flue-gas desulfurization by manganese oxides%氧化锰烟气脱硫的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶万奇; 李运姣; 孔龙; 任苗苗; 韩强

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of effective and economic desulfurization of flue-gas, the predominance area diagram of the Mn−S−O system at different temperatures was constructed based on the thermodynamic data obtained from the literatures. It is seen from this figure that flue-gas desulfurization by manganese oxides is feasible from the thermodynamic point of view. Additionally, the most appropriate temperature range for flue-gas desulfurization is between 600 and 800 K, and the reaction is strongly exothermic to maintain the heat balance. The natural manganese ores encompass large tunnels that exhibit large surface areas and highly chemical activity, which can provide a high enough SO2 removing efficiency. From the superposition of the diagrams of Mn−S−O and Fe−S−O systems, it is found that there is a coexistent stability region of MnSO4 and Fe2O3, which provides the possibility of desulfurization by selective sulfation without ferric sulfate forming. A multi-stage desulfurization system has been discussed briefly.%为了有效和经济地脱除烟气中的硫,利用文献中的数据绘制不同温度下Mn−S−O系的热力学平衡图,从热力学角度说明使用氧化锰脱硫的可行性。提出最合适的烟气脱硫温度区间为600~800 K,而由于反应的强烈放热使得其能够维持操作的热平衡。天然锰矿由于其孔道结构而具有较大的表面积和较高的化学活性,使其脱硫效率可以保持在很高的水平。Mn−S−O与Fe−S−O系的叠加图中存在MnSO4和Fe2O3的重叠区域,说明可以通过选择性脱硫避免硫酸铁的形成。简单讨论了多级脱硫系统。

  19. 攀枝花钛铁矿氧化脱硫机理研究%Study on the Oxidative Desulfurization Mechanism of Panzhihua Ilmenite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张溅波; 赵青娥; 缪辉俊

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation roasting can effectively remove the harmful element S of the ilmenite.In this work,the existence form of S element,process conditions of oxidative desulfurization and desulfurization mechanism for Panzhihua ilmenite were studied in detail.The results show that most of S for Panzhihua ilmenite exists in the form of FeS and a small amount of S exists in the solid solutions of FeTiO3 and silicate.In the oxidation roasting process,FeS of ilmenite is first removed and then S existed in the solid solutions is removed.When the oxidation temperature is between 650 and 750 ℃,only FeS is removed in the oxidation process; the rate of desulfurization reaction is great and the highest desulfurization ratio of ilmenite is about 85% ~ 87%.The removal of S existed in the solid solutions requires much higher roasting temperature and its reaction rate is relatively slower.When the oxidation temperature reaches to 950 ~ 1 050 ℃,most of FeS and S existed in the solid solutions could be removed after ilmenite is roasted for 60 min and the desulfurization ratio reaches to 96% ~98%.%氧化焙烧能够有效脱除钛铁矿中的有害元素S.对攀枝花钛铁矿中S元素的存在形式、氧化脱硫的工艺条件和脱硫机理进行了详细地研究.结果表明,攀枝花钛铁矿中大部分S以FeS形式存在,少量S固溶在FeTiO3和硅酸盐相中.在氧化焙烧过程中,钛铁矿中的FeS首先被脱除,然后才是固溶S被脱除.当氧化温度在650 ~750℃时,氧化焙烧仅发生FeS的脱除,脱硫反应速率快,钛铁矿脱硫率最高为85% ~87%.固溶S的脱除需要更高的焙烧温度,且反应速率相对较慢.当氧化温度升至950~1 050℃时,钛铁矿经过60 min焙烧,即可脱除大部分FeS和固溶S,脱硫率达到96%~98%.

  20. Study on the optimization of regeneration program for iron oxide desulfurizer at medium temperature%中温氧化铁脱硫剂再生优化方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白振波; 宋会元; 彦建娜; 张彦改

    2011-01-01

    Iron oxide is widely used in chemical industry as a kind of desulfurizer. The industrial optimization of regeneration program for iron oxide desulfurizer is conducted in this paper. The performance of iron oxide desulfurizer generated is investigated as well. The results show that the life of the regenerated desulfurizer is obviously improved when the preheating temperature of the steam in the desulfurization groove and desulphurization bed pressure increase to 480℃ and 0. 8 Mpa,respectively,which can save the cast and reduce the environmental pollution.%进行了中温氧化铁脱硫剂再生方法的工业优化试验研究,对再生后的氧化铁脱硫剂性能进行了考察.结果表明,将脱硫槽内的蒸汽预热温度提升至480℃,脱硫剂的床层压力提升到0.8 MPa,明显提高了再生后脱硫剂的使用寿命,从而节约了成本,降低了环境污染.

  1. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Oxidative degradation of organic acids conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue-gas desulfurization. Final report, June 1984-June 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.J.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    This report gives results of a study of organic acid-degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation under flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k12, is defined as the ratio of organic-acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation-rate times the ratio of the concentrations of dissolved S(IV) and organic acid. It is not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen in the absence of Mn or Fe. However, k12 is increased by certain transition metals such as Fe, Co, and Ni and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnifies these effects. A free-radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately three times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids; while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude faster. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide (the major product), smaller dicarboxylic acids, monocarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons.

  3. Oxidative degradation of organic acid conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue gas desulfurization: products, kinetics and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.J.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1987-03-01

    Organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation has been studied under flue gas desulfurization (FGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant k/sub 12/ is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate times the ratio of the concentration of dissolved S(IV) and organic acid. It is not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen in the absence of manganese or iron. However, k/sub 12/ is increased by certain transition metals such as Fe, Co, and Ni and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnifies these effects. A free radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately 3 times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids, while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude factor. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide - the major product - smaller dicarboxylic acids, monocarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons. 30 references, 7 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Oxidative desulfurization of benzothiophene and thiophene with WOx/ZrO2 catalysts: effect of calcination temperature of catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zubair; Jeon, Jaewoo; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2012-02-29

    Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model fuel containing benzothiophene (BT) or thiophene (Th) has been carried out with WO(x)/ZrO2 catalyst, which was calcined at various temperatures. Based on the conversion of BT in the model fuel, it can be shown that the optimum calcination temperature of WOx/ZrO2 catalyst is around 700 °C. The most active catalyst is composed of tetragonal zirconia (ZrO2) with well dispersed polyoxotungstate species and it is necessary to minimize the contents of the crystalline WO3 and monoclinic ZrO2 for a high BT conversion. The oxidation rate was interpreted with the first-order kinetics, and it demonstrated the importance of electron density since the kinetic constant for BT was higher than that for Th even though the BT is larger than Th in size. A WOx/ZrO2 catalyst, treated suitably, can be used as a reusable active catalyst in the ODS. PMID:22245512

  5. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  7. 油田用小型脱硫罐设计%Design of Minitype Desulfurization Tank of Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕建成

    2014-01-01

    针对目前我国含硫化氢天然气和高含硫化氢天然气的开采情况,介绍了一种新型油田用小型脱硫罐的设计,对其工作原理、结构及材料进行了阐述。采用该脱硫罐解决了油田分散采油区块天然气硫化氢污染问题,保护了采油区块周边的环境和操作人员的人身安全。%In view of the situation of natural gas in our country natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide and high H2 S content mining ,the design of a kind of new minitype desulfurization tank used in oil fields is introduced ,the working principle ,structure and material are described .The technology is used to solve the oil dispersed oil block natural gas hydrogen sulfide pollution ,and protect the oil block surrounding environment and personal safety of operators .

  8. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  9. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  10. Impact of Oxy-Fuel Conditions on Elemental Mercury Re-Emission in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Torre-Santos, Teresa; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates some of the variables that may influence mercury retention in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) plants, focusing on oxy-coal combustion processes and differences when compared with atmospheres enriched in N2. The main drawback of using WFGD for mercury capture is the possibility of unwanted reduction of dissolved Hg(2+), leading to the re-emission of insoluble elemental mercury (Hg(0)), which decreases efficiency. To acquire a better understanding of the mercury re-emission reactions in WFGD systems, this work analyses different variables that influence the behavior of mercury in slurries obtained from two limestones, under an oxy-combustion atmosphere. The O2 supplied to the reactor, the influence of the pH, the concentration of mercury in the gas phase, and the enhancement of mercury in the slurry were the variables considered. The study was performed at laboratory scale, where possible reactions between the components in the scrubber can be individually evaluated. It was found that in an oxy-combustion atmosphere (mostly CO2), the re-emission of Hg(0) is lower than under a N2-enriched atmosphere, and the mercury is mainly retained as Hg(2+) in the liquid phase. PMID:27329988

  11. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  12. Modeling and process optimization for microbial desulfurization of coal by using a two-level full factorial design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Golshani T.; Jorjani E.; Chelgani S.Chehreh; Shafaei S.Z.; Nafechi Y.Heidari

    2013-01-01

    The microbial sulfur removal was investigated on high sulfur content (1.9%) coal concentrate from Tabas coal preparation plant.A mixed culture of ferrooxidans microorganisms was isolated from the tailing dam of the plant.Full factorial method was used to design laboratory test and to evaluate the effects of pH,particle size,iron sulfate concentration,pulp density,and bioleaching time on sulfur reduction.Statistical analyses of experimental data were considered and showed increases of pH and particle size had negative effects on sulfur reduction,whereas increases of pulp density and bioleaching time raised microbial desulfurization rate.According to results of designing,and regarding statistical factors,the optimum values for maximum sulfur reduction were obtained; pH (1.5),particle size (-180μm),iron sulfate concentration (2.7 mmol/L),pulp density (10%) and bioleaching time (14d),which leaded to 51.5% reduction from the total sulfur of sample.

  13. Role of disulfide linkages in desulfurization chemistry. The reactions of benzenethiol on a sulfur-covered Mo(110) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldon, M.K.; Napier, M.E.; Wiegand, B.C.; Friend, C.M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Uvdal, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1994-09-07

    The reactions of benzenethiol on a sulfur-covered Mo(110) surface were studied using temperature programmed reaction, X-ray photoelectron, and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopies. The sulfur overlayer profoundly alters the kinetics and selectivity for desulfurization and dehydrogenation. By using isotopic labeling, we have established that phenyl disulfide (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}S-S-) is formed via S-H bond scission and S-S bond formation on Mo(110) at 100 K. The S-S- linkage is oriented perpendicular and the phenyl ring parallel to the surface. The disulfide subsequently forms an upright phenylthiolate species, bound directly to the Mo(110) surface, prior to the onset of benzene formation at 300 K. In contrast to the clean surface, where only the low-temperature state is observed, a second benzene peak is observed at 500 K on the sulfur-covered surface. This feature is attributed to disproportionation of surface phenyl groups to produce gaseous benzene and surface benzyne. In addition, gaseous phenyl also desorbs from the surface in the same temperature range, due to a lack of available surface hydrogen. The selectivity for gaseous hydrocarbon production is approximately 80%, nearly twice that on the clean surface, while the total amount of reaction remains the same. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Utilization of desulfurization gypsum to producing SO{sub 2} and CaO in multi-stage fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hairui; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Zuyi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    With emission control becomes more and more stringent, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) is commonly employed for desulfurization. However, the product of FGD, gypsum, causes the unexpected environmental problems. How to utilize the byproduct of FGD effectively and economically is a challenging task. This paper proposed the new technical process to produce SO{sub 2} and CaO by reducing the gypsum in multi-stage fluidized bed reactor with different atmosphere. In addition, some preliminary experiments were carried out in PTGA. The results show that CO concentration has little effect on the initial decomposing temperature, but affect the decomposing rate of phosphogypsum obviously. The decomposing product composed of CaS and CaO simultaneously. The ratio of the two products was determined by CO concentration. Lower CO content benefits to produce more CO product and more SO{sub 2}. The decomposition reaction of phosphogypsum in reducing atmosphere is parallel competition reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate the effect of CaS and other byproduct efficiently by the new technology, which utilize multi-atmosphere in multistage fluidized bed reactors.

  15. The effect of hygroscopic additives on Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization in spray dryer flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Keener, T.C. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Soluble additives to enhance spray dryer performance for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from flue gas have been evaluated in a pilot plant system under controlled conditions. These additives have included NaOH, NaHCO{sub 3}, NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}. These additives were chosen because of their hygroscopicity as solids, and the understanding that SO{sub 2} reactivity is significantly enhanced in the liquid phase of the spray drying operation. All of the additives enhanced SO{sub 2} removal above baseline Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry usages, with NaOH providing he greatest degree of enhancement at approach to adiabatic saturation temperatures below 16.7{degree}C. The percent of enhancement per unit mass of additive was found to decrease with additive concentrations above 100 mg l{sup -1}. The enhancement effect may be explained by analysing the vapor pressure lowering effect of the slurry droplets containing the additives. This procedure may be appropriate for estimating the enhancement by other hygroscopic solids for spray dryer flue gas desulfurization improvement.

  16. Simulation of SO sub 2 removal via hydrated lime slurries in a spray dryer absorber flue gas desulfurization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Hang-Shin.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to numerically analyze an SO{sub 2} removal process by combining a two phase gas-solid reaction (dry particle) stage with a three phase gas-liquid-solid reaction (wet particle) stage. The SO{sub 2} removal process in a spray dryer absorber flue gas desulfurization system was simulated and studied by the mathematical model developed. This model involves the simulation of the evaporation of water from atomized slurry droplets, the absorption/reaction of SO{sub 2} in the slurry droplets, and the transport phenomena in both wet and dry particle stages. Two stages of evaporation which include a constant-drying period and a falling-rate drying period were described by the corresponding mass and heat transfer relations. The absorption/reaction of SO{sub 2} in the wet particle stage was modeled using the modified Ramachandran and Sharma's film model. The grain model was adopted to evaluate the SO{sub 2} removal rate in the dry particle stage. The model predictions were compared with experimental data taken over a wide range of operating conditions.

  17. Solid-Phase Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives via Desulfurative Cyclization of Thiosemicarbazide Intermediate Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Choe, Ji-Hye; Gong, Young-Dae

    2016-08-01

    A 1,3,4-thiadiazole library was constructed by solid-phase organic synthesis. The key step of this solid-phase synthesis involves the preparation of polymer-bound 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin by the cyclization of thiosemicarbazide resin using p-TsCl as the desulfurative agent, followed by the functionalization of the resin by alkylation, acylation, alkylation/acylation, and Suzuki coupling reactions. Both the alkylation and acylation reactions chemoselectively occurred at the 2-amide position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin and the 5-amine position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin, respectively. Finally, these functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazole resins were treated with trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane, affording diverse 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs in high yields and purities. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs show a different distribution of physicochemical and biological properties compared with our previously constructed 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole libraries in a range of orally available drug properties. PMID:27362292

  18. A Discussion on Advanced Wastewater Treatment Process for Sintering Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater%烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莉; 陈亮; 董进

    2016-01-01

    钢铁企业烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水成分复杂,废水处理典型的工艺流程废水经处理后不能完全达标外排,也不能作为烟气脱硫系统的回用水,探讨烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程,势在必行.%As the composition of sintering wet flue gas desulfurization wastewater in steel enterprises is complicated, the treated wastewater by typical treatment processes cannot fully meet discharge standard, nor can it be used as reuse water in the flue gas desulfuriza-tion system. The necessity of advanced treatment process for sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater is discussed.

  19. 旋转喷雾干燥脱硫工艺在烧结机上的应用%Application of rotating spray drying desulfurization process in the sintering machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱国

    2012-01-01

    328m2烧结机脱硫系统处理烟气量为198万m3/h,采用旋转喷雾干燥脱硫工艺进行全烟气脱硫.系统运行后SO2排放≤100mg/m3,脱硫效率≥90%,粉尘排放≤30mg/m3,完全满足国家环保要求.%The 328m2 sintering machine, flue gas handling capacity of the system is 1980000 mVh , using rotating spray drying desulfurization process for full flue gas desulfurization. After the system running fully, the SO2 emission^100mg/m , desulfurization efficiency ^90% and dust emission^30mg/ m3 , meet the environmental requirements of the nation.

  20. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  1. Application of triangle and double hexagonal filler in desulfurization tower%三角形、双层六边形填料在脱硫塔中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向超

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly describes injection triangle filler and double hexagonal Idler for semi-water gas and shift gas desulfurization, in addition, summarizes advantages and disadvantages of such fillers in desulfurization tower applieation.%简要介绍注塑三角形填料和双层六边形填料用于半水煤气及变换气脱硫的情况,并总结该类填料在脱硫塔中应用的优缺点。

  2. Application and running economic analysis of wet flue gas desulfurization technology%湿法烟气脱硫技术及运行经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武春锦; 吕武华; 梅毅; 俞宝根

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese economy,the fossil fuel consumption,such as coal, petroleum,etc.,is increasing continually so that the haze appears frequently and the areas of acid rain continue to expand. A large amount of sulfur dioxide emissions have led to the current situation that the pressure on the environment has intensified. This paper briefly introduces the technologies of dry,semi dry and wet flue gas desulfurization and their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages and disadvantages of different wet flue gas desulfurization methods,such as limestone-gypsum method, sodium alkali method,ammonia method,magnesium method,organic amine method,sea water method,phosphate rock slurry method were discussed. The main aim of this paper is to elaborate the new phosphate rock slurry method and its desulfurization mechanism as well as comparing the characteristics and application range of different wet desulphurization technologies. Through economic analysis of phosphate rock slurry and sodium alkali method,limestone-gypsum and magnesium method wet flue gas desulfurization technology,the running cost of phosphate rock slurry wet flue gas desulfurization technology is the lowest among those technologies. The recovery of sulfur dioxide becomes sulfuric acid by catalytic oxidation,getting into phosphorus chemical industry chain and replacing some of the sulfuric acid. The method has no by-products and no secondary pollution and is suitable for enterprises and parks with phosphate rock production. The principle of phosphate rockslurry wet flue gas desulfurization technology can be extended to the wet metallurgical enterprises.%随着我国经济快速发展,煤炭、石油等化石燃料消耗持续增长,雾霾天气频繁出现,酸雨区域面积不断扩大.针对二氧化硫排放对环境生态的压力徒增的现状,本文简要介绍了干法、半干法和湿法烟气脱硫技术工艺及其优缺点,讨论了石灰石-石膏法、钠碱法、氨法、

  3. Application of new type catalytic method desulfurization technology in sulfuric acid tail gas treatment engineering%新型催化法脱硫技术在硫酸尾气处理工程上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 李月丽; 李建军; 尹华强

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the present situation of sulfuric acid tail gas treatment and the existing problems of commonly used technology, a new type catalytic desulfurization technology including the basic principle, the process and engineering project for the treatment of sulfuric acid tail gas and recovery sulfur resources is introduced. Compared with the traditional ammonia-acid method, activated char method, limestone-gypsum method, the new type catalytic method uses low temperature non-vanadium catalyst, can effectively remove the SO2 in sulfuric acid tail gas, to ensure p(SO2) 〈 50 mg/m3, meeting the new standards, the technology has broad application prospect in sulfuric acid tail gas treatment.%分析目前硫酸尾气治理现状及常用技术存在的问题,介绍一种新型催化脱硫技术处理硫酸尾气并回收硫资源的基本原理、工艺流程和工程实例。与传统的氨-酸法、活性焦法、石灰石-石膏法对比,新型催化法技术采用低温非钒系催化剂可有效脱除硫酸尾气中的SO2,保证ρ(SO2)〈50mg/m^3,达到新标准所规定的限值。该方法处理硫酸尾气具有广阔的应用前景。

  4. 电厂脱硫废水正渗透膜浓缩零排放技术的应用%Application of MBC zero liquid discharge technology to desulfurization wastewater treatment in a power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国华; 方棣

    2016-01-01

    介绍了膜浓缩(MBC)零排放技术在长兴电厂脱硫废水深度处理项目中的应用情况。系统可将22 m3/h含盐水浓缩至1.5~2 m3/h,盐分浓缩至200 g/L左右后进入蒸发结晶系统,最终生成结晶盐,经过浓缩处理后的清洁产水作为电厂锅炉补给水回用。运行结果表明,MBC零排放系统运行良好,有效地保证了电厂的稳定运行,带来良好的社会和经济效益。%The application of membrane brine concentrator(MBC) zero liquid discharge technology to the advanced treatment project for desulfurization wastewater in Changxing Power Plant is introduced. 22 m3/h of wastewater containing salt is concentrated to 1.5-2 m3/h. After the salinity is concentrated to about 200 g/L ,it goes to evaporative crystal system,and finally forms crystal salt. After the concentration treatment,the produced clean water can be reused as boiler make-up water for the power plant. The results show that the MBC zero discharge system runs well,and guarentees stable running of Changxing Power Plant,bringing good social and economic benefits.

  5. Synthesis of mesoporous TS-1 using a hybrid SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel for catalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung-Tae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong [Research Center for Green Catalysis, Division of Green Chemistry and Engineering Research, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 107, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Wha-Seung, E-mail: whasahn@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Meso-TS-1 catalyst was synthesized using a SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel with an organosilane precursor. ► Hierarchical pore structure was confirmed by characterization of the materials. ► Catalytic activity was tested using oxidative desulfurization of the model sulfur compounds. ► Meso-TS-1 demonstrated significantly improved catalytic activity than TS-1. -- Abstract: Mesoporous TS-1 (M-TS-1) was synthesized using a hybrid SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} xerogel combined with an organosilane precursor. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, UV–vis spectroscopy, SEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement. M-TS-1, prepared in 2 days, showed high crystallinity and the best textural properties among the samples. The N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms of M-TS-1 exhibited a hysteresis loop at pressure higher than P/P{sub 0} = 0.4, clearly indicating the existence of mesopores. M-TS-1 has significantly larger mesopore volume (0.48 cm{sup 3}/g) than that of conventional TS-1 (0.07 cm{sup 3}/g), and showed a narrow peak centered at ca. 6.3 nm. In the oxidative desulfurization reaction, M-TS-1 was more active than conventional TS-1 at the same Ti-loading; M-TS-1 produced a dibenzothiophene (DBT) conversion of 96%, whereas conventional TS-1 produced a final DBT conversion of 5.6% after a reaction time of 180 min. Oxidative desulfurization over TS-1 was influenced both by electron density and steric hindrance in the sulfur compounds tested.

  6. 空气氧化燃料油脱硫技术研究进展%Recent advance in oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil with air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芝; 郭艳芳; 侯辉; 刘桂华; 邵姝媛

    2011-01-01

    空气氧化脱硫技术因其反应条件温和、不使用昂贵的氢气、投资和操作费用低等优点日益受到重视.目前研究的氧化脱硫技术大多采用H2O2作氧化剂,但H2O2存在价格昂贵、不能再生以及含硫废水排放等问题.采用廉价的空气作氧化剂的氧化脱硫技术可以克服H2O2作氧化剂存在的一些缺点,因此,受到广泛关注.介绍了空气在不同催化体系中氧化燃料油脱硫进展,以及为提高空气氧化性能所采取的措施.%Oxidative desulfurization can be carried out under very mild conditions, without using expensive hydrogen and has lower investment and operation cost,so it has become a hot issue. H2O2 is widely used as oxidant in the present oxidative desulfurization system. But it is also pointed out that it has the problem of high cost, not renewable, sulfur-containing waste water and other issues. Using cheap air as oxidant can avoid the shortcomings of H2O2. This paper also described the progress of oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil with air under different catalyst systems and proposed to take measures to improve the oxidation performance of air.

  7. Research on Recovery of Sulfur From Hydroxyl Iron Oxide Desulfurizer%脱硫剂羟基氧化铁中硫磺的回收研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕诗淇; 赖君玲; 罗根祥

    2015-01-01

    以四氯乙烯为溶剂,采用溶剂法从脱硫剂羟基氧化铁中回收硫磺。考察了浸取温度、浸取时间、液-固比和溶剂重复使用等因素对硫磺回收率的影响,并对羟基氧化铁和产物硫磺进行了 XRD 表征。结果表明:在羟基氧化铁20 g、浸取温度为80℃、浸取时间60 min、液-固比8:1的条件下,硫磺的回收率为97.5%;XRD表征结果证实了该产物为硫磺。%Sulfur was recovered from hydroxyl iron oxide desulfurizer containing 25.0% sulfur by solvent method in tetrachloroethylene solvent. The influence of reaction temperature,reaction time,liquid-solid ratio and reusing times of organic solution on sulfur recovery was investigated. The hydroxyl iron oxide desulfurizer and the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The results show that, when the liquid-solid ratio of tetrachloroethylene to desulfurizer hydroxyl iron oxide containing 25.0% sulfur is 8:1, leaching temperature is 80 ℃, leaching time is 60 min, hydroxyl iron oxide is 20 g, the recovery of sulfur can be over 97.5%. The XRD characterization result has proved that recovered product is sulfur.

  8. Advanced development of fine coal desulfurization and recovery technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1976--December 31, 1976. [53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.W.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1977-02-01

    The improvement and technical development of promising methods for desulfurizing and recovering fine coal underway includes froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration, pelletization, and a chemical desulfurization process which involves leaching fine coal with a hot dilute solution of sodium carbonate containing dissolved oxygen under pressure. A preliminary assessment of the state of the art and review of the technical literature has been made. Equipment and apparatus have been assembled for small-scale laboratory experiments in froth flotation, oil agglomeration and chemical desulfurization. Preliminary froth flotation tests have been carried out on an Iowa coal to establish baseline data. Quite unexpectedly these tests indicated that aluminum nitrate may be an activator for coal because it served to increase the recovery of coal. Several potential flotation depressants for pyrite have been screened by measurement at the zeta potential and floatability of pyrite or coal in aqueous suspensions containing the potential depressants. The following reagents show some promise as pyrite depressants: ferric chloride, sodium cyanide, ammonium thiocyanate, and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Preliminary plans have been prepared for a continuous flow bench-scale system to demonstrate the process. This system will include equipment for grinding and pretreating the coal as well as equipment for demonstrating froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration and pelletization. An investigation of coal microstructure as it relates to coal beneficiation methods has also been initiated. The distribution of various forms of pyrite by size and crystal structure has been determined for two cannel samples of coal through application of scanning electron microscope techniques.

  9. 18O2 label mechanism of sulfur generation and characterization in properties over mesoporous Sm-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formation of sulfur originated from catalytic action of samarium oxysulfide. • Mechanism of sulfur desorption was first confirmed via time of flight MS. • Utilization of mesoporous Sm-based sorbents was favorable for diffusion of H2S. • Stability of Sm-based sorbent correlated with reasonable regeneration procedure. - Abstract: Using a sol–gel method, SmMeOx/MCM-41 or SBA-15 (Me = Fe, Co and Zn) and corresponding unsupported sorbents were prepared. The desulfurization performance of these sorbents was evaluated over a fixed-bed reactor and the effects of reaction temperature, feed and sorbent composition on desulfurization performance were studied. Samarium-based sorbents used to remove H2S from hot coal gas were reported for the first time. The results of successive sulfidation/regeneration cycles revealed that SmFeO3/SBA-15 sorbent was suitable for desulfurization of hot coal gas in the chemical industry. The formation of elemental sulfur during both sulfidation and regeneration processes depended strongly on the catalytic action of Sm2O2S species, which was confirmed for the first time via high sensitive time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) using 6%vol18O2/Ar regeneration gas and can reduce markedly procedural complexity. The sorbents were characterized using N2-adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction of H2 (H2-TPR), thermogravimetry (TG) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) techniques

  10. {sup 18}O{sub 2} label mechanism of sulfur generation and characterization in properties over mesoporous Sm-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.S., E-mail: bingsiliu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Wan, Z.Y.; Wang, F.; Zhan, Y.P. [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Tian, M.; Cheung, A.S.C. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formation of sulfur originated from catalytic action of samarium oxysulfide. • Mechanism of sulfur desorption was first confirmed via time of flight MS. • Utilization of mesoporous Sm-based sorbents was favorable for diffusion of H{sub 2}S. • Stability of Sm-based sorbent correlated with reasonable regeneration procedure. - Abstract: Using a sol–gel method, SmMeO{sub x}/MCM-41 or SBA-15 (Me = Fe, Co and Zn) and corresponding unsupported sorbents were prepared. The desulfurization performance of these sorbents was evaluated over a fixed-bed reactor and the effects of reaction temperature, feed and sorbent composition on desulfurization performance were studied. Samarium-based sorbents used to remove H{sub 2}S from hot coal gas were reported for the first time. The results of successive sulfidation/regeneration cycles revealed that SmFeO{sub 3}/SBA-15 sorbent was suitable for desulfurization of hot coal gas in the chemical industry. The formation of elemental sulfur during both sulfidation and regeneration processes depended strongly on the catalytic action of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 2}S species, which was confirmed for the first time via high sensitive time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) using 6%vol{sup 18}O{sub 2}/Ar regeneration gas and can reduce markedly procedural complexity. The sorbents were characterized using N{sub 2}-adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction of H{sub 2} (H{sub 2}-TPR), thermogravimetry (TG) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) techniques.

  11. Hydrothermal Synthesis of MoO2 and Supported MoO2 Cata-lysts for Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Danhong; Zhang Jianyong; Liu Ni; Zhao Xin; Zhang Minghui

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for obtaining spherical MoO2 nanoparticles and SiO2-Al2O3 supported MoO2 by hydrothermal reduction of Mo (VI) species was studied. The obtained MoO2 catalysts show very high catalytic activity in the oxidative desulfurization (ODS) process. The effect of hydrothermal temperature and crystallization temperature on ODS activity was investigated. The ODS activity of supported MoO2 catalysts with various MoO2 contents were also investigated. The mecha-nism for formation of MoO2 involving oxalic acid was proposed.

  12. The Preparation and Oxidative Desulfurization Research of Copper Phosphotungstate%磷钨酸铜的制备及其氧化脱硫性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣祥; 王晓丹; 李秀萍

    2013-01-01

    Cpper phosphotungstate was synthesize by phosphotungstic acid and nitric acid copper as raw materials .Oxidative desulfurization reaction of model oil was studied by copper phosphotungstate as catalyst and H2 O2 as oxidant .The experiment indicate various oxidative desulfurization system ,reaction temperature ,catalytic amount ,amount of hydrogen peroxide and reaction time influenced on oxidative desulfurization effect .The results show that a combined copper phosphotungstate ,CTAB and H2 O2 could lead to a good conversion of DBT .Reaction temperature was 40 ℃ ,catalytic amount was 0 .01 g ,volume of hydrogen peroxide was 0 .5 mL ,reaction time was 1 h ,which made conversion rate of dibenzothiophene up to 93% . The catalyst may was recycled five times and desulfurization effecience of mode oil isn't decreased .%采用磷钨酸和硝酸铜为原料合成磷钨酸铜,以磷钨酸铜为催化剂,H2 O2为氧化剂应用于模拟油氧化脱硫反应。考察了不同的氧化脱硫体系、反应温度、催化剂质量、H2 O2的体积和反应时间对脱硫效果的影响。结果表明,H2 O2/磷钨酸铜/十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)体系具有最高的脱硫率,当反应的温度为40℃,催化剂的质量为0.01 g ,H2 O2加入体积为0.5 mL ,反应的时间为1 h ,二苯并噻吩的脱除率为93%,催化剂循环使用5次后,脱硫率没有明显下降。

  13. Research on use of high calcium desulfurization ash in autoclaved brick%利用高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈滨; 刘恒波; 万军

    2012-01-01

      The paper researches on the process of high calcium desulfurization ash autoclaved brick, and puts forward the ways to use the high calcium, high sulfur and low silicon of fly ash from the circulating fluidized bed boiler.%  对高钙固硫灰生产蒸压砖的生产工艺进行了研究,提出了重点解决循环流化床锅炉粉煤灰的高钙、高硫、低硅难题的有效途径

  14. 脱硫海水膜法曝气恢复试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON RECOVERY CAPABILITY OF DESULFURIZED SEAWATER BY MEMBRANE AERATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 郭春刚; 刘国昌; 张召才; 关毅鹏; 李晓明

    2013-01-01

    分别以空气和纯氧为曝气气源,采用自制聚丙烯中空纤维膜接触器为核心的曝气工艺装置,系统地考察脱硫海水初始pH、稀释体积比、曝气时间及纯氧曝气等因素对脱硫海水恢复效果的影响.结果表明,以空气为曝气气源,处理pH在2.70~5.20的脱硫海水,在曝气气水体积比为1/2~1/1、稀释体积比为3/1~5/1的工艺条件下,曝气时间为20 s,即可使脱硫海水水质指标迅速恢复,达标排放;应用纯氧曝气,相同工艺条件下,脱硫海水恢复效果优于空气曝气.研究结果初步证实了膜法曝气工艺用于处理沿海电厂海水烟气脱硫系统排放海水的可行性.%In the present study, the air and the oxygen were used as the aeration sources separately and the hydrophobic polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor was used as the core of the aeration equipment. Several important impact factors such as initial pH of desulfurized seawater, diluted ration, aeration time and oxygen aeration were investigated systematically. As the gas water ratio and the diluted ratio were kept between 1/2-1/1 and 3/l~5/l, respectively, the desulfurized seawater with pH 2.70~5.20 could be recovered rapidly at an aeration time of 20 s. The recovery of desulfurized seawater could be more efficient when the oxygen is used as the aeration source in the same processing conditions. The preliminary results showed that recovery of desulfurized seawater by membrane aeration process is feasible in coastal area.

  15. Comparative study on the corrosion behavior of the cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony in flue gas desulfurization environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. A.; Kim, J. G.; He, Y. S.; Shin, K. S.; Yoon, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between the corrosion and microstructual characteristics of cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony was established. The corrosion behavior of the specimens used in flue gas desulfurization systems was examined by electrochemical and weight loss measurements in an aggressive solution of 16.9 vol % H2SO4 + 0.35 vol % HCl at 60°C, pH 0.3. It has been shown that the corrosion rate of hot rolled steel is lower than that of cold rolled steel. The corrosion rate of cold rolled steel was increased by grain refinement, inclusion formation, and preferred grain orientation.

  16. Theoretical investigation of the interaction between aromatic sulfur compounds and [BMIM](+)[FeCl4](-) ionic liquid in desulfurization: A novel charge transfer mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Zhu, Wenshuai; Chang, Yonghui; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Yin, Sheng; Xia, Jiexiang; Li, Huaming

    2015-06-01

    In this work, interaction nature between a group of aromatic sulfur compounds and [BMIM](+)[FeCl4](-) have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). A coordination structure is found to be critical to the mechanism of extractive desulfurization. Interaction energy and extractive selectivity follow the order: thiophene (TH)aromatic sulfur compounds transfer into the Lewis part of ionic liquid, namely, [FeCl4](-). Furthermore, it is better to consider the Lewis acidity of Fe-containing ionic liquid by the whole unit (such as [FeCl4](-) and aromatic sulfur compounds (X)) rather than only Fe or S atom.

  17. Mercury removal performance of desulfurization systems in coal-fired power plants%燃煤电站脱硫系统的脱汞性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉坤; 禚玉群; 陈昌和; 徐旭常

    2011-01-01

    煤燃烧是人为汞排放的主要来源,研究燃煤电站汞脱除方法,特别是挖掘电站原有污染控制设备的脱汞功能很有必要.综述了3种常见脱硫系统的脱汞机理、脱汞效率及影响因素.石灰石湿法脱硫系统能够脱除烟气中大部分的氧化态汞,但对元素汞几乎不起作用,甚至还会导致烟气中元素汞的增加,系统平均脱汞率为51%;循环流化床脱硫技术具有良好的脱汞性能,能将烟气中的汞大部分转化为颗粒态汞,从而易于被电除尘器除去,脱汞效率在80%~99%;新式整体脱硫技术(NID)不仅可以脱除氧化态汞,对元素汞也有很好的脱除能力,对烟气中总汞具有84%~92%的脱除能力.%It has been investigated that desulfurization systems of coal-fired power stations could play an important role in mercury removal. An overview of mercury removal performances and mercury removal mechanisms of three common desulfurization systems was presented. The limestone wet flue-gas desulfurization (WFGD) could remove most of the oxidized mercury, but had little effect on elemental mercury, sometimes even leads to an increase of elemental mercury in treated flue gas. The average mercury removal rate is 51%. The circulating fluidized bed(CFB) has a good performance in converting most of the mercury to paniculate mercury which could easily be removed by electrostatic precipitator(ESP)with the corresponding overall removal rate at 80%~99%. The new integrated desulfurization(NID)technology systems could not only remove oxidized mercury, but also had good ability in removing elemental mercury. The total removal rate of NID system is 84%~92%.

  18. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  19. 脱硫装置及其控制技术%Desulfurization apparatus and its control technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄有国

    2012-01-01

      About 80% of the electrical energy in China,70% of industrial energy air pollution and 80% of the heating, civil coal-fired from coal. China’s raw coal high in ash and sulfur content,sulfur content ranging from 0.1% to 10%. China’s coal consumption of large coal-fired power plant, about 55% of its total industrial emissions account for emissions. Therefore, the reduction and control of coal-fired, especially coal-fired thermal power plant pollution is one of the most urgent task in the current of air pollution control field, desulfurization technology is developing rapidly.%  我国约80%的电力能源、70%的工业能源大气污染和80%的供热、民用燃煤都来自煤.我国的原煤中灰分和硫含量较高,硫含量在0.1%~10%不等.我国的煤耗大户是燃煤电厂,其排放量占工业总排放量的55%左右.因此,削减和控制燃煤,特别是火电厂的燃煤污染,是当前我国大气污染控制领域最紧迫的任务之一,因此,脱硫技术正在飞速发展.

  20. Corrosion behaviour of some cast stainless steels and high alloy white irons in scrubber solutions of flue gas desulfurization plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weight loss and electrochemical measurements have been used to determine the ranges of applicability of cast austenitic stainless steel Werkstoff No. 1.4408, of two special cast ferritic-austenitic stainless steels NORIDUR 9.4460 and NORICLOR NC 246 and of two high alloy Cr and CrMo white irons in scrubber solutions of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants. Whereas the Werkstoff No. 1.4408 cannot be used due to its insufficient resistance to general and localized corrosion, NORIDUR 9.4460 can be used in scrubber solutions with pH > 2.5 and chloride concentrations up to 80 g/l, NORICLOR NC 246 with 5% Mo even in liquids with pH > 1.5 and chlorides up to 100 g/l. At lower pH-values both duplex stainless steels show active corrosion of either the austenite or the ferrite depending on the contents of hydrochloric acid in the solution. At higher chloride concentrations pitting occurs on the passive materials. The CrMo white iron NORILOY NL 252 with 25% Cr and 2% Mo can be used in scrubber liquids with pH > 3.5. As the ferritic matrix is cathodically protected by the precipitated carbides, there is no sensitivity of this alloy to chlorides. In liquids with pH < 3.5 there is selective corrosion of the ferritic matrix. For practical application of all these cast alloys the limits for purely corrosive attack have to be modified to assure resistance to a superposition of corrosion, erosion/abrasion and cavitation on parts exposed to real flow conditions in FGD scrubbers. (orig.)

  1. Oxidative desulfurization and denitrogenation of a light gas oil using an oxidation/adsorption continuous flow process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Wang, Danhong; Dumeignil, Franck; Amano, Hiroshi; Qian, Eika Weihua; Kabe, Toshiaki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2005-01-28

    The oxidation of undesirable sulfur compounds present in a desulfurized light gas oil (LGO; sulfur content: 39ppm) was performed with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) as the oxidant in the presence of a 16wt.% MoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The oxidation activity of the sulfur compounds in the light gas oil increased when the O/S molar ratio increased up to 15; the activity slightly decreased for higher ratios. This optimal ratio was significantly higher than the stoichiometric one (=2) due to parallel oxidation reactions of olefins, etc., in the LGO. Further, we compared the oxidation reactivity of dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT), and trimethyldibenzothiophene (C{sub 3}-DBT), which are refractory compounds present in the light gas oil. The reactivity decreased in the order DBT|4,6-DMDBT>C{sub 3}-DBT, irrespective of the WHSV and the temperature. Subsequent mathematical treatment revealed that the oxidative reaction of each sulfur compound follows a first-order kinetics. We found an activation energy of 32+/-2kJmol{sup -1}, whatever the compound, suggesting that the oxidation mechanism was the same for these compounds. Then, according to the proposed global process, the previously oxidized molecules in the treated light gas oil were further removed by adsorption over a silica gel at ambient temperature. As a result, the total sulfur content could be decreased after oxidation/adsorption to less than 5ppm. Further, N-containing model compounds were also treated according to the same procedure and the denitrogenation performance decreased in the order indole>quinoline>acridine>carbazole. Subsequently, the same process allowed decreasing the N content in the LGO from an initial value of 13.5ppm to a value of 0.8ppm, which is a remarkable result.

  2. Effect of pore size distribution of calcium oxide high-temperature desulfurization sorbent on its sulfurization and consecutive oxidative decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengji Wu; Md. Azhar Uddin; Eiji Sasaoka [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

    2005-06-01

    CaS formed from the CaO sorbent during desulfurization in coal gasifiers must be converted to CaSO{sub 4} before disposal. CaS is mainly decomposed to CaO and SO{sub 2}, and then the CaO is converted to CaSO{sub 4} by SO{sub 2} in the presence of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. However, the inner portion of the CaS particles cannot be converted to CaO and CaSO{sub 4}, because the pores are plugged and oxidative gases (H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}) cannot come into contact with the interior of the CaS particles. In this study, the effect of the pore-size distribution of the CaO sorbent on the sulfurization and consecutive oxidative decomposition of the formed CaS in the presence of H{sub 2}O at high temperature have been investigated, using three samples with different pore structures but similar surface areas. The following results have been obtained: (i) the macroporous CaS can be easily converted, because the oxidative decomposition of the macroporous CaS occurs without pore plugging; (ii) pores with a size of {gt}100 nm in the sorbent can have an important role during the sulfurization and consecutive decomposition of the formed CaS; and (iii) the molar CaO/CaSO{sub 4} ratio in the decomposed CaS sample is affected by the pore structure. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD are a useful external source of Ca(2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, pH and electrical conductivity (EC decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  4. Kinetics and mechanism of desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal-derived liquids. Tenth quarterly report, September 21-December 20, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, B. C.; Katzer, J. R.; Olson, J. H.; Kwart, H.; Stiles, A. B.

    1978-01-20

    Three high-pressure flow microreactors and two batch autoclave reactors have been used to study the reaction networks and kinetics of: (1) catalytic hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene and methyl-substituted dibenzothiophenes; and (2) catalytic hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline, methyl-substituted quinolines, acridine and carbazole. The catalysts were commercial, sulfided CoO-MoO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO-MoO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and NiO-WO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. At the typical conditions of 300/sup 0/C and 104 atm, dibenzothiophene reacts to give H/sub 2/S and biphenyl in high yield, but there is some hydrogenation preceding desulfurization. Methyl-substituted dibenzothiophenes react similarly, and each reaction is first-order in the sulfur-containing compound. Two methyl groups near the sulfur atom (in the 4 and 6 positions) reduce the reactivity tenfold, whereas methyl groups in positions further removed from the sulfur atom increase reactivity about twofold. The results are consistent with steric and inductive effects influencing adsorption. The data indicate competitive adsorption among the sulfur-containing compounds. In quinoline hydrodenitrogenation, both rings are saturated before the C-N bond is broken. Similarly, in acridine conversion a large amount of hydrogenation precedes nitrogen removal. Breaking of the carbon-nitrogen bond is evidently one of the slower reactions in the network. The Ni-Mo catalyst is about twice as active as the Co-Mo catalyst for ring hydrogenation, and the two catalysts are about equally active for breaking the carbon-nitrogen bond. Reactivity of carbazole is slightly lower than that of quinoline but higher than that of acridine.

  5. Continuous desulfurization and bacterial community structure of an integrated bioreactor developed to treat SO2 from a gas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Li, Lin; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Jingying; Liu, Junxin

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide dioxide (SO2) is often released during the combustion processes of fossil fuels. An integrated bioreactor with two sections, namely, a suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ), was applied to treat SO2 for 6months. Sampling ports were set in both sections to investigate the performance and microbial characteristics of the integrated bioreactor. SO2 was effectively removed by the synergistic effect of the SZ and IZ, and more than 85% removal efficiency was achieved at steady state. The average elimination capacity of SO2 in the bioreactor was 2.80g/(m(3)·hr) for the SZ and 1.50g/(m(3)·hr) for the IZ. Most SO2 was eliminated in the SZ. The liquid level of the SZ and the water content ratio of the packing material in the IZ affected SO2 removal efficiency. The SZ served a key function not only in SO2 elimination, but also in moisture maintenance for the IZ. The desired water content in IZ could be feasibly maintained without any additional pre-humidification facilities. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA directly amplified from the DNA of each sample were constructed and sequenced to analyze the community composition and diversity in the individual zones. The desulfurization bacteria dominated both zones. Paenibacillus sp. was present in both zones, whereas Ralstonia sp. existed only in the SZ. The transfer of SO2 to the SZ involved dissolution in the nutrient solution and biodegradation by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This work presents a potential biological treatment method for waste gases containing hydrophilic compounds.

  6. Mercury isotope signatures of seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Peng, Jingji; Yuan, Dongxing; Lu, Bingyan; Lin, Kunning; Huang, Shuyuan

    2016-07-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) systems are commonly used to remove acidic SO2 from the flue gas with alkaline seawater in many coastal coal-fired power plants in China. However, large amount of mercury (Hg) originated from coal is also transferred into seawater during the desulfurization (De-SO2) process. This research investigated Hg isotopes in seawater discharged from a coastal plant equipped with a SFGD system for the first time. Suspended particles of inorganic minerals, carbon residuals and sulfides are enriched in heavy Hg isotopes during the De-SO2 process. δ(202)Hg of particulate mercury (PHg) gradually decreased from -0.30‰ to -1.53‰ in study sea area as the distance from the point of discharge increased. The results revealed that physical mixing of contaminated De-SO2 seawater and uncontaminated fresh seawater caused a change in isotopic composition of PHg isotopes in the discharging area; and suggested that both De-SO2 seawater and local background contributed to PHg. The impacted sea area predicted with isotopic tracing technique was much larger than that resulted from a simple comparison of pollutant concentration. It was the first attempt to apply mercury isotopic composition signatures with two-component mixing model to trace the mercury pollution and its influence in seawater. The results could be beneficial to the coal-fired plants with SFGD systems to assess and control Hg pollution in sea area. PMID:27155100

  7. Deep oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene in simulated oil and real diesel using heteropolyanion-substituted hydrotalcite-like compounds as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengli; Wang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Three heteropolyanion substituted hydrotalcite-like compounds (HPA-HTLcs) including Mg₉Al₃(OH)₂₄[PW₁₂O₄₀](MgAl-PW₁₂), Mg₉Al₃(OH)₂₄[PMo₁₂O₄₀] (MgAl-PMo₁₂) and Mg₁₂Al₄(OH)₃₂[SiW₁₂O₄₀] (MgAl-SiW₁₂), were synthesized, characterized and used as catalysts for the oxidative desulfurization of simulated oil (dibenzothiophene, DBT, in n-octane). MgAl-PMo₁₂ was identified as an effective catalyst for the oxidative removal of DBT under very mild conditions of atmospheric pressure and 60 °C in a biphasic system using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. The conversion of DBT was nearly 100%. As a result, because of the influence of the electron density and the space steric hindrance, the oxidation reactivity of the different sulfur compounds in simulated oil followed the order DBT > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) > benzothiophene (BT) > thiophene (TH). When the reaction is finished, the catalysts can be recovered from the acetonitrile phase by filtration. The recovered MgAl-PMo₁₂ retains nearly the same catalytic activity as the fresh material. Moreover, MgAl-PMo₁₂ was found to exhibit an ideal catalytic activity in the oxidative desulfurization of real diesel resulting in a total remaining sulfur content of 9.12 ppm(w). PMID:24284486

  8. Selective oxidation of sulfurs and oxidation desulfurization of model oil by 12-tungstophosphoric acid on cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles as magnetically recoverable catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezzat Rafiee; Nasibeh Rahpeyma

    2015-01-01

    Silica-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared and used as a support for the immobilization of 12-tungstophosphoric acid, to produce a new magnetically separable catalyst. This catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction, wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, laser par-ticle size analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The catalyst showed high activity in the selective oxidation of thioethers and thiophenes to the corresponding sulfones under mild condi-tions. The catalytic activity of the nanocatalyst in the oxidative desulfurization of model oil was investigated. The effect of nitrogen-containing compounds on sulfur removal from the model oil was also evaluated. The catalyst showed high activity in the oxidative desulfurization of diesel. The cata-lyst can be readily isolated from the oxidation system using an external magnet and no obvious loss of activity was observed when the catalyst was reused in four consecutive runs.

  9. 氧化技术在燃料油脱硫中的应用%Applications of oxidation technology in fuel oil desulfuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蕾; 冯墨涵; 吴一; 朱鋆珊; 张海燕

    2012-01-01

    针对氧化体系在脱除燃料油中硫化物方面的应用作了综述.主要介绍了过氧化氢/有机酸、过氧化氢/杂多酸、过氧化氢/杂多酸/季铵盐、光催化氧化、离子液体萃取/氧化等体系的脱硫研究,并指出寻求高效、廉价、选择性高的催化氧化体系,保证油品高回收率,是燃料油深度脱硫的重要研究方向.%Oxidation systems applied in fuel oil desulfuration were reviewed.It mainly focused on the usage of systems such as hydrogen peroxide/organic acid,hydrogen peroxide/ Heteropoly acid,hydrogen peroxide/ Heteropoly acid/Quaternary ammonium salt, photocatalytic oxidation, ionic liquid extraction/oxidation, etc.It was recommended that exploration for high performance, low cost and high selectivity oxidation system and ensurence of high recovery rate of fuel oil should be the main research direction in deep desulfuration.

  10. Deep Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene in Simulated Oil and Real Diesel Using Heteropolyanion-Substituted Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Three heteropolyanion substituted hydrotalcite-like compounds (HPA-HTLcs including Mg9Al3(OH24[PW12O40](MgAl-PW12, Mg9Al3(OH24[PMo12O40] (MgAl-PMo12 and Mg12Al4(OH32[SiW12O40] (MgAl-SiW12, were synthesized, characterized and used as catalysts for the oxidative desulfurization of simulated oil (dibenzothiophene, DBT, in n-octane. MgAl-PMo12 was identified as an effective catalyst for the oxidative removal of DBT under very mild conditions of atmospheric pressure and 60 °C in a biphasic system using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. The conversion of DBT was nearly 100%. As a result, because of the influence of the electron density and the space steric hindrance, the oxidation reactivity of the different sulfur compounds in simulated oil followed the order DBT > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT > benzothiophene (BT > thiophene (TH. When the reaction is finished, the catalysts can be recovered from the acetonitrile phase by filtration. The recovered MgAl-PMo12 retains nearly the same catalytic activity as the fresh material. Moreover, MgAl-PMo12 was found to exhibit an ideal catalytic activity in the oxidative desulfurization of real diesel resulting in a total remaining sulfur content of 9.12 ppm(w.

  11. New Desulfurization Process of DXY Selective Catalytic Oxidation%DXY选择性催化氧化法脱硫新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕宝宽; 汪晓梅

    2016-01-01

    The content and ways of study of new desulfurization process of DXY selective catalytic oxidation ( SCO ) are introduced, its process flow and reaction principle are elaborated, and characteristics of H2 S removal technologies commonly used in China are analyzed and compared. DXY-2 type catalyst is expected to be used in new desulfurization process of selective catalytic oxidation with low H2 S concentration, it has good catalytic activity and selectivity, its operation is simple and convenient, and this catalyst has good stability and long service life.%介绍了DXY选择性催化氧化法脱硫新工艺的研究内容和方法,阐述了其工艺流程及反应原理,并分析比较了国内常用的H2 S脱除技术的特点。 DXY-2型催化剂可望在含H2 S浓度较低的工艺气选择性催化氧化法脱硫新工艺中得到应用,其催化活性和选择性好、操作简便,且催化剂稳定性好、使用寿命长。

  12. A high capacity manganese-based sorbent for regenerative high temperature desulfurization with direct sulfur production conceptual process application to coal gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, W.J.W.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-12-15

    A high capacity, monolith or particle shaped, regenerable sorbent has been developed for the desulfurization of a dry type coal gas. It consists of crystalline MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a small amount of disperse MnO, and an amorphous Mn-Al-O phase. Elemental sulfur is the only observed regeneration product during regeneration with SO{sub 2}. The sorbent can be used in the temperature range between 673 and 1273 K but the optimum capacity is utilized between 1100 and 1200 K. For regeneration with SO{sub 2} the regeneration temperature should be > 873 K to avoid sulfate formation. The sulfur uptake capacity is high and amounts up to 20 wt.% S and the sorbent performance appears to be stable during at least 110 sulfiding and regeneration cycles at 1123 K. For temperatures above 1100 K thermodynamic calculations are in accordance with the observed (solid) phases after sulfiding and regeneration, indicating the predictive potential for high temperatures. The performance of the surface sites that play an important role during desulfurization can, however, not be predicted. The regenerative removal of H{sub 2}S, COS, HCl and HF can possibly take place simultaneously with the same sorbent. A new conceptual process configuration for high temperature coal gas cleaning and sorbent regeneration is proposed. Compared to other processes, less heat exchange equipment is required and no Claus unit is necessary to convert the regeneration product to sulfur.

  13. 干法同时脱硫脱硝技术的研究进展%The Research Progress of Methods of Dry Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振峰; 张建权; 李军奇; 杨冬; 孙洪军; 郭丽英

    2009-01-01

    According to severe air pollution and NOX, SOX emission exceeding standard in thermal power plants, coal-fired boiler, automobile exhaust. The background of technology of desulfurization and denitrification was reviewed. Some technologies of dry desulfurizarion and denitrifieation and their respective principle and feature were introduced, including LILAC process, NOXSO process, active carbon method, technology of circulating fluidized-bed and plasma method. The development tendency of the technology of desulfurization and denitrification combined with the characters of technologies was also prospected.%日前大气污染日益严重,一些火电厂、燃煤锅炉及汽车尾气的NOX和SOX排放量严重超标,针对这一严峻形式,综述了干法同时脱硫脱硝技术的研究背景,介绍了包括LILAC法、NOXSO法、活性炭法、循环流化床法、等离子法等在内的几种f:式脱硫脱硝技术,并简单阐述了各自的原理和特点,最后结合其技术特点对脱硫脱硝技术的发展趋势进行展望.

  14. Mercury isotope signatures of seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Peng, Jingji; Yuan, Dongxing; Lu, Bingyan; Lin, Kunning; Huang, Shuyuan

    2016-07-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) systems are commonly used to remove acidic SO2 from the flue gas with alkaline seawater in many coastal coal-fired power plants in China. However, large amount of mercury (Hg) originated from coal is also transferred into seawater during the desulfurization (De-SO2) process. This research investigated Hg isotopes in seawater discharged from a coastal plant equipped with a SFGD system for the first time. Suspended particles of inorganic minerals, carbon residuals and sulfides are enriched in heavy Hg isotopes during the De-SO2 process. δ(202)Hg of particulate mercury (PHg) gradually decreased from -0.30‰ to -1.53‰ in study sea area as the distance from the point of discharge increased. The results revealed that physical mixing of contaminated De-SO2 seawater and uncontaminated fresh seawater caused a change in isotopic composition of PHg isotopes in the discharging area; and suggested that both De-SO2 seawater and local background contributed to PHg. The impacted sea area predicted with isotopic tracing technique was much larger than that resulted from a simple comparison of pollutant concentration. It was the first attempt to apply mercury isotopic composition signatures with two-component mixing model to trace the mercury pollution and its influence in seawater. The results could be beneficial to the coal-fired plants with SFGD systems to assess and control Hg pollution in sea area.

  15. Gas-liquid absorption reaction between (NH4)2SO3 solution and SO2 for ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the characteristics of the reaction between ammonium sulfite, the main desulfurizing solution, and the flue-gas-contained sulfur dioxide during the process of ammonia-based WFGD (wet flue gas desulfurization) in a power plant, the gas-liquid absorption reaction between sulfur dioxide and an ammonium sulfite solution was studied in a stirred tank reactor. The experimental results indicate that the absorption of sulfur dioxide is controlled by both the gas- and liquid-films when the ammonium sulfite concentration is lower than 0.05 mol/L, and mainly by the gas-film at higher concentrations. In the latter case, the reaction rates are found to be zero-order with respect to the concentration of ammonium sulfite. The absorption rates of sulfur dioxide increase as the concentration of sulfur dioxide in inlet gas and the temperature increase. The reaction rate is of 0.6th-order with respect to the concentration of sulfur dioxide.

  16. Adsorption of Dibenzothiophene on Modified Activated Carbons for Ultra-Deep Desulfurization of Fuel Oils%燃料油超深度脱硫: 二苯并噻吩在改性活性炭上的吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋完轩; 刘艳; 孙秀萍; 沈智奇; 韩崇仁; 李灿

    2003-01-01

    @@ Ultra-deep desulfurization of fuel oils is used for producing clean fuels to meet new emission control standards, and also for producing sulfur-free hydrogen for use in fuel cell systems, where the hydrogen is produced by the reforming of fuel oils[1~2].

  17. Elementary Introduction to Design and Management of Wet Process Oxidative Desulfurization Unit%浅谈湿式氧化法脱硫装置的设计及管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘发明

    2012-01-01

    随着原料煤硫含量不断上升,湿式氧化法脱硫装置出现了堵塔、格栅填料倒塌等现象.通过采用两级脱硫工艺对脱硫装置进行改造,基本解决了脱硫装置在运行过程中出现的问题.针对湿式氧化法脱硫工艺的特点,分析了脱硫装置在设计中应注意的问题,并从脱硫溶液的组分、循环量、温度、再生及回收方面提出了优化工艺管理的措施.%With an ever-increasing sulfur content of feed coal, blocking and collapse of packing in grid appear in the wet-process oxidative desulfurization unit. By revamping with the adoption of two-stage desulfurization process for the unit, the problems in the operation of the unit are basically solved. In view of the characteristics of the process, an analysis is made of the main problems in the design of the desulfurization unit, and optimized management measures are proposed with respect to the composition, circulation rate, temperature, regeneration and recovery of the desulfurization solution.

  18. Research on the stability of f-CaO content in desulfurization slag%固硫渣中f-CaO的含量测试及其安定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙夔; 贺深阳; 贾韶辉; 吴双

    2015-01-01

    With the development of desulfurization technology for circulating fluidized bed boiler, large amounts of desulfurization slag is stored up. Desulfurization slag contains a lot of f-CaO and SO3, through the study of the content and digestion rate of f-CaO in desulfurization slag, and the test of the stability of the slag as a cement admixture and aggregate for concrete brick. The test shows that most f-CaO can be easily digested, and can’t affect the stability after the watering process, so that the slag can be used as mixture and aggregate for concrete brick.%随着循环流化床锅炉脱硫技术的发展,大量的固硫渣被堆存。固硫渣含有大量的f-CaO和SO3,通过对固硫渣中f-CaO含量和消解速度的研究,测试其作为水泥混合材和混凝土砖骨料制品时的安定性。结果表明:固硫渣中大部分f-CaO容易消解,经淋水处理以后不会对安定性产生不良影响,可用于水泥混合材和混凝土砖骨料。

  19. 直馏柴油催化氧化脱硫均相催化剂的制备与评价%Preparation and evaluation of desulfurization catalysts for homogeneous catalytic oxidation of straight-run diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓东; 刘亮; 税蕾蕾

    2005-01-01

    Large investment, high operating cost and severe operation condition exist in the technology of diesel hydrodesulfurization, and the technology of H2O2 oxidative desulfurization of diesel has such problems as high oxidizer cost, oxidizer not regenerable, and treatment of sour water. A new catalytic oxidative desulfurization method for straight-run diesel is presented in this paper. In order to produce lowsulfur diesel, the sulfide in diesel oil was oxidized and converted into sulfone-polar sulfide with homogeneous catalysts and air oxidizer, and then removed by extractant. The homogenous catalysts were prepared by compound decomposition. The catalysts selected could dissolve in diesel at a given temperature and separate out at a lower temperature. The effects of catalytic oxidation of zinc benzoate, manganese benzoate and manganese phthalate were tested. The desulfurization effect of zinc benzoate and manganese benzoate was much better and the sulfur content of the desulfurized diesel met the standard of Eu Ⅱ diesel (<300μg·g-1 ).

  20. V2O5催化氧化深度脱硫%Deep desulfurization by catalytic oxidation over V2 O5 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华; 冯化林; 李国忠; 江雪原

    2011-01-01

    To study an oxidative deep desulfurization method, the effects of the catalysts and coagents on desulfurization were investigated with H2O2 as oxidant. The catalytic ability of various catalysts follows the order of V2O5 > phosphotungstic acid > phosphomolybdic acid. The optimum conditions of oxidation were studied with V2O5 as catalyst and anhydrous ethyl alcohol as coagent. The results show that under the conditions of thiophene/petroleum ether model oil volume of 10 mL, H2O2 volume of 0.05 mL( volume fraction 1.5% ), V2O5 catalyst mass of 0.002 0 g( mass concentration 200 mg/L), anhydrous ethylalcohol of 0.50 mL( volume fraction 5% ), at 40 ℃,reacting for 60 min, the reactants were extracted with N, N-dimethylformamide as the extractant; when extraction temperature is 15 ℃, extraction time is 15 min, and the volume ratio of solvent to oil is 1, the suffur mass fraction of the thiophene to petroleum ether model oil is reduced from 200 mg/L to 30.8 mg/L, and the desulfurization ratio reaches 84.6%, which is 28.0% higher than that of thiophene/petroleum ether model oil extracted directly without oxidizing. The oxidized desulfurization effect is remarkable. The sulfur mass fraction of gasoline is reduced from 179.3 mg/L to 18.0 mg/L, and the desulfurization rate reaches 91.0% by this method, showing a high potential for industrial application.%为了研究氧化法深度脱硫技术,以H2O2为氧化剂,考察了不同催化剂和助剂对脱硫效果的影响.各催化剂的催化性能大小顺序为V2O5>磷钨酸>磷钼酸.以V2O5为催化剂,无水乙醇为助剂,优化了氧化条件.结果表明:在噻吩/石油醚模拟油体积10 mL、H2O2 0.05mL(体积分数1.5%)、V2O5 0.002 0 g(质量浓度200 mg/L)、无水乙醇0.50 mL(体积分数5%)、氧化温度40℃的反应条件下,氧化60min,得到的氧化产物采用N,N-二甲基甲酰胺进行萃取,萃取温度15℃,萃取时间15 min,剂油体积比为1时,噻吩/石油醚模拟