WorldWideScience

Sample records for biobased products

  1. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardon, L.; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of

  2. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  3. 76 FR 3789 - Voluntary Labeling Program for Biobased Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... USDA's proposal requiring that biobased content testing facilities be ISO 9001 conformant to promote... standard, such as ISO 9001 or ISO 17025, for biobased content testing laboratories but rather should allow... program that biobased testing be performed by ISO 9001 conformant testing facilities. This will...

  4. 77 FR 10939 - Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... memorandum in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, February 21, 2012 [FR... Creating Jobs in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product Procurement Memorandum for the... markets for farm commodities. Biobased and sustainable products help to increase our energy security...

  5. A Circular Bioeconomy with Biobased Products from CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Modestra, J Annie; Amulya, K; Butti, Sai Kishore; Velvizhi, G

    2016-06-01

    The unprecedented climate change influenced by elevated concentrations of CO2 has compelled the research world to focus on CO2 sequestration. Although existing natural and anthropogenic CO2 sinks have proven valuable, their ability to further assimilate CO2 is now questioned. Thus, we highlight here the importance of biological sequestration methods as alternate and viable routes for mitigating climate change while simultaneously synthesizing value-added products that could sustainably fuel the circular bioeconomy. Four conceptual models for CO2 biosequestration and the synthesis of biobased products, as well as an integrated CO2 biorefinery model, are proposed. Optimizing and implementing this biorefinery model might overcome the limitations of existing sequestration methods and could help realign the carbon balance. PMID:27048926

  6. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  7. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  8. Bio-based C-3 Platform Chemical: Biotechnological Production and -Conversion of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Demands for efficient, greener, economical and sustainable production of chemicals, materials and energy have led to development of industrial biotechnology as a key technology area to provide such products from bio-based raw materials from agricultural-, forestry- and related industrial residues and by-products. For the bio-based industry, it is essential to develop a number of building blocks or platform chemicals for C2-C6 chemicals and even aromatic chemicals. 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3H...

  9. Replacing fossil based plastic performance products by bio-based plastic products-Technical feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den Martien; Molenveld, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Larger scale market introduction of new bio-based products requires a clear advantage regarding sustainability, as well as an adequate techno-economic positioning relative to fossil based products. In a previous paper [Broeren et al., 2016], LCA results per kg and per functionality equivalent of

  10. 14C determination in different bio-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia; Reina Maldonado, María-Teresa; García León, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Radiocarbon determination can be used as a tool to investigate the presence of biological elements in different bio-based products, such as biodiesel blends. These products may also be produced from fossil materials obtaining the same final molecules, so that composition is chemically indistinguishable. The amount of radiocarbon in these products can reveal how much of these biological elements have been used, usually mixed with petrol derived components, free of 14C. Some of these products are liquid and thus the handling at the laboratory is not as straightforward as with solid samples. At Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) we have tested the viability of these samples using a graphitization system coupled to an elemental analyzer used for combustion of the samples, thus avoiding any vacuum process. Samples do not follow any chemical pre-treatment procedure and are directly graphitized. Specific equipment for liquid samples related to the elemental analyzer was tested. Measurement of samples was performed by low-energy AMS at the 1 MV HVEE facility at CNA, paying special attention to background limits and reproducibility during sample preparation.

  11. Biobased packaging catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenveld, K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bos, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the catalogue is to showcase biobased packaging products and provide an overview of commercially available biobased packaging in 2014. This catalogue is a translation of the Dutch version of the biobased packaging catalogue that was launched September 2014. The raw materials, products

  12. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  13. Production of bio-based materials using photobioreactors with binary cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, Alex S; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Hill, Eric A; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2013-08-27

    A method, device and system for producing preselected products, (either finished products or preselected intermediary products) from biobased precursors or CO.sub.2 and/or bicarbonate. The principal features of the present invention include a method wherein a binary culture is incubated with a biobased precursor in a closed system to transform at least a portion of the biobased precursor to a preselected product. The present invention provides a method of cultivation that does not need sparging of a closed bioreactor to remove or add a gaseous byproduct or nutrient from a liquid medium. This improvement leads to significant savings in energy consumption and allows for the design of photobioreactors of any desired shape. The present invention also allows for the use of a variety of types of waste materials to be used as the organic starting material.

  14. The dilemma of promoting green products: what we know and don't know about biobased metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Geiser, Kenneth

    2012-04-01

    Advocates of "green products" argue that promoting these products can protect the environment, workers, and public health. Biobased metalworking fluids (MWFs) are among the products promoted as "green products." The main question is, what constitutes a green product? To answer this question, the authors compared and contrasted the health and safety aspects of biobased and petroleum-based MWFs in terms of their additives. These two product categories of MWFs derived from various feedstocks were investigated through interviews and literature review. Three classes of biobased MWFs and four classes of petroleum-based MWFs were identified and compared. The little information available on the individual constituents for biobased MWFs indicates that they had biocides and preservatives, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure, and antiwear components, which are also common additives in petroleum-based MWFs. Precautionary approaches should be taken when promoting biobased MWFs as "green products" until individual components are evaluated for their health and safety impacts. PMID:22533119

  15. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between

  16. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-07-31

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. Effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. The PI will be teaching one of the newly developed classes will next Fall (Fall 2006), after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revision. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the development of a better educated workforce and citizenry capable of providing technological innovation as a means of growing the economy and providing jobs. In particular, the

  17. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-09-30

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. The original project objectives had to be modified as a result of DOE funding cuts, the Biomass Program did not receive adequate funding to fully fund its selected projects. Nonetheless, effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. PI Dorgan taught one of the newly developed classes will in the Fall 2006, after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revisions. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the

  18. Biobased production of alkanes and alkenes through metabolic engineering of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Min Kyoung; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydroca...

  19. Health, safety, and ecological implications of using biobased floor-stripping products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Geiser, Kenneth; Ellenbecker, Michael; Marshall, Jason

    2007-05-01

    The main objective of the study reported here was to investigate the ecological, health, and safety (EHS) implications of using biobased floor strippers as alternatives to solvent-based products such as Johnson Wax Professional (Pro Strip). The authors applied a quick EHS-scoring technique developed by the Surface Solution Laboratory (SSL) of the Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) to some alternative, biobased products that had previously performed as well as or close to as well as the currently used product. The quick technique is considered an important step in EHS assessment, particularly for toxics use reduction planners and advocates who may not have the resources to subject many alternative products or processes at once to detailed EHS analysis. Taking this step narrows available options to a manageable number. (Technical-performance experiments were also conducted, but the results are not discussed or reported in this paper). The cost of switching to biobased floor strippers was assessed and compared with the cost of using the traditional product, both at full strength and at the dilution ratios recommended by the respective manufacturers. The EHS analysis was based on a framework consisting of five parameters: volatile organic compounds (VOCs); pH; global-warming potential (GWP); ozone depletion potential (ODP); and safety scores in areas such as flammability, stability, and special hazards, based on ratings from the Hazardous Material Classification System (HMIS) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Total EHS scores were calculated with data derived from the material safety data sheets. For most cleaning products previously investigated by the TURI SSL, the investigators have demonstrated that the five key parameters used in the study reported here can successfully be used for quick screening of the EHS impacts of cleaning alternatives. All eight biobased, or green, products evaluated in the study had better EHS-screening scores than did

  20. Health, safety, and ecological implications of using biobased floor-stripping products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Geiser, Kenneth; Ellenbecker, Michael; Marshall, Jason

    2007-05-01

    The main objective of the study reported here was to investigate the ecological, health, and safety (EHS) implications of using biobased floor strippers as alternatives to solvent-based products such as Johnson Wax Professional (Pro Strip). The authors applied a quick EHS-scoring technique developed by the Surface Solution Laboratory (SSL) of the Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) to some alternative, biobased products that had previously performed as well as or close to as well as the currently used product. The quick technique is considered an important step in EHS assessment, particularly for toxics use reduction planners and advocates who may not have the resources to subject many alternative products or processes at once to detailed EHS analysis. Taking this step narrows available options to a manageable number. (Technical-performance experiments were also conducted, but the results are not discussed or reported in this paper). The cost of switching to biobased floor strippers was assessed and compared with the cost of using the traditional product, both at full strength and at the dilution ratios recommended by the respective manufacturers. The EHS analysis was based on a framework consisting of five parameters: volatile organic compounds (VOCs); pH; global-warming potential (GWP); ozone depletion potential (ODP); and safety scores in areas such as flammability, stability, and special hazards, based on ratings from the Hazardous Material Classification System (HMIS) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Total EHS scores were calculated with data derived from the material safety data sheets. For most cleaning products previously investigated by the TURI SSL, the investigators have demonstrated that the five key parameters used in the study reported here can successfully be used for quick screening of the EHS impacts of cleaning alternatives. All eight biobased, or green, products evaluated in the study had better EHS-screening scores than did

  1. 76 FR 53113 - Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... designated items will benefit from preferred procurement by Federal agencies. Estimate of Burden: Public... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement AGENCY:...

  2. Application of biobased materials for packing short, medium and long shelf life food products

    OpenAIRE

    Peelman, Nanou; Ragaert, Peter; Vandemoortele, Angelique; Verguldt, Elien; Devlieghere, Frank; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of several multilayered biobased materials for packing different food products, ranging from short to long shelf life products, was investigated. Several transparent and metalized cellulose based film, a cellulose/PLA based film, a xylan based film and PLA trays with a PLA based film, a PLA/cellulose based film and a PLA/paper based film as topfilm were examined. The investigated food products were tomatoes, steak, French fries, ham sausage, filet de saxe (a raw cured...

  3. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing two main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data. The ....... Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  4. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatikul, Lida; Arpornwichanopa, Amornchai; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing multiple main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data........ Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions....

  5. Design of reactive distillation processes for the production of butyl acrylate:Impact of bio-based raw materials☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander Niesbach⁎; Natalia Fink; Philip Lutze; Andrzej Górak

    2015-01-01

    The chemical industry is nowadays predominantly using fossil raw materials, but the alternative use of bio-based resources is investigated to account for the foreseeable scarcity of fossil feedstocks. A main challenge of using bio-based feedstocks is the complexity of the impurity profile. For an economic production of bio-based chemicals, the use of intensified processes is inevitable and approaches are needed for the various process intensification techniques to identify their applicability to be used for the production of bio-based components. In the presented study, an approach is shown for the reactive distil ation (RD) technology to identify the most critical bio-based impurities and their impact on the reactive distillation process. The investigated case-study is the production of n-butyl acrylate from acrylic acid and n-butanol. Among al initially identified impurities, the key impurities, having the biggest impact on the product purity in the reactive distil ation process, are found. These impurities are then studied in more detail and an operating window depending on the impurity concentration is identified for the reactive distil ation column. Furthermore, an integrated design of upstream and downstream processes is facilitated, as the presented results can be used in the development of the fermentation processes for the produc-tion of the bio-based reactants by decreasing the concentration of the critical impurities.

  6. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high......Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further...... performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed...

  7. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams, als

  8. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes.

  9. Bio-based composites from stone groundwood applied to new product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Mutje

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the product design, engineering, and material selection intended for the manufacturing of an eco-friendly chair. The final product is expected to combine design attributes with technical and legal feasibility with the implementation of new bio-based materials. Considering the industrial design, a range of objectives and trends were determined after setting the market requirements, and the final concept was proposed and modeled. The product geometry, production technology, and legal specifications were the input data for product engineering. The material selection was based on the technical requirements. Polypropylene (PP composite materials based on coupled-fiberglass, sized-fiberglass, and coupled-stone ground wood reinforcements were prepared and characterized. Final formulations based on these PP composites are proposed and justified.

  10. Succinic acid production derived from carbohydrates: An energy and greenhouse gas assessment of a platform chemical toward a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok, B.; Tsiropoulos, I.; Roes, A.L.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based succinic acid has the potential to become a platform chemical, i.e. a key building block for deriving both commodity and high-value chemicals, which makes it an attractive compound in a bio-based economy. A few companies and industrial consortia have begun to develop its industrial product

  11. Development Of Sustainable Biobased Products And Bioenergy In Cooperation With The Midwest Consortium For Sustainable Biobased Products And Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ladisch; Randy Woodson

    2009-03-18

    Collaborative efforts of Midwest Consortium have been put forth to add value to distiller's grains by further processing them into fermentable sugars, ethanol, and a protein rich co-product consistent with a pathway to a biorenewables industry (Schell et al, 2008). These studies were recently published in the enclosed special edition (Volume 99, Issue 12) of Bioresource Technology journal. Part of them have demonstrated the utilization of distillers grains as additional feedstock for increased ethanol production in the current dry grind process (Kim et al., 2008a, b; Dien et al.,2008, Ladisch et al., 2008a, b). Results showed that both liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) were effective for enhancing digestibility of distiller's grains. Enzymatic digestion of distiller's grains resulted in more than 90% glucose yield under standard assay conditions, although the yield tends to drop as the concentration of dry solids increases. Simulated process mass balances estimated that hydrolysis and fermentation of distillers grains can increase the ethanol yield by 14% in the current dry milling process (Kim et al., 2008c). Resulting co-products from the modified process are richer in protein and oil contents than conventional distiller's grains, as determined both experimentally and computationally. Other research topics in the special edition include water solubilization of DDGS by transesterification reaction with phosphite esters (Oshel el al., 2008) to improve reactivity of the DDGS to enzymes, hydrolysis of soluble oligomers derived from DDGS using functionalized mesoporous solid catalysts (Bootsma et al., 2008), and ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) production from DDGS by solventogenic Clostridia (Ezeji and Blaschek, 2008). Economic analysis of a modified dry milling process, where the fiber and residual starch is extracted and fermented to produce more ethanol from the distillers grains while producing highly

  12. Bio-based production of monomers and polymers by metabolically engineered microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hannah; Yang, Jung Eun; Ha, Ji Yeon; Chae, Tong Un; Shin, Jae Ho; Gustavsson, Martin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-12-01

    Recent metabolic engineering strategies for bio-based production of monomers and polymers are reviewed. In the case of monomers, we describe strategies for producing polyamide precursors, namely diamines (putrescine, cadaverine, 1,6-diaminohexane), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, glutaric, adipic, and sebacic acids), and ω-amino acids (γ-aminobutyric, 5-aminovaleric, and 6-aminocaproic acids). Also, strategies for producing diols (monoethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,4-butanediol) and hydroxy acids (3-hydroxypropionic and 4-hydroxybutyric acids) used for polyesters are reviewed. Furthermore, we review strategies for producing aromatic monomers, including styrene, p-hydroxystyrene, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and phenol, and propose pathways to aromatic polyurethane precursors. Finally, in vivo production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and recombinant structural proteins having interesting applications are showcased. PMID:26318077

  13. [Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixi; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil, the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource. Therefore, the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum. Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes, high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application. According to the research progresses in recent years, this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose, which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway, engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production. In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues, the development of advanced bio-fuel technology, especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology, is environmentally benign and sustainable. PMID:24364352

  14. Novel strategies for biobased feedstock utilization: Efficiency, optimization and production of a platform chemical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to evident environmental, economical and political reasons, it is becoming inevitable to shift society’s dependence away from fossil towards renewable, bio-based resources. However, for efficient implementation of biobased resources, cost effectiveness is key. In this thesis, different possibili

  15. Industrial biotechnology for the production of bio-based chemicals--a cradle-to-grave perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Törnvall, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Linda; Börjesson, Pål

    2007-03-01

    Shifting the resource base for chemical production from fossil feedstocks to renewable raw materials provides exciting possibilities for the use of industrial biotechnology-based process tools. This review gives an indication of the current developments in the transition to bio-based production, with a focus on the production of chemicals, and points out some of the challenges that exist in the large-scale implementation of industrial biotechnology. Furthermore, the importance of evaluating the environmental impact of bio-based products with respect to their entire life cycle is highlighted, demonstrating that the choice of the raw material often turns out to be an important parameter influencing the life cycle performance. PMID:17234288

  16. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases. PMID:27374402

  17. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-04-01

    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry. PMID:23394962

  18. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  19. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  20. Rhodococcus opacus B4: a promising bacterium for production of biofuels and biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana Rita; Rocha, Isabel; Alves, Maria Madalena; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial lipids have relevant applications in the production of renewable fuels and biobased oleochemicals. The genus Rhodococcus is one of the most relevant lipid producers due to its capability to accumulate those compounds, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), when cultivated on different defined substrates, namely sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons but also on complex carbon sources present in industrial wastes. In this work, the production of storage lipids by Rhodococcus opacus B4 using glucose, acetate and hexadecane is reported for the first time and its productivity compared with Rhodococcus opacus PD630, the best TAG producer bacterium reported. Both strains accumulated mainly TAG from all carbon sources, being influenced by the carbon source itself and by the duration of the accumulation period. R. opacus B4 produced 0.09 and 0.14 g L(-1) at 24 and 72 h, with hexadecane as carbon source, which was 2 and 3.3 fold higher than the volumetric production obtained by R. opacus PD630. Both strains presented similar fatty acids (FA) profiles in intact cells while in TAG produced fraction, R. opacus B4 revealed a higher variability in fatty acid composition than R. opacus PD630, when both strains were cultivated on hexadecane. The obtained results open new perspectives for the use of R. opacus B4 to produce TAG, in particular using oily (alkane-contaminated) waste and wastewater as cheap raw-materials. Combining TAG production with hydrocarbons degradation is a promising strategy to achieve environmental remediation while producing added value compounds. PMID:27179529

  1. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and

  2. Uncertainty in the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Production of Three Biobased Polymer Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, I Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael

    2016-03-15

    Interest in biobased products has been motivated, in part, by the claim that these products have lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than their fossil counterparts. This study investigates GHG emissions from U.S. production of three important biobased polymer families: polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bioethylene-based plastics. The model incorporates uncertainty into the life cycle emission estimates using Monte Carlo simulation. Results present a range of scenarios for feedstock choice (corn or switchgrass), treatment of coproducts, data sources, end of life assumptions, and displaced fossil polymer. Switchgrass pathways generally have lower emissions than corn pathways, and can even generate negative cradle-to-gate emissions if unfermented residues are used to coproduce energy. PHB (from either feedstock) is unlikely to have lower emissions than fossil polymers once end of life emissions are included. PLA generally has the lowest emissions when compared to high emission fossil polymers, such as polystyrene (mean GHG savings up to 1.4 kg CO2e/kg corn PLA and 2.9 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass PLA). In contrast, bioethylene is likely to achieve the greater emission reduction for ethylene intensive polymers, like polyethylene (mean GHG savings up to 0.60 kg CO2e/kg corn polyethylene and 3.4 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass polyethylene).

  3. Uncertainty in the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Production of Three Biobased Polymer Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, I Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael

    2016-03-15

    Interest in biobased products has been motivated, in part, by the claim that these products have lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than their fossil counterparts. This study investigates GHG emissions from U.S. production of three important biobased polymer families: polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bioethylene-based plastics. The model incorporates uncertainty into the life cycle emission estimates using Monte Carlo simulation. Results present a range of scenarios for feedstock choice (corn or switchgrass), treatment of coproducts, data sources, end of life assumptions, and displaced fossil polymer. Switchgrass pathways generally have lower emissions than corn pathways, and can even generate negative cradle-to-gate emissions if unfermented residues are used to coproduce energy. PHB (from either feedstock) is unlikely to have lower emissions than fossil polymers once end of life emissions are included. PLA generally has the lowest emissions when compared to high emission fossil polymers, such as polystyrene (mean GHG savings up to 1.4 kg CO2e/kg corn PLA and 2.9 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass PLA). In contrast, bioethylene is likely to achieve the greater emission reduction for ethylene intensive polymers, like polyethylene (mean GHG savings up to 0.60 kg CO2e/kg corn polyethylene and 3.4 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass polyethylene). PMID:26895173

  4. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plastics waste, and (iii) greenhouse gas emissions caused by combusting fossil fuels. To tackle these sustainability challenges, two strategies have been proposed. First, use bio-based polymers to repl...

  5. Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Patel, M.K.; Bos, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also

  6. Multi-scale exploration of the technical, economic, and environmental dimensions of bio-based chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai H; Herrgård, Markus J

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained traction as a sustainable alternative to petrochemicals. However, despite rapid advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, there remain significant economic and environmental challenges. In order to maximize the impact of research investment in a new bio-based chemical industry, there is a need for assessing the technological, economic, and environmental potentials of combinations of biomass feedstocks, biochemical products, bioprocess technologies, and metabolic engineering approaches in the early phase of development of cell factories. To address this issue, we have developed a comprehensive Multi-scale framework for modeling Sustainable Industrial Chemicals production (MuSIC), which integrates modeling approaches for cellular metabolism, bioreactor design, upstream/downstream processes and economic impact assessment. We demonstrate the use of the MuSIC framework in a case study where two major polymer precursors (1,3-propanediol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid) are produced from two biomass feedstocks (corn-based glucose and soy-based glycerol) through 66 proposed biosynthetic pathways in two host organisms (Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The MuSIC framework allows exploration of tradeoffs and interactions between economy-scale objectives (e.g. profit maximization, emission minimization), constraints (e.g. land-use constraints) and process- and cell-scale technology choices (e.g. strain design or oxygenation conditions). We demonstrate that economy-scale assessment can be used to guide specific strain design decisions in metabolic engineering, and that these design decisions can be affected by non-intuitive dependencies across multiple scales. PMID:26116515

  7. Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Chyrel A.; Foster, C. Darwin; Gan, Jianbang [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, MS 2138, College Station, TX 77842-2135 (United States); Smith, C. Tattersall [Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fox, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 200 WT Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ''Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.'' These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. (author)

  8. Cellulose oligomers production and separation for the synthesis of new fully bio-based amphiphilic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billès, Elise; Onwukamike, Kelechukwu N; Coma, Véronique; Grelier, Stéphane; Peruch, Frédéric

    2016-12-10

    Cellulose oligomers are water-soluble, on the contrary to cellulose, which greatly increase their application range. In this study, cellulose oligomers were obtained from the acidic hydrolysis of cellulose with phosphoric acid. The global yield in water-soluble oligomers was around 23% with polymerization degree (DP) ranging from 1 to 12. The cellulose oligomers DP distribution was successfully reduced by differential solubilisation in methanol as one of the goals of this work was to avoid the use of a time-consuming full chromatographic separation. The methanol-soluble oligomers were mainly low DP (≤3). The oligomers of higher molar mass, composed of 42% of cellotetraose and 36% of cellopentaose, were then functionalized and coupled with stearic acid through azide-alkyne click chemistry to obtain amphiphilic compounds. The self-assembly of these new bio-based compounds was finally investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their critical micellar concentration (CMC) was found to be in the same range as alkylmaltosides and alkylglucosides. PMID:27577903

  9. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  10. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  11. The circular economy of seaweed as nutrient management instrument for biobased production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Bruhn, Annette;

    A comparative analysis of the environmental and economic performance of seaweed production and biorefinery systems were modelled within the project MAB3 (www.mab3.dk). A framework for integrated sustainability modelling of the circular economy of offshore seaweed production and biorefinery systems...... is ongoing and requires expanding the scale of production. Regarding the product portfolio, especially use of seaweed for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics will increase the profitability of the seaweed utilization compared to use for energy, feed and fertilizers. There are not synergies between the economic...

  12. Biocatalysts and methods for conversion of hemicellulose hydrolysates to biobased products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, James F

    2015-03-31

    The invention relates to processes and biocatalysts for producing ethanol and other useful products from biomass and/or other materials. Initial processing of lignocellulosic biomass frequently yields methylglucuronoxylose (MeGAX) and related products which are resistant to further processing by common biocatalysts. Strains of Enterobacter asburiae are shown to be useful in bioprocessing of MeGAX and other materials into useful bioproducts such as ethanol, acetate, lactate, and many others. Genetic engineering may be used to enhance production of desired bioproducts.

  13. Production and applications of carbohydrate-derived sugar acids as generic biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtiö, Tuomas; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Harlin, Ali; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu

    2016-10-01

    This review considers the chemical and biotechnological synthesis of acids that are obtained by direct oxidation of mono- or oligosaccharide, referred to as sugar acids. It focuses on sugar acids which can be readily derived from plant biomass sources and their current and future applications. The three main classes of sugar acids are aldonic, aldaric and uronic acids. Interest in organic acids derived from sugars has recently increased, as part of the interest to develop biorefineries which produce not only biofuels, but also chemicals to replace those currently derived from petroleum. More than half of the most desirable biologically produced platform chemicals are organic acids. Currently, the only sugar acid with high commercial production is d-gluconic acid. However, other sugar acids such as d-glucaric and meso-galactaric acids are being produced at a lower scale. The sugar acids have application as sequestering agents and binders, corrosion inhibitors, biodegradable chelators for pharmaceuticals and pH regulators. There is also considerable interest in the use of these molecules in the production of synthetic polymers, including polyamides, polyesters and hydrogels. Further development of these sugar acids will lead to higher volume production of the appropriate sugar acids and will help support the next generation of biorefineries.

  14. Potential of genetically engineered hybrid poplar for pyrolytic production of bio-based phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraman, Hilal E; Vanholme, Ruben; Borén, Eleonora; Vanwonterghem, Yumi; Djokic, Marko R; Yildiz, Guray; Ronsse, Frederik; Prins, Wolter; Boerjan, Wout; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2016-05-01

    Wild-type and two genetically engineered hybrid poplar lines were pyrolyzed in a micro-pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and a bench scale setup for fast and intermediate pyrolysis studies. Principal component analysis showed that the pyrolysis vapors obtained by micro-pyrolysis from wood of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) down-regulated poplar trees differed significantly from the pyrolysis vapors obtained from non-transgenic control trees. Both fast micro-pyrolysis and intermediate pyrolysis of transgenic hybrid poplars showed that down-regulation of COMT can enhance the relative yield of guaiacyl lignin-derived products, while the relative yield of syringyl lignin-derived products was up to a factor 3 lower. This study indicates that lignin engineering via genetic modifications of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid and monolignol biosynthetic pathways can help to steer the pyrolytic production of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin-derived phenolic compounds such as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol, syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, and syringaldehyde present in the bio-oil. PMID:26890798

  15. Life cycle impact assessment of bio-based plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Faaij, A. P C; Lundquist, L.; Schenker, U.; Briois, J. F.; Patel, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol w

  16. BPM Magazine : biobased performance materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolck, C.H.; Bos, H.L.; Gennip, van E.; Zee, van der M.

    2011-01-01

    BPM magazine is een uitgave van het Biobased Performance Materials programma. In dit programma werken kennisinstellingen en bedrijven samen aan nieuwe biobased plastics en aan toepassingsgericht onderzoek om de eigenschappen van bestaande biokunststoffen te verbeteren.

  17. Biobased Plastics 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolck, C.H.; Ravenstijn, J.; Molenveld, K.; Harmsen, P.F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Dit boek geeft inzicht in de huidige op de markt verkrijgbare biobased plastics en de te verwachten ontwikkelingen. Er wordt gekeken naar zowel thermoplastische als thermohardende materialen. Het boek biedt inzicht in de productie, verwerking en eigenschappen van de verschillende types. Daarnaast wo

  18. Enzymatic Synthesis of Biobased Polyesters and Polyamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, “green” is a hot topic almost everywhere, from retailers to universities to industries; and achieving a green status has become a universal aim. However, polymers are commonly considered not to be “green”, being associated with massive energy consumption and severe pollution problems (for example, the “Plastic Soup” as a public stereotype. To achieve green polymers, three elements should be entailed: (1 green raw materials, catalysts and solvents; (2 eco-friendly synthesis processes; and (3 sustainable polymers with a low carbon footprint, for example, (biodegradable polymers or polymers which can be recycled or disposed with a gentle environmental impact. By utilizing biobased monomers in enzymatic polymerizations, many advantageous green aspects can be fulfilled. For example, biobased monomers and enzyme catalysts are renewable materials that are derived from biomass feedstocks; enzymatic polymerizations are clean and energy saving processes; and no toxic residuals contaminate the final products. Therefore, synthesis of renewable polymers via enzymatic polymerizations of biobased monomers provides an opportunity for achieving green polymers and a future sustainable polymer industry, which will eventually play an essential role for realizing and maintaining a biobased and sustainable society.

  19. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon.

  20. Potential of Coproduction of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals from Biobased Renewable Resources. Transition Path 3. Co-production of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows how in 2030, biobased alternatives can potentially cover up to 30% of the Netherlands' domestic energy and chemicals demand, effectively reducing CO2 emissions. Maximizing the economical potential of biobased alternatives seems the most attractive strategy. The method to compare various routes has been highly simplified and the conclusions of this report are only valid within the limitations of the underlying assumptions. Nevertheless, the Working group WISE BIOMAS of the Platform Biobased Raw Materials feels that the conclusions are valuable for Dutch policy makers and others interested in the use of biobased raw materials. In 2030, biobased alternatives are expected to be sufficiently competitive to fossil-based alternatives, even without subsidies. They are expected to play a significant role in an energy mix comprised of other renewables as well as 'clean' fossil energy sources. Presently, however, the Netherlands needs to step up its stimulation of biobased applications, through substantial investments in R and D programmes, demonstration plants, as well as measures to stimulate implementation. The whole package of tax reductions, local government purchases, etc., as well as direct financial support should amount to approximately 500 million euros per year. The simplified study presented here provides input for more realistic macro-economic scenario analysis taking actual and updated cost-availability relations including second generation biofuels and biochemicals, land use, international trade, etc., into account. Initial discussions with for instance the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (Centraal Plan Bureau or CPB) have taken place, but are not covered in this report. It is urgently suggested to update macro-economic scenarios for securing the best Netherlands' position among the accelerating global development towards biobased resources

  1. Bio-based alkyds by direct enzymatic bulk polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh

    . Bio-based alkyds prepared from a combination of glycerol, and tall oil fatty acids, and azelaic acid by enzymatic polymerization show improved hydrophobicity and lower glass transition temperatures compared to an alkyd prepared from the same raw materials by a classical boiling method. The enzymatic...... a totally bio-based formulation. In this context, the biggest challenge is development of bio-based analogues to classical alkyd resins (or alkyd), which is up to 50% fossil based. In addition, all the remaining components of an alkyd coating formulation are also needed to be prepared from renewable raw...... materials before a 100% bio-based alkyd paint can be realized. In this project an enzyme catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of alkyds has been developed. The objective has been to make it possible to produce binders at much lower temperatures as well as to achieve a higher degree...

  2. Setting up international biobased commodity trade chains : a guide and 5 examples in Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Elbersen, W.; Ree, van R.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Setting up biobased production chains, from biomass feedstock to final biobased product (energy, chemicals, materials) is a complicated process in which a whole range of decisions have to be made. Choices include what feedstocks to use, arranging logistics and most important of all the locating faci

  3. Influence of the biobased economy on agricultural markets. Preparation of a modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, P.L.; Van Leeuwen, M.G.A.; Bos, H.L.; Chant, L.J.; Molenveld, K.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2010-06-15

    This report is the conclusion of research undertaken to better understand the impact of the developing biobased economy on agricultural land markets. This has involved understanding the true dimension of the biobased economy, namely the large range of products for which a biobased component exists or could exist, and in this regard the likely evolution in the substitution of elements produced from fossil oil. This research is also a first step to determine whether the overall result of the development of the biobased economy will be positive, negative or neutral for the Dutch economy as a whole.

  4. Environmental Comparison of Biobased Chemicals from Glutamic Acid with Their Petrochemical Equivalents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Potting, J.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased

  5. Multi-scale Exploration of the Technical, Economic, and Environmental Dimensions of Bio-based Chemical Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Kai; Herrgard, Markus

    2014-01-01

    this issue, we developed a multiscale framework that integrates modeling approaches across scales of cellular metabolism, bioreactor, bioprocess, and economy/ecosystem, and is able to simultaneously assess biological, technological, economic and environmental feasibility of different production scenarios...

  6. Advances in catalytic production of bio-based polyester monomer 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Li, Junke; Tang, Yanjun; Lin, Lu; Long, Minnan

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the production and utilization of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) have become a hot research topic in catalyst field and polyester industry for its special chemical structure and a wide range of raw material source. FDCA is a potential replacement for the terephthalic acid monomer used in the production of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), which opens up a new pathway for obtaining biomass-based polyester to replace or partially replace petroleum based polyester. Here, we mainly reviewed the catalytic pathway for the synthesis of FDCA derived from lignocellulosic biomass or from the related downstream products, such as glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Moreover, the utilization of oxidation catalysts, the reaction mechanism, the existing limitations and unsolved challenges were also elaborated in detail. Therefore, we hope this mini review provides a helpful overview and insight to readers in this exciting research area. PMID:26076643

  7. Development of Bio-based Modified Fiber Sorona R Knitted Functional Products%生物基改性纤维Sorona R功能针织产品的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王显其; 关燕; 李良; 位国栋

    2014-01-01

    在介绍生物基改性纤维Sorona R性能特点的基础上,采用14.8 tex的生物基改性纤维Sorona R、芦荟纤维、珍珠纤维(40∶30∶30)混纺纱为主要原料,与18.5 tex的腈纶、Viloft R、牛奶纤维(55∶40∶5)混纺纱,以及4.4 tex氨纶进行交织,在双面花盘提花针织机上开发生物基改性纤维Sorona R功能舒适性针织产品。详细介绍产品的织造工艺和染整工艺,以及编织和染整过程中的技术难点和解决方案,并对产品的各项功能性指标进行检测。结果表明,该织物含有氨基酸等生物活性成分,具有抗菌抑菌、营养肌肤、防紫外线等保健功能,符合纺织品舒适性、功能性、环保性的要求,是一种具有广阔市场前景的新型生态纺织品。%Based on the characteristics of bio-based modified fiber Sorona R , the paper develops new kinds of bio-based modified fiber Sorona R knitted comfort products on the double jacquard knitting machine, by using 14.8 tex bio-based modified fiber Sorona R/aloe fiber/pearl fiber (40/30/30)blended yarn, 18.5 tex acrylic/viloft R/milk fiber (55/40/5)blended yarn, and 4.4 tex spandex inter-knitted. It introduces in detail the knitting technology and dyeing and finishing technology, as well as the technical difficulties and solutions. In addition, the various wearing proper_ties of these products are tested and compared. The results show that the bio-based modified fiber Sorona R knitted fabric with amino acids and other bioactive components bears excellent properties of anti-bacteria , skin-care and UV protection, and can meet the comfort, functional and environmentally friendly requirement, which is a new kind of ecological textile with a promising market prospect.

  8. Multi-scale exploration of the technical, economic, and environmental dimensions of bio-based chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Kai; Herrgard, Markus

    2015-01-01

    and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The MuSIC framework allows exploration of tradeoffs and interactions between economy-scale objectives (e.g. profit maximization, emission minimization), constraints (e.g. land-use constraints) and process- and cell-scale technology choices (e.g. strain design or oxygenation conditions......). We demonstrate that economy-scale assessment can be used to guide specific strain design decisions in metabolic engineering, and that these design decisions can be affected by non-intuitive dependencies across multiple scales....... factories. To address this issue, we have developed a comprehensive Multi-scale framework for modeling Sustainable Industrial Chemicals production (MuSIC), which integrates modeling approaches for cellular metabolism, bioreactor design, upstream/downstream processes and economic impact assessment. We...

  9. Ionic liquid as a promising biobased green solvent in combination with microwave irradiation for direct biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    The wet biomass microalgae of Nannochloropsis sp. was converted to biodiesel using direct transesterification (DT) by microwave technique and ionic liquid (IL) as the green solvent. Three different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium methyl sulphate [EMIM][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3]) and organic solvents (hexane and methanol) were used as co-solvents under microwave irradiation and their performances in terms of percentage disruption, cell walls ruptured and biodiesel yields were compared at different reaction times (5, 10 and 15 min). [EMIM][MeSO4] showed highest percentage cell disruption (99.73%) and biodiesel yield (36.79% per dried biomass) after 15 min of simultaneous reaction. The results demonstrated that simultaneous extraction-transesterification using ILs and microwave irradiation is a potential alternative method for biodiesel production. PMID:26851899

  10. Bio-composites : opportunities for value-added biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Composite Materials and Structures Center

    2003-07-01

    In order to reduce dependency on foreign oil, there is a growing need to develop and commercialize new bio-based green materials and technologies that can produce bio-based structural materials that are competitive with current synthetic products. The use of bio-based products would also improve the environment and create new opportunities for the agricultural economy. This paper described ongoing research into bio-based materials and products that replace petroleum-based products. In particular, it examined the use of biocomposites made by embedding natural/biofibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fiber, corn stalk fibers and native Michigan grasses into petroleum-derived traditional plastics such as polypropylene, unsaturated polyesters and epoxies. It also examines the use of green biocomposites developed by embedding these bio-fibers into renewable resource-based bioplastics such as cellulosic plastics and soy-based plastics. New processing methods that combine biofibers with plastics were needed to produce the biocomposites with desirable mechanical properties. The study showed that biofiber reinforced petroleum-based plastic biocomposites can produce a structural material that offers a balance between ecology, economy and technology. The potential for using these materials for automotive and building materials was also presented. 1 tab., 28 figs.

  11. Bio-based targeted chemical engineering education : Role and impact of bio-based energy and resourcedevelopment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardoa, N.M.; Venselaar, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Avans University of Applied Sciences is redrafting its courses and curricula in view of sustainability. For chemical engineering in particular that implies a focus on 'green' and bio-based processes, products and energy. Avans is situated in the Southwest region of the Netherlands and specifically i

  12. Novel, Fully Biobased Semicrystalline Polyamides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasinska, L.; Villani, M.; Es, van D.S.; Klop, E.; Rastogi, S.; Koning, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Novel, semicrystalline polyamides and co(polyamides) were synthesized from biobased sebacic acid (SA), 2,5-diamino-2,5-dideoxy-1,4;3,6-dianhydroiditol (diaminoisoidide, DAII) as well as from 1,4-diaminobutane (DAB), also known as putrescine in nature. Low molecular weight polyamides were obtained by

  13. The biobased book : Energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamm, P.; Bemer, G.G.; Botman, M.; Bruggink, A.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Biobased grondstoffen kunnen een belangrijke bijdrage leveren aan de oplossing van de energieproblemen in de wereld. Dit boek vat de kennis over en de mogelijkheden van het gebruik van biomassa samen. Biomassa kan gebruikt worden voor verschillende doeleinden: biobrandstof, productie van chemicaliën

  14. Novel biobased epoxy networks derived from renewable resources : Structure-property relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysanthos, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bio-based polymers derived from renewable resources have become increasingly important as sustainable and eco-efficient products which can replace the products based on petrochemical-derived stocks. The objective of our work was to develop novel bio-based reactive systems suitable for high performance composite materials especially epoxy systems. The most commonly used starting monomer to formulate epoxy networks is the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA, derived from bis...

  15. Biobased Packaging - Application in Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of growing problems of waste disposal and because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource with diminishing quantities, renewed interest in packaging research is underway to develop and promote the use of “bio-plastics.” In general, compared to conventional plastics derived from petroleum, bio-based polymers have more diverse stereochemistry and architecture of side chains which enable research scientists a greater number of opportunities to customize the properties of the final packaging material. The primary challenge facing the food (Meat industry in producing bio-plastic packaging, currently, is to match the durability of the packaging with product shelf-life. Notable advances in biopolymer production, consumer demand for more environmentally-friendly packaging, and technologies that allow packaging to do more than just encompass the food are driving new and novel research and developments in the area of packaging for muscle foods. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 79-82

  16. Structural change in agriculture induced by innovative biobased technologies, an agent-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Industry and policy makers pursue the development of a biobased economy. The biobased economy emerged first as a promising segment of new biotech applications. But during the last years, the term evolved to cover a much larger concept. It currently has grown to a vision for a new industrial structure where all products, from energy carriers, plastics and food to high value additives and pharmaceuticals, are entirely based on organic matter, thereby annihilating any need for fossil fuels. ...

  17. Nutrient use efficiency and plant availability of bio-based phosphorus fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Meers, Erik; Michels, Evi; Ghekiere, Greet; Accoe, Frederik; Lebuf, Viooltje; Tack, Filip

    2012-01-01

    In the transition to a bio-based economy the efficient use of soil phosphate and phosphorus containing synthetic and organic fertilizers, as well as the cradle-to-cradle recycling of phosphorus from waste products has become highly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of potential recovered bio-based phosphorus fertilizers, including struvite, iron phosphate sludge, digestate and animal manure as compared to water soluble synthetic triple super phosphate. To th...

  18. Development of an intelligent bio-based packaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, A; Cerqueira, M. A.; Martins, Joana; Vicente, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    [Extrat] Currently there is a growing interest in the development of eco-efficient bio-based packaging, being active, smart and intelligent packaging the most highlighted among various innovations. Intelligent packaging has the ability to detect and mark, in real time, changes that might occur within the package/in the food product. Their main purpose is to help the consumer decide whether to buy a certain food product, ensuring that when it is bought it has not suffered significant change...

  19. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well. PMID:21870885

  20. Exergetical Evaluation of Biobased Synthesis Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Frenzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of today’s chemical products are based on crude oil. An attractive and sustainable alternative feedstock is biomass. Since crude oil and biomass differ in various properties, new synthesis pathways and processes have to be developed. In order to prioritize limited resources for research and development (R & D, their economic potential must be estimated in the early stages of development. A suitable measure for an estimation of the economic potential is based on exergy balances. Different structures of synthesis pathways characterised by the chemical exergy of the main components are evaluated. Based on a detailed evaluation of the underlying processes, general recommendations for future bio-based synthesis pathways are derived.

  1. 木粉酯化改性制备生物基塑料%Modification of Wood Powder by Esterification for the Production of Bio-based Plastic Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭飞; 罗彦卿; 洪建国

    2015-01-01

    以胡桑枝条木粉为原料制备木质纤维类生物基塑料,木粉先经过球磨预处理后,在二甲亚砜( DMSO)分散介质中,以邻苯二甲酸酐( PA)为改性试剂, 4-二甲氨基吡啶( DMAP)为催化剂对其进行酯化改性,并考察了反应温度、时间和试剂用量对改性产物质量增长率及材料力学性能的影响. 研究结果表明,以木质纤维为原料,可以成功制备注塑级的生物基塑料,实现木质纤维原料全组分的高效利用. 在最佳工艺条件下,经改性制备材料的质量增长率为98. 8%,熔融指数0. 903 g/min,其拉伸和弯曲强度分别达到24. 1和41. 9 MPa,具有较好的热塑性和力学性能.%Mulberry branches wood powder was used as the raw material for preparation of bio-based plastic material. After ball milling,wood powder was first esterified by phthalic anhydride(PA) using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)as the catalyst in dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO ) as the dispersion medium. The effects of temperature, time and the weight of reagents on weight percent gain( WPG ) and mechanical property of modified production were studied. The results showed that esterified lignocellulosic material could be used as bio-based plastic injection molding product with whole components. Under the optimum conditions,the mass growth rate and melt index of the modified product were 98. 8% and 0. 903 g/min, respectively, and the modified product was found with good thermoplastic and mechanical properties with the tensile strength of 24. 1 MPa and the flexural strength of 41. 9 MPa.

  2. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel eVanholme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy towards sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green and industrial (white biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  3. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy. PMID:23761802

  4. More chemistry between green and growth. The opportunities and dilemmas of a bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bio-based economy is one in which enterprises manufacture non-food products from biomass. Such products include fuel for the transport industry, chemicals, materials, and energy. Biomass is the biological material of living or recently living organisms, either animal or vegetable. With technology becoming more sophisticated, it is growing easier to turn plants, trees, crops, and residual animal waste into biomass. Waste and waste streams are increasingly being used as input in production processes, thereby gaining an economic value of their own. They are giving rise to new, sustainable products with considerable added value that replace products based on non-renewable materials. New bio-based products may offer the Netherlands new economic opportunities. The Dutch can already boast a number of distinct advantages in that respect, thanks to the sophistication of their industrial sector, agro-industry, chemicals and energy industries, and transport and logistics sector - all key sectors in a bio-based economy. However, the growing world population and increasing level of prosperity worldwide, and the environmental and climate problems associated with such growth, are adding to the complexity of policy-making aimed at developing a bio-based economy. The shift from fossil-based to bio-based materials must be part of a comprehensive policy aimed at achieving a sustainable economy.

  5. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  6. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  7. Biocatalysis for Biobased Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén de Regil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of greener processes that are safe and friendly is an irreversible trend that is driven by sustainable and economic issues. The use of Biocatalysis as part of a manufacturing process fits well in this trend as enzymes are themselves biodegradable, require mild conditions to work and are highly specific and well suited to carry out complex reactions in a simple way. The growth of computational capabilities in the last decades has allowed Biocatalysis to develop sophisticated tools to understand better enzymatic phenomena and to have the power to control not only process conditions but also the enzyme’s own nature. Nowadays, Biocatalysis is behind some important products in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and bulk chemicals industry. In this review we want to present some of the most representative examples of industrial chemicals produced in vitro through enzymatic catalysis.

  8. Biocatalysis for biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Regil, Rubén; Sandoval, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of greener processes that are safe and friendly is an irreversible trend that is driven by sustainable and economic issues. The use of Biocatalysis as part of a manufacturing process fits well in this trend as enzymes are themselves biodegradable, require mild conditions to work and are highly specific and well suited to carry out complex reactions in a simple way. The growth of computational capabilities in the last decades has allowed Biocatalysis to develop sophisticated tools to understand better enzymatic phenomena and to have the power to control not only process conditions but also the enzyme's own nature. Nowadays, Biocatalysis is behind some important products in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and bulk chemicals industry. In this review we want to present some of the most representative examples of industrial chemicals produced in vitro through enzymatic catalysis. PMID:24970192

  9. More chemistry between green and growth. The opportunities and dilemmas of a bio-based economy; Meer chemie tussen groen en groei. De kansen en dilemma's van een biobased economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    A bio-based economy is one in which enterprises manufacture non-food products from biomass. Such products include fuel for the transport industry, chemicals, materials, and energy. Biomass is the biological material of living or recently living organisms, either animal or vegetable. With technology becoming more sophisticated, it is growing easier to turn plants, trees, crops, and residual animal waste into biomass. Waste and waste streams are increasingly being used as input in production processes, thereby gaining an economic value of their own. They are giving rise to new, sustainable products with considerable added value that replace products based on non-renewable materials. New bio-based products may offer the Netherlands new economic opportunities. The Dutch can already boast a number of distinct advantages in that respect, thanks to the sophistication of their industrial sector, agro-industry, chemicals and energy industries, and transport and logistics sector - all key sectors in a bio-based economy. However, the growing world population and increasing level of prosperity worldwide, and the environmental and climate problems associated with such growth, are adding to the complexity of policy-making aimed at developing a bio-based economy. The shift from fossil-based to bio-based materials must be part of a comprehensive policy aimed at achieving a sustainable economy. [Dutch] In dit advies gaat de SER in op mogelijkheden en knelpunten van de biobased economy. In een biobased economy dienen plantaardige en dierlijke biomassa (zoals gewassen, planten, snijafval, mest) als groene grondstoffen om non-food producten mee te maken (denk aan cosmetica, bioplastics, brandstoffen). De SER vindt dat de rijksoverheid stevig moet inzetten op een biobased economy met meer gesloten kringlopen. Dit draagt immers bij aan economische groei en aan een meer duurzame economie (gesloten kringlopen, gunstige arbeidsomstandigheden)

  10. Socio-economic opportunities of the biobased economy in the south-west of the Netherlands. Estimated employment impact in 2020; Sociaaleconomische kansen van de biobased economy in Zuidwest-Nederland. Inschatting werkgelegenheidseffecten in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lieshout, M.; Warringa, G.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H.

    2013-06-15

    This study, commissioned by the Socio-Economic Councils (SER) of the Dutch provinces of Zeeland and Brabant, was carried out in collaboration with a supervisory committee comprising numerous stakeholders in the biobased economy in the south-west of the Netherlands. The motto was 'agro meets chemistry'. Given that it was clear from the outset that the volume of locally available biomass is insufficient for large-scale power generation without inducing serious competition with food production, it was opted to restrict the scope of the 'biobased economy' to production of biobased chemicals and innovative materials. Because of the study's limited scope and duration, gross employment effects were also calculated for Zeeland and West Brabant only. To this end, three factors critical for the growth of the biobased economy and thus for potential employment effects were analysed: the price of fossil feedstocks, the availability of biomass for chemical industry applications, and the availability of capital for investing in innovative biobased processes. To cover the full range of possible developments in the biobased economy, two scenarios were developed: high and low, with in each case employment effects being estimated on the basis of a biomass flow analysis and employment indices [Dutch] Deze studie is uitgevoerd in opdracht van de SER Zeeland en de SER Brabant, in samenwerking met een begeleidingscommissie met brede vertegenwoordiging van stakeholders van de biobased economy in Zuidwest Nederland. De insteek was 'agro meets chemistry'. Aangezien bij aanvang vast stond dat de lokaal beschikbare biomassa onvoldoende is voor grootschalige energieopwekking, zonder ernstige concurrentie met voedselproductie te veroorzaken, is er voor gekozen om de biobased economy te beperken tot de productie van biobased chemie en innovatieve materialen. Verder is gezien de beperkte omvang en doorlooptijd van de studie besloten om

  11. Synergy between bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teekens, Amanda M; Bruins, Marieke E; van Kasteren, Johannes Mn; Hendriks, Wouter H; Sanders, Johan Pm

    2016-06-01

    Processing biomass into multi-functional components can contribute to the increasing demand for raw materials for feed and bio-based non-food products. This contribution aims to demonstrate synergy between the bio-based industry and the feed industry through biorefinery of currently used feed ingredients. Illustrating the biorefinery concept, rapeseed was selected as a low priced feed ingredient based on market prices versus crude protein, crude fat and apparent ileal digestible lysine content. In addition it is already used as an alternative protein source in diets and can be cultivated in European climate zones. Furthermore, inclusion level of rapeseed meal in pig diet is limited because of its nutritionally active factors. A conceptual process was developed to improve rapeseeds nutritional value and producing other bio-based building blocks simultaneously. Based on the correlation between market prices of feed ingredients and its protein and fat content, the value of refined products was estimated. Finally, a sensitivity analysis, under two profit scenario, shows that the process is economically feasible. This study demonstrates that using biorefinery processes on feed ingredients can improve feed quality. In conjunction, it produces building blocks for a bio-based industry and creates synergy between bio-based and feed industry for more efficient use of biomass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Boron brings big benefits to bio-based blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solution to the problems with bio-based lubrication can be approached by a combination of blending and additive strategies. However, many additives do not show efficacy when used in bio-based lubricants. Additive addition also lowers the bio-based content of the blend, which in turn limits the a...

  13. Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Biobased food packaging materials are gaining more attention owing to their intrinsic biodegradable nature and renewability. Selection of suitable biobased polymers for food packaging applications could be a tedious task with potential mistakes in choosing the best materials. In this paper, an expert system was developed using Exsys Corvid software to select suitable biobased polymer materials for packaging fruits, dry food and dairy products. If - Then rule based system was utilized to accomplish the material selection process whereas a score system was formulated to facilitate the ranking of selected materials. The expert system selected materials that satisfied all constraints and selection results were presented in suitability sequence depending on their scores. The expert system selected polylactic acid (PLA) as the most suitable material.

  14. Sustainability aspects of biobased applications : comparison of different crops and products from the sugar platform BO-12.05-002-008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Patel, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study different uses of biomass are compared. In order to allow for a systematic comparison the study focuses on three different chemicals that can be produced from sugar. In this way it is also, in principle, possible to compare different crops for the production of the same product. The st

  15. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, S.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  16. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully exp

  17. Encapsulation of a model compound in pectin delays its release from a biobased polymeric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model compound was encapsulated in pectin and then extruded with thermoplastic starch to form a composite. The intended product was a food-contact tray made of biobased polymers infused with an anti-microbial agent; however, caffeine was used as the model compound in the preliminary work. The mode...

  18. The physical properties, morphology and viscoelasticity of biobased sponges prepared from un-tanned hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of our research endeavors to address ongoing challenges faced by the U.S. hide and leather industries is to develop innovative uses and novel biobased products from hides to improve prospective markets and to secure a viable future for hides and leather industries. We had previously investigate...

  19. Novel membrane-based biotechnological alternative process for succinic acid production and chemical synthesis of bio-based poly (butylene succinate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Ming, Wei; Yan, Daojiang; Zhang, Congcong; Yang, Maohua; Liu, Yilan; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Baohua; Wan, Yinhua; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-03-01

    Succinic acid was produced in a novel membrane-based fermentation and separation integrated system. With this integrated system, product inhibition was alleviated by removing acids and replenishing fresh broth. High cell density maintain for a longer time from 75 to 130h and succinic acid concentration increased from 53 to 73g/L. In the developed separation process, succinic acid was crystallized at a recovery of 85-90%. The purity of the obtained succinic acid crystals reached 99.4% as found by HPLC and (1)H NMR analysis. A crystallization experiment indicated that among by-products glucose had a negative effect on succinic acid crystallization. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) was synthesized using the purified succinic acid and (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that the composition of the synthesized PBS is in agreement with that from petro-based succinic acid. PMID:24472699

  20. Assessing eco-innovations in green chemistry:Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a cosmetic product with a bio-based ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    SECCHI Michela; CASTELLANI Valentina; Collina, Elena; MIRABELLA Nadia; SALA SERENELLA

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in assessing the environmental impacts of cosmetic products, research and development activities try enhancing and promoting eco-innovation solutions in cosmetic industry. This study is aimed at comparing the environmental profile of eco-innovation options in green chemistry using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A case study in which synthetic ingredients are replaced by others derived from natural compounds is presented. A C16-18 triglycerides mixture (INCI name “pa...

  1. Biobased polymers for corrosion protection of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticorrosive biobased polymers were developed in our lab. We isolated an exopolysaccharide produced by a microbe that, when coated on metal substrates, exhibited unique corrosion inhibition. Corrosion is a worldwide problem and impacts the economy, jeopardizes human health and safety, and impedes t...

  2. Early-stage comparative sustainability assessment of new bio-based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Akshay D; Meesters, Koen; den Uil, Herman; de Jong, Ed; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K

    2013-09-01

    Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes. PMID:24078179

  3. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  4. Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability of Biobased Plastics. Bio-polyethylene from Brazil and polylactic acid from the U.S.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer, Toon

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ever depleting fossil resources, growing fossil feedstock prices and global environmental impact associated with continuously rising greenhouse gas emissions have led to increased attention for biobased products as alternatives for the present fo

  5. 微生物木糖代谢途径改造制备生物基化学品%Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维喜; 付晶; 章博; 陈涛

    2013-01-01

    当前,全球经济的高速发展与日益减少的石油资源储备进一步加剧了能源供需矛盾.人类对开发利用可再生的纤维素生物质资源寄予厚望.木糖是木质纤维素水解产物中含量仅次于葡萄糖的一种单糖,因此对木糖高效率生物转化的研究成为影响其工业化前景的关键因素之一.针对近几年的研究,文中综述了生物转化木糖方面的进展,包括木糖代谢途径的鉴定和设计、木糖运输途径的改造、生物基化学品制备.为了解决当前全球面临的能源危机与环境问题,运用合成生物学技术发展新一代生物燃料技术,特别是开发能够代谢木糖高产乙醇的微生物工程菌株是实现可持续发展的重要方式.%As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil,the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource.Therefore,the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum.Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes,high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application.According to the research progresses in recent years,this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose,which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway,engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production.In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues,the development of advanced bio-fuel technology,especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology,is environmentally benign and sustainable.

  6. Fermentation of bio-based product 2,3-butanediol%2,3-丁二醇的发酵生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋源泉; 许赟珍; 李强; 刘德华

    2011-01-01

    The development of chemical industry is hindered by energy crisis and environment pollution, and a new model of development is urgently to be exploited. Biorefining technology with renewable resources as feedstock is proposed as one possible solution, in which 2,3-butanediol fermentation is one important issue. 2,3-Butanediol, a bulk chemical product, has extensive applications, especially in chemical processes, food, fuel and medicine. The metabolic pathway of 2,3-butanediol is briefly described, and the progress of biotechnological production of 2,3-butanediol is reviewed, including microbial strains, strains mutagenization, genetic modifications and operating conditions (substrates, pH value, aeration, temperature and fermentation mode). Finally, 2,3-butanediol fermentation research directions are proposed.%能源危机和环境污染使得化工行业的发展举步维艰,亟待开发新的发展模式,以可再生能源为原料的生物炼制技术成为可行的途径之一.2,3-丁二醇的发酵生产是现代生物炼制的重要课题之一.2,3-丁二醇作为一种大宗的化学产品具有广泛的应用价值,尤其在化工、食品、燃料、医药等领域.本文简要描述了2,3-丁二醇在微生物体内的代谢途径,着重讨论了2,3-丁二醇的发酵生产,对发酵的菌种种类、菌种诱变和定向改造、各种发酵影响因素(包括底物、pH值、溶氧、温度以及发酵方式)进行了详细的归纳总结,同时展望了2,3-丁二醇发酵生产的研究发展方向.

  7. Cascading of Biomass. 13 Solutions for a Sustainable Bio-based Economy. Making Better Choices for Use of Biomass Residues, By-products and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, I.; Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-08-15

    Smarter and more efficient use of biomass, referred to as cascading, can lead to an almost 30% reduction in European greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared with 2010. As the title study makes clear, cascading of woody biomass, agricultural and industrial residues and other waste can make a significant contribution to a greening of the economy. With the thirteen options quantitatively examined annual emissions of between 330 and 400 Mt CO2 can be avoided by making more efficient use of the same volume of biomass as well as by other means. 75% of the potential CO2 gains can be achieved with just four options: (1) bio-ethanol from straw, for use as a chemical feedstock; (2) biogas from manure; (3) biorefining of grass; and (4) optimisation of paper recycling. Some of the options make multiple use of residues, with biomass being used to produce bioplastics that, after several rounds of recycling, are converted to heat and power at the end of their life, for example. In other cases higher-grade applications are envisaged: more efficient use of recyclable paper and wood waste, in both economic and ecological terms, using them as raw materials for new paper and chipboard rather than as an energy source. Finally, by using smart technologies biomass can be converted to multiple products.

  8. Processing biobased polymers using plasticizers: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplentere, Frederik; Cardon, Ludwig; Six, Wim; Erkoç, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In polymer processing, the use of biobased products shows lots of possibilities. Considering biobased materials, biodegradability is in most cases the most important issue. Next to this, bio based materials aimed at durable applications, are gaining interest. Within this research, the influence of plasticizers on the processing of the bio based material is investigated. This work is done for an extrusion grade of PLA, Natureworks PLA 2003D. Extrusion through a slit die equipped with pressure sensors is used to compare the experimental pressure values to numerical simulation results. Additional experimental data (temperature and pressure data along the extrusion screw and die are recorded) is generated on a dr. Collin Lab extruder producing a 25mm diameter tube. All these experimental data is used to indicate the appropriate functioning of the numerical simulation tool Virtual Extrusion Laboratory 6.7 for the simulation of both the industrial available extrusion grade PLA and the compound in which 15% of plasticizer is added. Adding the applied plasticizer, resulted in a 40% lower pressure drop over the extrusion die. The combination of different experiments allowed to fit the numerical simulation results closely to the experimental values. Based on this experience, it is shown that numerical simulations also can be used for modified bio based materials if appropriate material and process data are taken into account.

  9. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.; Heilmeier, H.; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewabl

  10. NEW BIO-BASED MATERIAL FOR FOOTWEAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, J.; A. Zapatero; Martínez, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    To date, the chemical industry has been using fossil resources to produce Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU). However, recently a bio-based alternative has been developed to produce TPU from renewable sources (plant oils). These environmentally-friendly TPUs can be used by different traditional industries (automotive, furniture, clothing, etc.) and the footwear industry is one of its potential consumers. Thus, the project titled “Thermoplastic polyurethane from renewable sources applied in foot...

  11. Healthy living in a biobased society

    OpenAIRE

    Domingus, S.; Nieuwenhuizen, van, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    This publication covers a wide array of subjects, ranging from physical chemistry to food microbiology, from water technology to food for the elderly. While the subjects may not initially seem related, they all focus on the same question: How can we lead healthy lives in a biobased society? This vital question unites the underlying disciplines within the Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (AFSG) knowledge unit of Wageningen UR (University & Research centre).

  12. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and polyesters can be used to formulate new pathways for fully bio-based paper coatings. However, difficulties in processing of most biopolymers may arise due to hydrophilicity, crystallization behavior, brittleness or melt instabilities that hinder a full exploitation at industrial scale. Therefore, blending with other biopolymers, plasticizers and compatibilizers is advantageous to improve the coating performance. In this paper, an overview of barrier properties and processing of bio-based polymers and their composites as paper coating will be discussed. In particular, recent technical advances in nanotechnological routes for bio-based nano- composite coatings will be summarized, including the use of biopolymer nanoparticles, or nanofillers such as nanoclay and nanocellulose. The combination of biopolymers along with surface modification of nanofillers can be used to create hierarchical structures that enhance hydrophobicity, complete barrier protection and functionalities of coated papers.

  13. Special on the Bio-based Economy. Making money with a green economy; Special Biobased Economy. Geld verdienen met een groene economie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterval, R. (ed.)

    2011-12-15

    Bio-based is booming. Increasingly more businesses see a healthy business case in products that are not made with fossil raw materials, but with biomass. But where are the opportunities for the Netherlands? And which roles can the government, trade and industry and science play? This PM special contains interviews with and experiences of pioneering entrepreneurs and agricultural attaches in the Netherlands and abroad [Dutch] Biobased is booming. Steeds meer bedrijven zien een gezonde businesscase in producten die niet gemaakt zijn met fossiele grondstoffen maar met biomassa. Waar liggen de kansen voor Nederland? En welke rol is daarbij weggelegd voor de overheid, het bedrijfsleven en de wetenschap? In deze PM-special onder meer interviews met en ervaringen van pionerende entrepreneurs en landbouwattaches in binnen- en buitenland.

  14. Investigation of tribological properties of biobased polymers and polymeric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Satyam Kumar

    Worldwide potential demands for replacing petroleum derived raw materials with renewable plant-based ones in the production of valuable polymeric materials and composites are quite significant from the social and environmental standpoints. Therefore, using low-cost renewable resources has deeply drawn the attention of many researchers. Among them, natural oils are expected to be ideal alternative feedstock since oils, derived from plant and animal sources, are found in profusion in the world. The important feature of these types of materials is that they can be designed and tailored to meet different requirements. The real challenge lies in finding applications which would use sufficiently large quantities of these materials allowing biodegradable polymers to compete economically in the market. Lack of material and tribological characterizations have created an awareness to fulfill this essential objective. In order to understand the viability of biobased polymers in structural applications, this thesis work elucidates the study of friction and wear characteristics of polymers and polymeric composites made out of natural oil available profusely in plants and animals. The natural oils used in this study were soybean and tung oil. Various monomeric components like styrene, divinely benzene etc. were used in the synthesis of biobased polymers through Rh-catalyzed isomerization techniques. For the different polymeric composites, spent germ, a byproduct of ethanol production, is used as the filler and an organoclay called montmorillonite is used as the reinforcing agent in the polymer matrix. The effect of crosslinker concentration, filler composition and reinforcement agent concentration was studied under dry sliding. A ball-on-flat tribometer with a probe made out of steel, silicon nitride or diamond was used for most of the experimental work to measure friction and generate wear. The wear tracks were quantified with an atomic force microscope and a contact

  15. Biobased greases: soap structure and composition effects on tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review containing 58 references on bio-based grease. Bio-based grease use is limited but a successful part of the lubricant market and will likely grow considerably due to economic, environmental and legislative factors. There is not one formulation of grease or grease thickener that will be suc...

  16. My 2030s. Citizens about the Biobased Economy; My 2030s. Burgers over de Biobased Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, N.; Hulshof, M.; Van der Veen, M.

    2013-02-15

    My 2030s is the first qualitative study of the needs and concerns of citizens about the Biobased Economy, an economy in which fossil fuels are largely substituted by vegetable alternatives. This final report describes the reason and purpose of My 2030s, the course of the public debates and the results of research into ideas of citizens on the Biobased Economy The report concludes with recommendations on how the stakeholders can actively involve citizens in one of the major transitions of the next century [Dutch] My 2030s is het eerste kwalitatieve onderzoek naar de wensen en zorgen van burgers over de Biobased Economy, een economie waarin fossiele grondstoffen grotendeels zijn vervangen door plantaardige alternatieven. Dit eindrapport beschrijft de aanleiding en opzet van My 2030s, het verloop van de publieksdebatten en de resultaten van het onderzoek naar denkbeelden van burgers over de Biobased Economy. Het rapport eindigt met aanbevelingen over hoe de stakeholders burgers actief kunnen betrekken bij een van de belangrijkste transities van de komende eeuw.

  17. NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ciera, Lucy Wanjiru; Nierstrasz, Vincent; De Clerck, Karen; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2011-01-01

    This research work is part of the FP7 No-Bug project (Novel release system and biobased utilities for insect repellent textiles). The main interest of the project is personal protective textiles against insects (mosquitoes) for application not only in tropical areas where vector borne diseases are a major threat to the public health but also in European countries where the presence of mosquitoes can be nuisance. Malaria and dengue fever are well known diseases that cause a lot of deaths in th...

  18. Synthesis of bio-based aldehyde from seaweed polysaccharide and its interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholiya, Faisal; Chaudhary, Jai Prakash; Vadodariya, Nilesh; Meena, Ramavatar

    2016-10-01

    Here, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of bio-based aldehyde namely dialdehyde-carboxymethylagarose (DCMA) using carboxymethyagarose (CMA). Further reaction parameters (i.e. reaction temperature, pH and periodate concentration) were optimized to achieve maximum aldehyde content and product yield. The synthesis of DCMA was confirmed by employing FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TGA, DSC, EA and GPC techniques. To investigate the aldehyde functionality, DCMA was allowed to interact with BSA and obtained results were found to be comparable with that of synthetic aldehyde (Formaldehyde). Further interaction of DCMA with BSA was confirmed by using UV-vis, FTIR, fluorescent spectroscopy, CD and DLS analysis. Results of this study revealed that bio-based aldehyde behaves like formaldehyde. This study adds value to abundant marine biopolymers and opens the new research area for polymer researchers. PMID:27312639

  19. Atomistic modeling of bio-based polymeric fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, In-Chul; Rinderspacher, B. Christopher; Andzelm, Jan W.; Cureton, Lashonda T.; La Scala, John

    2013-03-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations on the amorphous phase of two bio-based polymers, poly (butylene furanamide) and poly (hexamethylene furanamide). Simulations of corresponding petroleum-based polymers, nylon 4, 6 and nylon 6, 6, were also performed. Glass transition temperatures estimated from a series of simulations were in good agreement with experimental measurements. Stress-strain relationships under uniaxial deformation were also analyzed. Bio-based polymers show higher glass transition temperatures and comparable yield points despite having overall weaker hydrogen bonds compared with their counterparts nylons. This result suggests that the furan ring plays an important role in the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of bio-based polymers.

  20. Development of novel multifunctional biobased polymer composites with tailored conductive network of micro-and-nano-fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Siu N.; Ghaffari, Shahriar; Naguib, Hani E.

    2013-04-01

    Biobased/green polymers and nanotechnology warrant a multidisciplinary approach to promote the development of the next generation of materials, products, and processes that are environmentally sustainable. The scientific challenge is to find the suitable applications, and thereby to create the demand for large scale production of biobased/green polymers that would foster sustainable development of these eco-friendly materials in contrast to their petroleum/fossil fuel derived counterparts. In this context, this research aims to investigate the synergistic effect of green materials and nanotechnology to develop a new family of multifunctional biobased polymer composites with promoted thermal conductivity. For instance, such composite can be used as a heat management material in the electronics industry. A series of parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the science behind materials behavior and their structure-toproperty relationships. Using biobased polymers (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA)) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) in the PLA matrix. The use of hybrid filler system, with optimized material formulation, was found to promote the composite's effective thermal conductivity by 10-folded over neat PLA. This was achieved by promoting the development of an interconnected thermally conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers. The thermally conductive composite is expected to afford unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape, lightweight, and eco-friendly microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.

  1. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-01-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity. PMID:27302694

  2. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-06-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity.

  3. Bio-Based Polymers with Potential for Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Garrison

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of renewable starting materials, such as sugars and polysaccharides, vegetable oils, lignin, pine resin derivatives, and proteins, have so far been investigated for the preparation of bio-based polymers. Among the various sources of bio-based feedstock, vegetable oils are one of the most widely used starting materials in the polymer industry due to their easy availability, low toxicity, and relative low cost. Another bio-based plastic of great interest is poly(lactic acid (PLA, widely used in multiple commercial applications nowadays. There is an intrinsic expectation that bio-based polymers are also biodegradable, but in reality there is no guarantee that polymers prepared from biorenewable feedstock exhibit significant or relevant biodegradability. Biodegradability studies are therefore crucial in order to assess the long-term environmental impact of such materials. This review presents a brief overview of the different classes of bio-based polymers, with a strong focus on vegetable oil-derived resins and PLA. An entire section is dedicated to a discussion of the literature addressing the biodegradability of bio-based polymers.

  4. To be, or not to be biodegradable… that is the question for the bio-based plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Auxiliadora

    2016-09-01

    Global warming, market and production capacity are being the key drivers for selecting the main players for the next decades in the market of bio-based plastics. The drop-in bio-based polymers such as the bio-based polyethylene terephtalate (PET) or polyethylene (PE), chemically identical to their petrochemical counterparts but having a component of biological origin, are in the top of the list. They are followed by new polymers such as PHA and PLA with a significant market growth rate since 2014 with projections to 2020. Research will provide improved strains designed through synthetic and systems biology approaches; furthermore, the use of low-cost substrates will contribute to the widespread application of these bio- based polymers. The durability of plastics is not considered anymore as a virtue, and interesting bioprospecting strategies to isolate microorganisms for assimilating the recalcitrant plastics will pave the way for in vivo strategies for plastic mineralization. In this context, waste management of bio-based plastic will be one of the most important issues in the near future in terms of the circular economy. There is a clear need for standardized labelling and sorting instructions, which should be regulated in a coordinated way by policymakers and material producers. PMID:27477765

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Nanomaterials from Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq Wood Bark: an Organic Waste Material from Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to produce nanomaterials from renewable bio-based materials, like wood bark, has great potential to benefit the wood processing industry. To support this issue, we investigated the production of bio-based nanomaterials using conventional balls milling. Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba(Roxb. Miq wood bark (JWB, an organic waste material from a community forest was subjected to conventional balls milling for 96 h and was converted into bio-based nanomaterial. The morphology and particle size, chemical components, functional groups and crystallinity of the bio-based nanomaterial were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, scanning electron microscopy extended with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The particle-sizes obtained for the JWB bio-based nanomaterial were between 43 nm to 469 nm and the functional groups were detected as cellulose. The chemical components found were carbon, oxygen, chloride, potassium and calcium, except for the sample produced from sieve type T14, which did not contain chloride. The crystalline structure was calcium oxalate hydrate (C2CaO4.H2O with crystalline sizes 21 nm and 15 nm, produced from sieve types T14 and T200 respectively.

  6. Novel bio-based and biodegradable polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengzhe

    Most plastic materials, including high performance thermoplastics and thermosets are produced entirely from petroleum-based products. The volatility of the natural oil markets and the increasing cost of petroleum have led to a push to reduce the dependence on petroleum products. Together with an increase in environmental awareness, this has promoted the use of alternative, biorenewable, environmentally-friendly products, such as biomass. The growing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by inexpensive, renewable, natural materials is important for sustainable development into the future and will have a significant impact on the polymer industry and the environment. This thesis involved characterization and development of two series of novel bio-based polymer blends, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyamide (PA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein. Blends with different concentrations and compatible microstructures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. For PHA/PA blends, the poor mechanical properties of PHA improved significantly with an excellent combination of strength, stiffness and toughness by adding PA. Furthermore, the effect of blending on the viscoelastic properties has been investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear flow experiments as a function of blend composition and angular frequency. The elastic shear modulus (G‧) and complex viscosity of the blends increased significantly with increasing the concentration of PHA. Blending PLA with soy protein aims at reducing production cost, as well as accelerating the biodegradation rate in soil medium. In this work, the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the blends were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile tests.

  7. Potential food applications of biobased materials. An EU- concerted action project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, V.K.; Udsen, A.M.; Mortensen, G.;

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain the state of the art with regard to the applicability of biobased packaging materials to foods and to identify potential food applications for biobased materials. The study revealed relatively few examples of biobased materials used as primary, secondary...

  8. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Külahoglu, Canan; Tazelaar, Anne O E; Kurz, Samantha; Nierop, Klaas G J; van der Werf, Adrie; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Methods for dissemination, cross-fertilization and cryopreservation of the symbiosis Azolla filiculoides-Nostoc azollae are tested based on the fern spores. To study molecular processes in Azolla including spore induction, a database of 37 649 unigenes from RNAseq of microsporocarps, megasporocarps and sporophytes was assembled, then validated. Spores obtained year-round germinated in vitro within 26 d. In vitro fertilization rates reached 25%. Cryopreservation permitted storage for at least 7 months. The unigene database entirely covered central metabolism and to a large degree covered cellular processes and regulatory networks. Analysis of genes engaged in transition to sexual reproduction revealed a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like protein in ferns with special features induced in sporulating Azolla fronds. Although domestication of a fern-cyanobacteria symbiosis may seem a daunting task, we conclude that the time is ripe and that results generated will serve to more widely access biochemicals in fern biomass for a biobased economy. PMID:24494738

  9. A multi-scale, multi-disciplinary approach for assessing the technological, economic and environmental performance of bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrgård, Markus; Sukumara, Sumesh; Campodonico, Miguel; Zhuang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained interest as a renewable alternative to petrochemicals. However, there is a significant need to assess the technological, biological, economic and environmental feasibility of bio-based chemicals, particularly during the early research phase. Recently, the Multi-scale framework for Sustainable Industrial Chemicals (MuSIC) was introduced to address this issue by integrating modelling approaches at different scales ranging from cellular to ecological scales. This framework can be further extended by incorporating modelling of the petrochemical value chain and the de novo prediction of metabolic pathways connecting existing host metabolism to desirable chemical products. This multi-scale, multi-disciplinary framework for quantitative assessment of bio-based chemicals will play a vital role in supporting engineering, strategy and policy decisions as we progress towards a sustainable chemical industry. PMID:26614653

  10. Comparing life cycle energy and GHG emissions of bio-based PET, recycled PET, PLA and man-made cellulosics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the environmental profiles of petrochemical PET, (partially) bio-based PET, recycled PET, and recycled (partially) bio-based PET, and compare them with other bio-based materials, namely PLA (polylactic acid, a bio-based polyester) and man-made cellulose fibers

  11. Ensuring the sustainability of biobased chemicals and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harteveld, M.; Van der Staaij, J.; Gamba, L.; Yildiz, I.; Brasz, M.

    2012-11-15

    The Dutch Government, the Dutch rubber and polymer organisation (NRK), Plastics Europe and the company SABIC have signed a 'Green Deal' with the aim to develop a green certification system for biobased chemicals and polymers. Ecofys supported the first step in the implementation of the 'Green Deal' by investigating the applicability of existing sustainability frameworks and certification systems. A practical approach for the sustainability certification of new biobased value-chains has been tested on two pilot projects. The research also provided insights into the possibilities to extend this approach to other value chains.

  12. Adsorption materials for the recovery and separation of biobased molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzer, Anne Corine

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we studied several strategies to improve adsorption technology for the adsorption of biobased molecules. These strategies are based on the adsorbent as well as the adsorption process. A systematic investigation of the chemical and physical structure of resin materials and their relati

  13. Development of biobased sandwich structures for mass transit application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munusamy, Sethu Raaj

    Efforts to increase the biobased content in sandwich composites are being investigated to reduce the dependence on synthetically produced or mined, energy-intensive materials for numerous composite applications. Vegetable oil-based polyurethane foams are gaining recognition as good substitutes for synthetic counter parts while utilizing bast fiber to replace fiberglass is also gaining credence. In this study, soy oil-based polyurethane foam was evaluated as a core in a sandwich construction with facesheets of hybridized kenaf and E-glass fibers in a vinyl ester resin matrix to replace traditionally used plywood sheeting on steel frame for mass transit bus flooring systems. As a first step towards implementation, the static performance of the biobased foam was compared to 100% synthetic foam. Secondly, biobased sandwich structures were processed and their static performance was compared to plywood. The biobased sandwich composites designed and processed were shown to hold promise towards replacing plywood for bus flooring applications by displaying an increase of 130% for flexural strength and 135% for flexural modulus plus better indentation values.

  14. The KFB Program on Biobased Fuels for Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KFB supports research and demonstration projects for bio-based transport fuels, alcohols and biogas. The program started in 1991 and will continue through 1997. The program focuses on heavy vehicles, e.g. buses for public transportation. Projects and intermediate results are described in the brochure. Information is also available at the KFB homepage. //www.kfb.se

  15. De logistiek van biomassa voor de biobased economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    2013-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat scenario’s voor de analyse van biomassaketens in de biobased economy (Hoofdstuk 2), het aanbod van biomassa (Hoofdstuk 3), de vraag naar biomassa (Hoofdstuk 4), de logistieke componenten van biomassaketens (Hoofdstuk 5), overwegingen bij het vormen van biomassaketens (Hoo

  16. Protocol for monitoring of material streams in the biobased economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch government refers in its coalition agreement to the biobased economy (BBE) as one of the pillars of ‘sustainable growth and development’, where a choice is made for a realistic and ambitious renewable growth strategy. The EU also has ambitious objectives for the BBE. The use of biomass, re

  17. Opportunities for bio-based packaging technologies to improve the quality and safety of fresh and further processed muscle foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2006-09-01

    It has been well documented that vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging materials, made from polyethylene- or other plastic-based materials, have been found to improve the stability and safety of raw or further processed muscle foods. However, recent research developments have demonstrated the feasibility, utilization, and commercial application of a variety of bio-based polymers or bio-polymers made from a variety of materials, including renewable/sustainable agricultural commodities, and applied to muscle foods. A variety of these bio-based materials have been shown to prevent moisture loss, drip, reduce lipid oxidation and improve flavor attributes, as well as enhancing the handling properties, color retention, and microbial stability of foods. With consumers demanding more environmentally friendly packaging and a desire for more natural products, bio-based films or bio-polymers will continue to play an important role in the food industry by improving the quality of many products, including fresh or further processed muscle foods. PMID:22062722

  18. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Biobased Film Against Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Theinsathid

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial packaging, an active packaging concept, can be considered challenging technology that could have a significant impact on food safety of meat and meat products. The feasibility of polylactic acid (PLA-based film was evaluated for its application as a material for antimicrobial film. A bio-based commercial polylactic acid (PLA product, Ecovio®, was used as an environmentally friendly polymer matrix. The PLA based film was incorporated with lactic acid or sodium lactate by extrusion film-blowing process. The antimicrobial activity of films against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium were evaluated. Antimicrobial film incorporated with lactic acid packaging film was found to be highly effective in inhibiting L. monocytogenes. In contrast, no inhibitory activity was observed against E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. This is consistent with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC studies which indicated that undissociated lactic acid was more efficient in inhibiting L. monocytogenes than enterobacteria. This preliminary study shows the potential use of bio-based film as one hurdle technology in combination with good manufacturing practices and adequate storage temperatures. The use of antimicrobial packaging may contribute to improve the safety in minimally processed foods. Further work is required to improve the mechanical properties of the material in order to meet industry requirements.

  19. Sustainability benefits and challenges of inter-organizational collaboration in bio-based business

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar; Emiel F.M. Wubben; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based businesses are often considered to be sustainable. However, they are also linked to sustainability challenges such as deforestation and soil erosion. Encouraged to exploit innovative solutions and enhance sustainability, organizations engaged in bio-based activities extensively explore collaboration possibilities with external partners. The objective of this paper is to integrate the available knowledge on sustainability of inter-organisational collaborations in bio-based businesses...

  20. Application of multi-criteria material selection techniques to constituent refinement in biobased composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biobased composites have the potential to replace certain engineered materials. • Woven reinforcement can provide better material properties in biobased composites. • Short fiber filler can provide lower environmental impact in biobased composites. • Per function, different fibers are desired to lower composite environmental impact. - Abstract: Biobased composites offer a potentially low environmental impact material option for the construction industries. Designing these materials to meet both performance requirements for an application and minimize environmental impacts requires the ability to refine composite constituents based on environmental impact and mechanical properties. In this research, biobased composites with varying natural fiber reinforcement in a poly(β-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(β-hydroxyvalerate) matrix were characterized based on material properties through experiments and environmental impact through life cycle assessments. Using experimental results, these biobased composites were found to have competitive flexural properties and thermal conductivity with certain short-chopped glass fiber reinforced plastics. Multi-criteria material selection techniques were applied to weigh desired material properties with greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand, and Eco-Indicator ’99 score. The effects of using different reinforcing fibers in biobased composites were analyzed using the developed selection scheme as a tool for choosing constituents. The use of multi-criteria material selection provided the ability to select fiber reinforcement for biobased composites and showed when it would be more appropriate to use a novel biobased composite or a currently available engineered material

  1. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules. PMID:26135389

  2. Liquid crystal bio-based epoxy coating with enhanced performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha A. El-Ghazawy,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetrafunctional rosin based epoxy was synthesized and cured with either rosin based hardener or conventional phenylene diamine to study the feasibility of producing high performance thermosetting polymer from renewable resource. The chemical structure of the prepared epoxy was confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR, UV, total acid number and epoxy equivalent weight. Dynamic mechanical (DMA and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses results indicate that fully biobased epoxy system possesses high glass transition temperature (Tg, high modulus (G` and improved thermal stability.

  3. Protocol for monitoring of material streams in the biobased economy

    OpenAIRE

    Meesters, K.P.H.; Van Dam; Bos, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch government refers in its coalition agreement to the biobased economy (BBE) as one of the pillars of ‘sustainable growth and development’, where a choice is made for a realistic and ambitious renewable growth strategy. The EU also has ambitious objectives for the BBE. The use of biomass, renewable raw materials and the reutilisation of scarce materials correspond to the objectives for the circular economy. Incentive policy measures are implemented in various ways, such as the blendin...

  4. Processing and characterization of bio-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong

    Much research has focused on bio-based composites as a potential material to replace petroleum-based plastics. Considering the high price of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), PHA/ Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) composite is a promising economical and high-performance biodegradable material. In this paper, we discuss the effect of DDGS on PHA composites in balancing cost with material performance. Poly (lactic acid) PLA/DDGS composite is another excellent biodegradable composite, although as a bio-based polymer its degradation time is relatively long. The goal of this research is therefore to accelerate the degradation process for this material. Both bio-based composites were extruded through a twin-screw microcompounder, and the two materials were uniformly mixed. The morphology of the samples was examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); thermal stability was determined with a Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA); other thermal properties were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). Viscoelastic properties were also evaluated using a Rheometer.

  5. Catalysts for biobased fuels. New catalyst formulations for vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1997-12-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels operating in urban traffic. In this report an experimental study of catalytic oxidation of ethanol in a laboratory flow reactor is presented. The miniature catalyst samples consisted of monolithic cordierite substrates onto which various combinations of washcoat material and active material were applied. Oxides of Cu and Cu-Mn, as well as different combinations of precious metals were evaluated as active material supported on various washcoat materials. The experimental conditions were chosen in order to simulate the exhaust from a diesel engine fuelled by neat ethanol. Catalyst characterization included measurements of BET surface area and pore size distribution as well as temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis. When comparing the TPR profiles with the light-off curves from the ethanol oxidation experiments, we have found an indication of a correlation between activity and reducibility of the catalyst. There also seems to be a correlation between TPR profile and pore size distribution for titania-supported catalysts. When combining two precious metals as active material, a positive synergistic effect has been observed. The light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) is considerably lower for some of these combinations than for the corresponding monometallic catalysts. The base metal oxide catalysts tested were more selective for oxidation of ethanol to carbon dioxide and water than the precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate that the oxidation of nitric oxide to the more hazardous nitrogen dioxide can be suppressed by using a suitable combination of active material and washcoat material 45 refs, 97 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Sulfuric acid as a catalyst for ring-opening of biobased bis-epoxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable oils can be relatively and easily transformed into bio-based epoxides. Because of this, the acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening has been explored for the preparation of bio-based lubricants and polymers. Detailed model studies are carried out only with mono-epoxide made from methyl oleate,...

  7. RIVM ZZS-2-BIO project : the biobased replacement potential of hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, van D.S.

    2014-01-01

    A quick scan of the ZZS (zeer zorgwekkende stoffen) list of 371 substances of very high concern shows that there is significant potential in biobased replacement of part of the list. It is shown that in many cases easily implementable biobased alternatives are already available or in advanced stages

  8. Eco-Challenges of Bio-Based Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Grozdanov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years bio-based polymer composites have been the subject of many scientific and research projects, as well as many commercial programs. Growing global environmental and social concern, the high rate of depletion of petroleum resources and new environmental regulations have forced the search for new composites and green materials, compatible with the environment. The aim of this article is to present a brief review of the most suitable and commonly used biodegradable polymer matrices and NF reinforcements in eco-composites and nanocomposites, with special focus on PLA based materials.

  9. Simultaneous production of biobased styrene and acrylates using ethenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, J.; Notre, le J.E.L.; Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phenylalanine (1), which could be potentially obtained from biofuel waste streams, is a precursor of cinnamic acid (2) that can be converted into two bulk chemicals, styrene (3) and acrylic acid (4), via an atom efficient pathway. With 5 mol% of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst, 1 bar of ethyl

  10. Sustainability of biomass in a bio-based economy. A quick-scan analysis of the biomass demand of a bio-based economy in 2030 compared to the sustainable supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, J.; Olivier, J.; Notenboom, J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The conversion of a fossil fuel-based economy into a bio-based economy will probably be restricted in the European Union (EU) by the limited supply of ecologically sustainable biomass. It appears realistic that, for the EU, the sustainable biomass supply will be enough to meet about 10% of the final energy and feedstock consumption in 2030. Under optimistic assumptions, this supply might increase to 20%. EU Member States, in their Renewable Energy Action Plans for 2020, already aim to apply an amount of biomass that already approaches this 10%. Therefore, from a sustainability perspective, there is an urgent need to guarantee ecologically sustainable biomass production. In considering sustainable biomass production, land use is the most critical issue, especially the indirect land-use impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. The use of waste resources and agricultural and forestry residues, that does not involve additional land use, therefore, would be a sustainable option. Technically, it is possible to use these types of resources for most applications in a bio-based economy. However, it seems unlikely that, by 2030, waste and residue resources will contribute more than three to four per cent to the final energy and feedstock consumption in Europe. Moreover, many waste and residue resources currently already have useful applications; for instance, as feed or soil improvers. These are the main findings of a quick-scan analysis carried out by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and CE Delft on the sustainability of a bio-based economy. Three priorities can be distinguished in the transition to an ecologically sustainable bio-based economy that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels: (1) develop new technologies, procedures and infrastructure to collect or to produce more biomass without using directly or indirectly valuable natural land; (2) develop technologies to produce hydrocarbons from types of biomass that have potentially

  11. An attempt towards simultaneous biobased solvent based extraction of proteins and enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials from distiller's grains and solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saurav; Bals, B D; Lin, Yupo J; Negri, M C; Datta, R; Pasieta, L; Ahmad, Sabeen F; Moradia, Akash A; Dale, B E; Snyder, Seth W

    2010-07-01

    Distiller's grains and solubles (DGS) is the major co-product of corn dry mill ethanol production, and is composed of 30% protein and 30-40% polysaccharides. We report a strategy for simultaneous extraction of protein with food-grade biobased solvents (ethyl lactate, d-limonene, and distilled methyl esters) and enzymatic saccharification of glucan in DGS. This approach would produce a high-value animal feed while simultaneously producing additional sugars for ethanol production. Preliminary experiments on protein extraction resulted in recovery of 15-45% of the protein, with hydrophobic biobased solvents obtaining the best results. The integrated hydrolysis and extraction experiments showed that biobased solvent addition did not inhibit hydrolysis of the cellulose. However, only 25-33% of the total protein was extracted from DGS, and the extracted protein largely resided in the aqueous phase, not the solvent phase. We hypothesize that the hydrophobic solvent could not access the proteins surrounded by the aqueous phase inside the fibrous structure of DGS due to poor mass transfer. Further process improvements are needed to overcome this obstacle.

  12. Bio-based polyurethane foams toward applications beyond thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coffee grounds wastes were successfully liquefied yielding a bio-based polyol. • Coffee grounds derived foams formulations were optimized by tuning reagents’ contents. • The viscoelastic properties of these foams are promising to expand their applications. - Abstract: In this work the preparation of viscoelastic bio-based polyurethane foams (PUFs) using polyols obtained via acid liquefaction of coffee grounds wastes has been optimized. In a first stage, the effect of different ratios of isocyanate content to hydroxyl number (0.6, 0.7 and 0.8) and of three distinct percentages of catalyst (3%, 5% and 7%) on the extent of the polymerization reaction was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Next, different percentages of surfactant (14%, 16% and 18%) and blowing agent (12%, 14% and 16%) were used to assess their effect on the density, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of the foams, including their recovery time. The mechanical properties of the ensuing foams proved to be very interesting due to their viscoelastic behavior. PUFs were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealing a typical cellular structure and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) which proved that these materials are thermally stable up to 190 °C. These results suggest other potential applications for these materials beyond heat insulation in areas where damping properties can be an added value

  13. Fully Biobased Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters from Renewable Resources : Enzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gerhard; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Fully biobased saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyesters and oligoesters are successfully prepared by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed polycondensations of succinate, itaconate, and 1,4-butanediol. The effects of monomer substrates and polymerization methods on enzymatic polycondens

  14. Development of bio-based thermoplastic polyurethanes formulations using corn-derived chain extender for reactive rotational molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prashantha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Partly bio-based segmented thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU formulations were developed to fulfill the requirements of the reactive rotational molding process. They were obtained by one-shot bulk polymerization between an aliphatic diisocyanate (1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, a polyether polyol as macrodiol (polyethylene glycol and a biobased corn-derived 1,3-propanediol as chain extender (CE, in presence of a catalyst, at an initial temperature of 45°C. Equivalent TPU formulations with classical petroleum-based 1,3-propanediol were also prepared for a purpose of comparison. TPU with different soft to hard segment (SS/HS ratios were synthesized by varying the macrodiol and CE concentrations in the formulations. For each formulation, the evolution of the reaction temperature as a function of time was monitored and the kinetics of polymerization was studied by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR. The morphology, thermal properties, solubility in different solvents and tensile properties of the final products were analyzed. All synthesized polyurethanes are 100% linear polymers and the extent of microphase separation, as well as the thermal and mechanical properties highly depends on the HS content, and glass transition temperature and Young modulus can be tuned by adjustment of the SS/HS ratio. All results indicate that petrochemical CE can be replaced by its recently available corn-derived homologue, without sacrificing any use properties of the final polyurethanes.

  15. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  16. Minimize constraints for a biobased economy. Progress report. Version 1.0; Wegnemen van belemmeringen in de biobased economy. Voortgangsrapportage. Versie 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bex, P.M.H.H.; Blank, R.E.

    2013-04-15

    In the study 'Conflicting interests in the biobased economy (BBE in Dutch)), an overview is given of constraints, experienced by entrepreneurs, that limit innovations and investments in the BBE and thus hinder the transition towards a biobased economy. In a first inventory 69 constraints were identified. This report summarizes the progress of the BBE Program, and gives an overview of new constraints. The solutions for the constraints can be found at www.biobasedeconomy.nl [Dutch] In het onderzoek 'Botsende belangen in de biobased economy' (BBE) zijn de belemmeringen van ondernemers in kaart gebracht die innovaties en investeringen in de BBE beperken en daarmee de transitie van de BBE in de weg staan. In een eerste inventarisatie zijn 69 belemmeringen geidentificeerd. Deze voortgangsrapportage geeft een overzicht van de voortgang van het BBE Programma, de naar voren gekomen nieuwe belemmeringen. De oplossingen voor de belemmeringen zijn terug te vinden op www.biobasedeconomy.nl.

  17. Development of the University of Washington Biofuels and Biobased Chemicals Process Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [University of Washington

    2014-02-04

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design and build a bioconversion steam explosion reactor and ancillary equipment such as a high pressure boiler and a fermenter to support the bioconversion process research. This equipment has been in constant use since its installation in 2012. Following are research projects that it has supported: • Investigation of novel chip production method in biofuels production • Investigation of biomass refining following steam explosion • Several studies on use of different biomass feedstocks • Investigation of biomass moisture content on pretreatment efficacy. • Development of novel instruments for biorefinery process control Having this equipment was also instrumental in the University of Washington receiving a $40 million grant from the US Department of Agriculture for biofuels development as well as several other smaller grants. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  18. Sustainability Benefits and Challenges of Inter-Organizational Collaboration in Bio-Based Business: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gohar Nuhoff-Isakhanyan; Emiel F.M. Wubben; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based businesses are often considered to be sustainable. However, they are also linked to sustainability challenges such as deforestation and soil erosion. Encouraged to exploit innovative solutions and enhance sustainability, organizations engaged in bio-based activities extensively explore collaboration possibilities with external partners. The objective of this paper is to integrate the available knowledge on sustainability of inter-organisational collaborations in bio-based businesses...

  19. Physico-chemical durability criteria of oils and linked bio-based polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability or durability is an important indicator of performance that depends on the composition of the sample. The fatty oil or polymer degradation processes have generally been established as being free radical mechanism yielding primary oxidation products. We propose to explain in detail all the analytical methods and tools used for the determination of the initial physico-chemical properties of oils and the properties in ageing conditions. Chemical titrations for acid or peroxide value, Rancimat method or thermogravimetric measurements are discussed. Accelerated ageing tools for thermal or photochemical exposures are also shown. After the assessment of oil durability, the development of new bio-based polymer with vegetable oil is tackled because of its industrial interest. It is essential to understand the long term behavior of oils and biopolymers and to assess exactly the durability which is useful to produce life cycle analysis of materials. At last we underline the advantages of a new Fourier transform infrared (FTIR instrumentation with in-situ irradiation and gas cell to give a screening of the durability of various oils or polymers. Main durability criteria of oils and biopolymers are linked to the production of volatile organic compounds and the resistance to the oxidation process.

  20. Options for sustainability improvement and biomass use in Malaysia : Palm oil production chain and biorefineries for non-food use of residues and by-products including other agricultural crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Division Biobased Products of the WUR institute A&F was approached by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with a policy support question about the potential of Bio-based economic developments in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the major international trade partners of the

  1. Characterization of radiation modified κ-carrageenan oligomers for bio-based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    κ-carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This presentation would touch on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Chemical and spectral analyses were carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, reducing sugar analysis, free sulfate and carboxylic acid analysis. The chemical and spectral analyses of the radiolytic products indicated increasing reducing sugars, carbonyl, carboxylic acids, and sulfates with increasing doses which reached a maximum level at a certain dose depending on the irradiation condition. Values were very much lower in solid irradiation (in vacuum and in air) as compared to aqueous irradiation. NMR data also revealed an intact structure of the oligomer irradiated at 100 kGy in the specific fraction that contains an Mw = (3-10) kDa. κ-carrageenan oligomers exhibited antioxidant properties as determined by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing dose which can be attributed to higher reducing sugar. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments showed that a dose of up to 50 kGy, sol-gelation transition was still observed. Beyond 50 kGy, no gelation took place, instead appearance of fast relax-carrageenan mode in characteristic decay time function was observed at doses of (75-150) kGy. Optimum peak intensity was found at 100 kGy (mol wt. 5-10 kDa) which coincides with the optimum plant growth promoter effect in κ

  2. Green building blocks for biobased plastics: biobased processes and market development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Hackmann, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    From a chemical perspective, nearly all building blocks for plastics can be made using renewable raw materials. However, not every process is commercially feasible. Processes often remain inefficient, products have insufficient purity or the raw materials are simply too expensive. This publication p

  3. Properties of Thermosets Derived from Chemically Modified Triglycerides and Bio-Based Comonomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan S. Beach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of materials was prepared by curing acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO and dibutyl itaconate (DBI or ethyl cinnamate (EC comonomers to provide examples of thermosets with a high proportion of bio-based carbon, in accordance with the principles of green chemistry. The comonomers, representative of cellulose-derived (DBI or potentially lignin-derived (EC raw materials, were tested at levels of 25%, 33%, and 50% by mass and the resulting products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. Both DBI and EC were incorporated into the thermosets to a high extent (>90% at all concentrations tested. The AESO-DBI and AESO-EC blends showed substantial degradation at 390–400 °C, similar to pure AESO. Glass transition temperatures decreased as comonomer content increased; the highest Tg of 41.4 °C was observed for AESO-EC (3:1 and the lowest Tg of 1.4 °C was observed for AESO-DBI (1:1. Accordingly, at 30 °C the storage modulus values were highest for AESO-EC (3:1, 37.0 MPa and lowest for AESO-DBI (1:1, 1.5 MPa.

  4. Bio-based barium alginate film: Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Chao; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Wang, De-Yi

    2016-03-30

    A bio-based barium alginate film was prepared via a facile ionic exchange and casting approach. Its flammability, thermal degradation and pyrolysis behaviors, thermal degradation mechanism were studied systemically by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). It showed that barium alginate film had much higher LOI value (52.0%) than that of sodium alginate film (24.5%). Moreover, barium alginate film passed the UL-94 V-0 rating, while the sodium alginate film showed no classification. Importantly, peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of barium alginate film in MCC test was much lower than that of sodium alginate film, suggested that introduction of barium ion into alginate film significantly decreased release of combustible gases. TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS results indicated that barium alginate produced much less flammable products than that of sodium alginate in whole thermal degradation procedure. Finally, a possible degradation mechanism of barium alginate had been proposed. PMID:26794953

  5. Potential biological applications of bio-based anacardic acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Fatma B; Mubofu, Egid B

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30-35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  6. A review on electrospun bio-based polymers for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Mokhena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, electrospinning of biopolymers down to nanoscale garnered much interest to address most of the millennia issues related to water treatment. The fabrication of these nanostructured membranes added a new dimension to the current nanotechnologies where a wide range of materials can be processed to their nanosize. Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique to fabricate unique nanostructured membranes with fascinating properties for a wide spectrum of applications such as filtration and others. These nanostructured membranes, fabricated by electrospinning, were found to be of a paramount importance because of their advanced inherited properties such as large surface-to-volume ratio, as well as tuneable porosity, stability, and high permeability. The extensive research conducted on these materials extended the success of electrospinning not only to bio-based polymer nanofibres, but to their hybrids and their derivatives. The technique also created avenues for advanced and massive production of nanofibres. This paper reviews the recent developments in the electrospinning technique. Electrospinning of biopolymers, their blends and functionalization using metals/metal oxides, and the potential applications of electrospun nanofibrous membranes in water filtration are discussed.

  7. Experimental Measurements of Journal Bearing Friction Using Mineral, Synthetic, and Bio-Based Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis G. Nikolakopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of many industrial and naval applications is becoming increasingly important. Journal bearings are crucial components related with the reliable, safe and environmentally friendly operation of rotating machinery in many applications, e.g., in hydroplants, ships, power generation stations. The maintenance activities in certain cases also have considerable environmental impact. Fortunately, it is relatively easy to reduce the impact by changing the way lubricants are being used. Selecting the proper lubricant is important to sharply reduce long-term costs. The best-fit product selection can mean longer lubricant life, reduced machine wear, reduced incipient power losses and improved safety. Suitable basestocks and additives reduce environmental impact. In this paper, three types of lubricants are used in order to examine their effects on the tribological behavior of journal bearings. A mineral oil, a synthetic oil and a bio-based lubricant are experimentally and analytically examined for several configurations of load and journal rotational velocity. The friction forces and the hydrodynamic friction coefficients are calculated and compared. This investigation can assist the correct choice of lubricant in journal bearings with minimized environmental footprint.

  8. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma B. Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shells (CNS, which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported.

  9. Bio-based barium alginate film: Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Chao; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Wang, De-Yi

    2016-03-30

    A bio-based barium alginate film was prepared via a facile ionic exchange and casting approach. Its flammability, thermal degradation and pyrolysis behaviors, thermal degradation mechanism were studied systemically by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). It showed that barium alginate film had much higher LOI value (52.0%) than that of sodium alginate film (24.5%). Moreover, barium alginate film passed the UL-94 V-0 rating, while the sodium alginate film showed no classification. Importantly, peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of barium alginate film in MCC test was much lower than that of sodium alginate film, suggested that introduction of barium ion into alginate film significantly decreased release of combustible gases. TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS results indicated that barium alginate produced much less flammable products than that of sodium alginate in whole thermal degradation procedure. Finally, a possible degradation mechanism of barium alginate had been proposed.

  10. Spray-assisted nanocoating of the biobased material urushiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hirohmi; Fujimoto, Aya; Takahara, Atsushi

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated the spray-assisted coating of the catechol derivative, urushiol. Spraying a mixture of urushiol and iron(II) acetate formed a uniform coating about 10 nm thick, as confirmed by AFM observations. XPS measurements revealed that various substrates, including polyolefins and thermosetting resins, were successfully coated with urushiol. The coating showed good solvent tolerance and coating adhesion after baking at 100 °C for 10 min or after aerobic oxidation for several days. Interestingly, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements and strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM) revealed that density and Young's modulus of the spray-assisted nanocoatings were higher than those of spray-coated samples. Moreover, the coating was uninvolved in physical properties except surface properties, as demonstrated by several experiments. Because urushiol is a promising biobased material, our unique spray-assisted coating technique could provide a general approach for material-independent surface modification techniques that are environmentally sustainable. PMID:25669426

  11. Enzymatic Synthesis of Biobased Polyesters Using 2,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as the Building Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gerhard; Petrovic, Dejan M.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    2,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)furan is a highly valuable biobased rigid diol resembling aromatic monomers in polyester synthesis. In this work, it was enzymatically polymerized with various diacid ethyl esters by Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) via a three-stage method. A series of novel biobased furan p

  12. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m(-1) at a low dosage as 0.100 g L(-1) of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  13. Unravelling emotional viewpoints on a bio-based economy using Q methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Cuppen, Eefje; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2015-10-01

    A transition to a bio-based economy will affect society and requires collective action from a broad range of stakeholders. This includes the public, who are largely unaware of this transition. For meaningful public engagement people's emotional viewpoints play an important role. However, what the public's emotions about the transition are and how they can be taken into account is underexposed in public engagement literature and practice. This article aims to unravel the public's emotional views of the bio-based economy as a starting point for public engagement. Using Q methodology with visual representations of a bio-based economy we found four emotional viewpoints: (1) compassionate environmentalist, (2) principled optimist, (3) hopeful motorist and (4) cynical environmentalist. These provide insight into the distinct and shared ways through which members of the public connect with the transition. Implications for public engagement are discussed.

  14. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Biobased Chemicals into Liquid Fuels in the Aqueous Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kejing; Wu, Yulong; Chen, Yu; Chen, Hao; Wang, Jianlong; Yang, Mingde

    2016-06-22

    Different biobased chemicals are produced during the conversion of biomass into fuels through various feasible technologies (e.g., hydrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, and pyrolysis). The challenge of transforming these biobased chemicals with high hydrophilicity is ascribed to the high water content of the feedstock and the inevitable formation of water. Therefore, aqueous-phase processing is an interesting technology for the heterogeneous catalytic conversion of biobased chemicals. Different reactions, such as dehydration, isomerization, aldol condensation, ketonization, and hydrogenation, are applied for the conversion of sugars, furfural/hydroxymethylfurfural, acids, phenolics, and so on over heterogeneous catalysts. The activity, stability, and reusability of the heterogeneous catalysts in water are summarized, and deactivation processes and several strategies are introduced to improve the stability of heterogeneous catalysts in the aqueous phase. PMID:27158985

  15. Preparation and characterization of bio-based hybrid film containing chitosan and silver nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzadi, Kiran; Wu, Lin; Ge, Xuesong; Zhao, Fuhua; Li, Hui; Pang, Shuping; Jiang, Yijun; Guan, Jing; Mu, Xindong

    2016-02-10

    A bio-based hybrid film containing chitosan (CS) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) has been prepared by a simple casting technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to characterize the structure of bio-based film. The bio-based hybrid film showed unique performance compared with bare chitosan film. The incorporated nano-silver could improve the strength properly. The results revealed that AgNWs in CS film, improved its tensile strength more than 62% and Young modulus 55% compared with pure chitosan film. On the other hand tensile strength was increased 36.7% with AgNPs. Importantly, the film also exhibited conductivity and antibacterial properties, which may expand its future application.

  16. Chemical and enzymatic catalytic routes to polyesters and oligopeptides biobased materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianhui

    My Ph.D research focuses on the synthesis and property studies of different biobased materials, including polyesters, polyurethanes and oligopeptides. The first study describes the synthesis, crystal structure and physico-mechanical properties of a bio-based polyester prepared from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and 1,4-butanediol. Melt-polycondensation experiments were conducted by a two-stage polymerization using titanium tetraisopropoxide (Ti[OiPr] 4) as catalyst. Polymerization conditions (catalyst concentration, reaction time and 2nd stage reaction temperature) were varied to optimize poly(butylene furan dicarboxylate), PBF, molecular weight. A series of PBFs with different Mw were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), X-Ray diffraction and tensile testing. Influence of molecular weight and melting/crystallization enthalpy on PBF material tensile properties was explored. Cold-drawing tensile tests at room temperature for PBF with Mw 16K to 27K showed a brittle-to-ductile transition. When Mw reaches 38K, the Young's Modulus of PBF remains above 900 MPa, and the elongation at break increases to above 1000%. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and crystal structures of PBF were similar to petroleum derived poly(butylenes terephthalate), PBT. Fiber diagrams of uniaxially stretched PBF films were collected, indexed, and the unit cell was determined as triclinic (a=4.78(3) A, b=6.03(5) A, c=12.3(1) A, alpha=110.1(2)°, beta=121.1(3)°, gamma=100.6(2)°). A crystal structure was derived from this data and final atomic coordinates are reported. We concluded that there is a close similarity of the PBF structure to PBT alpha- and beta-forms. In the second study, a biobased long chain polyester polyol (PC14-OH) was synthesized from o-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (o-HOC14) and 1,4-butanediol. The first section about polyester polyurethanes describes the synthesis

  17. Bio-based thermosetting copolymers of eugenol and tung oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, Harris

    There has been an increasing demand for novel synthetic polymers made of components derived from renewable sources to cope with the depletion of petroleum sources. In fact, monomers derived vegetable oils and plant sources have shown promising results in forming polymers with good properties. The following is a study of two highly viable renewable sources, eugenol and tung oil (TO) to be copolymerized into fully bio-based thermosets. Polymerization of eugenol required initial methacrylate-functionalization through Steglich esterification and the synthesized methacrylated eugenol (ME) was confirmed by 1H-NMR. Rheological studies showed ideal Newtonian behavior in ME and five other blended ME resins containing 10 -- 50 wt% TO. Free-radical copolymerization using 5 mol% of tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (crosslinking catalyst) and curing at elevated temperatures (90 -- 160 °C) formed a series of soft to rigid highly-crosslinked thermosets. Crosslinked material (89 -- 98 %) in the thermosets were determined by Soxhlet extraction to decrease with increase of TO content (0 -- 30%). Thermosets containing 0 -- 30 wt% TO possessed ultimate flexural (3-point bending) strength of 32.2 -- 97.2 MPa and flexural moduli of 0.6 -- 3.5 GPa, with 3.2 -- 8.8 % strain-to-failure ratio. Those containing 10 -- 40 wt% TO exhibited ultimate tensile strength of 3.3 -- 45.0 MPa and tensile moduli of 0.02 GPa to 1.12 GPa, with 8.5 -- 76.7 % strain-to-failure ratio. Glass transition temperatures ranged from 52 -- 152 °C as determined by DMA in 3-point bending. SEM analysis on fractured tensile test specimens detected a small degree of heterogeneity. All the thermosets are thermally stable up to approximately 300 °C based on 5% weight loss.

  18. The potential of the aquatic water fern Azolla within a biobased economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Jongerius, Anna L.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J. M.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2014-05-01

    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern capable of fixing atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen, the latter of which through its symbiosis with the cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae. It is currently ranked among the fastest growing plants on Earth and occurs in both tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, it is non-directly competitive with food crops. In addition, Azolla does not require inorganic fertilizers, which makes it a potential and unique source of biomass for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals that are currently derived from fossil (fuel) sources. The biochemical composition of Azolla allows the production of biofuel or biobased chemicals that are of interest to the chemical industry. Of Azolla, two extractable groups of compounds are of particular interest, i.e. the polyphenols (condensed tannins and ester-bound caffeic acid) and the lipids. The antioxidant property of polyphenols and their application to the treatment of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases has further contributed to the growth of the polyphenol market. In addition, they can be chemically transformed into aromatic platform and specialty chemicals. The composition of the lipid fraction of Azolla is characterized by highly specific compounds consisting of C26-C36 carbon chains all bearing a ω20-hydroxy group. Such compounds produce an oil fraction upon hydrous pyrolysis, or, alternatively, are well suited to be converted to e.g. various specialty chemicals that are hardly available from both natural sources. Indeed, upon chemical conversion these lipids may yield components for fuels, plastics, cosmetics, and lubricants. Another group of interesting compounds within the lipid group are the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The demand for PUFAs has witnessed a significant increase over the last three years, particularly due to their benefits as cholesterol lowering agents. Here we will present some of the thermal and chemical conversions of the

  19. A bio-based fibre-reinforced plastic pedestrian bridge for Schiphol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.E.P.; Gkaidatzis, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper investigates Bio-based fibre-reinforced plastics, used as a load-bearing element of a bridge. We aim to increase the renewable content and decreasing the embodied energy of FRP. To achieve that, the consisting raw materials of these plastics which are based on non-renewable resourc

  20. The producer society and the transition towards a biobased society: institutional innovation for a sustainable future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesch, U.; Sleenhoff, S.; Van der Veen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The biobased economy is a concept proposed by policymakers to accommodate the transition towards a sustainable society. This concept however is not familiar outside of policymaking and some academic circles, while a socio-technical transition supposes the shared commitment of the whole society. The

  1. Diffusion coefficients of water in biobased hydrogel polymer matrices by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diffusion coefficient of water in biobased hydrogels were measured utilizing a simple NMR method. This method tracks the migration of deuterium oxide through imaging data that is fit to a diffusion equation. The results show that a 5 wt% soybean oil based hydrogel gives aqueous diffusion of 1.37...

  2. Twisting biomaterials around your little finger: Environmental impacts of bio-based wrappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Packaging uses nearly 40% of all polymers, a substantial share of which is used for sensitive merchandise such as moisture-sensitive food. To find out if bio-based materials are environmentally advantageous for this demanding application, we compared laminated, printed fil

  3. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  4. Terugwinnen en hergebruik van grondstoffen in de biobased economy (bbe): water, mineralen, koolstof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Dit werkpakket gaat over terugwinnen van grondstoffen uit zij- en eindstromen van de Biobased Economy en het veilig en duurzaam hergebruik daarvan bij de productie of verwerking van biomassa, of bij herstellen van de natuurlijke balans van bodem- en watersystemen. De focus van dit werkpakket ligt op

  5. Use of NMR Imaging to Determine the Diffusion Coefficient of Water in Bio-based Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diffusion of liquid in a hydrogel material is a fundamental property which must be controlled in order to create effective delivery systems for the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine the diffusion of water and deuterium oxide in a bio-based h...

  6. Processing and characterization of novel biobased and biodegradable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Srikanth

    Human society has benefited tremendously from the use of petroleum-based plastics. However, there are growing concerns with their adverse environmental impacts and volatile costs attributed to the skyrocketing oil prices. Additionally most of the petroleum-based polymers are non-biodegradable causing problems about their disposal. Thus, during the last couple of decades, scientists ail over the world have been focusing on developing new polymeric materials that are biobased and biodegradable, also termed as green plastics . This study aims to develop green materials based on polylactide (PLA) biopolymer that can be made from plants. Although PLA can provide important advantages in terms of sustainability and biodegradability, it has its own challenges such as high cost, brittleness, and narrow processing window. These challenges are addressed in this study by investigating both new material formulations and processes. To improve the material properties and control the material costs, PLA was blended with various fillers and modifiers. The types of fillers investigated include carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoparticles and various natural fibers such as pine-wood four, recycled-wood fibers and flax fiber. Using natural fibers as fillers for PLA can result in fully biodegradable and eco-friendly biocomposites. Also due to PLA's sensitivity to moisture and temperature, molecular degradation can occur during processing leading to inferior material properties. To address this issue, one of the approaches adopted by this study was to incorporate a multifunctional chain-extender into PLA, which increased the molecular weight of PLA thereby improving the material properties. To improve the processability and reduce the material cost, both microcellular injection molding and extrusion processes have been studied. The microcellular technology allows the materials to be processed at a lower temperature, which is attractive for thermo- and moisture-sensitive materials like PLA. They

  7. Production of novel microbial biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms are well known to produce a wide variety of biobased polymers. These biopolymers have found a wide range of commercial uses, including food, feed, and consumer and industrial products. The production and possible uses of several novel biopolymers from both bacteria and fungi will be d...

  8. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid biomass because of their logistic advantages, better mineral balance, and better processability. Especially the ease of pressurization, which is required for large scale synthesis gas production, is...

  9. Technological change of the energy innovation system: From oil-based to bio-based energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonglimpiyarat, Jarunee [College of Innovation, Thammasat University, Anekprasong Building 7th Fl., Prachan Rd., Bangkok 10200 (Thailand)

    2010-03-15

    This paper concerns the structural developments and the direction of technological change of the energy innovation system, based on the studies of Kuhn's model of scientific change and Schumpeter's model of technological change. The paper uses the case study of Thai government agencies for understanding the way governments can facilitate technological innovation. The analyses are based on a pre-foresight exercise to examine the potential of the bio-based energy and investigate a set of development policies necessary for the direction of energy system development. The results have shown that bio-based energy is seen as the next new wave for future businesses and one of the solutions to the problem of high oil prices to improve the world's economic security and sustainable development. (author)

  10. Clay-filled bio-based blends of poly(lactic acid) and polyamide 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Anna; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the effect of small amounts of organoclay on the crystallinity and dynamic-mechanical properties of bio-based blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polyamide 11 (PA11). Virgin and filled blends were prepared by melt-compounding the constituents using a twin-screw extruder. Wettability considerations suggest that the filler unevenly distribute inside the material. This affect both the crystallinity of each phase and the blend microstructure. Controlling such phenomena can lead to highly "engineerized" materials with tailored properties. In particular, the typically poor mechanical performances of bio-based polymers can be overcame owing to the synergism among reinforcing action of the filler, its possible compatibilizing action and its impact on the crystallinity of the hosting phase.

  11. Six recommendations for a bio-based economy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. Based on the results of the studies the platform formulated six recommendations

  12. Effect of clay mineral addition on properties of bio-based polymer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Ana S.; M. de OLIVEIRA; Machado, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of clay mineral addition to bio-based blends on morphology and physical properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) and polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) was investigated. Blends and nanocomposites containing organoclay, Cloisite 30B, were prepared by melt mixing and characterized by several techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, STEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrate a very good dispers...

  13. A bio-based fibre-reinforced plastic pedestrian bridge for Schiphol

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, J.E.P.; Gkaidatzis, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper investigates Bio-based fibre-reinforced plastics, used as a load-bearing element of a bridge. We aim to increase the renewable content and decreasing the embodied energy of FRP. To achieve that, the consisting raw materials of these plastics which are based on non-renewable resources, are substituted by alternative less energy intensive materials produced from biological renewable resources. The research focuses on the potentials of natural fibres for a successful substituti...

  14. Phosphorylation of bio-based compounds: the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Illy, Nicolas; Fache, Maxence; Ménard, Raphaël; Negrell, Claire; CAILLOL, Sylvain; David, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, more and more papers have been devoted to phosphorus-containing polymers, mainly due to their fire resistance, excellent chelating and metal-adhesion properties. Nevertheless, sustainability, reduction of environmental impacts and green chemistry are increasingly guiding the development of the next generation of materials. The use of bio-based polymer matrices might allow the reduction of environmental impacts by using renewable carbon and by achieving more easily bio...

  15. Synthesis and Properties of Biobased Epoxy Resins. Part 1. Glycidylation of Flavonoids by Epichlorohydrin

    OpenAIRE

    Nouailhas, Hélène; Aouf, Chahinez; Le Guernevé, Christine; CAILLOL, Sylvain; Boutevin, Bernard; Fulcrand-Hoh, Helene,

    2011-01-01

    Biobased epoxy resins were synthesized from a catechin molecule, one of the repetitive units in natural flavonoid biopolymers also named condensed tannins. The reactivity of catechin toward epichlorohydrin to form glycidyl ether derivatives was studied using two model compounds, resorcinol and 4-methylcatechol, which represent the A and B rings of catechin, respectively. These model molecules clearly showed differences in reactivity upon glycidylation, explaining the results found with catech...

  16. Sierteelt in de biobased economy : Screening van siergewasextracten op werking voor de plantgezondheid en de farmacie

    OpenAIRE

    Poot, E.H.; Staaij, van der, M.; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D.; De Vos; Korthout, H.; Schulte, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    The public-private funded project “Ornamentals in the Biobased Economy” was conducted by Royal FloraHolland, Kenniscentrum Plantenstoffen, Wageningen UR, Fytagoras and Prisna. In this project, bioactivity in plant extracts against the most important pests and diseases in greenhouse cultivation were tested. In bioassays, extracts withbioactivity against powdery mildew, botrytis, aphids, spider mite and thrips were found. With LCMS, metabolic profiles of the extracts were generated. Furthermore...

  17. Success and Failure Factors for the Adoption of Bio-Based Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan, Umit Emre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the factors that determine the willingness of key market players in the Indian food industry to adopt bio-based plastic packaging. First, the key market players are identified within the important market segments in the specified industry. After the identification of key players, the literature is surveyed in the context of eco-innovations, innovation adoption in emerging countries and Roger’s market adoption theory. In addition, the sustai...

  18. Bio-based thermoset composites from epoxidised linseed oil and expanded starch

    OpenAIRE

    Supanchaiyamat, Nontipa; Hunt, Andrew J.; Peter S. Shuttleworth; DING, CHENG; James H. Clark; Matharu, Avtar S.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based thermoset composites comprising epoxidised linseed oil (ELO), a bio-derived diacid crosslinker (Pripol 1009) and starch are reported. High amylose corn starch in its native, gelatinised and retrograded forms were used in the formulation to yield water resistant films with good thermal stability. The textural properties of gelatinised and retrograded starches were characterised using scanning electron microscopy and porosimetry and their thermal stability was determined using thermog...

  19. 3D printing of new biobased unsaturated polyesters by microstereo-thermal-lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New micro three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs) were prepared by microstereo-thermal-lithography (μSTLG). This advanced processing technique offers indubitable advantages over traditional printing methods. The accuracy and roughness of the 3D structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus microscopy, revealing a suitable roughness for cell attachment. UPs were synthesized by bulk polycondensation between biobased aliphatic diacids (succinic, adipic and sebacic acid) and two different glycols (propylene glycol and diethylene glycol) using fumaric acid as the source of double bonds. The chemical structures of the new oligomers were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The thermal and mechanical properties of the UPs were evaluated to determine the influence of the diacid/glycol ratio and the type of diacid in the polyester’s properties. In addition an extensive thermal characterization of the polyesters is reported. The data presented in this work opens the possibility for the use of biobased polyesters in additive manufacturing technologies as a route to prepare biodegradable tailor made scaffolds that have potential applications in a tissue engineering area. (paper)

  20. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  1. Plant Fibre: Molecular Structure and Biomechanical Properties, of a Complex Living Material, Influencing Its Deconstruction towards a Biobased Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Sorieul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls form an organic complex composite material that fulfils various functions. The hierarchical structure of this material is generated from the integration of its elementary components. This review provides an overview of wood as a composite material followed by its deconstruction into fibres that can then be incorporated into biobased composites. Firstly, the fibres are defined, and their various origins are discussed. Then, the organisation of cell walls and their components are described. The emphasis is on the molecular interactions of the cellulose microfibrils, lignin and hemicelluloses in planta. Hemicelluloses of diverse species and cell walls are described. Details of their organisation in the primary cell wall are provided, as understanding of the role of hemicellulose has recently evolved and is likely to affect our perception and future study of their secondary cell wall homologs. The importance of the presence of water on wood mechanical properties is also discussed. These sections provide the basis for understanding the molecular arrangements and interactions of the components and how they influence changes in fibre properties once isolated. A range of pulping processes can be used to individualise wood fibres, but these can cause damage to the fibres. Therefore, issues relating to fibre production are discussed along with the dispersion of wood fibres during extrusion. The final section explores various ways to improve fibres obtained from wood.

  2. 75 FR 71491 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ...; erosion control materials; floor cleaners and protectors; hair care products; interior paints and coatings... to subcategorize two of the items being proposed for designation. The first item is hair care... hair care products) are available through the AbilityOne Program. While there is no specific...

  3. Bio-based amphiphilic materials development and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm-based raw materials are increasingly used in the development of amphiphilic materials that have potential applications in the production of a variety of consumer and industrial products, including lubricants. Raw materials of interest include: starches, proteins, fats, oils, and sugars. These ...

  4. The potential of insects and microalgae in a biobased economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vogels, Liesbeth; Vleugels, Rut; Vreysen, Steven; Van Miert, Sabine; Rombouts, Lieve; Doumen, Joris; Verbinnen, Bert; Van Der Borght, Mik; Van Daele, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In our modern society there is a great need for the production of food, feed and raw materials from alternative sources of biomass. In the search for answers to the future food challenges and for sustainable production of raw materials, insects and microalgae offer excellent opportunities. Thomas More provides, in cooperation with KU Leuven, multidisciplinary research on the growth and use of insects and microalgae for various applications. Both insects and microalgae possess numerous of i...

  5. RENEWABLE FIBERS AND BIO-BASED MATERIALS FOR PACKAGING APPLICATIONS – A REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisa Johansson,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material availability and ease of processing are identified as fundamental issues for sustainable utilization of renewable materials.

  6. Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants chemistry and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As the field of tribology has evolved, the lubrication industry is also progressing at an extraordinary rate. Updating the author's bestselling publication, Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids, this book features the contributions of over 60 specialists, ten new chapters, and a new title to reflect the evolving nature of the field: Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology. The book contains chapters on all major lubricant fluids used in a wide range of applications. For each type of lubricant, the authors discuss the historical develo

  7. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hamad, Fatma B.; Egid B. Mubofu

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and me...

  8. Physical and mechanical properties of biobased materials - Starch polylactate and polyhydroxybutyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Olsen, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    permeability (WVP)) was examined. Tests on both films and cups show potential use of these materials for primary food packaging, especially PLA and PHB. An interesting O-2:CO2 permeability ratio (1:7 to 1:12) was seen, which make these materials suitable for packaging of food with high respiration...... to be the most crucial parameter, and needs improvement if these materials are to be used as food packaging.......Commercial and semi-commercial biobased materials (Polylactate, PLA, polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB, wheat starch and corn starch) were investigated. Physical and mechanical characterisation (tensile strength, elongation, tear strength, compression, gas permeability (CO2 and O-2) and water vapour...

  9. Renewable fibers and bio-based materials for packaging applications - A review of recent developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Caisa; Bras, Julien; Mondragon, Inaki;

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable...... materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material...

  10. 75 FR 6795 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Investment Act of 2002 (FSRIA), as amended by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (FCEA), 7 U.S.C... phenol ethoxylates, ethylene glycol ethers, and volatile organic compounds. In addition, both require... marketing products that fall within an item proposed for designation; performance standards used by...

  11. The potential of biobased materials in the civil engineering sector

    OpenAIRE

    Venema, Anne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Large quantities of materials are used in the Dutch civil engineering sector every year. Many of these materials have a significant impact on the environment because these materials are based on non-renewable resources and the production is often

  12. 76 FR 43808 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... products within the item that meet different requirements, uses and/or different performance specifications... determination that the item fails to meet the reasonable performance standards or specifications of the... access to individual performance specifications such as Boeing Specification D6-17487P. USDA...

  13. Design of biobased and biodegradable - compostable engineered plastics based on poly(lactide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jeffrey Samuelson

    Poly(lactide) (PLA) is a biobased and biodegradable - compostable plastic that is derived from renewable resources such as corn and sugar cane. It possesses excellent strength and stiffness properties and is recognized as safe for biomedical and food packaging applications. Commercially, it costs $1/lb and is now competitive with petroleum based polymers that have dominated the industry for decades. However, the material has some inherently weak properties that prevent it from certain applications - most notably, its rheological properties, brittleness, and poor high temperature performance. Cost effective modifications of the polymer to enhance these deficiencies could allow for increased applications and further its commercial growth. Multiple synthetic strategies have been developed to address PLA's performance property deficiencies. PLA typically exhibits poor melt strength and does not have the ability to strain harden, partially a result of its highly linear nature. Strain hardening and high melt strength are crucial elements of a material when producing blown films, a large untapped market for PLA. By increasing molecular weight and introducing long-chain branching into the material, these properties can be improved. Epoxy-functionalized PLA (EF-PLA) was synthesized by reacting PLA with a multifunctional epoxy polymer (MEP) using reactive extrusion processing (REX). These modified PLA polymers can function as a rheology modifier for PLA and a compatibilizer for blends with other biopolyesters. The modified PLA showed an increased melt strength and exhibited significant strain hardening, thus making it more suited for blown film applications. Blown films comprised of PLA and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were produced using EF-PLA as a reactive modifier for rheological enhancement and compatibilization. This resulted in films with better processability (as seen by increased bubble stability) and improved mechanical properties, compared to a

  14. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae cultiva...

  15. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  16. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  17. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  18. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  19. Bio-based polyurethane composite foams with inorganic fillers studied by thermogravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-based polyurethane (PU) composite foams filled with various inorganic fillers, such as barium sulfate (BaSO4), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and talc were prepared using polyols, such as diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol (molecular weight ca. 200) containing molasses and lignin. Reactive hydroxyl groups in plant components and above polyols were used as reaction sites. Morphological observation of fracture surface of composites was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. Thermal properties of bio-based PU composites were examined by thermogravimetry. It was found that the above composites decompose in two stages reflecting decomposition of organic components. Decomposition temperature increased with increasing filler content, when plant components were homogenously mixed with inorganic fillers. Activation energy calculated by Ozawa-Wall-Flynn method was ca. 150 kJ mol-1. The durability of composites was predicted using kinetic data. Calculated values indicate that composites with fillers are more durable than that of those without fillers at a moderate temperature region

  20. Polyurethane nanocomposites incorporating biobased polyols and reinforced with a low fraction of cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohua; Zhao, Liyan; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    High solids content polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties were produced by incorporating of low fractions of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in a solvent-free process. This involved the use of a simple procedure to produce well dispersed and stable suspensions of CNC in biobased polyols, which were then used to produce PU-CNC nanocomposites. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that individual CNC particles were dispersed homogenously within the PU matrix. FTIR results suggested that CNC particles are covalently bonded to the PU molecular chains during polymerization. The thermal mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are significantly improved over pure PU as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Compared to pure PU, the PU nanocomposites made with the addition of only 0.5% of CNC had glass transition temperatures that were 6°C higher, their Young's moduli were about 10% higher and their abrasion resistance was higher by about 25%. The optimal composition contains only 0.5% CNC (w/w) which indicates that there is good potential for utilization of low levels of CNC for reinforcement of PU composites made using biobased polyols. PMID:27516296

  1. Synthesis of biobased N-methylpyrrolidone by one-pot cyclization and methylation of c-aminobutyric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) is an industrial solvent that is currently based on fossil resources. In order to prepare it in a biobased way, the possibility to synthesize NMP from -aminobutyric acid (GABA) was investigated, since GABA can be obtained from glutamic acid, an amino acid that is present in

  2. Two-step biocatalytic route to biobased functional polyesters from omega-carboxy fatty acids and diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yixin; Lu, Wenhua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Wenchun; Cai, Minmin; Gross, Richard A

    2010-01-11

    Biobased omega-carboxy fatty acid monomers 1,18-cis-9-octadecenedioic, 1,22-cis-9-docosenedioic, and 1,18-cis-9,10-epoxy-octadecanedioic acids were synthesized in high conversion yields from oleic, erucic and epoxy stearic acids by whole-cell biotransformations catalyzed by C. tropicalis ATCC20962. Maximum volumetric yields in shake-flasks were 17.3, 14.2, and 19.1 g/L after 48 h conversion for oleic acid and 72 h conversions for erucic and epoxy stearic acids, respectively. Studies in fermentor with better control of pH and glucose feeding revealed that conversion of oleic acid to 1,18-cis-9-octadecenedioic acid by C. tropicalis ATCC20962 occurred with productivities up to 0.5 g/L/h. The conversion of omega-carboxy fatty acid monomers to polyesters was then studied using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B (N435) as catalyst. Polycondensations with diols were performed in bulk as well as in diphenyl ether. The retension of functionality from fatty acid, to omega-carboxy fatty acid monomer and to corresponding polyesters resulted in polymers with with unsaturated and epoxidized repeat units and M(w) values ranging from 25000 to 57000 g/mol. These functional groups along chains disrupted crystallization giving materials that are low melting (23-40 degrees C). In contrast, saturated polyesters prepared from 1,18-octadecanedioic acid and 1,8-octanediol have correspondingly higher melting transitions (88 degrees C). TGA results indicated that all synthesized polyesters showed high thermal stabilities. Thus, the preparation of functional monomers from C. tropicalis omega-oxidation of fatty acids provides a wide range of new monomer building blocks to construct functional polymers. PMID:20000460

  3. EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF BIO-BASED POLYMER MATRIX BUILDING MATERIAL AND FISH BONE DIAGRAM FOR MATERIAL EFFECT ON QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmamaw Tegegne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available These days cost of building materials are continuously increasing and the conventional construction materials for this particular purpose become low and low. The weight of conventional construction materials particularly building block is heavy and costly due to particularly cement. Thus, the objective of this paper is to develop an alternative light weight, high strength and relatively cost effective building material that satisfy the quality standard used in the country. A bio-based polymer matrix composite material for residential construction was experimentally developed. Sugar cane bagasse, thermoplastics (polyethylene g roup sand and red ash were used as materials alternatively. Mixing of the additives,melting of the hermoplastics, molding and curing (dryingwere the common methods used on the forming process of the samples. Mechanical behavior evaluation (testing of the product was carried out. Totally 45 specimens were produced and three replicate tests were performed per each test type. Quality analysis was carried out for group B material using Ishikawa diagram. The tensile strength of group A specimen was approximately 3 times greater than that of group B specimens. The compression strength of group A specimens were nearly 2 times greater than group B. Comparing to the conventional building materials(concert block and agrostoneproduced in the country, which the compression strength is 7Mpa and 16Mpa respectively, the newly produced materials show much better results in which Group A is 25.66 Mpa and group B is 16.66 Mpa. energy absorption capacity of group A specimens was approximately 3 times better than that of group B. Water absorption test was carried out for both groups and both showed excellent resistivity. Group A composite material specimens, showed better results in all parameters.

  4. 77 FR 69381 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... fertilizer formulas that will improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the chemicals, including... in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating a total of 12 product categories for the preferred procurement of biobased products by Federal agencies (referred to hereafter in this FR notice...

  5. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for itaconate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuoristo, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in sustainable development together with limited amounts of fossil resources have increased the demand for production of chemicals and fuels from renewable resources. The market potential for bio-based products is growing and a transition from petrochemicals to biomass-based chemicals is on

  6. Bio-based fuels: an analysis of potential, conditions, market, instruments and risks. Opportunities and risks - the BIODRIV project. Final Report; Biobaserade drivmedel: analys av potential, foerutsaettningar, marknad, styrmedel och risker. Moejligheter och risker - projektet BIODRIV. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, Tomas (IVL Svenska Miljoeinstitutet, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gaardfeldt, Katarina; Ahlbaeck, Anders (Goeteborgs Miljoevetenskapliga Centrum, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola och Goeteborgs Universitet (Sweden)) (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The BIODRIV project is a study of the conditions, opportunities, constraints and risks in the short and long term for the Swedish production of biofuels, with specific focus on the production opportunities offered by the Swedish refineries. The study was conducted at Chalmers Univ. of Technology and IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst. with support from Preem Environment Foundation and the Foundation of IVL. Researchers in the disciplines of environmental economics, chemical engineering and environmental system analysis have been working collectively to illustrate various technology tracks for bio-based fuel production. A total of six technology tracks for biofuel production have been identified in the long run, in whole or in part, which can replace today's fossil-based fuels in the transport sector. The six technology tracks are: methane from gas networks, decentralized pyrolysis/gasification, different resource bases to fat, hydrogen, methanol, electricity

  7. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Oligo(L-cysteine) for Use as a Thermostable Bio-Based Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinan; Sato, Ryota; Li, Zhibo; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of thiol-unprotected L-cysteine ethyl ester (Cys-OEt) catalyzed by proteinase K in aqueous solution has been used to synthesize oligo(L-cysteine) (OligoCys) with a well-defined chemical structure and relatively large degree of polymerization (DP) up to 16-17 (average 8.8). By using a high concentration of Cys-OEt, 78.0% free thiol content was achieved. The thermal properties of OligoCys are stable, with no glass transition until 200 °C, and the decomposition temperature could be increased by oxidation. Chemoenzymatically synthesized OligoCys has great potential for use as a thermostable bio-based material with resistance to oxidation. PMID:26388290

  8. Synthesis and structure design of new bio-based elastomers via Thiol-ene-Click Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shafiullah; Wang, Zhao; Wang, Runguo; Zhang, Liqun

    2016-10-01

    The additions of 2-mercaptoethanol to (S)-(-)-limonene via click reaction is described as an adaptable and efficient way to obtain alcohol functionalized renewable monomer for the synthesis of new cross-linkable bio-based elastomers. Thiol first reacted with the limonene endocyclic double bond and then reacted with the exocyclics double bond to form the difunctional monomer. The structure of the monomer was determined by using FTIR, (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetrys (DSC) characterization exposed that this monomer could be used to synthesize elastomers with excellent and adaptable thermal properties. The molecular weight of the synthesized elastomer could reach 186kDaa via melting polycondensation route and the structure-properties relationship was deliberated. Finally, these elastomers were mixed with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) to form cross-linked elastomers with certain mechanical property, and the gel contents of the elastomers were confirmed by using Soxhlet extraction method. PMID:27287154

  9. Optimizing the Pore Structure of Bio-Based ACFs through a Simple KOH–Steam Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly microporous bio-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs were prepared through a simple reactivation method. Sawdust, as the starting material, was liquefied and melt-spun to produce the precursor fibers. Then, the precursor fibers were activated by KOH and reactivated by steam. By varying the conditions of the two activation processes, the formation mechanism of the pore structure was studied, and the result showed that steam reactivation has a positive effect on the development of microporosity. The sample with the optimal condition exhibited the highest specific surface area of 2578 m2·g−1 as well as the largest pore volume of 1.425 cm3·g−1, where micropores contributed 70.3%. Due to its excellent texture properties, the ACF exhibited a high adsorption capacity of 1934 mg/g for iodine.

  10. Synthesis and Properties of Bio-based and Renewable Polymeric Products

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    De ontwikkeling van nieuwe of verbeterde polymere producten is een relevante uitdaging, op zowel industrieel als academisch niveau, gezien milieuproblematiek en dan vooral de ophoping van afval. Verder is een toekomst met een gelimiteerde beschikbaarheid van olie als basis materiaal voor de polymeer industrie een drijfveer voor het ontwerpen van nieuwe of verbeterde ‘duurzame’ polymere producten. Met ‘duurzaam’ wordt hier een (chemisch) ontwerp concept bedoeld dat deze twee problemen aanpakt,...

  11. Synthesis and Properties of Bio-based and Renewable Polymeric Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    De ontwikkeling van nieuwe of verbeterde polymere producten is een relevante uitdaging, op zowel industrieel als academisch niveau, gezien milieuproblematiek en dan vooral de ophoping van afval. Verder is een toekomst met een gelimiteerde beschikbaarheid van olie als basis materiaal voor de polymeer

  12. Production of Bio-Based Chemicals In vivo and In vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Opgenorth, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century the petro chemical industry has provided an abundant and cheap source of hydrocarbons that have impacted and transformed many facets of our lives. Petrochemicals not only provide fuel that revolutionized transportation industry but also provided cheap petrochemical feedstock molecules that form a basis of many textiles, plastics, adhesives, detergents, and lubricants that are indispensable in modern life. Our dependence on the petrochemical industry and the sheer quant...

  13. Bio-based and recycled polymers for cleaner production : an assessment of plastics and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Today, almost all man-made plastics and fibres are produced from synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymers, made from petroleum which took millions of years to form, have three sustainability challenges: (i) the limited fossil fuel resources, (ii) the environmental impacts caused by non-degradable plas

  14. Aspergillus flavus Genomic Data Mining Provides Clues for Its Use in Producing Biobased Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is notorious for its ability to produce aflatoxins. It is also an opportunistic pathogen that infects plants, animals and human beings. The ability to survive in the natural environment, living on plant tissues (leaves or stalks), live or dead insects make A. flavus a ubiquitous...

  15. Fibre crops as sustainable source of biobased material for industrial products in Europe and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.

    2014-01-01

    Bast fibre industries have a long standing tradition, both in China and Europe. In the past decades significant changes have taken place in the sector and strong competition is faced on the market with manmade fibres on the one hand, and on the other hand at the farm level with other crops that offe

  16. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  17. Research Extension and Education Programs on Bio-based Energy Technologies and Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Sam [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Harper, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Womac, Al [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station

    2010-03-02

    The overall objectives of this project were to provide enhanced educational resources for the general public, educational and development opportunities for University faculty in the Southeast region, and enhance research knowledge concerning biomass preprocessing and deconstruction. All of these efforts combine to create a research and education program that enhances the biomass-based industries of the United States. This work was broken into five primary objective areas: • Task A - Technical research in the area of biomass preprocessing, analysis, and evaluation. • Tasks B&C - Technical research in the areas of Fluidized Beds for the Chemical Modification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Biomass Deconstruction and Evaluation. • Task D - Analyses for the non-scientific community to provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of biomass supply, demand, technologies, markets and policies; identify a set of feasible alternative paths for biomass industry development and quantify the impacts associated with alternative path. • Task E - Efforts to build research capacity and develop partnerships through faculty fellowships with DOE national labs The research and education programs conducted through this grant have led to three primary results. They include: • A better knowledge base related to and understanding of biomass deconstruction, through both mechanical size reduction and chemical processing • A better source of information related to biomass, bioenergy, and bioproducts for researchers and general public users through the BioWeb system. • Stronger research ties between land-grant universities and DOE National Labs through the faculty fellowship program. In addition to the scientific knowledge and resources developed, funding through this program produced a minimum of eleven (11) scientific publications and contributed to the research behind at least one patent.

  18. 77 FR 25632 - Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (FSRIA), as amended by the Food, Conservation, and... the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act made by enactment of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act... provisions of FCEA. 2. Legal Authority for the Regulatory Action Enactment of the Food, Conservation,...

  19. Preparation of a bio-based epoxy with comparable properties to those of petroleum-based counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a bio-based epoxy with outstanding thermal and mechanical properties was synthesized using a rosin-based epoxy monomer and a rosin-based curing agent. The chemical structures of rosin based epoxy monomer and curing agent were confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra. The flexural mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties as well as thermal stability of the cured epoxy were investigated. The results showed that the cured epoxy exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg of 164°C and its flexural strength and modulus were as high as 70 and 2200 MPa, respectively. This indicated that a wholly bio-based epoxy resin possessing high performance was successfully obtained.

  20. Bio-based hyperbranched thermosetting polyurethane/triethanolamine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites as shape memory materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Hemjyoti; Karak, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    Here, bio-based shape memory polymers have generated immense interest in recent times. Here, Bio-based hyperbranched polyurethane/triethanolamine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (TEA-f-MWCNT) nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ pre-polymerization technique. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the transmission electron microscopic studies showed the strong interfacial adhesion and the homogeneous distribution of TEA-f-MWCNT in the polyurethane matrix. The prepared epoxy cured thermosetting nanocomposites exhibited enhanced tensile strength (6.5-34.5 MPa), scratch hardness (3.0-7.5 kg) and thermal stability (241-288 degrees C). The nanocomposites showed excellent shape fixity and shape recovery. The shape recovery time decreases (24-10 s) with the increase of TEA-f-MWCNT content in the nanocomposites. Thus the studied nanocomposites have potential to be used as advanced shape memory materials. PMID:24758045

  1. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure plant oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna

    2015-01-01

    The use of pure plant oils as fuel, either directly or after conversion of the oil to bio-diesel, is considered to be one of the potential contributions to the transformation of the current fossil oil based economy to a sustainable bio-based one. The production of oil producing seeds using plants th

  2. Lactic acid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae without PDC or ADH deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of lactic acid from renewable sugars has received growing attention as lactic acid can be used for making renewable and bio-based plastics. However, most prior studies have focused on production of lactic acid from glucose despite cellulosic hydrolysates contain xylose as well as glucose....

  3. 生物基环氧树脂的研究进展%Research progress in bio-based epoxy resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松琪; 刘小青; 朱锦

    2014-01-01

    以生物基原料合成环氧树脂是目前解决双酚A环氧树脂原料不可持续性和毒性问题最切实可行的方案。在综述国内外生物基环氧树脂研究进展的基础上,对最近几年我们基于松香、衣康酸、没食子酸合成生物基环氧树脂方面的研究进展进行了介绍,在此基础上进行了总结和展望。%In oder to solve the unsustainability and toxicity problems of the traditional bisphenol A type epoxy resins,one of the best solutions is synthesizing the epoxy resins with the bio-based raw materials.Our researchers in the bio-based polymer material research group of Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology&Engineering (Chinese Academy of Science) have done a lot of work in preparation of the bio-based epoxy resins.Based on the progress in home and abroad,this paper introduced the research work in preparing the bio-based epoxy resins with rosin, itaconic acid and gallic acid as the raw materials,and presented the raises prospect of future development in the bio-based epoxy resins.

  4. Bio-based Interpenetrating Network Polymer Composites from Locust Sawdust as Coating Material for Environmentally Friendly Controlled-Release Urea Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Zhao, Chenhao

    2016-07-20

    A novel polymer-coated nitrogen (N) fertilizer was developed using bio-based polyurethane (PU) derived from liquefied locust sawdust as the coating material. The bio-based PU was successfully coated on the surface of the urea fertilizer prills to form polymer-coated urea (PCU) fertilizer for controlled N release. Epoxy resin (EP) was also used to further modify the bio-based PU to synthesize the interpenetrating network (IPN), enhancing the slow-release properties of the PCU. The N release characteristics of the EP-modified PCU (EMPCU) in water were determine at 25 °C and compared to that of PCU and EP-coated urea (ECU). The results showed that the EP modification reduced the N release rate and increased the longevity of the fertilizer coated with bio-based PU. A corn growth study was conducted to further evaluate the filed application of the EMPCU. In comparison to commercial PCU and conventional urea fertilizer, EMPCU was more effective and increased the yield and total dry matter accumulation of the corn. Findings from this work indicated that bio-based PU derived from sawdust can be used as coating materials for PCU, particularly after EP modification. The resulting EMPCU was more environmentally friendly and cost-effective than conventional urea fertilizers coated by EP.

  5. Bio-based Interpenetrating Network Polymer Composites from Locust Sawdust as Coating Material for Environmentally Friendly Controlled-Release Urea Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Zhao, Chenhao

    2016-07-20

    A novel polymer-coated nitrogen (N) fertilizer was developed using bio-based polyurethane (PU) derived from liquefied locust sawdust as the coating material. The bio-based PU was successfully coated on the surface of the urea fertilizer prills to form polymer-coated urea (PCU) fertilizer for controlled N release. Epoxy resin (EP) was also used to further modify the bio-based PU to synthesize the interpenetrating network (IPN), enhancing the slow-release properties of the PCU. The N release characteristics of the EP-modified PCU (EMPCU) in water were determine at 25 °C and compared to that of PCU and EP-coated urea (ECU). The results showed that the EP modification reduced the N release rate and increased the longevity of the fertilizer coated with bio-based PU. A corn growth study was conducted to further evaluate the filed application of the EMPCU. In comparison to commercial PCU and conventional urea fertilizer, EMPCU was more effective and increased the yield and total dry matter accumulation of the corn. Findings from this work indicated that bio-based PU derived from sawdust can be used as coating materials for PCU, particularly after EP modification. The resulting EMPCU was more environmentally friendly and cost-effective than conventional urea fertilizers coated by EP. PMID:27352017

  6. Research progress in bio-based epoxy resins%生物基环氧树脂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松琪; 刘小青; 朱锦

    2014-01-01

    In oder to solve the unsustainability and toxicity problems of the traditional bisphenol A type epoxy resins,one of the best solutions is synthesizing the epoxy resins with the bio-based raw materials.Our researchers in the bio-based polymer material research group of Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology&Engineering (Chinese Academy of Science) have done a lot of work in preparation of the bio-based epoxy resins.Based on the progress in home and abroad,this paper introduced the research work in preparing the bio-based epoxy resins with rosin, itaconic acid and gallic acid as the raw materials,and presented the raises prospect of future development in the bio-based epoxy resins.%以生物基原料合成环氧树脂是目前解决双酚A环氧树脂原料不可持续性和毒性问题最切实可行的方案。在综述国内外生物基环氧树脂研究进展的基础上,对最近几年我们基于松香、衣康酸、没食子酸合成生物基环氧树脂方面的研究进展进行了介绍,在此基础上进行了总结和展望。

  7. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. PMID:26492854

  8. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, Michael [Technology Management Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Ruhl, Robert [Technology Management Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  9. Adsorption and Flame Retardant Properties of Bio-Based Phytic Acid on Wool Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Wei Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based phytic acid (PA as a nontoxic naturally occurring compound is a promising prospect for flame-retardant (FR modifications to polymers. In this work, PA was applied to wool fabric using an exhaustion technique, and the adsorption and FR properties of PA on wool fabric were studied. The flame retardancy of the treated wool fabrics depended greatly on the adsorption quantity of PA, which was related to the pH of treatment solution, immersing temperature and initial PA concentration. The Langmuir adsorption of PA took place due to electrostatic interactions between PA and wool fiber. The limiting oxygen index, vertical burning and pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry tests revealed that the treated wool fabrics exhibited good flame retardancy. The measurements of the phosphorus content of the burned fabric residues and thermogravimetric analyses suggested that a significant condensed-phase FR action was applicable to the PA treated fabrics. PA treatment was found to have little adverse effect on the whiteness and mechanical performance of wool. Additionally, the washing resistance of the FR fabrics should be further improved.

  10. A Multi-scale, Multi-disciplinary Approach for Assessing the Technological, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Bio-based Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrgard, Markus; Sukumara, Sumesh; Campodonico Alt, Miguel Angel;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, bio-based chemicals have gained interest as a renewable alternative to petrochemicals. However, there is a significant need to assess the technological, biological, economic and environmental feasibility of bio-based chemicals, particularly during the early research phase. Recently......, the Multi-scale framework for Sustainable Industrial Chemicals (MuSIC) was introduced to address this issue by integrating modelling approaches at different scales ranging from cellular to ecological scales. This framework can be further extended by incorporating modelling of the petrochemical value chain...

  11. Design of bio-based supramolecular structures through self-assembly of α-lactalbumin and lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Adenilson A.; Monteiro, Marcia R.; Pereira, Ricardo N.; Diniz, Renata; Costa, Angélica R.; Malcata, F. Xavier; J. A. Teixeira; Teixeira, Álvaro V.; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Coimbra, Jane S.; Vicente, A.A.; Ramos, Óscar L.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine α-lactalbumin (α-La) and lysozyme (Lys), two globular proteins with highly homologous tertiary structures and opposite isoelectric points, were used to produce bio-based supramolecular structures under various pH values (3, 7 and 11), temperatures (25, 50 and 75 °C) and times (15, 25 and 35 min) of heating. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed protein interactions and demonstrated that structures were obtained from the mixture of α-La/Lys in molar ratio of 0.546. Structu...

  12. Synthesis of bio-based nanocomposites for controlled release of antimicrobial agents in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGruson, Min Liu

    The utilization of bio-based polymers as packaging materials has attracted great attention in both scientific and industrial areas due to the non-renewable and nondegradable nature of synthetic plastic packaging. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biobased polymer with excellent film-forming and coating properties, but exhibits brittleness, insufficient gas barrier properties, and poor thermal stability. The overall goal of the project was to develop the polyhydroxyalkanoate-based bio-nanocomposite films modified by antimicrobial agents with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, along with a controlled release rate of antimicrobial agents for the inhibition of foodborne pathogens and fungi in food. The ability for antimicrobial agents to intercalate into layered double hydroxides depended on the nature of the antimicrobial agents, such as size, spatial structure, and polarity, etc. Benzoate and gallate anions were successfully intercalated into LDH in the present study and different amounts of benzoate anion were loaded into LDH under different reaction conditions. Incorporation of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on mechanical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films, however, significantly increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) films. The effects of type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles (unmodified LDH and LDH modified by sodium benzoate and sodium gallate) on structure and properties of PHBV films were then studied. The arrangement of LDH in the bio-nanocomposite matrices ranged from exfoliated to phase-separated depending on the type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles. Intercalated or partially exfoliated structures were obtained using modified LDH, however, only phase-separated structures were formed using unmodified LDH. The mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermo-mechanical (storage modulus) properties were significantly improved with low

  13. Bio-based epoxy/chitin nanofiber composites cured with amine-type hardeners containing chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mitsuhiro; Enjoji, Motohiro; Sakazume, Katsumi; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-06-25

    Sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE) which is a bio-based water-soluble epoxy resin was cured with chitosan (CS) and/or a commercial water-soluble polyamidoamine- or polyetheramine-type epoxy hardener (PAA or PEA). Furthermore, biocomposites of the CS-cured SPE (CS-SPE) and CS/PAA- or CS/PEA-cured SPE (SPE-CA or SPE-CE) biocomposites with chitin nanofiber (CNF) were prepared by casting and compression molding methods, respectively. The curing reaction of epoxy and amino groups of the reactants was confirmed by the FT-IR spectral analysis. SPE-CS and SPE-CA were almost transparent films, while SPE-CE was opaque. Transparency of SPE-CS/CNF and SPE-CA/CNF became a little worse with increasing CNF content. The tanδ peak temperature of SPE-CS was higher than those of SPE-PAA and SPE-PEA. SPE-CA or SPE-CE exhibited two tanδ peak temperatures related to glass transitions of the CS-rich and PAA-rich or PEA-rich moieties. The tanδ peak temperatures related to the CS-rich and PAA-rich moieties increased with increasing CNF content. A higher order of tensile strengths and moduli of the cured resins was SPE-CS≫SPE-CA>SPE-CE. The tensile strength and modulus of each sample were much improved by the addition of 3wt% CNF, while further addition of CNF caused a lowering of the strength and modulus. PMID:27083797

  14. Fabrication of Biobased Polyelectrolyte Capsules and Their Application for Glucose-Triggered Insulin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongjian; Ran, Maoshuang; Zhang, Li; Huang, He; Li, Xiaojie; Chen, Mingqing; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    To enhance the glucose sensitivity and self-regulated release of insulin, biobased capsules with glucose-responsive and competitive properties were fabricated based on poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and chitosan oligosaccharide (CS) polyelectrolytes. First, poly(γ-glutamic acid)-g-3-aminophenylboronic acid) (γ-PGA-g-APBA) and galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide (GC) were synthesized by grafting APBA and lactobionic acid (LA) to γ-PGA and CS, respectively. The (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 capsules were then prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of γ-PGA-g-APBA and GC via electrostatic interaction. The size and morphology of the particles and capsules were investigated by DLS, SEM, and TEM. The size of the (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 capsules increased with increasing glucose concentration due to the swelling of the capsules. The capsules could be dissociated at high glucose concentration due to the breaking of the cross-linking bonds between APBA and LA by the competitive reaction of APBA with glucose. The encapsulated insulin was able to undergo self-regulated release from the capsules depending on the glucose level and APBA composition. The amount of insulin release increased with incubation in higher glucose concentration and decreased with higher APBA composition. Moreover, the on-off regulation of insulin release from the (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 capsules could be triggered with a synchronizing and variation of the external glucose concentration, whereas the capsules without the LA functional groups did not show the on-off regulated release. Furthermore, the (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 capsules are biocompatible. These (γ-PGA-g-APBA/GC)5 with good stability, glucose response, and controlled insulin delivery are expected to be used for future applications to glucose-triggered insulin delivery. PMID:27210795

  15. Smart, Sustainable, and Ecofriendly Chemical Design of Fully Bio-Based Thermally Stable Thermosets Based on Benzoxazine Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froimowicz, Pablo; R Arza, Carlos; Han, Lu; Ishida, Hatsuo

    2016-08-01

    A smart synthetic chemical design incorporating furfurylamine, a natural renewable amine, into a partially bio-based coumarin-containing benzoxazine is presented. The versatility of the synthetic approach is shown to be flexible and robust enough to be successful under more ecofriendly reaction conditions by replacing toluene with ethanol as the reaction solvent and even under solventless conditions. The chemical structure of this coumarin-furfurylamine-containing benzoxazine is characterized by FTIR, (1) H NMR spectroscopy and two-dimensional (1) H-(1) H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (2D (1) H-(1) H NOESY). The thermal properties of the resin toward polymerization are characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the thermal stability of the resulting polymers by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results reveal that the furanic moiety induces a co-operative activating effect, thus lowering the polymerization temperature and also contributes to a better thermal stability of the resulting polymers. These results, in addition to those of natural renewable benzoxazine resins reviewed herein, highlight the positive and beneficial implication of designing novel bio-based polybenzoxazine and possibly other thermosets with desirable and competitive properties.

  16. Options for sustainability improvement and biomass use in Malaysia : Palm oil production chain and biorefineries for non-food use of residues and by-products including other agricultural crops

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dam

    2009-01-01

    The Division Biobased Products of the WUR institute A&F was approached by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with a policy support question about the potential of Bio-based economic developments in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the major international trade partners of the Netherlands. Annually 4.500 – 5.000 million euro’s worth of goods are imported from Malaysia. The Netherlands are Malaysia’s most important trading partner within the EU. The volume of agricultura...

  17. Erratum: Transcript and Metabolite Profiling for the Evaluation of Tobacco Tree and Poplar as Feedstock for the Bio-based Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A correction was made to: Transcript and Metabolite Profiling for the Evaluation of Tobacco Tree and Poplar as Feedstock for the Bio-based Industry. There was a spelling error in one of the authors' surname. The author's name was corrected from: Juan Pedro Navarro to: Juan Navarro-Aviñó. PMID:27387492

  18. Accounting for the constrained availability of land: a comparison of bio-based ethanol, polyethylene, and PLA with regard to non-renewable energy use and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Pate, E.

    2012-01-01

    In a bio-based economy, chemicals, materials, biofuels, and other forms of energy will be produced from biomass. Pressure on agricultural land will thus increase, calling for highly efficient solutions in terms of land use, with minimal environmental impacts. In order to gain better insight into the

  19. Electrochemically induced crystallization as a sustainable method for product recovery of building block chemicals: techno-economic evaluation of fumaric acid separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasrollahnejad, T.; Urbanus, J.; Horst, J.H. ter; Verdoes, D.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are key platform chemicals for use as biobased alternatives for fossil-based applications. State-of-the-art fermentations of carboxylic acids at neutral pH with downstream product recovery by pH-shift crystallization are not sustainable due to the accompanied production of waste sal

  20. Electrochemically Induced Crystallization as a Sustainable Method for Product Recovery of Building Block Chemicals: Techno-Economic Evaluation of Fumaric Acid Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasrollahnejad, T.; Urbanus, J.; Ter Horst, J.H.; Verdoes, D.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are key platform chemicals for use as biobased alternatives for fossil-based applications. State-of-the-art fermentations of carboxylic acids at neutral pH with downstream product recovery by pH-shift crystallization are not sustainable due to the accompanied production of waste sal

  1. Genetically encoded sensors enable real-time observation of metabolite production

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jameson K.; Church, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in biotechnology are enabling engineers to harness natural processes for the production of valuable new chemicals and materials. Cells engineered for chemical production act as renewable factories and redefine what is possible in industries as diverse as manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and energy. Despite this potential, long and uncertain timelines for biobased product development hinder progress. Engineering cells for chemical production is challenging because the complexity of bio...

  2. Short term effects of bioenergy by-products on soil C and N dynamics, nutrient availability and biochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvez, A.; Sinicco, T.; Cayuela, M.L.; Mingorance, M.D.; Fornasier, F.; Mondini, C.

    2012-01-01

    The shift towards a biobased economy will probably trigger the application of bioenergy by-products to the soil as either amendments or fertilizers. However, limited research has been done to determine how this will influence C and N dynamics and soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investi

  3. By-products resulting from lignocellulose pretreatment and their inhibitory effect on fermentations for (bio)chemicals and fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.; Bakker, R.R.; Baets, P.; Eggink, G.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose might become an important feedstock for the future development of the biobased economy. Although up to 75 % of the lignocellulose dry weight consists of sugar, it is present in a polymerized state and cannot be used directly in most fermentation processes for the production of chemica

  4. Generation of an atlas for commodity chemical production in Escherichia coli and a novel pathway prediction algorithm, GEM-Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campodonico, Miguel A.; Andrews, Barbara A.; Asenjo, Juan A.;

    2014-01-01

    The production of 75% of the current drug molecules and 35% of all chemicals could be achieved through bioprocessing (Arundel and Sawava, 2009). To accelerate the transition from a petroleum based chemical industry to a sustainable bio-based industry, systems metabolic engineering has emerged to ...

  5. Synthesis of a Sulfonated Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework as an Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for Biobased Chemical Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Hu, Zhigang; Gao, Yongjun; Yuan, Daqiang; Kang, Zixi; Qian, Yuhong; Yan, Ning; Zhao, Dan

    2015-10-12

    Because of limited framework stability tolerance, de novo synthesis of sulfonated covalent organic frameworks (COFs) remains challenging and unexplored. Herein, a sulfonated two-dimensional crystalline COF, termed TFP-DABA, was synthesized directly from 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol and 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid through a previously reported Schiff base condensation reaction, followed by irreversible enol-to-keto tautomerization, which strengthened its structural stability. TFP-DABA is a highly efficient solid acid catalyst for fructose conversion with remarkable yields (97 % for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 65 % for 2,5-diformylfuran), good chemoselectivity, and good recyclability. The present study sheds light on the de novo synthesis of sulfonated COFs as novel solid acid catalysts for biobased chemical conversion.

  6. Synthesis of a Sulfonated Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Framework as an Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for Biobased Chemical Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Hu, Zhigang; Gao, Yongjun; Yuan, Daqiang; Kang, Zixi; Qian, Yuhong; Yan, Ning; Zhao, Dan

    2015-10-12

    Because of limited framework stability tolerance, de novo synthesis of sulfonated covalent organic frameworks (COFs) remains challenging and unexplored. Herein, a sulfonated two-dimensional crystalline COF, termed TFP-DABA, was synthesized directly from 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol and 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid through a previously reported Schiff base condensation reaction, followed by irreversible enol-to-keto tautomerization, which strengthened its structural stability. TFP-DABA is a highly efficient solid acid catalyst for fructose conversion with remarkable yields (97 % for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 65 % for 2,5-diformylfuran), good chemoselectivity, and good recyclability. The present study sheds light on the de novo synthesis of sulfonated COFs as novel solid acid catalysts for biobased chemical conversion. PMID:26448524

  7. Photothermal triggering of self-healing processes applied to the reparation of bio-based polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, F. I.; Antonacci, J.; Arenas, G. F.; Pettarin, V.; Hoppe, C. E.; Williams, R. J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Green laser irradiation successfully activated self-healing processes in epoxy-acid networks modified with low amounts of gold nanoparticles (NPs). A bio-based polymer matrix, obtained by crosslinking epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with an aqueous citric acid (CA) solution, was self-healed through molecular rearrangements produced by transesterification reactions of β-hydroxyester groups generated in the polymerization reaction. The temperature increase required for the triggering of these thermally activated reactions was attained by green light irradiation of the damaged area. Compression force needed to assure a good contact between crack faces was achieved by volume dilatation generated by the same temperature rise. Gold NPs dispersed in the polymer efficiently generated heat in the presence of electromagnetic radiation under plasmon resonance, acting as nanometric heating sources and allowing remote activation of the self-healing in the crosslinked polymer.

  8. Discussion about using Sugarcane biomass to manufacture bio-based polyvinyl alcohol polymer material advantage%利用生物质甘蔗制Z造生物基聚乙烯醇高分子材料的优势探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆泰榕

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the development status of polyvinyl alcohol polymer materials, In-depth analysis the development of sugar cane as raw material for the"Biomass ethene biobased polymer materials-polyvinyl"product development,market, technical, economic and other advantages. Illustrates the continuous development of the legal system of biomass vinyl polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol bio-based chemical industry group biomass is an effective way to deepen the use of biomass sugarcane in Guangxi.%  概述了高分子材料聚乙烯醇的发展现状,对以甘蔗为原料开发“生物质乙烯制生物基高分子材料-聚乙烯醇”产品的发展,市场、技术、经济等方面的优势进行了深入分析,阐明了不断发展生物质乙烯法制生物基高分子材料聚乙烯醇等生物质化工产业群是广西生物质甘蔗深化利用的有效途径。

  9. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, Hunter [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Li, Yana [Mechanical Engineering College, Wuhan Polytechnic University (China); Almenar, Eva, E-mail: ealmenar@msu.edu [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface tension between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film modified by MDI. • Better wettability between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film by increasing MDI. • Increased breaking strength by increasing MDI due to the increased H-bonding. • Increased number of physical entanglements between PLA/CS coating and PLA film. • Development of a suitable bio-based multilayer film for food packaging applications. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41–35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228–303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  10. Construction of plasmid-free Escherichia coli for the production of arabitol-free xylitol from corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Buli Su; Zhe Zhang; Mianbin Wu; Jianping Lin; Lirong Yang

    2016-01-01

    High costs and low production efficiency are a serious constraint to bio-based xylitol production. For industrial-scale production of xylitol, a plasmid-free Escherichia coli for arabitol-free xylitol production from corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate has been constructed. Instead of being plasmid and inducer dependent, this strain relied on multiple-copy integration of xylose reductase (XR) genes into the chromosome, where their expression was controlled by the constitutive promoter P43. In ...

  11. Seaweed utilization for integrated bioenergy and fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele

    2016-01-01

    role to transform linear production systems into biobased circular flows. Seaweed can absorb manmade emissions to water, while producing valuable compounds that can re-enter the economic system. In the thesis, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyze the environmental performance...... of different seaweed exploitation strategies. The main objectives are to identify and quantify the engineered ecosystems services delivered by circular management strategies and propose solutions to improve their environmental performance. Improvement of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies...

  12. Bio-based economy in the Netherlands. Macro-economic outline of a large-scale introduction of green resources in the Dutch energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. This is the public version of studies

  13. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Macro-economics biobased synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in this report

  14. Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: Differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.; Bakker, R.; Zeeland, van A.N.T.; Sanchez Garcia, D.; Punt, A.M.; Eggink, G.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretre

  15. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake by bio-based residue application: An emerging property of agricultural soils offsetting greenhouse gas balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Ruijs, Rienke; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; Putten, Wim H. vd.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over two months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotrophic population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus spp. may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. Studies are under way to identify the active methane-oxidizers at near atmospheric methane concentrations using PLFA-Stable isotope probing (SIP). While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that the methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Moreover, the addition of

  16. Processing and characterization of solid and microcellular biobased and biodegradable PHBV-based polymer blends and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Alireza

    Petroleum-based polymers have made a significant contribution to human society due to their extraordinary adaptability and processability. However, due to the wide-spread application of plastics over the past few decades, there are growing concerns over depleting fossil resources and the undesirable environmental impact of plastics. Most of the petroleum-based plastics are non-biodegradable and thus will be disposed in landfills. Inappropriate disposal of plastics may also become a potential threat to the environment. Many approaches, such as efficient plastics waste management and replacing petroleum-based plastics with biodegradable materials obtained from renewable resources, have been put forth to overcome these problems. Plastics waste management is at its beginning stages of development which is also more expensive than expected. Thus, there is a growing interest in developing sustainable biobased and biodegradable materials produced from renewable resources such as plants and crops, which can offer comparable performance with additional advantages, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, and reducing the carbon footprint. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is one of the most promising biobased and biodegradable polymers, In fact many petroleum based polymers such as poly(propylene) (PP) can be potentially replaced by PHBV because of the similarity in their properties. Despite PHBV's attractive properties, there are many drawbacks such as high cost, brittleness, and thermal instability, which hamper the widespread usage of this specific polymer. The goals of this study are to investigate various strategies to address these drawbacks, including blending with other biodegradable polymers such as poly (butylene adipate-coterephthalate) (PBAT) or fillers (e.g., coir fiber, recycled wood fiber, and nanofillers) and use of novel processing technologies such as microcellular injection molding technique. Microcellular injection molding technique

  17. Vanillin production from ferulic acid with Pseudomonas fluorescens BF13-1p4

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Bello, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin represents an attractive opportunity for replacing synthetic vanillin with a bio-based product, that can be label “natural”, according to current food regulations. Ferulic acid is an abundant phenolic compound in cereals processing by-products, such as wheat bran, where it is linked to the cell wall constituents. In this work, the possibility of producing vanillin from ferulic acid released enzymatically from wheat bran was investigated by using resti...

  18. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho;

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 10...... years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been...... commercialized or are close to commercialization. In this paper, we review the current status of biorefinery development for the production of these platform chemicals and their derivatives. In addition, current technological advances on industrial strain development for the production of platform chemicals...

  19. Effect of organoclay on morphology and properties of linear low density polyethylene and Vietnamese cassava starch biobased blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D M; Vu, T T; Grillet, Anne-Cécile; Ha Thuc, H; Ha Thuc, C N

    2016-01-20

    Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/thermal plastic starch (TPS) blend was studied to prepare the biobased nanocomposite material using organoclay nanofil15 (N15) modified by alkilammonium as the reinforced phase. The LLDPE/TPS blend and its nanocomposites were elaborated by melt mixing method at 160 °C for 7 min. And the compounded sample was filmed by blowing method at three different zones of temperature profile which are 160-170-165 °C. The good dispersion of clay in the polymer blend matrix is showed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), and a semi-exfoliated structure was obtained. The thermal and mechanical properties of materials are enhanced when N15 is added to the mixture. The effect of N15 on morphology and particles size of TPS phase is also investigated. The biodegradation test shows that more than 60% in weight of LLDPE/TPS film is degraded into CO2, H2O, methane and biomass after 5 months in compost soil. PMID:26572342

  20. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41-35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228-303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  1. Biobased composition boards made from cotton gin and guayule watse: Select physical and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vast quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB) are being produced annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production (guayule bagasse) is expected to increase as this industry begins to expand. Use of these waste materials into value-added products can help the economics of the crops,...

  2. Biobased films prepared from collagen solutions derived from un-tanned hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. hide and leather industries are facing challenges of meeting environmental imperatives; quantifying, maintaining, and improving current hides and leather product quality; developing new processes and products; and improving utilization of waste. One of our contributions to address these on...

  3. Biobased films prepared from collagen solutions derived from un-tanned hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. hide and leather industries are facing challenges of meeting environmental imperatives; quantifying, maintaining, and improving current hides and leather product quality; developing new processes and products; and improving utilization of waste. One of our efforts to address these new chal...

  4. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective pr...... developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid....

  5. A sustainable, eugenol-derived epoxy resin with high biobased content, modulus, hardness and low flammability: Synthesis, curing kinetics and structure–property relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Jintao Wana; Bin Gana; Cheng Lia; Jon Molina-Aldareguiaa; Ehsan Naderi Kalalia; Xin Wanga; De-Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    To develop functional sustainable epoxy resins, we report a novel epoxy resin (DEU-EP) with high net biobased content (70.2 wt%) derived from renewable eugenol. We comparatively study DEU-EP with a commercial bisphenol A epoxy resin (DGEBA) in the presence of a diamine curing agent, 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM). Differential scanning calorimetry reveals that DEU-EP can be sufficiently cured by DDM at a slower rate than DGEBA. By applying an autocatalytic reaction kinetic mode...

  6. Challenges and opportunities in using Life Cycle Assessment and Cradle to Cradle® for biodegradable bio-based polymers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Niero, Monia; Manat, Renil; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2015-01-01

    Both Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Cradle to Cradle® (C2C) approaches can provide operative insightsin the design of biodegradable bio-based polymers. Some of the challenges shared by both LCA and C2Cthat need further investigation are the use of lab scale data versus primary data from establishedtechnologies and the identification of the best option for the end of use stage, e.g. for use as packaging. Weconsider the case of a natural fiber-based composite material obtained from barley stra...

  7. Using bio-based polymers for curing cement-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Picken, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from the surface of cement based materials. It is the final stage in the production of cement-based materials and it is the essential part for achieving continuous hydration of cement, while avoiding cracking due to drying shr

  8. Replacing fossil based PET with biobased PEF; proess analysis, energy and GHG balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerhart, A.J.J.E.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    An energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balance study was performed on the production of the bioplastic polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF) starting from corn based fructose. The goal of the study was to analyze and to translate experimental data on the catalytic dehydration of fructose to a simulation

  9. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and

  10. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  11. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  12. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalava Pasi I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM. We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590 and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214 and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC. A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were

  13. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  14. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Judith Martínez; Vijaya Raghavan; Fernando González-Andrés; Xiomar Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture co...

  15. Initial Assessment of U.S. Refineries for Purposes of Potential Bio-Based Oil Insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Charles J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Padmaperuma, Asanga B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Santosa, Daniel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valkenburg, Corinne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shinn, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In order to meet U.S. biofuel objectives over the coming decade the conversion of a broad range of biomass feedstocks, using diverse processing options, will be required. Further, the production of both gasoline and diesel biofuels will employ biomass conversion methods that produce wide boiling range intermediate oils requiring treatment similar to conventional refining processes (i.e. fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, and hydrotreating). As such, it is widely recognized that leveraging existing U.S. petroleum refining infrastructure is key to reducing overall capital demands. This study examines how existing U.S. refining location, capacities and conversion capabilities match in geography and processing capabilities with the needs projected from anticipated biofuels production.

  16. Using bio-based polymers for curing cement-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zlopasa, J.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Picken, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from the surface of cement based materials. It is the final stage in the production of cement-based materials and it is the essential part for achieving continuous hydration of cement, while avoiding cracking due to drying shrinkage. Continuous cement hydration also guarantees a strong bond between aggregate, fewer voids, and depercoliation of capillary pores. Thus, a properly cured cement-based material is prepared for...

  17. Biobased additives as biodegradability enhancers with application in TPU-based footwear components

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Isabel Patrícia; Barbosa, Mariana; Amaral, Joana Soares; Pinto, Vera; Rodrigues, José Luís; Ferreira, Maria José; Barreiro, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Among the wide variety of materials employed in the manufacture of shoes, thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) are one of the most widely used. Given its widespread use, and associated waste management problems, the development of more biodegradable and evironmentally compatible solutions is needed. In this work, a polyester-based TPU used in the footwear industry for outsoles production was modified by compounding with lignin, starch and cellulose at content of 4% (w/w). The biodegradability w...

  18. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, B.G.; de Blok, K; Patel, M.K. (Martin)

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechno...

  19. Pathway to fuel additives or designer fuels from bio-based alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitkreuz, Klaas; Menne, Andreas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Kraft, Axel

    2013-06-01

    A continuous heterogeneous-catalytic gas-phase process developed by Fraunhofer UMSICHT makes it possible to condense small alcohols and ketones to larger hydrocarbon molecules containing only one atom of oxygen per molecule. After an optional oxygen-removing step such as hydrotreatment, fuel-identical hydrocarbons are yielded. The overall conversion of feedstock to fuel additives or fuels is depicted below: Alcohol - Conversion to higher alcohols - Condensation with acetone - Hydrotreatment (Schematic process flow for the production of fuel-identical hydrocarbons and additives). Depending on raw materials and process conditions, a tailor-made product distribution is possible. The products can be used as fuel additives or as drop-in fuel, matching either diesel or kerosene specifications. The intermediates - secondary alcohols - are valuable as raw materials for several chemical applications, i.e. plasticizer, surfactants, solvents or lubricants. This process offers an attractive alternative to other competing processes producing long-chain hydrocarbons, like Fischer-Tropsch or hydrotreatment of fats and oils. Being based on economical, stable and commercially available catalysts as well as on a wide range of possible raw materials, this method 1s ready for scale up and related process development. (orig.)

  20. Sustainability of the Wind Turbine Blade Manufacturing Process: A Bio-Based Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Katerin; Turcotte, David

    2015-01-01

    Content : Globally, more than 23,000 wind turbines were manufactured in 2011 and there were 225,000 operational wind turbines by the end of 2012. United States' installed wind capacity will need to increase from 11.6GW to 300 GW to achieve the 20% wind production goal by 2030. To meet the increasing demand, not only more blades are being manufactured, but also longer blades of up to 100 meters long are being produced. The current stock of blades and the manufacturing process use petroleum bas...

  1. Bio-based fractions by hydrothermal treatment of olive pomace: Process optimization and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Olive pomace was utilized based on biorefinery concept. • Protein extraction in the high pressure reactor yielded 231 mg protein/L. • LHW treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis yielded 93.7% of the fermentable sugars. • At the end of the consecutive steps, 94.4% of the lignin present in the biomass were recovered. • Obtained hydrolysate was further converted to bioethanol. - Abstract: Olive pomace is an important lignocellulosic biomass for Mediterranean countries which is released in large quantities during industrial olive oil production and used for heating purposes for many years. In this study, the aim was to investigate the use of olive pomace to obtain value added fractions namely, proteins, fermentable sugars and lignin by sustainable biorefinery approach applying a sequence of high pressure extraction and hydrolysis. After pretreatment steps, 93.7% of the fermentable sugars and 94.4% of the lignin that present in the biomass were recovered. Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was shown to enhance the yield of enzymatic hydrolysis by an increase of 95.23%. The obtained sugars were used to produce bioethanol and based on the consumed sugar the yield and productivity were determined as 15.25% and 0.086 kg/m3 h respectively

  2. Challenges and opportunities in using Life Cycle Assessment and Cradle to Cradle® for biodegradable bio-based polymers: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Manat, Renil; Møller, Birger Lindberg;

    2015-01-01

    Both Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Cradle to Cradle® (C2C) approaches can provide operative insightsin the design of biodegradable bio-based polymers. Some of the challenges shared by both LCA and C2Cthat need further investigation are the use of lab scale data versus primary data from establis......Both Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Cradle to Cradle® (C2C) approaches can provide operative insightsin the design of biodegradable bio-based polymers. Some of the challenges shared by both LCA and C2Cthat need further investigation are the use of lab scale data versus primary data from...... establishedtechnologies and the identification of the best option for the end of use stage, e.g. for use as packaging. Weconsider the case of a natural fiber-based composite material obtained from barley straw and present someinsights from both LCA and C2C perspectives in the identification of the best option for its end...

  3. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of bio-based helical soft-core particles by way of Ni-Fe alloy electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni-Fe alloy electroplating was used as a bio-limited forming process to fabricate bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles, and a low frequency vibration device was applied to the cathode to avoid microorganism (Spirulina platens) cells adhesion to the copper net during the course of plating. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The complex permittivity and permeability of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells before and after heat treatment were measured and investigated by a vector network analyzer. The results show that the Spirulina cells after plating keep their initial helical shape, and applying low frequency vibration to the copper net cathode in the plating process can effectively prevent agglomeration and intertwinement of the Spirulina cells. The microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles with heat treatment are superior to those samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles without heat treatment. - Highlights: → We used the microorganism cells as forming template to fabricate the bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles. → Microorganism selected as forming templates was Spirulina platens, which are of natural helical shape and have high aspect ratio. → Coated Spirulina cells were a kind lightweight ferromagnetic particle.

  4. Synthesis of Bio-Based Poly(lactic acid-co-10-hydroxy decanoate Copolymers with High Thermal Stability and Ductility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjian Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based aliphatic copolyesters, poly(lactic acid-co-10-hydroxy decanoate (P(LA-co-HDA, PLH, were successfully synthesized from lactic acid (LA and 10-hydroxycapric acid (HDA by a thermal polycondensation process, in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA and SnCl2·2H2O as co-catalyst. The copolymer structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The weight average molecular weights (Mw of PLH, from gel permeation chromatography (GPC measurements, were controlled from 18,500 to 37,900 by changing the molar ratios of LA and HDA. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results showed that PLH had excellent thermal stability, and the decomposition temperature at the maximum rate was above 280 °C. The glass transition temperature (Tg and melting temperature (Tm of PLH decreased continuously with increasing the HDA composition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements. PLH showed high ductility, and the breaking elongation increased significantly by the increment of the HDA composition. Moreover, the PLH copolymer could degrade in buffer solution. The cell adhesion results showed that PLH had good biocompatibility with NIH/3T3 cells. The bio-based PLH copolymers have potential applications as thermoplastics, elastomers or impact modifiers in the biomedical, industrial and agricultural fields.

  5. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of bio-based helical soft-core particles by way of Ni-Fe alloy electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan Mingming, E-mail: lan_mingming@163.com [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang Deyuan; Cai Jun; Zhang Wenqiang; Yuan Liming [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Ni-Fe alloy electroplating was used as a bio-limited forming process to fabricate bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles, and a low frequency vibration device was applied to the cathode to avoid microorganism (Spirulina platens) cells adhesion to the copper net during the course of plating. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The complex permittivity and permeability of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells before and after heat treatment were measured and investigated by a vector network analyzer. The results show that the Spirulina cells after plating keep their initial helical shape, and applying low frequency vibration to the copper net cathode in the plating process can effectively prevent agglomeration and intertwinement of the Spirulina cells. The microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles with heat treatment are superior to those samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles without heat treatment. - Highlights: > We used the microorganism cells as forming template to fabricate the bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles. > Microorganism selected as forming templates was Spirulina platens, which are of natural helical shape and have high aspect ratio. > Coated Spirulina cells were a kind lightweight ferromagnetic particle.

  6. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean. PMID:26923569

  7. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean.

  8. Substituted Phthalic Anhydrides from Biobased Furanics: A New Approach to Renewable Aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Genuino, Homer C; Śliwa, Michał; van der Waal, Jan C; de Jong, Ed; van Haveren, Jacco; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; van Es, Daan S

    2015-09-21

    A novel route for the production of renewable aromatic chemicals, particularly substituted phthalic acid anhydrides, is presented. The classical two-step approach to furanics-derived aromatics via Diels-Alder (DA) aromatization has been modified into a three-step procedure to address the general issue of the reversible nature of the intermediate DA addition step. The new sequence involves DA addition, followed by a mild hydrogenation step to obtain a stable oxanorbornane intermediate in high yield and purity. Subsequent one-pot, liquid-phase dehydration and dehydrogenation of the hydrogenated adduct using a physical mixture of acidic zeolites or resins in combination with metal on a carbon support then allows aromatization with yields as high as 84 % of total aromatics under relatively mild conditions. The mechanism of the final aromatization reaction step unexpectedly involves a lactone as primary intermediate.

  9. Characterization of green composites from biobased epoxy matrices and bio-fillers derived from seashell wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Calcium carbonate from seashell is an attractive bio-filler in polymeric industry. • We examine composition and thermal properties of calcium carbonate from seashell. • Used with eco-friendly epoxy matrices provides a high renewable content material. • Addition of 30 wt.% of seashell bio-filler increase of over 50% in flexural modulus. • Calcium carbonate from seashell leads higher thermal stability materials. - Abstract: The seashells, a serious environmental hazard, are composed mainly by calcium carbonate, which can be used as filler in polymer matrix. The main objective of this work is the use of calcium carbonate from seashells as a bio-filler in combination with eco-friendly epoxy matrices thus leading to high renewable contents materials. Previously obtaining calcium carbonate, the seashells were washed and grinded. The powder obtained and the resin was characterized by DSC, TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and rheology plate-plate. The results show that addition of 30 wt.% of seashell bio-filler increase mechanical properties as flexural modulus (over 50%) and hardness Shore D (over 6%) and thermal properties as an increase around 13% in glass transitions temperature. The results show that the addition of calcium carbonate from seashells is an effective method to increase mechanical properties of bio-composite and to reduce the residue of seashells from industrial production

  10. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-01

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel.

  11. Increased Performance of Thermoplastic Packaging Materials by Using a Mild Oxidizing Biobased Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Männle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green additives such as prodegradants based on natural fatty acids and iron can improve the environmental profile of thermoplastic packaging materials. We present two studies in which this is demonstrated. In the first study, the addition of a green prodegradant to a 5-layer gas barrier laminate during processing provided a laminate with significantly reduced oxygen transmission due to the resulting oxygen-consuming degradation process. The result shows that material reduction and cost efficiency of packaging laminates can be combined, since 5-layer laminates with reduced oxygen barrier layer thickness and retained gas barrier properties are feasible. The products are interesting from an ecological and economic aspect. In the second study, the addition of a green prodegradant to several qualities of polypropylene that are used in packaging applications leads to materials that are readily degraded in accelerated weathering. The molecular weight of the modified polypropylenes after 830 hours of accelerated weathering is reduced from typically 80.000 g/mole to 1.500–2.500 g/mole. At such molecular weight levels, digestion by microorganisms is feasible. The mild prodegradant used in the study does not lead to degradation during processing. Thermoplastics containing such additives are therefore fully recyclable provided that they have not been exposed to a long period of weathering.

  12. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-01

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel. PMID:26624525

  13. A Novel Partially Biobased PAN-Lignin Blend as a Potential Carbon Fiber Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Özgür Seydibeyoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of polyacrylonitrile (PAN and lignin were prepared with three different lignin types by solution blending and solution casting. Among three types of lignin, one type was chosen and different blend concentrations were prepared and casted. The casted blend films were characterized chemically with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and thermally with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The mechanical properties of the blends were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. FTIR analysis shows an excellent interaction of PAN and lignin. The interaction of the lignins and PAN was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DMA results reveal that the lignin enhance the mechanical properties of PAN at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The blend structure and morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM images show that excellent polymer blends were prepared. The results show that it is possible to develop a new precursor material with a blend of lignin and PAN. These studies show that the side product of paper and cellulosic bioethanol industries, namely, lignin can be used for new application areas.

  14. Advantages and limitations of exergy indicators to assess sustainability of bioenergy and biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, Dries, E-mail: Dries.Maes@uhasselt.be; Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Vanpassel@uhasselt.be

    2014-02-15

    Innovative bioenergy projects show a growing diversity in biomass pathways, transformation technologies and end-products, leading to complex new processes. Existing energy-based indicators are not designed to include multiple impacts and are too constrained to assess the sustainability of these processes. Alternatively, indicators based on exergy, a measure of “qualitative energy”, could allow a more holistic view. Exergy is increasingly applied in analyses of both technical and biological processes. But sustainability assessments including exergy calculations, are not very common and are not generally applicable to all types of impact. Hence it is important to frame the use of exergy for inclusion in a sustainability assessment. This paper reviews the potentials and the limitations of exergy calculations, and presents solutions for coherent aggregation with other metrics. The resulting approach is illustrated in a case study. Within the context of sustainability assessment of bioenergy, exergy is a suitable metric for the impacts that require an ecocentric interpretation, and it allows aggregation on a physical basis. The use of exergy is limited to a measurement of material and energy exchanges with the sun, biosphere and lithosphere. Exchanges involving services or human choices are to be measured in different metrics. This combination provides a more inclusive and objective sustainability assessment, especially compared to standard energy- or carbon-based indicators. Future applications of this approach in different situations are required to clarify the potential of exergy-based indicators in a sustainability context. -- Highlights: • Innovative bioenergy projects require more advanced sustainability assessments to incorporate all environmental impacts. • Exergy-based indicators provide solutions for objective and robust measurements. • The use of exergy in a sustainability assessment is limited to material exchanges, excluding exchanges with society

  15. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  16. Supramolecular Assembly of Biobased Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Controls the Morphology of and Induces Mineralization on Poly(ε-caprolactone) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Salman; Adolfsson, Karin H; Wu, Duo; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2016-01-11

    Biobased 2D graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) were synthesized from waste paper via carbon nanosphere intermediates and evaluated as property-enhancing additives for poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The morphology of PCL films was controlled by supramolecular assembly of the small, 2D GOQDs in the polymer matrix. Phase behavior studies of PCL-GOQD in the solid state indicated concentration-dependent self-association of GOQD sheets, which was confirmed by SEM observations. Depending on the GOQD concentration, the formation of, e.g., spheres and stacked sheets was observed. GOQDs also induced mineralization on the surface of the films. A calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization test revealed that the density of growing CaP crystals was controlled by the type of GOQD aggregates formed. Thus, utilization of the aggregation behavior of small GOQD sheets in polymeric matrices paves the way for tuning the morphology and properties of nanocomposites. PMID:26650535

  17. Participatory development and analysis of a fuzzy cognitive map of the establishment of a bio-based economy in the Humber region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra S Penn

    Full Text Available Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM is a widely used participatory modelling methodology in which stakeholders collaboratively develop a 'cognitive map' (a weighted, directed graph, representing the perceived causal structure of their system. This can be directly transformed by a workshop facilitator into simple mathematical models to be interrogated by participants by the end of the session. Such simple models provide thinking tools which can be used for discussion and exploration of complex issues, as well as sense checking the implications of suggested causal links. They increase stakeholder motivation and understanding of whole systems approaches, but cannot be separated from an intersubjective participatory context. Standard FCM methodologies make simplifying assumptions, which may strongly influence results, presenting particular challenges and opportunities. We report on a participatory process, involving local companies and organisations, focussing on the development of a bio-based economy in the Humber region. The initial cognitive map generated consisted of factors considered key for the development of the regional bio-based economy and their directional, weighted, causal interconnections. A verification and scenario generation procedure, to check the structure of the map and suggest modifications, was carried out with a second session. Participants agreed on updates to the original map and described two alternate potential causal structures. In a novel analysis all map structures were tested using two standard methodologies usually used independently: linear and sigmoidal FCMs, demonstrating some significantly different results alongside some broad similarities. We suggest a development of FCM methodology involving a sensitivity analysis with different mappings and discuss the use of this technique in the context of our case study. Using the results and analysis of our process, we discuss the limitations and benefits of the FCM methodology

  18. Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, Jurjen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a sustai

  19. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  20. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  1. The process greasoline {sup registered}. Catalytic cracking of used vegetable oils and vegetable products; Das greasoline {sup registered} -Verfahren. Katalytisches Cracken von gebrauchten Pflanzenoelen und Pflanzenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzig, Joachim; Fastabend, Anna; Greve, Anna; Heil, Volker; Juricev-Spiric, Marko; Kraft, Axel; Krzanowski, Marcin; Meller, Karl; Menne, Andreas; Unger, Christoph; Urban, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Converting bio-based waste oils and fats as well as non-edible plant oils into oxygen-free components for quality aviation, shipping and automotive fuels represents a promising option to use these materials. Catalytic cracking over microporous and mesoporous catalysts like activated carbon offers a suitable process of considerable commercial and ecological potential. Moreover, this technology can be applied in order to produce high-caloric fuel gases like bio-based LPG. For example, these gases could be used for upgrading bio-methane into true bio-based synthetic natural gas without adding fossil components. Such a mixture would be ready to be fed into natural gas pipelines. In the future, used bio-hydraulic-oils could be collected and used as biofuels feedstock. Conversion of bio-hydraulic-oils as model substances resulted in organic liquid product yields of up to 64 wt.-%. Catalytic cracking of Jatropha Curcas-oil revealed the catalyst's usage time to be as important as the reaction temperature for optimising fuel gas production. (orig.)

  2. Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled-release and water-retention urea fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuechao; Tong, Zhaohui; Geng, Yuqing; Li, Yuncong; Zhang, Min

    2013-08-28

    In this paper, we synthesized a biobased polyurethane using liquefied corn stover, isocyanate, and diethylenetriamine. The synthesized polyurethane was used as a coating material to control nitrogen (N) release from polymer-coated urea. A novel superabsorbent composite was also formulated from chicken feather protein (CFP), acrylic acid, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and used as an outer coating material for water retention. We studied the N release characteristics and water-retention capability of the double-layer polymer-coated urea (DPCU) applied in both water and soils. The ear yields, dry matter accumulation, total N use efficiency and N leaching from a sweet corn soil-plant system under two different irrigation regimes were also investigated. Comparison of DPCU treatments with conventional urea fertilizer revealed that DPCU treatments reduced the N release rate and improved water retention capability. Evaluation of soil and plant characteristics within the soil-plant system revealed that DPCU application effectively reduced N leaching loss, improved total N use efficiency, and increased soil water retention capability.

  3. Extraction of polyols from bio-based polyols residue%生物基化工醇重组分中多元醇的分离提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍妮娜; 吴洪发; 王晶仪; 薛冬桦

    2011-01-01

    采用络合萃取与分子蒸馏相结合的方法,对生物基化工醇重组分中的多元醇进行了分离研究.考察了络合剂与萃取剂的配比、萃取时间、萃取温度对重组分中多元醇萃取效果的影响,并对分子蒸馏在不同温度下所得馏分进行分析.结果表明,经络合萃取后,结合分子蒸馏的技术,利用气相色谱和质谱分析,有利于生物基化工醇重组分中多元醇的分离.%By using the method of complexation extraction and molecular distillation, the polyols in bio-based polyols distillation residues were extracted and separated. The ratio between complexing and extracting agent, and the impact of temperature and time on the outcome of extraction were investigated. The results showed that complexation extraction and molecular distillation could effectively separate polyols.

  4. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production. PMID:27394995

  5. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael

    2013-08-20

    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid. PMID:22824738

  6. Heterologous expression of Mus musculus immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1 in Escherichia coli results in itaconate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiira S Vuoristo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Itaconic acid, a C5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential biobased building block for the polymer industry. It is obtained from the citric acid cycle by decarboxylation of cis-aconitic acid. This reaction is catalysed by CadA in the native itaconic acid producer Aspergillus terreus. Recently, another enzyme encoded by the mammalian immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1, was found to decarboxylate cis-aconitate to itaconate in vitro. We show that heterologous expression of irg1 enabled itaconate production in E. coli with production titres up to 560 mg/L.

  7. Bioreactors and in situ product recovery techniques for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Tseng, I-Ting; He, Chi-Ruei; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2016-07-01

    The microbial fermentation process is one of the sustainable and environment-friendly ways to produce 1-butanol and other bio-based chemicals. The success of the fermentation process greatly relies on the choice of bioreactors and the separation methods. In this review, the history and the performance of bioreactors for the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is discussed. The subject is then focused on in situ product recovery (ISPR) techniques, particularly for the integrated extraction-gas stripping. The usefulness of this promising hybrid ISPR device is acknowledged by its incorporation with batch, fed-batch and continuous processes to improve the performance of ABE fermentation. PMID:27190167

  8. Food waste valorization through the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by mixed microbial cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, Inês Miguel Troles Duarte do

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Química e Bioquímica Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyl fatty acids, which are accumulated in microbial cells as carbon/energy reserves. PHAs are bio-based and biodegradable and display a wide range of thermoplastic properties, being a promising alternative to conventional plastics. Presently, industrial PHA production was primarily based on pure microbial cultures. Although this process has high PHA pr...

  9. Production of bio-based phenolic resin and activated carbon from bio-oil and biochar derived from fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyung-Goo; Oh, Seung-Jin; Lee, Soon-Jang; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-02-01

    A fraction of palm kernel shells (PKS) was pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor. The experiments were performed in a temperature range of 479-555 °C to produce bio-oil, biochar, and gas. All the bio-oils were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by GC-FID and GC-MS. The maximum content of phenolic compounds in the bio-oil was 24.8 wt.% at ∼500 °C. The maximum phenol content in the bio-oil, as determined by the external standard method, was 8.1 wt.%. A bio-oil derived from the pyrolysis of PKS was used in the synthesis of phenolic resin, showing that the bio-oil could substitute for fossil phenol up to 25 wt.%. The biochar was activated using CO2 at a final activation temperature of 900 °C with different activation time (1-3 h) to produce activated carbon. Activated carbons produced were microporous, and the maximum surface area of the activated carbons produced was 807 m(2)/g.

  10. Research Overview of Heavy Metal Ions Removal in Wastewater by Process of Bio-Based Material%生物基材料去除废水中重金属离子的研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任会学; 高志敏; 姜佳慧; 武道吉; 谭凤训; 许兵

    2014-01-01

    The methods of effectively removing heavy metal ions in water have become a current research hotspot. Bio-based material is biodegradable,renewable and environmentally friendly,which has the natural advantage in removing heavy metal ions. The typical structure of bio-based materials and its application in removing heavy metal ions were summarized. Their good selectivity and high removal rate in adsorbing heavy metal ions were analyzed. The reason may be that the bio-based materials contain some special structures which are easy for heavy metal ions to form metal coordination compounds of special complex structures. The different modification methods,mechanism and the necessity of the bio-based materials were discussed.%如何有效地去除水中的重金属离子的方法已成为当前水处理领域的研究热点。与其他各种处理材料相比较,生物基材料具有可生物降解、原料可再生和环境友好等特性,因而在去除重金属离子方面具有天然的优势。该文综述了典型生物基材料的结构特征及其在去除重金属离子方面的应用,分析了生物基材料处理重金属离子选择性好、去除率高的原因,原因在于生物基材料含有易与金属离子形成特定的络合结构,形成独特的金属配位化合物具有较高的立体选择性;着重探讨了生物基材料的不同改性方法、机理及必要性,展望了生物基材料研究的未来发展方向及前景。

  11. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (108). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system

  12. Cyclopentadienyl-based Trioxo-rhenium Complexes for the Catalytic Deoxydehydration of Diols and Bio-based Polyols to Olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raju, S.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable sources like biomass, which mainly consists of materials derived from trees and plants, are currently considered as a key and future feedstock in the chemical industry for the sustainable production of chemicals. After the pre-treatment of biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is obtained as th

  13. Competing uses of biomass : Assessment and comparison of the performance of bio-based heat, power, fuels and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, S. J.; Saygin, D.; Wicke, B.; Patel, M. K.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing production of modern bioenergy carriers and biomaterials intensifies the competition for different applications of biomass. To be able to optimize and develop biomass utilization in a sustainable way, this paper first reviews the status and prospects of biomass value chains for heat,

  14. SLUG FLOW PROCESSING IN MICROREACTORS FOR BIO-BASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING: SYNTHESIS AND OXIDATION OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL AS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Deuss, Peter; Zhang, Zheng; Hommes, Arne; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing global demand on fossil resources that are limited in reserves has directed numerous research efforts recently towards the development of more sustainable feedstocks as the source for the production of fuels, chemicals and (performance) materials. Conversion of biomass (particula

  15. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. PMID:26808018

  16. Cyclopentadienyl-based Trioxo-rhenium Complexes for the Catalytic Deoxydehydration of Diols and Bio-based Polyols to Olefins

    OpenAIRE

    RAJU, S

    2015-01-01

    Renewable sources like biomass, which mainly consists of materials derived from trees and plants, are currently considered as a key and future feedstock in the chemical industry for the sustainable production of chemicals. After the pre-treatment of biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is obtained as the major component. This contains various polymeric compounds such as starch, cellulose and lignin. By breaking these polymers into smaller monomeric molecules, sugars, polyols and aromatic compound...

  17. Nanoencapsulation of quercetin into bio-based nanostructures obtained from assembling of α-lactalbumin and lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Adenilson A.; Monteiro, Marcia R.; Ramos, Óscar L.; Pereira, Ricardo; Malcata, F. X.; J. A. Teixeira; Teixeira, Álvaro V.; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Coimbra, Jane Sélia dos Reis; Vicente, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology possesses an intrinsic potential to produce new food ingredients and innovative products, with considerable benefits to human health. This can be attained via development of innovative structures for application in functional foods. In recent years, consumption of foods providing health benefits has risen chiefly as a result of significant investments from the food industry and widening consumer awareness in this field. Polyphenols constitute one such functional ingredient: it ...

  18. 化学/酶复合催化法制备生物基化学品研究进展%Research progress on chemo-enzymatic catalytic of bio-based chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖竹钱; 欧阳洪生; 葛秋伟; 王珍珍; 蒋成君; 杨瑞芹; 计建炳; 毛建卫

    2015-01-01

    The chemo-enzymatic catalysis for the preparation of bio-based chemicals showed the comple-mentary advantages,such as both high performance,selectivity of enzyme and stability of chemical cata-lyst,and it also has advantages of more raw materials,straight forward and high efficiency and environment friendly. The chemo-enzymatic catalysis for one-step reactions for application to the preparation of polylol, amino and other bio-based chemicals was the main line,and discussed specifically about the advantages and significance of this method. The application of this method in biomass refining process were prospec-ted.%化学催化与酶催化复合法制备生物基化学品可兼具生物催化剂的高效、高选择性和化学催化剂的稳定性(高温下)等优点,且原料易得、工艺简捷高效、环境友好,以化学/酶复合催化一步法反应制备糖醇、氨基酸和其他生物基化学品中的应用来阐述此方法的优势和意义,并对其在生物质炼制过程的应用进行了展望。

  19. 生物基纤维在非织造材料中的开发与应用%The Application of Bio-based Fibers in Nonwoven Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 王玉晓; 靳向煜

    2016-01-01

    本文就几种生物基纤维在非织造领域的应用及材料特性进行了介绍。如海藻纤维和壳聚糖纤维作为海洋生物基纤维具有良好的物理化学性能、生物相容性和抗菌性,其非织造材料常被用于敷料、生物组织工程等中;聚乳酸具有良好的生物相容性和生物可降解性,通过针刺、热粘合等工艺可以制备成非织造材料,用于过滤、装饰、农业等领域。%The paper introduces the properties of several kinds of bio-based fibers and their applications in nonwoven field. As marine bio-based fibers, alginate fiber and chitosan fiber have excellent physical and chemical properties, biological compatibility and anti-bacteria property, which are widely used for medical dressing, biological tissue engineering, etc.; polylactic acid fiber have good biological compatibility and biodegradability, which can be made into needle-punched and thermal-bonded materials to be used in filtration, decoration and agricultural fields.

  20. An Integrated Methodology for Design of Tailor-Made Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John;

    2012-01-01

    design, 2) process identification, and 3) experimental verification. The principle problem, which is the product design stage is divided into four sub-problems and solved with a decomposition-based approach. In stage two, the ability to produce the chemicals used as building blocks in the blends......A computer-aided methodology has been developed for the design of blended (mixture) products. Through this methodology, it is possible to identify the most suitable chemicals for blending, and “tailor” the blend according to specified product needs. The methodology has three stages: 1) product...... is analyzed. Finally, experimental work (or detailed model-based verification) is conducted in stage three to validate the selected blend candidates. In this study, the product design stage is highlighted through a case study of gasoline blends with bio-based chemicals. The objective of this study...

  1. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Abhari, Mr. Ramin [Renewable Energy Group, Inc.; Shukla, Dr. Nitin [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  2. Highly selective production of succinic acid by metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens and its efficient purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sol; Song, Hyohak; Lim, Sung Won; Kim, Tae Yong; Ahn, Jung Ho; Lee, Jeong Wook; Lee, Moon-Hee; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-10-01

    Succinic acid (SA) is one of the fermentative products of anaerobic metabolism, and an important industrial chemical that has been much studied for its bio-based production. The key to the economically viable bio-based SA production is to develop an SA producer capable of producing SA with high yield and productivity without byproducts. Mannheimia succiniciproducens is a capnophilic rumen bacterium capable of efficiently producing SA. In this study, in silico genome-scale metabolic simulations were performed to identify gene targets to be engineered, and the PALK strain (ΔldhA and Δpta-ackA) was constructed. Fed-batch culture of PALK on glucose and glycerol as carbon sources resulted in the production of 66.14 g/L of SA with the yield and overall productivity of 1.34 mol/mol glucose equivalent and 3.39 g/L/h, respectively. SA production could be further increased to 90.68 g/L with the yield and overall productivity of 1.15 mol/mol glucose equivalent and 3.49 g/L/h, respectively, by utilizing a mixture of magnesium hydroxide and ammonia solution as a pH controlling solution. Furthermore, formation of byproducts was drastically reduced, resulting in almost homo-fermentative SA production. This allowed the recovery and purification of SA to a high purity (99.997%) with a high recovery yield (74.65%) through simple downstream processes composed of decolorization, vacuum distillation, and crystallization. The SA producer and processes developed in this study will allow economical production of SA in an industrial-scale. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2168-2177. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27070659

  3. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  4. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian;

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...

  5. Engineering and systems level analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of 3 hydroxypropionic acid via malonyl CoA reductase dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Schneider, Konstantin;

    2016-01-01

    In the future, oil- and gas-derived polymers may be replaced with bio-based polymers, produced from renewable feedstocks using engineered cell factories. Acrylic acid and acrylic esters with an estimated world annual production of approximately 6 million tons by 2017 can be derived from 3-hydroxy......-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), which can be produced by microbial fermentation. For an economically viable process 3HP must be produced at high titer, rate and yield and preferably at low pH to minimize downstream processing costs....

  6. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter;

    For a couple a decades, in the frame of bio-based chemicals and materials, there has been focus on biological butyric acid production due to the wide application of butyric acid in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Major challenges for biological production are strain selection...... and development, and process improvement for higher yield, productivity and selectivity. Compared with other microbial strains Clostridium tyrobutyricum has been well characterised, exhibits higher yield and selectivity and can utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously. However, a prerequisite for cost effective...... production of butyric acid is the use of cheap feedstocks as carbon source as well as a process allowing for increased productivity. The present work focuses on butyric acid fermentation of pre-treated and hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), consisted of around 72 and 55 g/L glucose and xylose, respectively...

  7. An Integrated Methodology for Design of Tailor-Made Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John;

    to be considered. In order to achieve this, new products need to be developed by blending the conventional materials with other chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources, such as bio-based chemicals. Blending could offer several advantages, such as, reducing the amount of fossil fuel consumption...... three stages: 1) product design, 2) process identification, and 3) experimental verification. At the first stage, a computer-aided methodology is implemented to quickly identify and evaluate the most promising blend candidates. Subsequently, the ability to produce the chemicals used as the components......, the design problem is defined where the product needs are identified, translated into target properties and given target values. Secondly, target property models are retrieved from a property model library developed specifically for this methodology. Thirdly, a mixture/blend design algorithm is applied...

  8. New advances in the integrated management of food processing by-products in Europe: sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing by-products with the production of new food products (NAMASTE EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Fabio; Zanaroli, Giulio; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra; Viaggi, Davide; Robertson, Jim; Waldron, Keith; Bald, Carlos; Esturo, Aintzane; Talens, Clara; Tueros, Itziar; Cebrián, Marta; Sebők, András; Kuti, Tunde; Broeze, Jan; Macias, Marta; Brendle, Hans-Georg

    2013-09-25

    By-products generated every year by the European fruit and cereal processing industry currently exceed several million tons. They are disposed of mainly through landfills and thus are largely unexploited sources of several valuable biobased compounds potentially profitable in the formulation of novel food products. The opportunity to design novel strategies to turn them into added value products and food ingredients via novel and sustainable processes is the main target of recently EC-funded FP7 project NAMASTE-EU. NAMASTE-EU aims at developing new laboratory-scale protocols and processes for the exploitation of citrus processing by-products and wheat bran surpluses via the production of ingredients useful for the formulation of new beverage and food products. Among the main results achieved in the first two years of the project, there are the development and assessment of procedures for the selection, stabilization and the physical/biological treatment of citrus and wheat processing by-products, the obtainment and recovery of some bioactive molecules and ingredients and the development of procedures for assessing the quality of the obtained ingredients and for their exploitation in the preparation of new food products.

  9. Cryogel-supported titanate nanotubes for waste treatment: Impact on methane production and bio-fertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önnby, Linda; Harald, Kirsebom; Nges, Ivo Achu

    2015-08-10

    By reducing the cadmium (Cd(2+)) content in biomass used for bio-based products such as biogas, a less toxic bio-based fertilizer can be obtained. In this work, we demonstrate how a macroporous polymer can support titanate nanotubes, and we take advantage of its known selective adsorption behavior towards Cd(2+) in an adsorption process from real nutrient-rich process water from hydrolysis of seaweed, a pollutant-rich biomass. We show that pretreatment steps involving alteration in area-to-volume ratio performed in aerated and acidic conditions release the most Cd(2+) from the solid material. By integrating an adsorption step between hydrolysis and the biomethane, we show that it was possible to obtain high Cd(2+) removal (ca. 94%) despite molar excess (between 100 and 500) of co-present ions (e.g., Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+)) and with maintained total phosphorous content. The bio-methane potential did not significantly decrease as compared to a process without cadmium removal and the yielded bio-fertilizer followed Swedish guideline values. This study provides a sound and promising alternative for a novel remediation step, enabling higher use of otherwise tricky and to some extent overlooked biomass sources. PMID:26015262

  10. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-11-15

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources.

  11. Strategies for enhancing fermentative production of acetoin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zijun; Lu, Jian R

    2014-01-01

    Acetoin is a volatile compound widely used in foods, cigarettes, cosmetics, detergents, chemical synthesis, plant growth promoters and biological pest controls. It works largely as flavour and fragrance. Since some bacteria were found to be capable of vigorous acetoin biosynthesis from versatile renewable biomass, acetoin, like its reduced form 2,3-butanediol, was also classified as a promising bio-based platform chemical. In spite of several reviews on the biological production of 2,3-butanediol, little has concentrated on acetoin. The two analogous compounds are present in the same acetoin (or 2,3-butanediol) pathway, but their production processes including optimal strains, substrates, derivatives, process controls and product recovery methods are quite different. In this review, the usages of acetoin are reviewed firstly to demonstrate its importance. The biosynthesis pathway and molecular regulation mechanisms are then outlined to depict the principal network of functioning in typical species. A phylogenetic tree is constructed and the relationship between taxonomy and acetoin producing ability is revealed for the first time, which will serve as a useful guide for the screening of competitive acetoin producers. Genetic engineering, medium optimization, and process control are effective strategies to improve productivity as well. Currently, downstream processing is one of the main barriers in efficient and economical industrial acetoin fermentation. The future prospects of microbial acetoin production are discussed in light of the current progress, challenges, and trends in this field. PMID:24412764

  12. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  13. Valorization of agroindustrial solid residues and residues from biofuel production chains by thermochemical conversion: a review, citing Brazil as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Virmond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides high industrial development, Brazil is also an agribusiness country. Each year about 330 million metrics tons (Mg of biomass residues are generated, requiring tremendous effort to develop biomass systems in which production, conversion and utilization of bio-based products are carried out efficiently and under environmentally sustainable conditions. For the production of biofuels, organic chemicals and materials, it is envisaged to follow a biorefinery model which includes modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing, pyrolysis, gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and other catalytic processes in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. This paper presents promising options for valorization of Brazilian agroindustrial biomass sources and residues originating from the biofuel production chains as renewable energy sources and addresses the main aspects of the thermochemical technologies which have been applied.

  14. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. PMID:25157746

  15. Carbon-rich wastes as feedstocks for biodegradable polymer (polyhydroxyalkanoate) production using bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Babu, Ramesh; Werker, Alan; O Connor, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    Research into the production of biodegradable polymers has been driven by vision for the most part from changes in policy, in Europe and America. These policies have their origins in the Brundtland Report of 1987, which provides a platform for a more sustainable society. Biodegradable polymers are part of the emerging portfolio of renewable raw materials seeking to deliver environmental, social, and economic benefits. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are naturally-occurring biodegradable-polyesters accumulated by bacteria usually in response to inorganic nutrient limitation in the presence of excess carbon. Most of the early research into PHA accumulation and technology development for industrial-scale production was undertaken using virgin starting materials. For example, polyhydroxybutyrate and copolymers such as polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate are produced today at industrial scale from corn-derived glucose. However, in recent years, research has been undertaken to convert domestic and industrial wastes to PHA. These wastes in today's context are residuals seen by a growing body of stakeholders as platform resources for a biobased society. In the present review, we consider residuals from food, plastic, forest and lignocellulosic, and biodiesel manufacturing (glycerol). Thus, this review seeks to gain perspective of opportunities from literature reporting the production of PHA from carbon-rich residuals as feedstocks. A discussion on approaches and context for PHA production with reference to pure- and mixed-culture technologies is provided. Literature reports advocate results of the promise of waste conversion to PHA. However, the vast majority of studies on waste to PHA is at laboratory scale. The questions of surmounting the technical and political hurdles to industrialization are generally left unanswered. There are a limited number of studies that have progressed into fermentors and a dearth of pilot-scale demonstration. A number of fermentation studies show

  16. Study of mechanical and morphological properties of bio-based polyethylene (HDPE) and sponge-gourds (Luffa-cylindrica) agroresidue composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escocio, Viviane A.; Visconte, Leila L. Y.; Cavalcante, Andre de P.; Furtado, Ana Maria S.; Pacheco, Elen B. A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Brazil has a remarkable position in the use of renewable energy. The potential of natural resources in Brazil has motivated the use of these renewable resources to make technologies more sustainable. From the large variety of commercially available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) from different sources, two were chosen for investigation: one produced from sugarcane ethanol, and the other one, a conventional polyethylene, produced from fossil resources. In the preparation of the composites, sponge-gourds also called Luffa cylindrica were selectec. The main application of this product is as bath sponge, whose production generates scraps that are generally burnt. In this work, the composites were prepared by blending the sponge scrap at different proportions (10, 20, 30 and 40% wt/wt) with high density polyethylene (HDPE) from renewable source by extrusion. The melt flow index analysis of the composites was determined and specimens were obtained by injection molding for the assessment of mechanical properties such as tensile (elasticity modulus), flexural and Izod impact strengths. The microstructure of the impact fractured surface of the specimen also was determined. The results showed that the addition of sponge scrap affects positively all the properties studied as compared to HDPE. The results of tensile strength, elasticity modulus and flexural strength were similar to those observed in the literature for composites of HDPE from fossil source. The microstructure corroborates the results of mechanical properties. It was shown that the sponge scrap has potential to be applied as cellulosic filler for renewable polyethylene, providing a totally renewable material with good mechanical properties.

  17. Oil resistance of bio-based polyester elastomers/carbon black composites%生物基聚酯弹性体/炭黑复合材料的耐油性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方博文; 康海澜; 王珍; 王文才; 张立群

    2014-01-01

    The oil resistance of bio-based polyes-ter elastomers(BEE)/carbon black(CB) composites was investigated and compared with that of nitrile rubber ( NBR )/CB composite.The results showed that after soaking in fuel oil RP-3, lubricating oil 4109 and hydraulic oil YH-15 at room temperature to swelling respectively , the tensile strength reten-tion of BEE/CB composite reached 86.8%,88.5%and 73.0% in turn.When both BEE/CB and NBR/CB composite were soaked in fuel oil RP-3 for 24 h below 100 ℃, the mechanical properties reten-tion of the two composites was in the same level , but soaked over 100 ℃, the former was far better than the latter.%考察了生物基聚酯弹性体/炭黑复合材料的耐油性能,并与丁腈橡胶/炭黑复合材料进行了对比。结果表明,常温下将生物基聚酯弹性体/炭黑复合材料分别浸泡在燃油( RP-3)、润滑油(4109)及液压油(YH-15)中直至溶胀,其拉伸强度保持率分别达到了86.8%,88.5%,73.0%;在100℃以下,生物基聚酯弹性体/炭黑复合材料与丁腈橡胶/炭黑复合材料在经高温RP-3燃油处理后的力学性能保持率基本持平,而在100℃以上前者的力学性能保持率则明显优于后者。

  18. Cytoxicity, dynamic and thermal properties of bio-based rosin-epoxy resin/ castor oil polyurethane/ carbon nanotubes bio-nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Li; Wang, Dan; Liu, Hongmei; Jia, Pan; Gao, Jungang

    2016-08-01

    In order to prepare bio-nanocomposites with no-cytotoxicity, the rosin-based epoxy resin (MPAER) and castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) were synthesized and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was used to enhance the properties of curing MPAER/COPU materials. The curing reaction, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of this system were characterized by FTIR, NMR, DMA, TG et al. The cytotoxicity of materials is evaluated for HeLa cells using a MTT cell-viability assay. The results showed that COPU can cure MPAER and CNTs can increase effectively the properties of MPAER/COPU nanocomposites. The Tg of MPAER/COPU/CNTs has the highest value when CNTs content is 0.4 wt%, which is 52.4 °C higher than the pure MPAER/COPU. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced by the addition of CNTs, the initial decomposition temperature Td5 of the sample No. 0.4 has increased from 284.5 to 305.2 °C, which is 20.7 °C higher than No. 0. The impact strength of the No. 0.4 film is 15 kg cm higher than the pure resin system. The survival rate of HeLa cells to the products is greater than 90% within 48 and 72 h, which demonstrate that this material has excellent biocompatibility and no obvious cytotoxicity for HeLa cells, which may be used in the medical treatment.

  19. Cytoxicity, dynamic and thermal properties of bio-based rosin-epoxy resin/ castor oil polyurethane/ carbon nanotubes bio-nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Li; Wang, Dan; Liu, Hongmei; Jia, Pan; Gao, Jungang

    2016-08-01

    In order to prepare bio-nanocomposites with no-cytotoxicity, the rosin-based epoxy resin (MPAER) and castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) were synthesized and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was used to enhance the properties of curing MPAER/COPU materials. The curing reaction, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of this system were characterized by FTIR, NMR, DMA, TG et al. The cytotoxicity of materials is evaluated for HeLa cells using a MTT cell-viability assay. The results showed that COPU can cure MPAER and CNTs can increase effectively the properties of MPAER/COPU nanocomposites. The Tg of MPAER/COPU/CNTs has the highest value when CNTs content is 0.4 wt%, which is 52.4 °C higher than the pure MPAER/COPU. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced by the addition of CNTs, the initial decomposition temperature Td5 of the sample No. 0.4 has increased from 284.5 to 305.2 °C, which is 20.7 °C higher than No. 0. The impact strength of the No. 0.4 film is 15 kg cm higher than the pure resin system. The survival rate of HeLa cells to the products is greater than 90% within 48 and 72 h, which demonstrate that this material has excellent biocompatibility and no obvious cytotoxicity for HeLa cells, which may be used in the medical treatment. PMID:27117086

  20. Directing product formation by mixed culture fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temudo, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Our society is dealing with the shortage of fossil fuels and chemical feedstocks and, on the other hand, with the increase of wastes generated by municipalities, agriculture and industries. Biobased industry, the conversion of renewable resources or wastes to chemicals and fuels, by microbial fermen

  1. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Judith Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2 and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process.

  2. Metabolic engineering of a synergistic pathway for n-butanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuobo; Si, Tong; Liu, Zihe; Zhang, Hongfang; Ang, Ee Lui; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    n-Butanol has several favourable properties as an advanced fuel or a platform chemical. Bio-based production of n-butanol is becoming increasingly important for sustainable chemical industry. Synthesis of n-butanol can be achieved via more than one metabolic pathway. Here we report the metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce n-butanol through a synergistic pathway: the endogenous threonine pathway and the introduced citramalate pathway. Firstly, we characterized and optimized the endogenous threonine pathway; then, a citramalate synthase (CimA) mediated pathway was introduced to construct the synergistic pathway; next, the synergistic pathway was optimized by additional overexpression of relevant genes identified previously; meanwhile, the n-butanol production was also improved by overexpression of keto-acid decarboxylases (KDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). After combining these strategies with co-expression of LEU1 (two copies), LEU4, LEU2 (two copies), LEU5, CimA, NFS1, ADH7 and ARO10*, we achieved an n-butanol production of 835 mg/L in the final engineered strain, which is almost 7-fold increase compared to the initial strain. Furthermore, the production showed a 3-fold of the highest titer ever reported in yeast. Therefore, the engineered yeast strain represents a promising alternative platform for n-butanol production. PMID:27161023

  3. Production Strategies and Applications of Microbial Single Cell Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Glück, Claudia; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Syldatk, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well. These single cell oils can be used for many valuable chemicals with applications not only for nutrition but also for fuels and are therefore an ideal basis for a bio-based economy. A crucial point for the establishment of microbial lipids utilization is the cost-effective production and purification of fuels or products of higher value. The fermentative production can be realized by submerged (SmF) or solid state fermentation (SSF). The yield and the composition of the obtained microbial lipids depend on the type of fermentation and the particular conditions (e.g., medium, pH-value, temperature, aeration, nitrogen source). From an economical point of view, waste or by-product streams can be used as cheap and renewable carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, downstream processing costs are one of the major obstacles to be solved for full economic efficiency of microbial lipids. For the extraction of lipids from microbial biomass cell disruption is most important, because efficiency of cell disruption directly influences subsequent downstream operations and overall extraction efficiencies. A multitude of cell disruption and lipid extraction methods are available, conventional as well as newly emerging methods, which will be described and discussed in terms of large scale applicability, their potential in a modern biorefinery and their influence on product quality. Furthermore, an overview is given about applications of microbial lipids or derived fatty

  4. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    There is considerable public interest in developing a sustainable biobased economy that favors support of family farms and rural communities and also promotes the development of biorenewable energy resources. This study focuses on a number of questions related to the development and exploration of new pathways that can potentially move us toward a more sustainable biobased economy. These include issues related to biomass fuels for drying grain, economies-of-scale, new biomass harvest systems, sugar-to-ethanol crop alternatives for the Upper Midwest U.S., biomass transportation, post-harvest biomass processing and double cropping production scenarios designed to maximize biomass feedstock production. The first section of this study considers post-harvest drying of shelled corn grain both at farm-scale and at larger community-scaled installations. Currently, drying of shelled corn requires large amounts of fossil fuel energy. To address future energy concerns, this study evaluates the potential use of combined heat and power systems that use the combustion of corn stover to produce steam for drying and to generate electricity for fans, augers, and control components. Because of the large capital requirements for solid fuel boilers and steam turbines/engines, both farm-scale and larger grain elevator-scaled systems benefit by sharing boiler and power infrastructure with other processes. The second and third sections evaluate sweet sorghum as a possible "sugarcane-like" crop that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Various harvest systems are considered including a prototype mobile juice harvester, a hypothetical one-pass unit that separates grain heads from chopped stalks and traditional forage/silage harvesters. Also evaluated were post-harvest transportation, storage and processing costs and their influence on the possible use of sweet sorghum as a supplemental feedstock for existing dry-grind ethanol plants located in the Upper Midwest. Results show that the concept

  5. Arundo donax L.: a non-food crop for bioenergy and bio-compound production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Luca; Pilu, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Arundo donax L., common name giant cane or giant reed, is a plant that grows spontaneously in different kinds of environments and that it is widespread in temperate and hot areas all over the world. Plant adaptability to different kinds of environment, soils and growing conditions, in combination with the high biomass production and the low input required for its cultivation, give to A. donax many advantages when compared to other energy crops. A. donax can be used in the production of biofuels/bioenergy not only by biological fermentation, i.e. biogas and bio-ethanol, but also, by direct biomass combustion. Both its industrial uses and the extraction of chemical compounds are largely proved, so that A. donax can be proposed as the feedstock to develop a bio-refinery. Nowadays, the use of this non-food plant in both biofuel/bioenergy and bio-based compound production is just beginning, with great possibilities for expanding its cultivation in the future. To this end, this review highlights the potential of using A. donax for energy and bio-compound production, by collecting and critically discussing the data available on these first applications for the crop.

  6. Camelina sativa: An ideal platform for the metabolic engineering and field production of industrial lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing modified fatty acids with functionality beyond those found in commercially grown oil seed crops can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. Over the years, advances have been made in transgenically engineering the production of various modified fatty acids in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the inability to produce large quantities of transgenic seed has limited the functional testing of the modified oil. In contrast, the emerging oil seed crop Camelina sativa possesses important agronomic traits that recommend it as an ideal production platform for biofuels and industrial feedstocks. Camelina possesses low water and fertilizer requirements and is capable of yields comparable to other oil seed crops, particularly under stress conditions. Importantly, its relatively short growing season enables it to be grown as part of a double cropping system. In addition to these valuable agronomic features, Camelina is amenable to rapid metabolic engineering. The development of a simple and effective transformation method, combined with the availability of abundant transcriptomic and genomic data, has allowed the generation of transgenic Camelina lines capable of synthesizing high levels of unusual lipids. In some cases these levels have surpassed what was achieved in Arabidopsis. Further, the ability to use Camelina as a crop production system has allowed for the large scale growth of transgenic oil seed crops, enabling subsequent physical property testing. The application of new techniques such as genome editing will further increase the suitability of Camelina as an ideal platform for the production of biofuels and bio-materials.

  7. Construction of plasmid-free Escherichia coli for the production of arabitol-free xylitol from corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Buli; Zhang, Zhe; Wu, Mianbin; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2016-01-01

    High costs and low production efficiency are a serious constraint to bio-based xylitol production. For industrial-scale production of xylitol, a plasmid-free Escherichia coli for arabitol-free xylitol production from corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate has been constructed. Instead of being plasmid and inducer dependent, this strain relied on multiple-copy integration of xylose reductase (XR) genes into the chromosome, where their expression was controlled by the constitutive promoter P43. In addition, to minimize the flux from L-arabinose to arabitol, two strategies including low XR total activity and high selectivity of XR has been adopted. Arabitol was significantly decreased using plasmid-free strain which had lower XR total activity and an eight point-mutations of XR with a 27-fold lower enzyme activity toward L-arabinose was achieved. The plasmid-free strain in conjunction with this mutant XR can completely eliminate arabitol formation in xylitol production. In fed-batch fermentation, this plasmid-free strain produced 143.8 g L(-1) xylitol at 1.84 g L(-1) h(-1) from corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate. From these results, we conclude that this route by plasmid-free E. coli has potential to become a commercially viable process for xylitol production. PMID:27225023

  8. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  9. Fully bio-based epoxy resins

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Epoxy resins are mainly produced by reacting bisphenol A with epichlorohydrin. Growing concerns about the negative health effects of bisphenol A are urging researchers to find alternatives. In this work diphenolic acid is suggested, as it derives from levulinic acid, obtained from renewable resources. Nevertheless, it is also synthesized from phenol, from fossil resources, which, in the current paper has been substituted by plant-based phenols. Two interesting derivatives were identified: dip...

  10. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, A.; Külahoglu, C.; Tazelaar, A.O.E.; Kurz, S.; Nierop, K.G.J.; van der Werf, A.; Weber, A.P.M.; Schlupmann, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Meth

  11. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi; Pieter Samyn

    2015-01-01

    The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids ...

  12. Guest editorial, special issue on biobased adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is a preface for a special issue that showcases significant developments on adhesives made with biorenewable materials, such as agricultural crops (soybean, corn), plant extractives (bark, tannins), and marine sources (mussels). This collection of pioneering studies and reviews on bioba...

  13. Enzymatic polymerization of biobased polyesters and polyamides

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays "green" is a hot topic almost everywhere, from retailers to universities to industries; and achieving green has become a universal perspective. However, polymers are commonly considered not to be “green”, being associated with massive energy consumption and severe pollution problems (e.g. the “Plastic Soup”) as a public stereotype. To achieve green polymers, three elements should be entailed: (1) green raw materials, catalysts and solvents; (2) eco-friendly synthesis processes; and (...

  14. Enzymatic polymerization of biobased polyesters and polyamides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays "green" is a hot topic almost everywhere, from retailers to universities to industries; and achieving green has become a universal perspective. However, polymers are commonly considered not to be “green”, being associated with massive energy consumption and severe pollution problems (e.g. t

  15. Enzymatic Synthesis of Biobased Polyesters and Polyamides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Loos, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, "green" is a hot topic almost everywhere, from retailers to universities to industries; and achieving a green status has become a universal aim. However, polymers are commonly considered not to be "green", being associated with massive energy consumption and severe pollution problems (for

  16. Biobased additive plasticizing Polylactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Maiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is from renewable resources. In this study, a specific PLA 2002D was melt-mixed with two plasticizers: triethyl citrate (TEC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. The plasticized PLA with various concentrations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, melt flow index (MFI, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy and plasticizer migration test. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the addition of TEC and ATBC resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg, and the reduction was the largest with the plasticizer having the lowest molecular weight (TEC. Plasticizing effect was also shown by decrease in the dynamic storage modulus and viscosity of plasticized mixtures compared to the treated PLA. The TGA results indicated that ATBC and TEC promoted a decrease in thermal stability of the PLA. The X-ray diffraction showed that the PLA have not polymorphic crystalline transition. Analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the two plasticizers: ATBC and TEC have no effect on the color change of the films. The weight loss plasticizer with heating time and at 100°C is lesser than at 135 °C. Migration of TEC and ATBC results in cracks and changed color of material. We have concluded that the higher molecular weight of citrate in the studied exhibited a greater plasticizing effect to the PLA.

  17. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively. PMID:27266630

  18. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. ► Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. ► Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  20. n-butanol: challenges and solutions for shifting natural metabolic pathways into a viable microbial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi, Paola; Porro, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    The economic upturn of the past 200 years would not have been conceivable without fossil resources such as coal and oil. However, the fossil-based economy increasingly reaches its limits and displays contradictions. Bioeconomy, strategically combining economy and ecology willing to make biobased and sustainable growth possible, is promising to make a significant contribution towards solving these issues. In this context, microbial bioconversions are promising to support partially the increasing need for materials and fuels starting from fresh, preferably waste, biomass. Butanol is a very attractive molecule finding applications both as a chemical platform and as a fuel. Today it principally derives from petroleum, but it also represents the final product of microbial catabolic pathways. Because of the need to maximize yield, titer and productivity to make the production competitive and viable, the challenge is to transform a robustly regulated metabolic network into the principal cellular activity. However, this goal can only be accomplished by a profound understanding of the cellular physiology, survival strategy and sensing/signalling cascades. Here, we shortly review on the natural cellular pathways and circumstances that lead to n-butanol accumulation, its physiological consequences that might not match industrial needs and on possible solutions for circumventing these natural constraints. PMID:27020412

  1. Vertical Integration of Biomass Saccharification of Enzymes for Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Production in a Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-05-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  2. Fully Integrated Lignocellulosic Biorefinery with Onsite Production of Enzymes and Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2010-06-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  3. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  4. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  5. Synthetic operon for (R,R)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    To reduce dependence on petroleum, an alternative route to production of the chemical feedstock 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from renewable lignocellulosic sources is desirable. In this communication, the genes encoding the pathway from pyruvate to 2,3-BD (alsS, alsD, and bdhA encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase, respectively) from Bacillus subtilis were engineered into a single tricistronic operon under control of the isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter in a shuttle plasmid capable of replication and expression in either B. subtilis or Escherichia coli. We describe the construction and performance of a shuttle plasmid carrying the IPTG-inducible synthetic operon alsSDbdhA coding for 2,3-BD pathway capable of (i) expression in two important representative model microorganisms, the gram-positive B. subtilis and the gram-negative E. coli; (ii) increasing 2,3-BD production in B. subtilis; and (iii) successfully introducing the B. subtilis 2,3-BD pathway into E. coli. The synthetic alsSDbdhA operon constructed using B. subtilis native genes not only increased the 2,3-BD production in its native host but also efficiently expressed the pathway in the heterologous organism E. coli. Construction of an efficient shuttle plasmid will allow investigation of 2,3-BD production performance in related organisms with industrial potential for production of bio-based chemicals.

  6. Irrigation with Treated Urban Wastewater for Bioenergy Crop Production in the Far West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjegunte, G. K.; Clark, J. A.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent years, interest in biobased fuels is increasing and the congressionally mandated goal is to use at least 36 billion gallons of bio-based transportation fuels by 2022. However, in 2009 the U.S. produced about 10.75 billion gallons of ethanol, primarily as corn starch ethanol and 550 million gallons of biodiesel. Thus, there is a huge gap between the current capacity and the mandated goal. USDA estimates that about 27 million acres of land has to be brought under bioenergy crops to produce 36 billion gallons of bio-based fuels. Meeting the challenge of bridging this huge gap requires a comprehensive regional strategy that includes bringing addition area from different regions within the country under bioenergy crops. In the southwest U.S. region such as west Texas or southern New Mexico, bringing vast abandoned crop lands and areas having permeable soils under bioenergy crops can be a part of such a regional strategy. While the region has adequate supply of land, finding reliable source of water to produce bioenergy crops is the main challenge. This challenge can be met by developing marginal quality water sources for bioenergy crops production. Use of marginal quality waters such as treated urban wastewater/saline groundwater to irrigate bioenergy crops may prove beneficial, if the bioenergy crops can grow under elevated salinity and the effects on soil and shallow groundwater can be minimized by appropriate management. The region has enormous potential for marginal quality water irrigation to produce bioenergy crops for a greater farm return. For example, at present, in El Paso alone, the total volume of treated municipal and industrial wastewater is about 65,000 acre-feet/year, of which only 13% is being reused for industrial processes and irrigating urban landscapes. The major concern associated with treated wastewater irrigation is its salinity (electrical conductivity or EC which measures salinity ranges from 1.8 to 2.1 dS m-1) and sodicity

  7. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  8. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  9. Product choice and product switching

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Redding, Stephen; Peter K. Schott

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a model of endogenous product selection by firms. The theory is motivated by new evidence we present on the importance of product switching by U.S. manufacturers. Two-thirds of continuing firms change their product mix every five years, and product switches involve more than 40% of firm output and almost half of existing products. The theoretical model incorporates heterogeneous firms, heterogeneous products, and ongoing entry and exit. In equilibrium, firm productivity is...

  10. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed. PMID:25163531

  11. Product Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and the relationship between product attachment and product lifetime. In addition, we studied which determinants may affect the strength of the emotional bond with products and uncovered the role of the ...

  12. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper.

  13. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper. PMID:26683567

  14. Directing product formation by mixed culture fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Temudo, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Our society is dealing with the shortage of fossil fuels and chemical feedstocks and, on the other hand, with the increase of wastes generated by municipalities, agriculture and industries. Biobased industry, the conversion of renewable resources or wastes to chemicals and fuels, by microbial fermentations or enzymes has been receiving increasingly attention. The aim is to develop new technologies, increase efficiencies and reduce the costs in fermentation, bioconversion, and in downstream pr...

  15. Forest biorefinery: Potential of poplar phytochemicals as value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rakshit, Sudip K; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-11-01

    The global forestry industry after experiencing a market downturn during the past decade has now aimed its vision towards the integrated biorefinery. New business models and strategies are constantly being explored to re-invent the global wood and pulp/paper industry through sustainable resource exploitation. The goal is to produce diversified, innovative and revenue generating product lines using on-site bioresources (wood and tree residues). The most popular product lines are generally produced from wood fibers (biofuels, pulp/paper, biomaterials, and bio/chemicals). However, the bark and other tree residues like foliage that constitute forest wastes, still remain largely an underexploited resource from which extractives and phytochemicals can be harnessed as by-products (biopharmaceuticals, food additives and nutraceuticals, biopesticides, cosmetics). Commercially, Populus (poplar) tree species including hybrid varieties are cultivated as a fast growing bioenergy crop, but can also be utilized to produce bio-based chemicals. This review identifies and underlines the potential of natural products (phytochemicals) from Populus species that could lead to new business ventures in biorefineries and contribute to the bioeconomy. In brief, this review highlights the importance of by-products/co-products in forest industries, methods that can be employed to extract and purify poplar phytochemicals, the potential pharmaceutical and other uses of >160 phytochemicals identified from poplar species - their chemical structures, properties and bioactivities, the challenges and limitations of utilizing poplar phytochemicals, and potential commercial opportunities. Finally, the overall discussion and conclusion are made considering the recent biotechnological advances in phytochemical research to indicate the areas for future commercial applications from poplar tree species.

  16. Lactic acid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae without PDC or ADH deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Timothy L; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Kim, Soo Rin; Subramaniam, Vijay; Steffen, David; Skory, Christopher D; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yu, Byung Jo; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-10-01

    Production of lactic acid from renewable sugars has received growing attention as lactic acid can be used for making renewable and bio-based plastics. However, most prior studies have focused on production of lactic acid from glucose despite that cellulosic hydrolysates contain xylose as well as glucose. Microbial strains capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose into lactic acid are needed for sustainable and economic lactic acid production. In this study, we introduced a lactic acid-producing pathway into an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose. Specifically, ldhA from the fungi Rhizopus oryzae was overexpressed under the control of the PGK1 promoter through integration of the expression cassette in the chromosome. The resulting strain exhibited a high lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced lactic acid from glucose or xylose. Interestingly, we observed that the engineered strain exhibited substrate-dependent product formation. When the engineered yeast was cultured on glucose, the major fermentation product was ethanol while lactic acid was a minor product. In contrast, the engineered yeast produced lactic acid almost exclusively when cultured on xylose under oxygen-limited conditions. The yields of ethanol and lactic acid from glucose were 0.31 g ethanol/g glucose and 0.22 g lactic acid/g glucose, respectively. On xylose, the yields of ethanol and lactic acid were <0.01 g ethanol/g xylose and 0.69 g lactic acid/g xylose, respectively. These results demonstrate that lactic acid can be produced from xylose with a high yield by S. cerevisiae without deleting pyruvate decarboxylase, and the formation patterns of fermentations can be altered by substrates.

  17. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  18. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  19. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepon, Karine Modolon [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Petronilho, Fabricia [FICEXP, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [POLIMAT, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Salmoria, Gean Vitor [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Kanis, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: luiz.kanis@unisul.br [TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. - Highlights: • Melt extruded bio-based matrices containing silver sulfadiazine was produced. • The silver sulfadiazine is stable during melt-extrusion. • The extrudate matrices shown bacterial growth inhibition. • The matrices obtained have potential to development wound healing membranes.

  20. Fat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei

    2006-01-01

    The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being flexible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I develop a model where ?rms can o¤er interval long 'fat' products in the spatial model of differentiation. Contrary to the standard results pro?ts of the firms can decrease with increased differentiati...

  1. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  2. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The...... implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a...... reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained...

  3. Evaluation of an integrated biorefinery based on fractionation of spent sulphite liquor for the production of an antioxidant-rich extract, lignosulphonates and succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, Maria; Papapostolou, Harris; Komaitis, Michael; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-08-01

    Spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been used for the production of lignosulphonates (LS), antioxidants and bio-based succinic acid. Solvent extraction of SSL with isopropanol led to the separation of approximately 80% of the total LS content, whereas the fermentations carried out using the pretreated SSL with isopropanol led to the production of around 19g/L of succinic acid by both Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Fractionation of SSL via nanofiltration to separate the LS and solvent extraction using ethyl acetate to separate the phenolic compounds produced a detoxified sugar-rich stream that led to the production of 39g/L of succinic acid by B. succiniciproducens. This fractionation scheme resulted also in the production of 32.4g LS and 1.15g phenolic-rich extract per 100g of SSL. Both pretreatment schemes removed significant quantities of metals and heavy metals. This novel biorefinery concept could be integrated in acidic sulphite pulping mills. PMID:27176670

  4. Fermentative production of high titer gluconic and xylonic acids from corn stover feedstock by Gluconobacter oxydans and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-11-01

    High titer gluconic acid and xylonic acid were simultaneously fermented by Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 using corn stover feedstock after dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment, biodetoxification and high solids content hydrolysis. Maximum sodium gluconate and xylonate were produced at the titer of 132.46g/L and 38.86g/L with the overall yield of 97.12% from glucose and 90.02% from xylose, respectively. The drawbacks of filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger including weak inhibitor tolerance, large pellet formation and no xylose utilization were solved by using the bacterium strain G. oxydans. The obtained sodium gluconate/xylonate product was highly competitive as cement retarder additive to the commercial product from corn feedstock. The techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on the Aspen Plus modeling was performed and the minimum sodium gluconate/xylonate product selling price (MGSP) was calculated as $0.404/kg. This study provided a practical and economic competitive process of lignocellulose utilization for production of value-added biobased chemicals.

  5. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sugarcane sector is responsible for around 4% of the diesel consumption in Brazil. • Soybean biodiesel can reduce the fossil diesel demand in the sugarcane sector. • The local use of biodiesel could reduce logistic problems and environmental burdens. • The sugarcane–soybean integration is likely to improve ethanol life cycle performance. • Fiscal incentives could reduce the economic uncertainties of the integration. - Abstract: The sugarcane industry in Brazil has been considered promising for the production of advanced fuels and bio-based products. However, the sugarcane crop requires high volumes of fossil fuel for cultivation and transport. The use of biodiesel as a diesel substitute could reduce the environmental burdens associated with this high consumption. This work performed a stochastic evaluation of the environmental and economic implications of the integrated production of sugarcane bioethanol and soybean biodiesel, in comparison with the traditional sugarcane-to-ethanol process. The analysis was focused on the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, where this integration would be particularly attractive. The environmental aspects addressed were the fossil energy use and the GHG emissions in a cradle-to-gate approach. The economic analysis comprised the evaluation of the net present value of an incremental cash flow generated by the soybean production and by the adjacent plants of oil extraction and biodiesel. Results indicate that the integrated system is likely to improve the ethanol environmental performance, especially with regard to the fossil energy use. The integration is economically feasible but highly uncertain; however, it could be significantly improved through fiscal incentives to biodiesel producers, founded on the reduction of fossil energy use and on improvements in logistics. In addition, the proposed model may also assist in the design of other integrated systems applied to the sugarcane sector in Brazil

  6. d-lactic acid production from renewable lignocellulosic biomass via genetically modified Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixing; Kumar, Amit; Hardwidge, Philip R; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2016-03-01

    d-lactic acid is of great interest because of increasing demand for biobased poly-lactic acid (PLA). Blending poly-l-lactic acid with poly-d-lactic acid greatly improves PLA's mechanical and physical properties. Corn stover and sorghum stalks treated with 1% sodium hydroxide were investigated as possible substrates for d-lactic acid production by both sequential saccharification and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). A commercial cellulase (Cellic CTec2) was used for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and an l-lactate-deficient mutant strain Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 ldhL1 and its derivative harboring a xylose assimilation plasmid (ΔldhL1-pCU-PxylAB) were used for fermentation. The SSCF process demonstrated the advantage of avoiding feedback inhibition of released sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, thus significantly improving d-lactic acid yield and productivity. d-lactic acid (27.3 g L(-1) ) and productivity (0.75 g L(-1) h(-1) ) was obtained from corn stover and d-lactic acid (22.0 g L(-1) ) and productivity (0.65 g L(-1) h(-1) ) was obtained from sorghum stalks using ΔldhL1-pCU-PxylAB via the SSCF process. The recombinant strain produced a higher concentration of d-lactic acid than the mutant strain by using the xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. Our findings demonstrate the potential of using renewable lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative to conventional feedstocks with metabolically engineered lactic acid bacteria to produce d-lactic acid. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:271-278, 2016. PMID:26700935

  7. 7 CFR 2902.24 - Graffiti and grease removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... remove automotive, industrial, or kitchen soils and oils, including grease, paint, and other coatings, from hard surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have...

  8. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  9. Agricultural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  10. Enhancement of protocatechuate decarboxylase activity for the effective production of muconate from lignin-related aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoki, Tomonori; Morooka, Miyuki; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Jellison, Jody; Goodell, Barry

    2014-12-20

    The decarboxylation reaction of protocatechuate has been described as a bottleneck and a rate-limiting step in cis,cis-muconate (ccMA) bioproduction from renewable feedstocks such as sugar. Because sugars are already in high demand in the development of many bio-based products, our work focuses on improving protocatechuate decarboxylase (Pdc) activity and ccMA production in particular, from lignin-related aromatic compounds. We previously had transformed an Escherichia coli strain using aroY, which had been used as a protocatechuate decarboxylase encoding gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae A170-40, and inserted other required genes from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, to allow the production of ccMA from vanillin. This recombinant strain produced ccMA from vanillin, however the Pdc reaction step remained a bottleneck during incubation. In the current study, we identify a way to increase protocatechuate decarboxylase activity in E. coli through enzyme production involving both aroY and kpdB; the latter which encodes for the B subunit of 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase. This permits expression of Pdc activity at a level approximately 14-fold greater than the strain with aroY only. The expression level of AroY increased, apparently as a function of the co-expression of AroY and KpdB. Our results also imply that ccMA may inhibit vanillate demethylation, a reaction step that is rate limiting for efficient ccMA production from lignin-related aromatic compounds, so even though ccMA production may be enhanced, other challenges to overcome vanilate demethylation inhibition still remain. PMID:25449108

  11. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A.; Ewing, Patrick M.; Atwood, Lesley W.; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C.; Hunter, Mitchell C.; Koide, Roger T.; Mortensen, David A.; Smith, Richard G.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services

  12. Combined metabolic engineering of precursor and co-factor supply to increase α-santalene production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalcinati Gionata

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpenes are a class of natural products with a diverse range of attractive industrial proprieties. Due to economic difficulties of sesquiterpene production via extraction from plants or chemical synthesis there is interest in developing alternative and cost efficient bioprocesses. The hydrocarbon α-santalene is a precursor of sesquiterpenes with relevant commercial applications. Here, we construct an efficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory for α-santalene production. Results A multistep metabolic engineering strategy targeted to increase precursor and cofactor supply was employed to manipulate the yeast metabolic network in order to redirect carbon toward the desired product. To do so, genetic modifications were introduced acting to optimize the farnesyl diphosphate branch point, modulate the mevalonate pathway, modify the ammonium assimilation pathway and enhance the activity of a transcriptional activator. The approach employed resulted in an overall α-santalene yield of a 0.0052 Cmmol (Cmmol glucose-1 corresponding to a 4-fold improvement over the reference strain. This strategy, combined with a specifically developed continuous fermentation process, led to a final α-santalene productivity of 0.036 Cmmol (g biomass-1 h-1. Conclusions The results reported in this work illustrate how the combination of a metabolic engineering strategy with fermentation technology optimization can be used to obtain significant amounts of the high-value sesquiterpene α-santalene. This represents a starting point toward the construction of a yeast “sesquiterpene factory” and for the development of an economically viable bio-based process that has the potential to replace the current production methods.

  13. Tensor Product of Massey Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Bing ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we interpret Massey products in terms of realizations (twitsting cochains)of certain differential graded coalgebras with values in differential graded algebras. In the case where the target algebra is the cobar construction of a differential graded commutative Hopf algebra, we construct the tensor product of realizations and show that the tensor product is strictly associative,and commutative up to homotopy.

  14. Opportunities for biomaterials : economic, environmental and policy aspects along their life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Little was known at the start of these studies regarding the environmental impacts of bulk chemicals production from biomass and whether they could be produced economically. We have therefore analysed the entire life cycle of biomaterials: the production of bio-based chemicals, the application of bio-based polymers in packaging and finally the waste treatment of biodegradable materials. Numerous bio-based chemicals offer economic opportunities, the extent of which depends on the prices of the...

  15. Enhancement of glycerol utilization ability of Ralstonia eutropha H16 for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Toshiaki; Mukoyama, Masaharu; Orita, Izumi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a well-studied bacterium with respect to biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), which has attracted attentions as biodegradable bio-based plastics. However, this strain shows quite poor growth on glycerol of which bulk supply has been increasing as a major by-product of biodiesel industries. This study examined enhancement of glycerol assimilation ability of R. eutropha H16 by introduction of the genes of aquaglyceroporin (glpF) and glycerol kinase (glpK) from Escherichia coli. Although introduction of glpFK Ec into the strain H16 using a multi-copy vector was not successful, a recombinant strain possessing glpFK Ec within the chromosome showed much faster growth on glycerol than H16. Further analyses clarified that weak expression of glpK Ec alone allowed to establish efficient glycerol assimilation pathway, indicating that the poor growth of H16 on glycerol was caused by insufficient kination activity to glycerol, as well as this strain had a potential ability for uptake of extracellular glycerol. The engineered strains expressing glpFK Ec or glpK Ec produced large amounts of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] from glycerol with much higher productivity than H16. Unlike other glycerol-utilizable wild strains of R. eutropha, the H16-derived engineered strains accumulated P(3HB) with no significant decrease in molecular weights on glycerol, and the polydispersity index of the glycerol-based P(3HB) synthesized by the strains expressing glpFK Ec was lower than those by the parent strains. The present study demonstrated possibility of R. eutropha H16-based platform for production of useful compounds from inexpensive glycerol.

  16. Study for a simplified LCA methodology adapted to bio-products. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural resources form a renewable stock of raw materials that can be used for various purposes: food supply, production of energy (including biofuels), bio-products and bio-based construction materials. The use of agricultural resources to produce bio-products is expanding in France and throughout the world, partly due to the presumed advantages of these products towards the environment. In this context, ADEME (the French Environment and Energy Management Agency) commissioned a study for the development of a methodological framework to evaluate the environmental impacts of bio-products. This study was also in charge of the identification of areas of improvement for the 'Bilan Produit', an environmental assessment tool developed by ADEME, in order to allow a future integration of bio-products. The first step of this study consisted of a comparative review of the existing bio-products' LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). This review underlined a deep heterogeneity among the methodologies used, as well as a lack of transparency in the results displayed. In a second step of the project, all the methodological issues in the evaluation of bio-products were studied, and recommendations for the resolution of each one of them have been proposed. These critical analyses are presented in individual fact-sheets, which detail the specific issues of each question, facts from the bibliographic review, the results of the tests conducted on three bio-products, and finally the methodological recommendations to answer the question. This project showed that some methodological recommendations had to be specified depending on the objective of the LCA: eco-design, environmental labeling or comparative LCA. The work conducted also identified some necessary improvements to the Bilan Produit tool, which come under four categories: addition of the missing inventories, integration of metadata regarding the inventories, consideration for the specific end-of-life scenarios of bio-products, and

  17. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  18. Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and ...

  19. Marketplace Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics, within the Centers for Medicare aqnd Medicaid Services (CMS), has developed a set of information products and analytics...

  20. Product Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains medical device names and associated information developed by the Center. It includes a three letter device product code and a Device Class...

  1. Lean production

    OpenAIRE

    Šumavský, Jonatan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Bachelor's Thesis is to describe the general principles of lean production and afterwards apply these principles in a particular company. Due to the changing conditions on the world market is among companies growing concern about such innovative business systems. The theoretical part of this work deals with the general characteristics of lean production, including their history and focus on Toyota, as the originator of most lean systems. Mentioned are also the economic aspect...

  2. Product placement

    OpenAIRE

    Šafaříková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on the impact of product placement on children and comparison of attitudes towards its use in audiovisual works intended for children. The theoretical part describes the basic advertising and influencing what resources used, then it is defined by the influence of advertising on children. This issue is examined from the perspective of marketers and general ethical aspects. Product placement is a separate chapter in the theoretical part, starting with its definition, the d...

  3. Economic Impacts of Using Switchgrass as a Feedstock for Ethanol Production: A Case Study Located in East Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton C. English

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major motivations to establish a biobased energy sector in the United States is to promote economic development in the rural areas of the nation. This study estimated the economic impact of investing and operating a switchgrass-based ethanol plant in East Tennessee. Applying a spatially oriented mixed-integer mathematical programming model, we first determined the location of biorefinery, feedstock draw area, and the resources used in various feedstock supply systems by minimizing the total plant gate cost of feedstock. Based on the model output, an input-output model was utilized to determine the total economic impact, including direct, indirect, and induced effects of feedstock investment and annual production in the study region. Moreover, the economic impact of ethanol plant investment and annual conversion operation was analyzed. Results suggest that the total annual expenditures in an unprotected large round bale system generated a total $92.5 million in economic output within the 13 counties of East Tennessee. In addition, an estimated $234 million in overall economic output was generated through the operation of the biorefinery. This research showed that the least-cost configuration of the feedstock supply chain influenced the levels and types of economic impact of biorefinery.

  4. Coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules as a basis for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Fan, Jun; Chen, Wensen; Shu, Jiayan; Qian, Xueren; Wei, Haifeng; Wang, Qingwen; Shen, Jing

    2016-09-20

    The sustainable, efficient use of renewable bio-based additives in the production of various materials fits well into the concept of sustainability. Here, the concept of coaggregation of mineral filler particles and starch granules for improving filler-fiber interaction in paper-based cellulosic networks is presented. Coaggregation of precipitated calcium carbonate filler particles and uncooked, unmodified corn starch granules by cationic polyacrylamide (a cationic high molecular weight polymer flocculant) in combination with bentonite (an anionic microparticle) prior to addition to cellulosic fiber slurry delivered enhanced filler bondability with cellulosic fibers. For instance, under the conditions studied, preaggregation resulted in an increase in filler bondability factor from 9.24 to 15.21 at starch dosage of 1% (on the basis of the dry weight of papermaking stock). The swelling and gelatinization of the starch granules in starch-filler preaggregates or hybrids enabled the "bridging" of the gaps in cellulosic networks, leading to structural consolidation and strength enhancement. PMID:27261726

  5. 75 FR 33497 - Competitive and Noncompetitive Nonformula Federal Assistance Programs-Administrative Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... abundant commercial production of biofuels at prices competitive with fossil fuels; (b) high-value biobased... production of biofuels at prices competitive with fossil fuels; (b) High-value biobased products-- (1) To...) Applicability of regulations, (2) purpose, (3) definitions (those in addition to or different from Sec....

  6. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  7. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  8. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... analysis and Activity-based Costing help managers to better understand the different profitability of customized product lines. The rather open questions at the end of the case study allow for an adjustment to the level of knowledge of the students. Students will need to reflect on how a mechanical...

  9. Simultaneous and selective decarboxylation of L-serine and deamination of L-phenylalanine in an amino acid mixture--a means of separating amino acids for synthesizing biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yinglai; Scott, Elinor L; Witte-van Dijk, Susan C M; Sanders, Johan P M

    2016-01-25

    Amino acids (AAs) obtained from the hydrolysis of biomass-derived proteins are interesting feedstocks for the chemical industry. They can be prepared from the byproduct of biofuel production and agricultural wastes. They are rich in functionalities needed in petrochemicals, providing the opportunity to save energy, reagents, and process steps. However, their separation is required before they can be applied for further applications. Electrodialysis (ED) is a promising separation method, but its efficiency needs to be improved when separating AAs with similar isoelectric points. Thus, specific conversions are required to form product with different charges. Here we studied the enzymatic conversions which can be used as a means to aid the ED separation of neutral AAs. A model mixture containing L-serine, L-phenylalanine and L-methionine was used. The reactions of L-serine decarboxylase and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were employed to specifically convert serine and phenylalanine into ethanolamine and trans-cinnamic acid. At the isoelectric point of methionine (pH 5.74), the charge of ethanolamine and trans-cinnamic acid are +1 and -1, therefore facilitating potential separation into three different streams by electrodialysis. Here the enzyme kinetics, specificity, inhibition and the operational stabilities were studied, showing that both enzymes can be applied simultaneously to aid the ED separation of neutral AAs.

  10. Simultaneous and selective decarboxylation of L-serine and deamination of L-phenylalanine in an amino acid mixture--a means of separating amino acids for synthesizing biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yinglai; Scott, Elinor L; Witte-van Dijk, Susan C M; Sanders, Johan P M

    2016-01-25

    Amino acids (AAs) obtained from the hydrolysis of biomass-derived proteins are interesting feedstocks for the chemical industry. They can be prepared from the byproduct of biofuel production and agricultural wastes. They are rich in functionalities needed in petrochemicals, providing the opportunity to save energy, reagents, and process steps. However, their separation is required before they can be applied for further applications. Electrodialysis (ED) is a promising separation method, but its efficiency needs to be improved when separating AAs with similar isoelectric points. Thus, specific conversions are required to form product with different charges. Here we studied the enzymatic conversions which can be used as a means to aid the ED separation of neutral AAs. A model mixture containing L-serine, L-phenylalanine and L-methionine was used. The reactions of L-serine decarboxylase and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were employed to specifically convert serine and phenylalanine into ethanolamine and trans-cinnamic acid. At the isoelectric point of methionine (pH 5.74), the charge of ethanolamine and trans-cinnamic acid are +1 and -1, therefore facilitating potential separation into three different streams by electrodialysis. Here the enzyme kinetics, specificity, inhibition and the operational stabilities were studied, showing that both enzymes can be applied simultaneously to aid the ED separation of neutral AAs. PMID:25976628

  11. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  12. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    in the west coast of India and Somali region are responsible to keep the productivity high in the Arabian Sea. Sharp peaks of chlorophyll a) observed in Arabian Sea, from satellite imageries could be related to phytoplankton blooms due to upwelling. Turbidity...

  13. Television Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, John R.; Balzarini, Steven

    This document is a course of study to provide high school students with an introduction to television production skills and techniques and to provide a framework for developing critical television viewing skills. The nine units of the course introduce students to storyboards, camera operations, lighting, audio, video recording, graphics,…

  14. Product architecture, modularity and product market internationalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Nicholas; Nyuur, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The product modularity literature has burgeoned in recent years. However, there has been limited focus on how product modularity may potentially facilitate product market internationalisation strategies. The focus of this conceptual paper is in exploring whether open and modular product architectures may be associated with increasing product market internationalisation, and whether therefore the relationship between product architecture and product market internationalisation can be hypothesi...

  15. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  16. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  17. Lepton Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    *Participation in Soft Photon Study .ce HELIOS Collaboration This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are e/@m universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the ``anomalous'' low mass pairs.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of: .point begin electron identification .point muon identification .point missing energy measurement for neutrinos .point vertex identification (for @t @= @t^c^h^a^r^m). .point end \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size @=50~@m impinges on a beryllium target of diameter 50~@m, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segment...

  18. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for ethanol production without foreign genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngnyun

    . coli provides a potential biocatalyst for conversion of pentoses derived from cellulosic biomass to biobased products without the introduction of new genes.

  19. Product separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  20. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape...

  1. Review on Pyrolysis and Carbonization Technology of Solid Bio-Based Fuel%生物质固体燃料热解炭化技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 郭明辉

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of solid biomass pyrolysis and carbonization was introduced.Then the production technology and equipments related to solid biomass pyrolysis and carbonization process were expounded.The re-search status of the biomass pyrolysis and carbonization process were reviewed.The countermeasures were proposed and the development tendency of biomass pyrolysis and carbonization technology were predicted based on the dis-cussion about the existing problems of biomass pyrolysis technology at present.%通过介绍生物质固体燃料热解炭化技术的机理,阐述其生产工艺与生产设备,综述生物质固体燃料热解炭化技术的研究进展,对现阶段生物质固体燃料热解技术存在的问题进行探讨,提出相应的解决措施,预测生物质固体燃料热解炭化技术的发展趋势。

  2. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  3. 77 FR 6791 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal Advisory Committee Act requires... production of biobased fuels and biobased products. Tentative Agenda Update on USDA Biomass R&D...

  4. 77 FR 15022 - Presidential Memorandum of February 21, 2012; Driving Innovation and Creating Jobs in Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-171) (2002 Farm Bill), and strengthened by the Food... Manufacturing Extension Partnership network, to improve the performance and competitiveness of biobased product... in Rural America Through Biobased and Sustainable Product Procurement On February 21, 2012,...

  5. Community proteomics provides functional insight into polyhydroxyalkanoate production by a mixed microbial culture cultivated on fermented dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea J; Guho, Nicholas M; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Coats, Erik R

    2016-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bio-based, biodegradable polyesters that can be produced from organic-rich waste streams using mixed microbial cultures (MMCs). To maximize PHA production, MMCs are enriched for bacteria with a high polymer storage capacity through the application of aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which consequently induces a feast-famine metabolic response. Though the feast-famine response is generally understood empirically at a macro-level, the molecular level is less refined. The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial community composition and proteome profile of an enriched MMC cultivated on fermented dairy manure. The enriched MMC exhibited a feast-famine response and was capable of producing up to 40 % (wt. basis) PHA in a fed-batch reactor. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a microbial community dominated by Meganema, a known PHA-producing genus not often observed in high abundance in enrichment SBRs. The application of the proteomic methods two-dimensional electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS revealed PHA synthesis, energy generation, and protein synthesis prominently occurring during the feast phase, corroborating bulk solution variable observations and theoretical expectations. During the famine phase, nutrient transport, acyl-CoA metabolism, additional energy generation, and housekeeping functions were more pronounced, informing previously under-determined MMC functionality under famine conditions. During fed-batch PHA production, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and PHA granule-bound phasin proteins were in increased abundance relative to the SBR, supporting the higher PHA content observed. Collectively, the results provide unique microbial community structural and functional insight into feast-famine PHA production from waste feedstocks using MMCs. PMID:27147532

  6. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  7. New Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铭瑄

    2012-01-01

    Double Coin Holdings Launch New OTR Tire REM-15 With the increase of the demand for large-scale bulldozer in American market, Double Coin Group Co., Ltd. developed the Double Coin REM-15 OTR tire. This product is applicable for large-scale loader and bulldozer. The most remarkable characteristic is that it has good energy-saving performance and durability with low operating cost while the performances of tires aren't lowered. The new REM-15 is currently offered in the 17.5R25 size, which will be expanded to larger sizes in the future.

  8. Concrete products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Increased strength and durability in concrete products can be achieved through the addition of fly ash during the manufacturing process. The properties of concrete are enhanced by fly ash. The benefits include cost and the environment. Fly ash is normally defined as finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal, carried from the combustion chamber to the furnace by exhaust gas. The main applications of fly ash in concrete products are ready mix concrete, bridge decks and support footing, precast structures, blocks and bricks, and pipes. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has published standards to ensure that the desired physical properties of the concrete are achieved and the standards are found in CSA A23.1, detailing the engineering materials and mix proportions. The type of fly ash to be used for specific properties is important. Finishing and curing operations must be performed with care. The free lime generated by cement hydration reacts with fly ash, forming additional calcium silicate hydrate. Permeability of the concrete is reduced since the calcium silicate hydrate fills the void resulting from the cement pour. Some of the benefits to be derived from fly ash in concrete are: water reduction, improved workability, high ultimate strength, improved pumpability, and reduced heat of hydration. In addition, the life cycle costs are lower, and great strength is obtained. An environmental benefit results from the reduction of natural resource consumption.

  9. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-01

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail. PMID:23496419

  10. Evaluation of preservation methods for improving biogas production and enzymatic conversion yields of annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoddard Frederick L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition for whole crop maize, fibre hemp and faba bean were investigated. For the drier fibre hemp, alkaline urea treatment was studied as well. These treatments were also explored as mild pretreatment methods to improve the disassembly and hydrolysis of these lignocellulosic substrates. Results The investigated storage treatments increased the availability of the substrates for biogas production from hemp and in most cases from whole maize but not from faba bean. Ensiling of hemp, without or with addition of formic acid, increased methane production by more than 50% compared to fresh hemp. Ensiling resulted in substantially increased methane yields also from maize, and the use of formic acid in ensiling of maize further enhanced methane yields by 16%, as compared with fresh maize. Ensiled faba bean, in contrast, yielded somewhat less methane than the fresh material. Acidic additives preserved and even increased the amount of the valuable water-soluble carbohydrates during storage, which affected most significantly the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of maize. However, preservation without additives decreased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield especially in maize, due to its high content of soluble sugars that were already converted to acids during storage. Urea-based preservation significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysability of hemp. Hemp, preserved with urea, produced the highest carbohydrate increase of 46% in enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the fresh material. Alkaline pretreatment conditions of hemp improved also the methane yields. Conclusions

  11. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

  12. Selective pyrolysis of paper mill sludge by using pretreatment processes to enhance the quality of bio-oil and biochar products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper mill sludge (PMS) is a residual biomass that is generated at paper mills in large quantities. Currently, PMS is commonly disposed in landfills, which causes environmental issues through chemical leaching and greenhouse gas production. In this research, we are exploring the potential of fast pyrolysis process for converting PMS into useful bio-oil and biochar products. We demonstrate that by subjecting PMS to a combination of acid hydrolysis and torrefaction pre-treatment processes it is possible to alter the physicochemical properties and composition of the feedstock material. Fast pyrolysis of pretreated PMS produced bio-oil with significantly higher selectivity to levoglucosenone and significantly reduced the amount of ketone, aldehyde, and organic acid components. Pretreatment of PMS with combined 4% mass fraction phosphoric acid hydrolysis and 220 °C torrefaction processed prior to fast pyrolysis resulted in a 17 times increase of relative selectivity towards levoglucosenone in bio-oil product along with a reduction of acids, ketones, and aldehydes combined from 21 % to 11 %. Biochar, produced in higher yield, has characteristics that potentially make the solid byproduct ideal for soil amendment agent or sorbent material. This work reveals a promising process system to convert PMS waste into useful bio-based products. More in-depth research is required to gather more data information for assessing the economic and sustainability aspects of the process. - Highlights: • Acid hydrolysis and torrefaction reduce bio-oil yield, but improve quality. • Dilute acid conditions provide optimal treatment for bio-oil quality and yield. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces high selectivity to levoglucosenone formation. • Treated PMS produces bio-oil with reduced acid, ketone, and aldehyde content. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces biochar with low volatile matter in high yield

  13. Organic production in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wibe, Atle

    2005-01-01

    Present status of the Norwegian organic sector: -Official target of 10% organic production in 2010. -Organic production receives public subsidies -Marketing and production of plant products successful and growing -Marketing of livestock products successful and growing -Large portion of ecological products are sold unmarked together with other products

  14. Intumescent Biobased-Polylactide Films to Flame Retard Nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Reti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the development of a newprocess to flame retard nonwovens, using films basedon renewable resources. Films consist in intumescentformulations of polylactic acid (PLA, ammoniumpolyphosphate (APP blended with lignin or starchand are coated on hemp or wool nonwovens. Theobjective of this study was to investigate the fireretardant and mechanical properties of textilesprotected by FR PLA films for potential use inbuilding applications. Horizontal and vertical flamespread tests as well as cone calorimetry tests showthat flammability properties of nonwovens aresignificantly improved. Better mechanical propertiesare also obtained with coated nonwovens.

  15. Pilot biobased bekers : tips, achtergrondinformatie en evaluatie van de pilot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolck, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Dit document is primair bedoeld als hulpmiddel bij de inkoop en/of aanbesteding van de verzorging van koffie in kantoorgebouwen. In het document is een negen tal praktische tips verwerkt. Dit zijn tips die in de pilot zijn meegegeven aan de beoordelaars van de offertes: professionals actief in facil

  16. Influence of polyols on properties of bio-based polyurethanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Gopalakrishnan; T Linda Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Polyurethane elastomers from cardanol-based polyol, polypropylene glycol (PPG-1200 and PPG-2000) and isophorone diisocyanate were prepared in the form of thin sheets. The sorption,mechanical and thermal properties were studied. The solubility parameter and molecular weight between crosslinks of polyurethane samples were calculated from swelling experiments. The swelling study of polyurethanes revealed that the sorption is found to decrease with an increase in chain length of PPG. The stress–strain data showed that the elastomers obtained using PPG-1200 gave the best mechanical properties. The thermal degradation of all the three elastomers starts almost at 270°C, regardless of the PPG chain length. The value of activation energy of degradation calculated using the Broido method was in the range of 40–70 kJ/mol.

  17. NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent personal protective equipment (PPE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciera, Lucy Wanjiru; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions (South America, Asia and Africa) diseases like malaria and dengue cause many deaths. These diseases are transmitted through mosquitoes bites (Anopheles sp. and Aedes aegypti respectively). The current practice to protect against transmission of these diseases is by use of mosquito repellents. Common mosquito repellents used today are synthetic in nature and are suspected or have been proved to be harmful to the user and environment (e.g. DEET, DDT, dimethylphylphthalate, p...

  18. Properties of new fully bio-based thermoset composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bierer, M.; Pohl, T.; Natter, E.;

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, natural fibre textiles had been impregnated with the furan resin to form pre-pregs. The pre-pregs were consolidated into composites in a compression mould and the mechanical properties, the burning behaviour and the moisture sorption behaviour had been determined.......In the present study, natural fibre textiles had been impregnated with the furan resin to form pre-pregs. The pre-pregs were consolidated into composites in a compression mould and the mechanical properties, the burning behaviour and the moisture sorption behaviour had been determined....

  19. 76 FR 6319 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... who require alternative means for communication for regulatory information (Braille, large print... 19, 2003 (68 FR 70730-70746). The Guidelines were promulgated on January 11, 2005 (70 FR 1792), and... ``Guidelines for Marketing the BioPreferred Program,'' and a link to the Federal Trade Commission ``Guides...

  20. Bio-Based Nanocomposites: An Alternative to Traditional Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jitendra S.; Akinola, Adekunle T.; Kabakov, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMC), often referred to as fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), consist of fiber reinforcement (E-glass, S2-glass, aramid, carbon, or natural fibers) and polymer matrix/resin (polyester, vinyl ester, polyurethane, phenolic, and epoxies). Eglass/ polyester and E-glass/vinyl ester composites are extensively used in the marine,…

  1. A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing–thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10−5 mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

  2. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of substation of modified CNCs is determined by quantitative direct carbon MAS NMR for malonate CNCs, malate CNCs and Citrate CNCs are found to be 0.16, 0.22 and 0.18, respectively. Re-hydrolysis experiments are performed and the yield of citrate CNCs was increased to 55% with little effect on CNC crystallinity or morphology. Citrate CNCs are then used for a myriad of applications such as polymer reinforcement (polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and bio-temptation of inorganic nanoparticles. Introduction of just 1% citrate CNCs results in a 40°C increase in PVOH's thermal stability (T50%). Appendant citrate groups are used for the direct reduction of silver nanoparticles without any external reducing agents. Finally citrate CNCs are used to reinforce collagen hydrogels. Chapter four builds on "grafting from" reactions of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of CNCs to further increase the HDT of PLAs above 100°C. Taking advantage of the PMMA-PLLA miscibility, the presence of PMMA grafts on the CNC surface clearly improves CNC dispersion in PLLA, and reduces CNC aggregation thus enhancing the PLAs HDT. Herein "grafting from" reactions of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on the surface of CNCs was is performed by free-radical grafting in water using two different redox initiators: Fe2+/H2O2 (Fenton's reagent) and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). The amount of grafted PMMA could be easily tuned according to the initiator and CAN clearly represents the most efficient initiator. From rheological data, high grafting levels favor the percolation of CNC with the development of a long-range 3D network. PLA's (HDT) higher was increased to over 130°C. Chapter five reports blending PLA with another renewable poly(o-hydroxytetradecanoic acid) (PC14).The goal of this chapter is to enhance the poor brittleness of PLA by blending with a rubbery polymer such as PC14. Like most polymer blends, PLA and PC14 are however found to be immiscible by simple blending. To achieve this goal, a fully bio-sourced PLA based polymer blend is conceived by incorporating small quantities of poly(o-hydroxytetradecanoic acid) (PC14). PC14 is produced by polycondensation, thus we explore ring opening polymerization of poly(w-pentadecalactone) using enzymatic reactive extrusion. The final chapter of this thesis concerns the feasibility of conducting an enzymatic ring-opening polymerization on the basis of lipase enzymes by reactive extrusion (REX) at high shear and temperature conditions. The ability of lipases to catalyze ring-opening and condensation polymerizations at relatively low temperatures (e.g. 70--90°C) is advantageous to reduce energy input and to preserve thermally sensitive chemical moieties. However, when high molecular weight polymer synthesis is desired, corresponding diffusional constraints must be overcome by either running reactions at higher temperatures (e.g. 150--220°C) or by adding solvent. Reactive extrusion (REX) has been used to overcome the aforementioned problems of bulk polymerizations that slows chain growth. In the chapter using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) as catalyst at temperatures ranging from 90 to 130°C is investigated. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  3. Green building blocks for bio-based plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Hackmann, M.M.; Bos, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possible routes to produce the most commonly used polymers from biomass. This includes vinyl polymers, polyesters, polyamides, polyurethanes, and synthetic rubbers. Also the most promising newly developed polymers that can be produced from biomass are investigated. A

  4. 76 FR 6366 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Investment Act (FSRIA) that were effected when the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act (FCEA) of 2008 was... Rural Investment Act of 2002 (FSRIA), 7 U.S.C. 8102, as amended by the Food, Conservation, and Energy..., 116 Stat. 476 (7 U.S.C. 8102), as amended by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008,...

  5. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deze macro-economische impactstudie (MES) biedt kwantitatieve inzichten in de macro-economische effecten van de invoering tussen nu en 2030 van groene, op palmolie gebaseerde alternatieven voor de productie van elektriciteit, brandstoffen, chemicaliën en materialen in Maleisië.This Macro-economic Im

  6. Breakthrough CO₂ adsorption in bio-based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkarami, Sepideh; Azargohar, Ramin; Dalai, Ajay K; Soltan, Jafar

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the effects of different methods of activation on CO2 adsorption performance of activated carbon were studied. Activated carbons were prepared from biochar, obtained from fast pyrolysis of white wood, using three different activation methods of steam activation, CO2 activation and Potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation. CO2 adsorption behavior of the produced activated carbons was studied in a fixed-bed reactor set-up at atmospheric pressure, temperature range of 25-65°C and inlet CO2 concentration range of 10-30 mol% in He to determine the effects of the surface area, porosity and surface chemistry on adsorption capacity of the samples. Characterization of the micropore and mesopore texture was carried out using N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 and 273 K, respectively. Central composite design was used to evaluate the combined effects of temperature and concentration of CO2 on the adsorption behavior of the adsorbents. The KOH activated carbon with a total micropore volume of 0.62 cm(3)/g and surface area of 1400 m(2)/g had the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 1.8 mol/kg due to its microporous structure and high surface area under the optimized experimental conditions of 30 mol% CO2 and 25°C. The performance of the adsorbents in multi-cyclic adsorption process was also assessed and the adsorption capacity of KOH and CO2 activated carbons remained remarkably stable after 50 cycles with low temperature (160°C) regeneration. PMID:26257348

  7. EVALUATION OF CURRENT SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF BIOBASED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable technology is driven by economic competitiveness, government policies and public pressure. The claim of inherent cleanliness for biotechnology is too simplistic. Each application of biotechnology must be evaluated for suitable characteristics of sustainability. The ...

  8. Potential Environmental Benefits of Ultralight Particleboards with Biobased Foam Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Ganne-Chédeville

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of ultralight particleboards (ULPB with an expanded foam core layer produced in an in-line foaming step is under development. The environmental impacts of three types of ULPB containing foam based on 100% polylactic acid (PLA, 100% expanded polystyrene, and 50% PLA/50% polymethyl methacrylate, as well as a conventional particleboard (PB, have been compared in an LCA. Two approaches were chosen for the assessment: first, the “EPD-approach” in accordance with EN 15804 for EPD of building materials and second, a holistic-approach which allows an expansion of the system boundaries in order to forecast the consequences of a broader replacement of PB with ULPB. The results show that most of the environmental impacts are related to raw materials and end-of-life stages. Both approaches show that the exchange of PB with ULPB with a foam core based on PLA leads to a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the PLA is responsible for higher ecotoxicity results in comparison to non-bio-based polymers mainly due to agricultural processes. Both approaches allowed the drafting of complementary advisories for environmental impact reduction addressed to the developers.

  9. 75 FR 63695 - Designation of Biobased Items for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... that meet different market requirements, uses and/or different performance specifications. Where such... performance standards or specifications of the procuring agency. An item with recovered materials content may not meet reasonable performance standards or specifications, for example, if the use of the item...

  10. Bio-based composites that mimic the plant cell wall

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Nature creates high performance materials under modest conditions, i.e., neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressure. One of the most significant materials is the plant cell wall. The plant cell wall is a composite of oriented cellulose microfibrils reinforcing a lignin/hemicellulose matrix. In principle, the plant cell wall composite is designed much like a synthetic fiber-reinforced polymer composite. Unlike synthetic composites, the plant cell wall has an excellent combination of h...

  11. BOGO van groene grondstoffen naar biobased materialen. eigenschappen van polymerlkzuur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, G.G.J.; Beukelaer, de H.J.; Molenveld, K.

    2013-01-01

    Deze opdracht geeft inzicht in de eigenschappen van PLA en daarmee de toepassingsmogelijkheden. Het praktijkdeel van deze opdracht laat zien hoe door keuze van de juiste PLA typen en temperatuurbehandeling de maximale gebruikstemperatuur (HDT=Heat Distortion Temperature) verhoogd kan worden.

  12. Production management system of ecosafety agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Denysenko

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with suggestions for improving the production management system of ecosafety agricultural products according to international standards in the sphere of quality and environmental protection. The production management algorithm of ecosafety products, including methodological and application platform of forming of administrative decisions has been suggested.

  13. The structuring of products and product programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens myrup; Hansen, Claus thorp; Mortensen, Niels henrik

    1996-01-01

    Structure means the way in which things are build up. A composed product does not exhibit one structure, but hides in its structure of parts several different structuring principles, which fit the product for production and service and make it a member of a product programme, where other family m...

  14. Multiple-product firms and product switching

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Redding, Stephen; Peter K. Schott

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the frequency, pervasiveness, and determinants of product switching by US manufacturing firms. We find that one-half of firms alter their mix of five-digit SIC products every five years, that product switching is correlated with both firm- and firm-product attributes, and that product adding and dropping induce large changes in firm scope. The behavior we observe is consistent with a natural generalization of existing theories of industry dynamics that incorporates endogen...

  15. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...... Object for this project. In the presentation, benefits and challenges of the PSM will be presented as a basis for the discussion....

  16. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  17. Heterologous expression of Mus musculus immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1) in Escherichia coli results in itaconate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuoristo, K.S.; Mars, A.E.; Loon, S.; Orsi, E.; Eggink, G.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Itaconic acid, a C5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential biobased building block for the polymer industry. It is obtained from the citric acid cycle by decarboxylation of cis-aconitic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by CadA in the native itaconic acid producer Aspergillus terreus. Recently, another en

  18. Citric acid production by Candida species grown on a soy-based crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Citric acid was produced by five species of the yeast Candida after growth on a medium containing soy biodiesel-based crude glycerol. After growth on a medium containing 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 and C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced the highest citric acid levels. On 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, the citric acid level produced by C. parapsilosis ATCC 7330 was 1.8 g L(-1) or 11.3 g L(-1), respectively, while C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced citric acid concentrations of 3.0 g L(-1) or 10.4 g L(-1), respectively. Biomass production by C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C was highest at 1.2 g L(-1) or 6.9 g L(-1), respectively. The citric acid yields observed for C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 after growth on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol (0.35 g g(-1) or 0.21 g g(-1), respectively) were generally higher than for the other Candida species tested. When similar crude glycerol concentrations were present in the culture medium, citric acid yields observed for some of the Candida species utilized in this study were about the same or higher compared to citric acid yields by Yarrowia lipolytica strains. Based on the findings, it appeared that C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 was the most effective species utilized, with its citric acid production being similar to what has been observed when citric acid-producing strains of Y. lipolytica were grown on crude glycerol under batch conditions that could be of significance to biobased citric acid production.

  19. 1,5-二氨基戊烷的生产及应用研究进展%Recent advances in the production and application of 1,5-diaminopentane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩亭云

    2013-01-01

    As a microbial metabolite, 1 ,5-diaminopentane can be produced by fermentation,using genetically engineered microorganism escherichia coli or corynebacterium glutamicum. The fermentative production of 1 ,5-diaminopentane can be used to produce innovative bio-based polyamides. The related study of 1 ,5-diaminopentane at home and abroad is described, the existing problems and the directions for future research in this field are pointed out.%作为微生物代谢产物之一,1,5-二氨基戊烷可由基因工程改造的大肠杆菌或谷氨酸棒状杆菌发酵生产.发酵得到的1,5-二氨基戊烷可用于生产新型生物聚酰胺.介绍了利用大肠杆菌及谷氨酸棒状杆菌生产1,5-二氨基戊烷的过程及其国内外应用研究状况,指出了研究中存在的问题及今后该领域的发展方向.

  20. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...... study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality...

  1. New Product Entries and Product Class Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Charlotte H

    1990-01-01

    Because new products are critical to success and survival, the evaluation of new product ideas receives much attention. In the early stages of product development, concept evaluation models are used to predict market share and/or sales of hypothetical product concepts. These models have focused on consumer preferences, brand choice, and market share. Individual demand or usage rates have been considered exogenous. This paper presents a concept evaluation model which considers the effects of a...

  2. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-product...... it is shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%....

  3. Extracting Product Features from Chinese Product Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Xi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the great development of e-commerce, the number of product reviews grows rapidly on the e-commerce websites. Review mining has recently received a lot of attention, which aims to discover the valuable information from the massive product reviews. Product feature extraction is one of the basic tasks of product review mining. Its effectiveness can influence significantly the performance of subsequent jobs. Double Propagation is a state-of-the-art technique in product feature extraction. In this paper, we apply the Double Propagation to the product feature exaction from Chinese product reviews and adopt some techniques to improve the precision and recall. First, indirect relations and verb product features are introduced to increase the recall. Second, when ranking candidate product features by using HITS, we expand the number of hubs by means of the dependency relation patterns between product features and opinion words to improve the precision. Finally, the Normalized Pattern Relevance is employed to filter the exacted product features. Experiments on diverse real-life datasets show promising results

  4. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF THE BIOPOLYMER POLYLACTIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research into the environmental implications of biobased production has focused primarily on global warming and fossil fuel use, while neglecting other environmental impacts. There are a multitude of contemporary environmental problems associated with the production of agricultu...

  6. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  7. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiclear DH® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... EndaCof XP® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... Entuss® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone)

  8. A Product Safety Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  9. PRODUCT MANAGEMENT AUDIT

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Rau

    2013-01-01

    Product audit is the method which aims at evaluating the efficiency of preventive and corrective actions implemented to improve a product-specific manufacturing process. Efficiency is measured by comparing the results obtained from testing the final product against product specification. Product auditing method is a specific method developed by the major car manufacturers. The effectiveness of this method is revealed in the quality of products delivered and in the optimization of manufacturin...

  10. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs an...

  11. Poultry meat products, technology of production, market

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Petr

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on poultry meat and its products. A definition of meat, sources of meat, types of poultry production and own goal of the thesis are explained in the first chapter. Then there are described technological processes of poultry treatment in common with a veterinary and hygienic supervision which provides a check of the production and processing of poultry meat. In addition, there are mentioned some manufacturing companies which are engaged in poultry processing. The third a...

  12. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...

  13. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  14. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources. The Potential of White Biotechnology. The BREW Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornburg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research FhG-ISl, Karlsruhe (Germany); Overbeek, L. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Terragni, F.; Recchia, E. [CERISS, Centro per I' Educazione, la Ricerca, I' lnformazione su Scienza e Society, Milan (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    This study investigates the medium and long-term opportunities and risks of the biotechnological production of organic chemicals. The objective is to gain better understanding of the techno-economic and the societal viability of White Biotechnology in the coming decades. The key research questions are which products could be made with White Biotechnology, whether these products can contribute to savings of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, under which conditions the products become economically viable, which risks may originate from the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fermentation and what the public perception is. The main purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide an overview of emerging key White Biotechnology products and to explain which chemicals could be produced on their basis. For a selection of these products, detailed environmental and economic assessments are conducted in Chapter 3 (in specific terms, i.e. per tonne of product). Chapter 3 discusses also the so-called Generic Approach which is the methodology we developed and applied to assess future processes and processes, for which very little information is available. In Chapter 4, three scenario projections are developed for Europe (EU-25), thereby assuming benign, moderate and disadvantageous conditions for bio-based chemicals. The purpose of this chapter is hence to understand to which extent restructuring of the chemical sector might occur under which conditions. In Chapter 5, the risks related to the use of White Biotechnology are addressed. The main purpose of this chapter is to give insight into the main risk components influencing the overall risk and of the knowledge gaps. Both conventional risks (e.g., human toxicity and accidents) and risks related to generic modification (e.g., horizontal gene transfer) are analyzed. Since the public perception may play an important role for the implementation of White Biotechnology on a large scale, these issues are discussed in

  15. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  16. Successful product realization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  17. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  18. Product Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Antonov, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Product Information Management (PIM) is a field that deals with the product master data management and combines into one base the experience and the principles of data integration and data quality. Product Information Management merges the specific attributes of products across all channels in the supply chain. By unification, centralization and standardization of product information into one platform, quality and timely information with added value can be achieved. The goal of the theoretica...

  19. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  20. Product introduction by SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Carolien van de Graaff

    2005-01-01

    In recent years a great deal of research has been carried out on the subject of product introductions. However, there has been little research on product introductions by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Current theory on product introductions might thus not be fully applicable to SMEs. This report therefore aims to answer the question: 'Does the way product introductions are handled by SMEs differ from the way product introductions are described in literature?' We find that there a...