WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioassays water-pollution effects

  1. Developments in Water Pollution Law and Policy in China: Effective Enough to Cope with Water Pollution Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Du

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues facing China. In 2005, an exceptionally serious water pollution accident in the Songhua River — caused by an unintended and sudden chemicals explosion — heralded an official recognition of a water pollution crisis in China. Although there have been new initiatives in national law and policy concerning water pollution that attempt to respond to issues of: social conflict caused by water pollution; government accountability; liability of polluting entities; and citizens’ rights in cases of water pollution, the challenges for the rule of environmental law in effectively reducing water pollution accidents and resolving water pollution conflict still exist. There is an urgent need to strengthen compliance and enforcement. This paper discusses the issues of water pollution conflict and the possible resolutions offered through law and policy.

  2. Community Awareness on Microbial Water Pollution and Its Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ignorance on effects of microbial water pollution has resulted in tremendous ill health, which, in turn, has had negative consequences on socio-economic development. Indeed, frequent endemic water-borne diseases in the studied area were found to be a result of lack of awareness on water pollution. The majority of ...

  3. A method for screening for the risk of chronic effects of surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldán, Přemysl; Badurová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a method for screening for the risk of chronic surface water pollution which was developed at the T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute. The approach, which is based on exotoxicological analyses, can be classed as a rapid method of assessment. The degree of risk of chronic effects surface water pollution is determined from an evaluation of two major parameters-toxicity and genotoxicity. As the method utilizes relative simple procedures for sample collection, pretreatment of the sample, chemical analyses, bioassays and results assessment, this approach is suitable for widespread practical use. Extensive utilization of this approach for assessing river basins in the Czech Republic has proved its suitability for a more sophisticated detection of the biological impact of surface water pollution. This is documented in the article where the method is used in a study of the Bílina River, and in the overview of the results of the risk assessment of chronic effects of surface water pollution in selected sections of three international river basins in the Czech Republic.

  4. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  5. Developments in Water Pollution Law and Policy in China: Effective Enough to Cope with Water Pollution Conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qun

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues facing China. In 2005, an exceptionally serious water pollution accident in the Songhua River — caused by an unintended and sudden chemicals explosion — heralded an official recognition of a water pollution crisis in China. Although there have been new initiatives in national law and policy concerning water pollution that attempt to respond to issues of: social conflict caused by water pollution; government accountability; liabil...

  6. Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivona, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    A case history shows ''how'' to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility's site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements

  7. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  8. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  9. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  10. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Effect of organic species on the solar detoxification of water polluted with pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, J.; Santos-Juanes, L. [Grupo de Procesos de Oxidacion Avanzada, Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Miro, P., E-mail: pamimar@eio.upv.es [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Vicente, R. [Grupo de Procesos de Oxidacion Avanzada, Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A., E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es [Grupo de Procesos de Oxidacion Avanzada, Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Amat, A.M. [Grupo de Procesos de Oxidacion Avanzada, Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Aliphatic surfactants inhibit treatment of pesticides by solar photo-Fenton. {yields} Longer irradiation periods are required for pesticides removal and mineralization. {yields} An enhancement of biodegradability can be achieved. - Abstract: The effect of organic species on a solar-driven photo-Fenton treatment of a mixture of pesticides (methyl-oxydemethon, methidathion, carbaryl and dimethoate) has been studied in this paper. Triethoxyisododecyl alcohol, acetophenone and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) have been used as examples of surfactants, solvents and complexing agents, respectively. An inhibitory effect on mineralization as well as on the elimination of the pesticides was observed in the case of the aliphatic surfactants, most probably due to the competition between the pesticides and the added organic matter for reaction with the relatively unselective hydroxyl radical. A methodology combining chemical analyses and bioassays was tested in order to explore the applicability of coupling a photo-Fenton process with a biological treatment in the presence of the surfactant. Despite the complexity of the mixture under study, a reliable monitoring of the process was accomplished; the biocompatibility of the mixture was enhanced and the optimal irradiation intensity was achieved just after complete removal of the pesticides.

  12. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  13. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  14. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  15. The Practice of Water Pollution Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, Kenneth M.

    Water pollution techniques and practices, including data analysis, interpretation and display are described in this book intended primarily for the biologist inexperienced in this work, and for sanitary engineers, chemists, and water pollution control administrators. The characteristics of aquatic environments, their biota, and the effects of…

  16. Soil plate bioassay: an effective method to determine ecotoxicological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R; Roca-Pérez, L; Marimón, L

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have become one of the most serious anthropogenic stressors for plants and other living organisms. Having efficient and feasible bioassays available to assess the ecotoxicological risks deriving from soil pollution is necessary. This work determines pollution by Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in two soils used for growing rice from the Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Spain). Both were submitted to a different degree of anthropic activity, and their ecotoxicological risk was assessed by four ecotoxicity tests to compare their effectiveness: Microtox test, Zucconi test, pot bioassay (PB) and soil plate bioassay (SPB). The sensitivity of three plant species (barley, cress and lettuce) was also assessed. The results reveal a different degree of effectiveness and level of inhibition in the target organisms' growth depending on the test applied, to such an extent that the one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences only for the plate bioassay results, with considerable inhibition of root and shoot elongation in seedlings. Of the three plant species selected, lettuce was the most sensitive species to toxic effects, followed by cress and barley. Finally, the results also indicate that the SPB is an efficient, simple and economic alternative to other ecotoxicological assays to assess toxicity risks deriving from soil pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water Pollution Control Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  18. Effect of water pollution on expression of immune response genes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed to study quality of water in Lake Qarun and effects of pollution on expression of immune genes in Egyptian sole (Solea aegyptiaca) fish. The study was carried out from August 2006 to the end of April 2007. The water samples were collected from different locations of Lake Qarun at Al-Oberge within ...

  19. Effect of water pollution on marine organisms; Sekiyu osen no kaiyo seibutsu eno eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Fujisawa, K. [Okayama Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Toxicity of petroleum component to aquatic organisms appears as a result of its deposition onto living organisms followed by its migration into bodies of the organisms, and emergence of toxicity from the migrated component. Effect evaluation processes standing on this viewpoint may include the exposure monitoring or migration monitoring, in which the petroleum component migrated into marine organisms is analyzed and the state of the component concentrated in these organisms is measured, or effect monitoring, in which actions of the petroleum component in the organisms are investigated. The effects of petroleum on aquatic organisms would include the following occurrence: direct fatal toxicity acting on cells and membranes, quasi-fatal toxicity causing death indirectly through feeding actions and abnormal actions, direct coating of oil on surface of organisms, which prevents movability and feeding actions of the organisms and reduces hydrophilicity of plumes and hairs, pollution of living organisms due to migration of carcinogenic aromatic compounds into bodies of the living organisms, and change in species compositions and geographic distribution of living organisms due to change in physico-chemical environment. This paper explains cases of detection and identification of organic sulfur compounds, aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds, paraffins, olefins and heavy metals in parametric compounds of petroleum. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Genotoxic effects of water pollution on two fish species living in Karasu River, Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Zehra; Sişman, Turgay

    2014-11-01

    Karasu River, which is the only river in the Erzurum plain, is the source of the Euphrates River (Eastern Anatolia of Turkey). The river is in a serious environmental situation as a result of pollution by agricultural and industrial sewage and domestic discharges. The present study aims to evaluate genotoxic effects of toxic metals in chub, Leuciscus cephalus, and transcaucasian barb, Capoeta capoeta, collected from contaminated site of the Karasu River, in comparison with fish from an unpolluted reference site. Heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the river were determined. The condition factor (CF) was taken as a general biomarker of the health of the fish, and genotoxicity assays such as micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (NA) were carried out on the fish species studied. MN and NA such as kidney-shaped nucleus, notched nucleus, binucleated, lobed nucleus, and blebbed nucleus were assessed in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill epithelial cells, and liver cells of the fish. A significant decrease in CF values associated with a significant elevation in MN and NA frequencies was observed in fish collected from the polluted sites compared with those from the reference site. Results of the current study show the significance of integrating a set of biomarkers to identify the effects of anthropogenic pollution. High concentrations of heavy metals have a potential genotoxic effects, and the toxicity is possibly related to industrial, agricultural, and domestic activities.

  1. Effect of chemical water pollution on the physiological activity of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubner, I; Tóth, D; Talaeva, J G; Bagdasarjan, G A; Zacharkina, A N

    1981-01-01

    Anionactive detergents occurring in water in concentrations up to 100 micrograms . ml-1 do not exert inhibitory effects on the present microflora, either in case of heterotrophic bacteria, indicators of fecal pollution, or pathogenic and facultative pathogenic bacteria, including viruses. On the contrary, the studied bacterial species are able to decompose surfactants and utilize them as carbon source. Though, the rate of degradation is different with respect to respective substances, as well as with regard to the species of organisms, and their physiological activity. Only at higher detergent concentrations inhibition of microbial cell growth may be observed.

  2. Sources of bathing water pollution in northern Tuscany (Italy): Effects of meteorological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco; Carducci, Annalaura

    2017-01-30

    This study was carried out in a popular tourist destination located in Italy, where short-term pollution posed the problem of low quality status of bathing waters (according to European Directive) owing to the fecal contamination caused by drainage ditches. Our goal was to understand the role of meteorological conditions on freshwater and seawater bacterial indicator levels, and the impact of polluted streams on seawater contamination. To this aim, results from surface waters were analyzed during five bathing seasons, from 2011 to 2015. Our results demonstrated a relationship between bacterial densities and rainfall amount and a time-dependent dilution effect of the sea between the two halves of each bathing season. This analytical survey confirmed the strategic role of meteorological variables in bathing waters quality, and it could be a support for generation and development of predicting models of indicator levels for bathing area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  4. Drinking water pollution. DNA effects reproductive disorders; Inquinamento delle acque potabili. Effetti sul DNA e sulla riproduzione umana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S.; Zani, C. [Brescia Univ., Brescia (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina Sperimentale ed Applicata, Sez. Igiene; Mantovani, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy); Righi, E.; Aggazzotti, G. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Igienistiche, Microbiologiche e Biostatiche

    2001-06-01

    Experimental studies have revealed in drinking water the presence of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds, such as pesticides, organic solvents, heavy metals and disinfection by-products and epidemiological studies have found cancer risk for populations exposed to these contaminants. Moreover, researches have shown reproductive and developmental hazards for people who consume drinking water containing endocrine disrupting chemicals. The aim of this review is to describe and evaluate the health hazards arisen from the human exposure to these drinking water pollutants potentially able to damage DNA and produce adverse reproductive effects. [Italian] Il monitoraggio delle sostanze genotossiche nelle acque potabili e' ormai una tecnica matura, applicata in numerosi laboratori in tutto il mondo che analizzano di routine le acque potabili. Gli stessi Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater statunitensi nel 1995 hanno introdotto per la prima volta l'indicazione del test di Ames come test di riferimento per condurre indagini di mutagenesi nelle acque. Negli ultimi anni ricerche sperimentali ed epidemiologiche hanno messo in luce un nuovo problema legato all'inquinamento idrico: la presenza di composti che producono effetti dannosi sulla salute riproduttiva umana. Grazie anche all'incremento degli studi sperimentali di tossicologia della riproduzione, un numero crescente di composti sono stati identificati come possibili fattori di rischio per la fertilita' e lo sviluppo. Inoltre alcune indagini epidemiologiche hanno rilevato possibili effetti dannosi sulla salute riproduttiva in gruppi di donne esposte a contaminanti idrici. Metodiche biologiche sempre piu' sofisticate sono in fase di sperimentazione e si spera che in futuro possano essere applicate anche per il monitoraggio degli inquinanti idrici tossici per la riproduzione umana.

  5. Combined effects of copper and food on the midge Chironomus riparius in whole sediment bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.M.; Paumen, M.L.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects observed in whole-sediment bioassays must be seen as the joint effect of all sediment characteristics. In whole-sediment bioassays. however. adverse effects oil test organisms are usually attributed to the presence of contaminants and effects of food are often ignored. The aim of this study

  6. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  7. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  8. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  9. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  11. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  12. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  13. Water Pollution in School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

  14. Water Pollution Detection Based on Hypothesis Testing in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution detection is of great importance in water conservation. In this paper, the water pollution detection problems of the network and of the node in sensor networks are discussed. The detection problems in both cases of the distribution of the monitoring noise being normal and nonnormal are considered. The pollution detection problems are analyzed based on hypothesis testing theory firstly; then, the specific detection algorithms are given. Finally, two implementation examples are given to illustrate how the proposed detection methods are used in the water pollution detection in sensor networks and prove the effectiveness of the proposed detection methods.

  15. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  16. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  18. Water pollution by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Brian

    2008-02-12

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification of the catchment as well as nutrient, particulate and biocide pollution. The European Water Framework Directive implicitly recognizes this in requiring restoration of water bodies to 'good ecological quality', which is defined as only slightly different from pristine state. The implications for the management of agriculture are far more profound than is currently widely realized.

  19. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  20. Gravitactic orientation of Euglena gracilis – a sensitive endpoint for ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eUllah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of aquatic environments with natural and anthropogenically produced substances is one of the major environmental problems of the world. In many countries the decreasing quantity of water coupled with its increasing usage in multiple sectors has adversely affected water quality and caused problems of water pollution. Polluted water has been a main cause of adverse effects on plants, animals and humans throughout the world. Physicochemical analysis of water, which is a common method used for quality assessment of water, alone may not be enough as it cannot evaluate the impact on living organisms. Therefore, bioassessment of water and wastewater quality is considered to be essential to reflect the ultimate effects on living organisms. Many organisms like bacteria, algae, fish, invertebrates and protozoan are used as bioassay organisms for assessment of water quality. This review article elucidates the use of Euglena gracilis, a freshwater motile flagellate of the phylum Euglenophyta, as a suitable organism in ecotoxicological studies with special emphasis on its gravitactic orientation as a sensitive end point in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants.

  1. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  2. Harmful Algal Blooms in Asia: an insidious and escalating water pollution phenomenon with effects on ecological and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Glibert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs, those proliferations of algae that causeenvironmental, economic, or human health problems, are increasing in frequency,duration, and geographic extent due to nutrient pollution. The scale of the HABproblem in Asia has escalated in recent decades in parallel with the increase in useof agricultural fertilizer, the development of aquaculture, and a growing population.Three examples, all from China but illustrative of the diversity of events and theirecological, economic, and human health effects throughout Asia, are highlightedhere. These examples include inland (Lake Tai or Taihu as well as offshore (EastChina Sea and Yellow Sea waters. The future outlook for controlling these bloomsis bleak. The effects of advancing industrialized agriculture and a continually growingpopulation will continue to result in more nutrient pollution and more HABs—-and more effects - in the foreseeable future.

  3. Rapid Bioassessment and In Situ Bioassay: Cost Effective Tools for Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2002-08-23

    Environmental impact can be difficult to assess, especially at the ecosystem level. Any impact assessment methodology that can give cost effective and timely results is highly desirable. Rapid bioassessment (RBA) is cost effective and produces timely results. Several types of RBA have been used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to assess stream conditions, including the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish community characteristics, and various techniques using aquatic macroinvertebrate species diversity and abundance. In an attempt to broaden the applicability of the RBA concept, we have also begun to develop RBA techniques for seep-fed wetlands and terrestrial habitats. These techniques will focus on vertebrate and macroinvertebrate assemblages for seep-fed wetlands and arthropod assemblages for terrestrial habitats. In situ bioassay is another technique that could be used for rapid and economical assessment of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. We propose the development of two methods of in situ bioassay that can address bioavailability of constituents of concern. The use of caged bioassay organisms can be applied to terrestrial systems such as capped or existing waste sites using the common house cricket. Another proposed bioassay could use a resident species, such as the imported red fire ant, which is found in disturbed habitats and open areas such as waste sites. Combining in situ techniques with RBA methodologies has the potential to provide a comprehensive assessment of chemical and physical impacts to a wide range of ecosystem types.

  4. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  5. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Finite Difference Formulation for Prediction of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Hanani; Rusli, Nursalasawati; Yahya, Zainab

    2018-03-01

    Water is an important component of the earth. Human being and living organisms are demand for the quality of water. Human activity is one of the causes of the water pollution. The pollution happened give bad effect to the physical and characteristic of water contents. It is not practical to monitor all aspects of water flow and transport distribution. So, in order to help people to access to the polluted area, a prediction of water pollution concentration must be modelled. This study proposed a one-dimensional advection diffusion equation for predicting the water pollution concentration transport. The numerical modelling will be produced in order to predict the transportation of water pollution concentration. In order to approximate the advection diffusion equation, the implicit Crank Nicolson is used. For the purpose of the simulation, the boundary condition and initial condition, the spatial steps and time steps as well as the approximations of the advection diffusion equation have been encoded. The results of one dimensional advection diffusion equation have successfully been used to predict the transportation of water pollution concentration by manipulating the velocity and diffusion parameters.

  7. Effects of Wind Speed on Aerosol Spray Penetration in Adult Mosquito Bioassay Cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    powers a direct-drive air compressor that pro- duces the air blast that creates the pesticide droplet spectrum at the dual venture style, stainless steel...each replication, the straws were carefully placed in individually labeled plastic bags and stored out of the light to prevent any photodegradation ...M, Coughlin J. 2006. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22:469–472. Boobar LR, Dobson SE, Perich MJ

  8. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Conley, Jamison; Fedorko, Evan; Luo, Juhua; Armistead, Matthew

    2012-04-02

    The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer mortality risk. The geographically weighted

  9. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendryx Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer

  10. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D

  11. The latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xin; Tang, Yanhong; Wong, Christina W Y; Zang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discover the latent causal chain of industrial water pollution in China and find ways to cure the want on discharge of toxic waste from industries. It draws evidences from the past pollution incidents in China. Through further digging the back interests and relations by analyzing representative cases, extended theory about loophole derivations and causal chain effect is drawn. This theoretical breakthrough reflects deeper causality. Institutional defect instead of human error is confirmed as the deeper reason of frequent outbreaks of water pollution incidents in China. Ways for collaborative environmental governance are proposed. This paper contributes to a better understanding about the deep inducements of industrial water pollution in China, and, is meaningful for ensuring future prevention and mitigation of environmental pollution. It illuminates multiple dimensions for collaborative environmental governance to cure the stubborn problem.

  12. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  13. Water pollution analysis and detection. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning water pollution analysis, detection, monitoring, and regulation. Citations review online systems, bioassay monitoring, laser-based detection, sensor and biosensor systems, metabolic analyzers, and microsystem techniques. References cover fiber-optic portable detection instruments and rapid detection of toxicants in drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a thymol-deprived hydrophilic thyme extract and its antispasmodic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertz, Jonas; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Studt, Lena; Hensel, Andreas; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2012-06-14

    Extracts from Thymus vulgaris L. and Thymus zygis L. are traditionally used for bronchitis, catarrhs of the respiratory tract and supportive treatment of pertussis. A potential spasmolytic effect is thought to be due to the presence of the monoterpenoid phenols thymol and carvacrol in the extract. Based on previous data the present investigation aimed to clarify if thymol-deprived thyme extracts (as been in use within German drug market) have antispasmodic activity. Additionally compounds responsible for this effect had to be identified. Thyme fluid extract was subsequently fractionated by FCPC, LPLC, and HPLC and compounds isolated were identified by spectroscopic methods. Bioassay testing was done by quantification of antispasmodic activity in the preconstricted rat smooth muscle trachea model against papaverin as positive control. Thymol-deprived spissum extract (SE) had good antispasmodic activity (-37%, related to the maximum contraction). Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that rosmarinic acid and apigenin do not contribute to this effect. Luteolin contributed significantly to the antispasmodic activity (-9%). Thyme extracts have antispasmodic activity, which is at least due to synergistic effects of phenolic volatile oil compounds and the flavone luteolin. Specifications of thyme-containing preparations should refer to this flavone in addition to focusing on the volatile phenols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

    2014-02-01

    In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk.

  16. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (<4 mm). The columns were irrigated with 2000 mL/week (230 mm) for twelve weeks (April to July). Half of them were irrigated with non-saline water (NS) and the others were so with saline water (S) from the beginning of the experiment. Four treatments combining the quality of the irrigation water (saline and non-saline) and wastes were studied: SW-NS, SW-S, LR-NS, and LR-S. After 24 hours of irrigation on the first day of each week, the leachates were taken and analyzed the heavy metal content (AAS-ES espectometer). The environmental risk due to the presence of heavy metals associated with the use of these materials was very low in general (under 0.1 mg/L). The use of sewage sludge favoured the presence of these metals in the lecheates and no effect

  17. Coupling of In Vitro Bioassays with Planar Chromatography in Effect-Directed Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stefan C; Egetenmeyer, Nicole; Schulz, Wolfgang

    Modern analytical test methods increasingly detect anthropogenic organic substances and their transformation products in water samples and in the environment. The presence of these compounds might pose a risk to the aquatic environment. To determine a possible (eco)toxicological risk, aquatic samples are tested using various bioassays, including sub-organismic assays such as the luminescent bacteria inhibition test, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, and the umu-test. The effect-directed analysis (EDA) combines physicochemical separation methods with biological (in vitro) tests. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has proved to be particularly well suited for the separation of organic compounds and the subsequent analysis of effects by the application of the biotests directly on the surface of the HPTLC plate. The advantage of using HPTLC in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for EDA is that the solvent which is used as a mobile phase during chromatography is completely evaporated after the separation and therefore can no longer influence the applied bioassays.A prioritization during the complex identification process can be achieved when observed effects are associated with the separated zones in HPTLC. This increases the probability of identifying the substance responsible for an adverse effect from the multitude of organic trace substances in environmental samples. Furthermore, by comparing the pattern of biological effects of a separated sample, it is possible to track and assess changes in biological activity over time, over space, or in the course of a process, even without identifying the substance. HPTLC has already been coupled with various bioassays.Because HPTLC is a very flexible system, various detection techniques can be used and combined. In addition to the UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence measurements, TLC can also be coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS) for compound identification. In addition

  18. Water pollution by non-radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenbrok, G.

    1974-01-01

    Water is in constant circulation from the ocean to the earth's atmosphere and back to the ocean. In the course of this cycle, the composition of the water is altered by natural and human influences. Depending on the prevailing conditions, the water may contain solute gases, undissolved substances, inorganic salts, organic compounds, and microorganisms of varying types and concentrations. Many of these substances are known to pollute the water and thus to threaten its various uses. Emitting sources of water pollutants are: waste waters, seepings from open dumpings, mineral fertilizers and biocides washed out from agricultural areas, water pollutants emitted during storage and transport, air pollutants, and erosions from roads. The thermal load is an additional factor. Technical and legal steps are necessary in order to prevent water pollution and to maintain the quality of water required for its various uses. These measures are treated in detail. (orig./AK) [de

  19. A contribution on the problem of ground water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliox, L.; Muntzer, P.; Kresser, W.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present the underlying physics of processes relevant to the problem of ground water pollution. A series of models are discussed which include two-dimensional diffusion from a point source of pollution in a uniform homogeneous medium and the modifying effect of inhomogeneities, together with displacement processes for miscible liquids in saturated porous media. In conclusion an account of laboratory and theoretical investigations of these diffusion processes in layered media of different permeabilities is given. (J.R.B.)

  20. Urbanization, Water Pollution, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, George W.; And Others

    Reviewed in this report is a study concerned with water pollution as it relates to urbanization within the Regional Plan Association's set of 21 contiguous New York, New Jersey and Connecticut counties centered upon the numerous bay and estuarial reaches of the Port of New York and New Jersey. With a time frame covering a decade of water quality…

  1. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  3. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  4. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  5. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  6. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  7. Measuring effects of music, noise, and healing energy using a seed germination bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creath, Katherine; Schwartz, Gary E

    2004-02-01

    To measure biologic effects of music, noise, and healing energy without human preferences or placebo effects using seed germination as an objective biomarker. A series of five experiments were performed utilizing okra and zucchini seeds germinated in acoustically shielded, thermally insulated, dark, humid growth chambers. Conditions compared were an untreated control, musical sound, pink noise, and healing energy. Healing energy was administered for 15-20 minutes every 12 hours with the intention that the treated seeds would germinate faster than the untreated seeds. The objective marker was the number of seeds sprouted out of groups of 25 seeds counted at 12-hour intervals over a 72-hour growing period. Temperature and relative humidity were monitored every 15 minutes inside the seed germination containers. A total of 14 trials were run testing a total of 4600 seeds. Musical sound had a highly statistically significant effect on the number of seeds sprouted compared to the untreated control over all five experiments for the main condition (p type, position in room, specific petri dish, and person doing the scoring. Musical sound had a significant effect compared to noise and an untreated control as a function of time (p musical sound. This study suggests that sound vibrations (music and noise) as well as biofields (bioelectromagnetic and healing intention) both directly affect living biologic systems, and that a seed germination bioassay has the sensitivity to enable detection of effects caused by various applied energetic conditions.

  8. Response of the braconid parasitoid Cotesia (= Apanteles) glomerata to volatile infochemicals: effects of bioassay set-up, parasitoid age and experience and barometric flux.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberg, S.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Wanningen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Upon initiating a research project on the role of volatile infochemicals in the tritrophic system Cotesia (= Apanteles) glomerata (L.)-Pieris brassicae (L.)-cabbage, a bioassay was developed to investigate the response of C. glomerata. The bioassay should be effective in terms of high responsiveness

  9. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Geologic Environment Div.; Kong, In Chul [Yeungnam Univ., Kyungbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the {alpha}-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC{sub 50} value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 {mu}g/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. (orig.)

  10. Water pollution and thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, A.; Harapanahalli, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of thermal power stations dotting the countryside in India for the generation of electricity. The pollution of environment is continuously increasing in the country with the addition of new coal based power stations and causing both a menace and a hazard to the biota. The paper reviews the problems arising out of water pollution from the coal based thermal power stations. (author). 2 tabs

  11. Water pollution profile of coal washeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, Gurdeep

    1995-01-01

    Environmental problems in coal mining industry is increased with the demand of good quality of coal through coal washing/beneficiation activities. The coal washeries in general have been identified as one of the serious sources of water pollution particularly of Damodar river. Coal washeries though are designed on close water circuit, most of these however, fail to operate on close water circuit thus resulting in enormous quantity of effluents containing coal fines as well. This apart from posing serious water pollution problem also results into economic losses. The present study attempts to provide an insight into water pollution profile from coal washeries in Jharia coalfield. Various process parameters/unit operations in coal washing are also described. Effluents from various selected coal washeries of Jharia coalfield are sampled and analysed over a period of six months during 1993. Suspended solids, oil and grease and COD in the washery effluents are identified as the three major water quality parameters causing lots of concern for Damodar river pollution. Reasons for unavoidable discharge of effluents containing coal fines are also described. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  13. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  14. Factors affecting laboratory bioassays with diatomaceous earth on stored wheat: effect of insect density, grain quantity, and cracked kernel containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Mpakou, Flora D; Mpassoukou, Argyro E

    2007-10-01

    Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of insect density (10, 30, 60, and 100 adults), wheat quantity (10, 30, 60, and 100 g), and cracked kernel containment (5, 15, 30, and 50%) on the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE). Three beetle species, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, as well as two DE formulations, Insecto and SilicoSec, and one DE enhanced with pyrethrum, PyriSec (all commercially available) were tested. In the first two series of bioassays, the three DE formulations were applied at three dose rates, 500, 1000 and 1,500 ppm. In the third series, the dose rates used were 500 and 1,000 ppm. Dead adults were counted 14 d later. For insect density, wheat quantity, and cracked kernel containment, significant differences were noted in mortality levels of the tested species among the three DE formulations and among doses. No significant differences were noted in the mortality levels among the four adult densities of any of the insects tested. The increase of wheat quantity used in the bioassays increased significantly adult mortality of T. confusum. The increase of cracked wheat containment decreased significantly adult mortality of S. oryzae.

  15. The effects of co-cultivation of pearl mussels and fishes on water pollution control in middle or small sized water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genfang; Deng, Minzhong; Fang, Aiping

    2004-12-01

    Our field experiments showed that the cultivation of pearl mussels formed a new biocoene composed of filamentous algae, protozoa, porifera and coelenterate. It effectively reduced nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand in the water by 67.3%, 73.2%, 38.1% and 15.5%, respectively, during May to September 1998 when the water eutrophication was developing. This could control water eutrophication and produce pearls, shellfish meat and shells. This is an economical and effective way to control water eutrophication by using the ultra strong filtering capability of freshwater pearl mussels.

  16. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  17. Primary productivity C-14 and algal assay in the study of water pollution effects in the Citarum River and Jatiluhur Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbub, B.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality of the Citarum River and the Jatiluhur Reservoir in Indonesia was evaluated using C-14 radioisotope. A close relationship between the abiotic (physical and chemical) and the biotic (algal growth potential, primary productivity, chlorophylla and diversity index of planktonic and benthic macroinvertebrate) parameters was obtained. Algal growth potential to abiotic parameters relationship has the highest correlation coefficient and can be used as a pollution indicator. The other biotic parameters do not show clear relationship with the abiotic parameters. The Citarum water quality is the lowest in those locations which receive human and industrial waste from Bandung and its environment. This water cannot be used for drinking purposes and fishery. The water quality in other locations of the river, however, meets the criteria for agriculture. Agricultural waste does not show any drastic effect on the water quality profile due to non-polluted characteristics of its sources

  18. Ground water pollution by arsenic and its effects on health. Removal of arsenic from water; Suichu karano hiso no jokyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, S.

    1997-07-10

    Recently environmental standard for ground water is established. It is pointed out that the need of arsenic`s removal from water is expected in high level. Present condition of removal techniques of inorganic nitrogen and problems are explained. For example, ferro (III) chloride method is effective in As(V) and most suitable range is pH4{approx}5. Removal is possible until 0.005 when initial concentration is 0.2 mg{center_dot}l{sup -1}. As far as secondary problems are, there are dry treatment of generated sludge and disposal. Earth adsorbent as a new adsorbent is adsorption method is expected. Lanthanum and yttrium compounds possess adsorption for As(III) and As(V) and re-generation use is also possible. For example, removal of As(V) with initial concentration 19 mg{center_dot}l{sup -1} until 0.01 is possible at pH5{approx}77 range when hydroxide lanthanum is used as an adsorbent. Further special characteristics of each method are explained. It is concluded that a good removal method should be selected by considering raw water`s quality, capacity of treatment water, use of treatment water and economics. 29 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of surface waters using a battery of bioassays indicating different mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingnan; Li, Na; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Ma, Mei; Rao, Kaifeng; Wang, Zijian; Jin, Wei; Hong, Gang; Li, Zhiguo; Luo, Yi

    2016-11-01

    With the burgeoning contamination of surface waters threatening human health, the genotoxic effects of surface waters have received much attention. Because mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds in water cause tumors by different mechanisms, a battery of bioassays that each indicate a different mode of action (MOA) is required to evaluate the genotoxic effects of contaminants in water samples. In this study, 15 water samples from two source water reservoirs and surrounding rivers in Shijiazhuang city of China were evaluated for genotoxic effects. Target chemical analyses of 14 genotoxic pollutants were performed according to the Environmental quality standards for surface water of China. Then, the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, based on a high-content screening technique, was used to detect the effect of chromosome damage. The SOS/umu test using strain TA1535/pSK1002 was used to detect effects on SOS repair of gene expression. Additionally, two other strains, NM2009 and NM3009, which are highly sensitive to aromatic amines and nitroarenes, respectively, were used in the SOS/umu test to avoid false negative results. In the water samples, only two of the genotoxic chemicals listed in the water standards were detected in a few samples, with concentrations that were below water quality standards. However, positive results for the CBMN assay were observed in two river samples, and positive results for the induction of umuC gene expression in TA1535/pSK1002 were observed in seven river samples. Moreover, positive results were observed for NM2009 with S9 and NM3009 without S9 in some samples that had negative results using the strain TA1535/pSK1002. Based on the results with NM2009 and NM3009, some unknown or undetected aromatic amines and nitroarenes were likely in the source water reservoirs and the surrounding rivers. Furthermore, these compounds were most likely the causative pollutants for the genotoxic effect of these water samples. Therefore

  20. Effects of Direct and Indirect Exposure of Insecticides to Garden Symphylan (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) in Laboratory Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V

    2015-12-01

    The garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata Newport, is a serious soil pest whose root feeding affects yield and survival of several high valued crops in the California's central coast. Because organophosphate insecticides, widely used for S. immaculata control, are rigorously regulated and little is known about the efficacy of alternate insecticides, laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine insecticide efficacy through repellency and lethality. To determine indirect repellency (noncontact) of insecticides, choice assays were conducted where five S. immaculata were introduced into the arena to choose between insecticide-treated and untreated wells whereas, in direct repellency (contact) assays, three insecticide-treated 1-cm-diameter discs were pasted into the arena and the number of visits, time spent per visitation, and number of long-duration (>10 s) stays of five S. immaculata were quantified. To determine efficacy through direct mortality, number of S. immaculata died after 72 h were determined by introducing 10 S. immaculata to insecticide-treated soil assays. In indirect exposure bioassays, seven (clothianidin, oxamyl, zeta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethoprop, azadirachtin, and a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid) out of 14 insecticides tested elicited repellency to S. immaculata. Of six insecticides tested in the direct exposure assays, only tolfenpyrad elicited contact repellency. In soil assays, after 72 h of introduction, bifenthrin, oxamyl, clothianidin, zeta-cypermethrin, and tolfenpyrad caused 100, 95, 80, 44, and 44% S. immaculata mortality, respectively, which was significantly greater than distilled water and four other insecticides. The implications of these results on S. immaculata management in the California's central coast are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Laser and infrared techniques for water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.; Pantani, L.; Cecchi, G.

    1993-01-01

    A remote sensing application for the control of oil pollution and water quality was developed by the National Council of Research at Florence, and the University of Catania, both in Italy. The application is based on the simultaneous use of active antipassive remote sensing systems (lidar and flir systems) from a helicopter. Water pollution characteristics were determined with the lidar system, in polluted areas of water detected, on a larger scale, by the flir system. Pollution characteristics detected included type of pollutant, type of oil, and oil thickness. The experiment, named LIRA, was carried out using an Italian Navy helicopter over sea areas around Sicily having a high risk of pollution. The results proved the effectiveness and usefulness of the techniques proposed

  2. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of polluted surface water in the midwestern region of Brazil using animal and plant bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Leocádia Rosa Dourado

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate DNA damage in animal and plant cells exposed to water from the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by using bioassays, and to identify the chemical compounds in the water to determine the water quality in the area. Through the cytotoxicity bioassay with Allium cepa, using micronucleus test, and comet assay, using Astyanax altiparanae fish, the results indicated that biological samples were genetically altered. Micronuclei were observed in erythrocytes of A. altiparanae after exposure to water from locations close to industrial waste discharge. The highest DNA damage observed with the comet assay in fish occurred with the exposure to water from locations where the presence of metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni was high, indicating the possibility of genotoxic effects of these compounds. Thus, these results reinforce the importance of conducting genotoxicity tests for developing management plans to improve water quality, and indicate the need for waste management before domestic and industrial effluents are released into the rivers and streams.

  3. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of polluted surface water in the midwestern region of Brazil using animal and plant bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Leocádia Rosa Dourado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate DNA damage in animal and plant cells exposed to water from the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by using bioassays, and to identify the chemical compounds in the water to determine the water quality in the area. Through the cytotoxicity bioassay with Allium cepa, using micronucleus test, and comet assay, using Astyanax altiparanae fish, the results indicated that biological samples were genetically altered. Micronuclei were observed in erythrocytes of A. altiparanae after exposure to water from locations close to industrial waste discharge. The highest DNA damage observed with the comet assay in fish occurred with the exposure to water from locations where the presence of metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni was high, indicating the possibility of genotoxic effects of these compounds. Thus, these results reinforce the importance of conducting genotoxicity tests for developing management plans to improve water quality, and indicate the need for waste management before domestic and industrial effluents are released into the rivers and streams.

  4. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  5. Learn About the Water Pollution Control (Section 106) Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under CWA Section 106, EPA is authorized to provide grants to states, eligible interstate agencies, and eligible tribes to establish and administer programs, including enforcement programs,for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of water pollution.

  6. Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  7. A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeffer, George J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

  8. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  9. Development of a bioassay to screen for chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Takuya, E-mail: takuya@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Tomoshi [Division of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan); Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Mori, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Hiroko [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi [Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology and Metabolism), Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Spindler, Stephen R. [Department of Biochemistry, Room 5478, Boyce Hall, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Shimokawa, Isao [Department of Investigative Pathology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We identified four sequence motifs lying upstream of putative pro-longevity genes. {yields} One of these motifs binds to HNF-4{alpha}. {yields} HNF-4{alpha}/PGC-1{alpha} could up-regulate the transcription of a reporter gene linked to this motif. {yields} The reporter system described here could be used to screen candidate anti-aging molecules. -- Abstract: Suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I pathway in Ames dwarf (DF) mice, and caloric restriction (CR) in normal mice extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders. In combination, these interventions have an additive effect on lifespan in Ames DF mice. Therefore, common signaling pathways regulated by DF and CR could have additive effects on longevity. In this study, we tried to identity the signaling mechanism and develop a system to assess pro-longevity status in cells and mice. We previously identified genes up-regulated in the liver of DF and CR mice by DNA microarray analysis. Motif analysis of the upstream sequences of those genes revealed four major consensus sequence motifs, which have been named dwarfism and calorie restriction-responsive elements (DFCR-REs). One of the synthesized sequences bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}), an important transcription factor involved in liver metabolism. Furthermore, using this sequence information, we developed a highly sensitive bioassay to identify chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR. When the reporter construct, containing an element upstream of a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene, was co-transfected with HNF-4{alpha} and its regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}), SEAP activity was increased compared with untransfected controls. Moreover, transient transgenic mice established using this construct showed increased SEAP activity in CR mice compared with ad libitum-fed mice. These data

  10. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  11. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pwater quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  12. The potential of PIXE analytical work in water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishii, K. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    A method has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in a variety of water samples in our surroundings. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-{mu}m pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film, and in turn heavy metals in trace amounts were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target through the use of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. These three kinds of targets were analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beams. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of {approx}24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of various aqueous sample such as river water, rain water and water leaking from disposal sites of industrial wastes. Hence, the methodology for preparing three types of targets promotes the PIXE analysis to a truly effective means for monitoring a water-pollution problem in our surroundings. (author)

  13. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The potential of PIXE analytical work in water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in a variety of water samples in our surroundings. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-μm pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film, and in turn heavy metals in trace amounts were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target through the use of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. These three kinds of targets were analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beams. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of ∼24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of various aqueous sample such as river water, rain water and water leaking from disposal sites of industrial wastes. Hence, the methodology for preparing three types of targets promotes the PIXE analysis to a truly effective means for monitoring a water-pollution problem in our surroundings. (author)

  15. Bio-assessment of water pollution in coal belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Water pollution in coal belt has attracted attention of scientists as well as general people. Implication of water pollution on bio-system is still a more important issue and a lot of information has been accumulated. Apart from conventional methods of pollution monitoring, bio-monitoring is comparatively a new approach and a proper methodology is still in pipeline. The present study reviews various methods of bio-monitoring and compare various methodologies suggested at population level with conventional methods. The results indicated that the bio-assessment methodology can be a tool and hence be developed. (author)

  16. Development of a Simple and Effective Bioassay Method to Evaluate Resistance of Watermelon Plants to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Jo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-dipping inoculation method has been widely used to determine the resistance of watermelon to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt. Although this method leads to the precise results of plant disease responses, more rapid and efficient assay methods have been still required because the root-dipping inoculation method is labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, we established a simple and effective bioassay method based on the comparison of various inoculation methods and growth conditions. To develop the system, the occurrence of Fusarium wilt on four resistant and susceptible cultivars was investigated by four different inoculation methods, root-dipping, scalpel, tip and soil-drenching methods. Of these inoculation methods, scalpel method resulted in clear plant disease resistance responses with the simplicity. With the use of scalpel method, we also explored the disease development of the cultivars depending on inoculum concentration, growth stage of seedlings, and incubation temperature after inoculation. Furthermore, we found that the resistance degrees of 23 cultivars derived by scalpel inoculation method were similar to the results by root-dipping method established previously.

  17. A novel bioassay using the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite to evaluate chronic effects of aluminium, gallium and molybdenum in tropical marine receiving environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Joost W; Trenfield, Melanie A; Harries, Simon J; Streten, Claire; Harford, Andrew J; Parry, David; van Dam, Rick A

    2016-11-15

    A need exists for appropriate tools to evaluate risk and monitor potential effects of contaminants in tropical marine environments, as currently impact assessments are conducted by non-representative approaches. Here, a novel bioassay is presented that allows for the estimation of the chronic toxicity of contaminants in receiving tropical marine environments. The bioassay is conducted using planktonic larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite and is targeted at generating environmentally relevant, chronic toxicity data for water quality guideline derivation or compliance testing. The developmental endpoint demonstrated a consistently high control performance, validated through the use of copper as a reference toxicant. In addition, the biological effects of aluminium, gallium and molybdenum were assessed. The endpoint expressed high sensitivity to copper and moderate sensitivity to aluminium, whereas gallium and molybdenum exhibited no discernible effects, even at high concentrations, providing valuable information on the toxicity of these elements in tropical marine waters. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Daphnia magna bioassays to detect novel eco-toxicological effects of prioritary and emergent contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the presence of many emerging pollutants in aquatic ecosystems may have detrimental effects on aquatic biota. Of special concern are those emerging pollutants that may act as putative endocrine disrupters in non-vertebrate species, causing unexpected effects. In chapters 2, 3 and 4, I assessed the effects of two pharmaceuticals belonging to the group of "SSRIs": fluoxetine and fluvoxamine, used to treat depression; and the detergent 4-nonylphenol. SSRIs an...

  19. An application of Landsat and computer technology to potential water pollution from soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural activity has been recognized as the primary source of nonpoint source water pollution. Water quality planners have needed information that is timely, accurate, easily reproducible, and relatively inexpensive to utilize to implement 'Best Management Practices' for water quality. In this paper, a case study shows how the combination of satellite data, which can give accurate land-cover/land-use information, and a computerized geographic information system, can assess nonpoint pollution at a regional scale and be cost effective.

  20. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  1. Escherichia coli. A sanitary methodology for faecal water pollution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonadonna, L.

    2001-01-01

    Among the traditional indictors of faecal water pollution, Escherichia coli has shown to fit better with the definition of indicator organism. Till now its recovery has been time-consuming and needs confirmation tests. In this report more rapid and direct methods, based on enzymatic reactions, are presented [it

  2. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  3. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  4. Alleviating Water Pollution in Mauritian Sugar Factories | Ragen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These problems can be tackled by adopting a sound water and wastewater management strategy consisting, as in the case of any other industry discharging liquid effluent, of optimisation of water use, identification of sources of water pollution, reduction of pollution-at-source, waste segregation and treatment. Results of ...

  5. Estimation of water pollution by genetic biomarkers in tilapia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at the estimation of water pollution with heavy metals using four biomarkers as well as to study the species-site interaction. Two species of tilapia as well as two catfish species caught from four sites that represent differential environmental stresses were used for this purpose. Water samples and gills ...

  6. Introduction to Instrumental Analysis of Water Pollutants. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This course is designed for those requiring an introduction to instruments commonly used in water pollution analyses. Examples are: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen meters, spectrophotometers, turbidimeters, carbon analyzer, and gas chromatographs. Students should have a basic knowledge of analytical chemistry. (CO)

  7. Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical techniques for the study of ground water pollution: A review. IB Osazuwa, NK Abdulahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp.163-174. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  9. Reducing the Risk of Water Pollution in Vulnerable Coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reducing the Risk of Water Pollution in Vulnerable Coastal Communities of Cartagena, Colombia: Responding to Climate Change. The coastal area of Cartagena, an important tourist destination in Colombia, is home to several poor communities that rely on artisanal fishing (small-scale, traditional fishing techniques) and ...

  10. Mine water pollution studies in Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Banerjee, A.K. [Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-06-01

    Mining effects physical and chemical changes in the mine environment resulting in water pollution. Based on the geological distribution the coal mines in the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Coalfield can be categorised into three basins Northern, Southern and Satpura. The Northern belt lies along the Sone Valley whilst the Southern one lies within Mahanadi Valley and the Satpura basin lies south of the alluvial tract. Mine water pollution study reported in this paper is concerned with Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield in Eastern Madhya Pradesh. The water analysis was carried out on representative samples obtained from the site on pre-Monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, and reference samples were obtained from the area in the vicinity of the site of investigation. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for determining water quality parameters including trace element detection and microbial analyses. The chemical analysis results of mine water are presented in the form of Durov diagrams. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. An overview of adverse health effects caused by mycotoxins and bioassays for their detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Leusden van FM; MGB

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to moulds and their (toxic) metabolites (mycotoxins) is a menace to human and animal health. A risk analysis can shed light on the actual risk of adverse health effects. In a previously published RIVM report (nr. 257852 002) on hazard identification the genera, Aspergillus, Penicillium,

  12. Toxicity bioassay and effects of sub-lethal exposure of malathion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ksu-network

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Effect of dissolved copper on selected haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Archi. Environ. Conta. Toxicol. 40: 371-380. Durkin PR (2008). Malathion; Human Health and ecological risk assessment. Final report submitted to Paul Mistretta, ...

  13. Temperature and food quantity effects on the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes: Combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Josef; Bui, Thuy T; Lundström Belleza, Elin; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes has become a popular model species for toxicity testing over the past few decades. However, the combined influence of temperature and food shortage, two climate change-related stressors, has never been assessed in this species. Consequently, effects of three temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C) and six food regimes (between 0 and 5 × 105 algal cells/mL) on the life cycle of N. spinipes were examined in this study. Similarly to other copepod species, development times and brood sizes decreased with rising temperatures. Mortality was lowest in the 20°C temperature setup, indicating a close-by temperature optimum for this species. Decreasing food concentrations led to increased development times, higher mortality and a reduction in brood size. A sex ratio shift toward more females per male was observed for increasing temperatures, while no significant relationship with food concentration was found. Temperature and food functions for each endpoint were integrated into an existing individual-based population model for N. spinipes which in the future may serve as an extrapolation tool in environmental risk assessment. The model was able to accurately reproduce the experimental data in subsequent verification simulations. We suggest that temperature, food shortage, and potentially other climate change-related stressors should be considered in environmental risk assessment of chemicals to account for non-optimal exposure conditions that may occur in the field. Furthermore, we advocate combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling as a cost effective higher tier approach to assess such considerations.

  14. Temperature and food quantity effects on the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes: Combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Koch

    Full Text Available The harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes has become a popular model species for toxicity testing over the past few decades. However, the combined influence of temperature and food shortage, two climate change-related stressors, has never been assessed in this species. Consequently, effects of three temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C and six food regimes (between 0 and 5 × 105 algal cells/mL on the life cycle of N. spinipes were examined in this study. Similarly to other copepod species, development times and brood sizes decreased with rising temperatures. Mortality was lowest in the 20°C temperature setup, indicating a close-by temperature optimum for this species. Decreasing food concentrations led to increased development times, higher mortality and a reduction in brood size. A sex ratio shift toward more females per male was observed for increasing temperatures, while no significant relationship with food concentration was found. Temperature and food functions for each endpoint were integrated into an existing individual-based population model for N. spinipes which in the future may serve as an extrapolation tool in environmental risk assessment. The model was able to accurately reproduce the experimental data in subsequent verification simulations. We suggest that temperature, food shortage, and potentially other climate change-related stressors should be considered in environmental risk assessment of chemicals to account for non-optimal exposure conditions that may occur in the field. Furthermore, we advocate combining in vivo bioassays with population modeling as a cost effective higher tier approach to assess such considerations.

  15. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  16. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pmacro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  17. Model-based determination of the influence of textile fabric on bioassay analysis and the effectiveness of a textile slow-release system of DEET in mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malengier, Benny; Goessens, Tineke; Mafo, Flora F; De Vrieze, Mike; Van Langenhove, Lieva; Wanji, Samuel; Lynen, Frederic

    2015-08-01

    Determining the effectiveness of a product in repelling mosquitoes or other flying insects is a difficult task. One approach is to use a bioassay with textile fabric. We investigated the role of the textile substrate in a bioassay with a numerical model, and compared the outcome with known results for DEET. The model was then used to determine the effectiveness of textile slow-release formulations based on coatings, and results were compared with those of a field study in the Cameroon. Slow-release formulations are difficult to evaluate with standard tests, as the compound needs a build-up time not present in these tests. We found excellent correspondence between the model and the known DEET results without matching parameters. Slow-release approaches are deemed possible but have several drawbacks. Modelling can help in identifying optimal use conditions. The field test with a slow-release system performed better than anticipated by the model, with initially more than 90% repellency. DEET-coated textile was considered not to be marketable, however. We advise that bioassays characterise in more detail the type of textile fabric used so as to allow conclusions to be drawn by textile modelling. As regards coated-textile slow-release systems, more research is needed. We nevertheless advise usage mainly at entry points, e.g. as scrims. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Laboratory bioassays to estimate the lethal and sublethal effects of various insecticides and fungicides on Deraeocoris brevis (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, K G; Shearer, P W

    2013-04-01

    This laboratory bioassay focused on lethal and sublethal effects of five insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, novaluron, and lambda-cyhalothrin) and two fungicide treatments (sulfur and a mixture of copper hydroxide and mancozeb) on the predatory mired bug, Deraeocoris brevis (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Miridae) using second instars and adult males and females. Formulated pesticides were tested using concentrations that were equivalent to the high label rate (1x) (high rate) and 1/10th of that amount (0.1x) (low rate) dissolved in 378.5 liters of water. Lambda-cyhalothrin was highly toxic to D. brevis nymphs and adults at both rates, whereas both rates of novaluron were highly toxic to nymphs. Cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron were less toxic to adults, and chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram were less toxic to nymphs. Both rates of spinetoram caused significant mortality to adults. Fecundity of adult females was affected negatively by the high rates of either novaluron or spinetoram, whereas the fertility was affected only by the high rate of novaluron. The high rate of spinetoram reduced survival of nymphs. Adults treated with spinetoram had reduced longevity. Cyantraniliprole caused some mortality to nymphs and affected their survival. Both rates of sulfur were toxic to nymphs and affected emergence to adults. The mixture of copper hydroxide and mancozeb was less toxic to D. brevis. Neither adult longevity nor sex ratio was affected by the fungicides. The r values for D. brecis treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, novaluron, spinetoram, and sulfur were low, indicating that these products may have negative impact on population growth.

  20. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debén, S.; Fernández, J.A.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. - Highlights: • Devitalization treatments of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested. • Loss of material during the exposure and accumulation of contaminants were evaluated. • The use of mosses devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended. • The use of Sphagnum denticulatum as biomonitor of aquatic environments is not suitable. - Selection of a devitalization treatment as a contribution for standardizing moss bag technique.

  1. Bioassay-guided evaluation of central nervous system effects of citronellal in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica S. Melo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities of citronellal (CT were investigated in animal models. The CT in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg injected by i.p. route in mice caused a significant decrease in the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group. The highest dose of CT significantly reduced the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus up to 2 h. Additionally, CT at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/ kg (i.p. was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. It was efficient in prevents the tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (MES in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, resulting in 30 and 40% of protection, respectively. This compound was also capable to promote an increase of latency for development of convulsions induced by picrotoxin (PIC at 400 mg/kg. In the same way, the anticonvulsant effect of CT was affected by pretreatment with flumazenil, a selective antagonist of benzodiazepine site of GABA A receptor. These results suggest a possible CNS depressant and anticonvulsant activities.

  2. Water pollution in Rawal lake Islamabad (part-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Ali, S.; Tariq, M.; Ikram, M.

    2001-01-01

    Water pollution of Rawal Lake, one of the three major drinking water sources (21 MG) to Rawalpindi and Islamabad, by anionic pollutants is reported. Physicochemical analysis of water samples collected during September 1996 - January 1997, was carried out using ASTM and AOAC methods. Water samples from Rawal Lake and its tributaries were collected periodically and analyzed for pH, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, TDS, TSS, anions (chlorides, phosphates, nitrates, sulfates) and trace metals. (author)

  3. Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T H; Cabrera, G L; Chen, R; Gill, B S; Sandhu, S S; Vandenberg, A L; Salamone, M F

    1994-10-16

    Four coded chemicals, azidoglycerol (AG), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), sodium azide (NaN3), and maleic hydrazide (MH), were tested with the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay by five independent laboratories from five different countries. The purpose of this international collaborative study was to evaluate four plant bioassays, of which the Trad-MCN assay was one, for their sensitivity, efficiency and reliability. The study was carried out under the sponsorship of the International Programme on Chemical Safety. All laboratories adhered to a standard Trad-MCN protocol which suggested that three replicate tests be conducted with each chemical. The results reported by all laboratories, although not equal, showed good agreement among the laboratories. In fact, all five laboratories obtained positive results with MH and MNU, while four of the five laboratories achieved positive results with NaN3. AG was tested in only three laboratories. Two reported negative results, while one reported positive results but only at a single high dose. The data from this study suggest that under normal conditions, the Trad-MCN bioassay is an efficient and reliable short-term bioassay for clastogens. It is suitable for the rapid screening of chemicals, and also is specially qualified for in situ monitoring of ambient pollutants.

  4. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments finally. The results show that the detection method using hypotheses testing is more stable. The performance of the coarse localization algorithm depends on the nodes density. The localization based on the diffusion model can yield precise localization results; however, the results are not stable. The localization method based on the contour is better than the other two localization methods when the concentration contours are axisymmetric. Thus, in the water pollution source localization, the detection using hypotheses testing is more preferable in the source detection step. If concentration contours are axisymmetric, the localization method based on the contour is the first option. And, in case the nodes are dense and there is no explicit diffusion model, the coarse localization algorithm can be used, or else the localization based on diffusion models is a good choice.

  5. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  6. Effect-directed analysis of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils by planar chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-11-15

    Cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils are healthy oils for human consumption as these are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive phytochemicals. However, bioactive information on the food intake side is mainly focused on target analysis. For more comprehensive information with regard to effects, single bioactive compounds present in the seed oil extracts were detected by effect-directed assays, like bioassays or an enzymatic assay, directly linked with chromatography and further characterized by mass spectrometry. This effect-directed analysis is a streamlined method for the analysis of bioactive compounds in the seed oil extracts. All effective compounds with regard to the five assays or bioassays applied were detected in the samples, meaning also bioactive breakdown products caused during oil processing, residues or contaminants, aside the naturally present bioactive phytochemicals. The investigated cold-pressed oils contained compounds that exert antioxidative, antimicrobial, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and estrogenic activities. This effect-directed analysis can be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food to obtain profound effect-directed information on the food intake side. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The identification and analysis of risk for sudden accidental water pollution events based on the water resources monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiannan

    2016-04-01

    There are always various types of sudden accidental Water Pollution Events under the development of modern Chinese economy society, leading to serious economic losses and casualties. Water resources monitoring system, a real-time monitoring system, was built to monitor water quantity and quality of the important rivers and lakes over the country. Based on the system, we had brought up an idea to calculate the possibility of pollution and the risk of pollution in the watershed, and to deal with the threat of water pollution incidents effectively. It was proposed to build the greatest possible contamination with the most serious pollution values over the past years, and similarity test was carried on over the real-time monitoring of possible contamination value and the calculated value. In our study, taking Taihu River Basin as an example, we detailed the application progress of this method in water pollution incidents, the result shows that the method has a certain timeliness for the early warning of sudden water pollution incidents.

  8. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.

    1996-01-01

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  9. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluohjeisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R. [ed.] [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  10. A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

  11. Factors influencing the efficiency of radiation-induced degradation of water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of the radiation-induced degradation of water pollutants depends on several factors, such as kind and energy of radiation, absorbed dose, dose rate, pollutant concentration as well as synergistic effects of radiation and ozone or/and catalysts (e.g. TiO 2 ) and of the molecular structure of the pollutants. The role of the individual factors is illustrated by examples. The application of pulse radiolysis in addition to chemical analysis for elucidation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of the degradation treatment is also mentioned

  12. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  13. Kaschnitz, Enzensberger, and Sandig: The Ecopoetics of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Melin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This ecocritical reading of Marie Luise Kaschnitz’s poetic cycle “Rückkehr nach Frankfurt” ‘Return to Frankfurt’ (1945/46, Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s epic poem Der Untergang der Titanic ‘ The Sinking of the Titanic ’ (1978, and a 21st-century poem by Ulrike Almut Sandig analyzes key shifts in poetic representations of water pollution. The essay explores underlying cultural and political attitudes about water that define literary depictions of its pollution. It argues that these texts register a conceptual turn away from aesthetic appreciation of water in terms of its culturally rich, purifying properties and toward scientific understanding that emphasizes the social and legal dimensions of water pollution. Ecocritical interpretation of such works, thus, enables deeper understanding of ongoing transformations in the lyric genre. The concluding interpretation of Sandig’s text points to the increasing presence of unnatural elements in representations of the environment as symptomatic of broader literary changes. It argues that developments in German nature poetry since 1945 have increasingly led poets to experiment with expressive possibilities for lyric poetry that foreground cathartic responses to human and environmental history.

  14. The main factors of water pollution in Danube River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gasparotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed herewith aims to give an overview on the pollution along the Danube River. Water quality in Danube River basin (DRB is under a great pressure due to the diverse range of the human activities including large urban center, industrial, agriculture, transport and mining activities. The most important aspects of the water pollution are: organic, nutrient and microbial pollution, , hazardous substances, and hydro-morphological alteration. Analysis of the pressures on the Danube River showed that a large part of the Danube River is subject to multiple pressures and there are important risks for not reaching good ecological status and good chemical status of the water in the foreseeable future. In 2009, the evaluation based on the results of the Trans National Monitoring Network showed for the length of water bodies from the Danube River basin that 22% achieved good ecological status or ecological potential and 45% river water bodies achieved good chemical status. Another important issue is related to the policy of water pollution.

  15. The Overview Of Water Pollution In The World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Vang Le

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water is a precious resource but not everyone is aware of it. More than 1 billion people are missing about 20 to 50 liters of clean water each day to cater for basic needs such as eating and bathing. The phenomenon of oil exploration ocean shipping and petroleum-contaminated wastes is one of the causes of water pollution. It is estimated that about 1 billion tons of oil are transported by sea each year. Part of this volume about 0.1 to 0.3 is thrown into the sea in a relatively legal way the washing of oil tankers with seawater. The shipwreck is relatively regular disposal of lubricant or accidental dropping gasoline. The permeation rate of petroleum is seven times that of water which will cause the groundwater to become contaminated. About 1.6 million tons of hydrocarbons are discharged by rivers of industrialized nations. From the above causes we see that human consciousness is the main cause of pollution of water environment. Resources are not endless with the exploitation of an indiscriminate wing rampant run for market economy benefits without the appropriate treatment the water pollution is a certain matter. The importance is inevitable if people are unaware of the importance of water for life in the near future the resources will be exhausted.

  16. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  17. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7) mL(-1)conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7) conidia mL(-1) of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  18. Sudden water pollution accidents and reservoir emergency operations: impact analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hezhen; Lei, Xiaohui; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Kong, Lingzhong; Jiang, Yunzhong; Wang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  19. Strategies for Transferring Mixtures of Organic Contaminants from Aquatic Environments into Bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Schäfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    into bioassays, while conserving (or re-establishing) their chemical composition at adjustable levels for concentration-effect assessment. This article outlines various strategies for quantifiable transfer from environmental samples including water, sediment, and biota into bioassays using total extraction...

  20. System of environmental and economic accounting for water pollution and the result analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yarong

    2017-10-01

    With the gradual acceleration of China's industrialization process, the environmental pollution caused by industrial production is more and more serious, especially water pollution. To construct a System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for water pollution, to a certain extent, can promote the green development of national economy in China. The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for water pollution is analyzed and studied in this paper.

  1. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  2. 7 Vascular Hydrophytes for Bioassay.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hatakeyama S., Fukushima S., Kasai F. and. Shiraishi H. (1994). Assessment of herbicide effects on algal production in the Kokai River. (Japan) using a model stream and Selenastrum bioassay. Ecotoxicology3: 143–156. Kang J-Y. and Goulder R. (1996). Epiphytic bacteria downstream of sewage-works outfalls. Wat. Res.

  3. Current status of surface water pollution in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.T.; Ghauri, Moin-ud-Din

    2001-01-01

    Eleven years investigations (1988-99) on river Ravi revealed that U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//s at the tail and Q.B. Link canal with capacity of 410 m/sup 3//s are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A decreasing trend has been observed in the DO levels indicating increasing pollution. An increasing trend has been observed in BOD, SS, TDS and Indicators. Even with the discharge of pollution from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and Lahore city BOD at Balkoi was unexpectedly low. Problems confronting environment engineers regarding surface water pollution control has been highlighted and their solutions has been recommended. (author)

  4. utilization of some agricultural wastes in treating water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, H.M.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Rice husks, a locally available agricultural by-product, were investigated with aim of producing good adsorbing materials suitable for remediating water pollution . Raw lignocellulose was treated through various procedures: simple carbonization to high temperature, pyrolysis under flowing steam at moderate temperatures and chemical activation with H 3 PO 4 followed by pyrolysis at moderate temperature . A partially deashed precursor was obtained by boiling in alkali solution, thereafter botanical residue was steam activated at a single temperature, and leachate acidified whereby silica was precipitated, many types of adsorbents were thus derived: chars, activated carbon and silica. the obtained various categories of sorbents were characterized by different techniques to asses their physico-chemical and adsorptive properties . this involved: ash content, thermogravimetry, FTIR, electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption at 77 k and adsorption capacity from solution using probe molecules

  5. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  6. Stress-physiological reactions of the green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis to water pollution with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gyula KERESZTES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater green alga Scenedesmus opoliensis proves to be a suitable bioindicator of water pollution with different herbicides. One of the best molecular markers of stress condition imposed by herbicides is overproduction of malondialdehyde resulting from lipid peroxidation in the damaged membranes. Methylviologen, a largely used pre-emergence herbicide which generates reactive oxygen species in the illuminated chloroplasts, triggers the accumulation of ascorbic acid and enhances the enzymatic activity of catalase, both of these substances being involved in the antioxidative protection of algal cells. Diuron, a herbicide that inhibits photosynthetic electron transport on the acceptor side of photosystem II, causes a decline in oxygen production and in biomass accumulation of algae. Glufosinate induces accumulation of toxic ammonia and leads to enhanced net oxygen production, associated with a low rate of carbon assimilation. Long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of herbicides results in significant changes in the rate of cell division, in hotosynthetic parameters and in the intensity of antioxidative defense. A proper bioindication of toxic effects of herbicides on algae requires a selected combination of different physiological and biochemical parameters which reflect the degree of stress exerted on living organisms by water pollution with xenobiotic organic compounds.

  7. Industrial Development and Challenges of Water Pollution in Coastal Areas: The Case of Surat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Neeru

    2018-03-01

    Industrialisation plays an important role in the economic development of a country, however, pollution is the inevitable price paid for this development. Surat, a major industrial hub in western India, is located on the bank of the river Tapi and extends up to the Arabian Sea. The city is characterised by the presence of a number of creeks (known as ‘khadis’ in local language). This paper focusses on the industrial development in Surat and the challenges faced by the city due to water pollution. A constant deterioration in the quality of surface water resources has been observed due to discharge of treated or partially treated effluents from the industries. The problem of water pollution becomes critical due to increase in frequency of flooding, risks faced by the city due to climate change and the ineffective environmental governance. The paper provides insights into the challenges faced by the city and the learnings can lead to adoption of policy initiatives and other measures which can effectively address these challenges.

  8. BACOPA MONNIERI (L. PENNELL –A GOOD BIOMARKER OF WATER POLLUTION/CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain. K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of water pollution on Bacopa monnieri was studied by culturing their rooted propagules in various polluted water samples and Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with different micro-level concentrations of HgCl2. Anatomical observations of those plants showed safranin-stained masses deposited in the xylem vessels of stem. The plants treated in chemical solutions which are free from metallic ions, under threshold level of HgCl2, and control plants were devoid of such deposits. Similar deposits were observed in plants cultured in various local water samples. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analyses of these water samples and the bioaccumulation property of the plant detected the presence of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn at various levels. The occurrence of the localized stained deposits in the xylem vessels of the stem of the plants cultured in polluted/contaminated aqueous medium, eventhough the growth medium contamination is micro-levels, is indicative of high sensitivity of Bacopa monnieri plants towards water pollution irrespective of the chemical nature of the pollutants. Although these stained deposits are not specific to any individual element that causes pollution, detection of water contamination is possible by observing the safranin-stained masses in the xylem vessels of this medicinal plant.

  9. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act

  10. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  11. Deep challenges for China's war on water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J; Cao, Guoliang

    2016-11-01

    China's Central government has released an ambitious plan to tackle the nation's water pollution crisis. However, this is inhibited by a lack of data, particularly for groundwater. We compiled and analyzed water quality classification data from publicly available government sources, further revealing the scale and extent of the crisis. We also compiled nitrate data in shallow and deep groundwater from a range of literature sources, covering 52 of China's groundwater systems; the most comprehensive national-scale assessment yet. Nitrate pollution at levels exceeding the US EPA's maximum contaminant level (10 mg/L NO 3 N) occurs at the 90th percentile in 25 of 36 shallow aquifers and 10 out of 37 deep or karst aquifers. Isotopic compositions of groundwater nitrate (δ 15 N and δ 18 O NO3 values ranging from -14.9‰ to 35.5‰ and -8.1‰ to 51.0‰, respectively) indicate many nitrate sources including soil nitrogen, agricultural fertilizers, untreated wastewater and/or manure, and locally show evidence of de-nitrification. From these data, it is clear that contaminated groundwater is ubiquitous in deep aquifers as well as shallow groundwater (and surface water). Deep aquifers contain water recharged tens of thousands of years before present, long before widespread anthropogenic nitrate contamination. This groundwater has therefore likely been contaminated due to rapid bypass flow along wells or other conduits. Addressing the issue of well condition is urgently needed to stop further pollution of China's deep aquifers, which are some of China's most important drinking water sources. China's new 10-point Water Pollution Plan addresses previous shortcomings, however, control and remediation of deep groundwater pollution will take decades of sustained effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Are combined AOPs effective for toxicity reduction in receiving marine environment? Suitability of battery of bioassays for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as an ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2016-03-01

    Ecotoxicological assessment of three different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents D1, D2 and D3 was performed before and after tertiary treatment using combination of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). A multibarrier treatment (MBT) consisting of microfiltration (MF), hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) was applied for all effluents. Sparus aurata, Paracentrotus lividus, Isochrysis galbana and Vibrio fischeri, representing different trophic levels, constituted the battery of bioassays. Different acute toxicity effects were observed in each WWTP effluents tested. The percentage of sea urchin larval development and mortality fish larvae were the most sensitive endpoints. Significant reduction (p WWTP effluents for the marine environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calculation of the surface water pollution index in the evaluation of environmental component of product life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Аскольдович Проскурнин

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment feasibility of the combined effect of the product life cycle on the environment is grounded. As an example, the pollution of surface waters at the production stage is considered in the article. A mechanism of ranking indicators of surface water pollution according to their importance is proposed. An algorithm for checking the consistency of the statistical expert judgment in determining weight coefficient for the indicators of pollution, based on the use of the concordance coefficient, is given

  14. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.140-3 Section 40.140-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) All applications for grants under section 105...

  15. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40.145-2 Section 40.145-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a) No person in the United States shall on the...

  16. Ground water pollution by arsenic and its effects on health. Involvement of metabolic methylation in arsenic-induced genetic damage and tumorigenesis; Muki hiso no mechiru ka taisha to idenshi shogaisei narabini shuyo yuhatsusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, K. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] Okada, S. [Shizuoka Prefecture (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    Drinking water contamination has become a worldwide problem. It is pointed out that re-evaluation of genetic damage with carcinogen is considered as an important problem particularly arsenic`s effects on health. To explain the genetic damage development mechanism of arsenic compound, results of the research conducted on the action of arsenic compound which develops during metabolic methylation process and inorganic arsenic are explained in this paper. The results of the study are summarized as follows. Arsenic genetic damage mutation is caused by dimethyl arsenic in main metabolism than inorganic arsenic. Lung DNA damage is induced by the interaction of O2 and arsenic peroxide radical. Dimethyl arsenic shows very important effect on lung cancer formation process which is induced based on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). It not only promotes lung cancer but it also plays an important role in malignant tumor`s mutation. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  18. Astyanax fasciatus as bioindicator of water pollution of Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHULZ U. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an increasing downriver pollution gradient on the reproductive system of Astyanax fasciatus were investigated in the Rio dos Sinos, RS. The comparison of mean oocyte diameters, gonadal indices and gonado-somatic relationships of specimens captured in polluted areas with individuals from unpolluted reference sites revealed a significant decrease of these parameters with increasing water pollution. High loads of organic and industrial sewage are considered responsible for these effects. Condition factors showed an inverse relationship, and increased significantly in downriver polluted areas. The declining gonadal indices showed that energy was allocated to somatic growth. The results of the study recommend the use of A. fasciatus in biomonitoring essays.

  19. Astyanax fasciatus as bioindicator of water pollution of Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. SCHULZ

    Full Text Available The effects of an increasing downriver pollution gradient on the reproductive system of Astyanax fasciatus were investigated in the Rio dos Sinos, RS. The comparison of mean oocyte diameters, gonadal indices and gonado-somatic relationships of specimens captured in polluted areas with individuals from unpolluted reference sites revealed a significant decrease of these parameters with increasing water pollution. High loads of organic and industrial sewage are considered responsible for these effects. Condition factors showed an inverse relationship, and increased significantly in downriver polluted areas. The declining gonadal indices showed that energy was allocated to somatic growth. The results of the study recommend the use of A. fasciatus in biomonitoring essays.

  20. The Role of Technology Spillovers in the Process of Water Pollution Abatement for Large International Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aldieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of technology externalities stemming from different technological sectors for international firms engaged both in water pollution abatement and in dirty activities. We present a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis based upon a dataset composed of worldwide R&D-intensive firms. In order to identify the technological proximity between the firms, we construct an original Mahalanobis environmental industry weight matrix, based on the construction of technological vectors for each firm, with European ecological patents distributed across more technology classes. Opportune econometric techniques that deal with the firms’ unobserved heterogeneity and the weak exogeneity of the explanatory variables are implemented. The findings show significant spillover effects on the productivity and environmental performance of the firms.

  1. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  2. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG, biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD, chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD, and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight with high FSPWQG (>50% distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS, gross domestic product (GDP, and population (POP. Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  3. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  4. Investigations of time-dependent water pollution effects of overburden dumps - partial project 1. Final report; Untersuchungen gewaesserrelevanter Einfluesse von Bergbauhalden in Abhaengigkeit von der Standzeit - Teilprojekt 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuge, P.; Dunger, C.; Mibus, J.; Starke, R.

    1998-02-01

    Management of overburden dumps necessitates careful stocktaking and precise definitions of pollutant emissions so that, if necessary, conclusions can be drawn concerning sanitation concepts in consideration of emission limits and environmental balances. In view of the large number of overburden dumps in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia caused the authors to restrict their investigations to ore mines and to select elements characteristic of the worked deposits and their potential environmental effects. The following problems were investigated: Are overburden dumps significant emitters of elements at all? Which elements are emitted in what concentrations, in what form and up to what distance from the dump? Are there really different patterns for gangue and impregnation types? How big is the real reaction space of the dump? Should the whole dump be assumed to be a reservoir of elements for emission or just parts of it? What are the factors that most strongly influence element mobilisation and/or retention? What measures should be recommended for emission reduction or prevention from the aspects of necessity, economic efficiency and long-term stability? (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Es ergibt sich fuer den Umgang mit Halden die Notwendigkeit einer gruendlichen Bilanzierung und schaerferen Definition von Schadstoffemission aus ihnen, um daraus Konsequenzen fuer eventuell erforderliche Sanierungskonzeptionen unter Beruecksichtigung von Grenzwerteinhaltung und Umweltbilanz abzuleiten. Der Umfang der einzelnen Fragestellungen und die Bedeutung der Halden in Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt und Thueringen sowie Anzahl und ihr Inhalt fuehrte zur Beschraenkung auf den Erzbergbau und auf die Kontrolle ausgewaehlter Elemente, die fuer den jeweils abgebauten Lagerstaetteninhalt charakteristisch und fuer die Wirkung auf die Umwelt von Bedeutung sind. Folgende konkrete Fragestellungen sollen verfolgt werden: - Sind Halden ueberhaupt nennenswerte Emittenten von Elementen? - Welche Elemente werden

  5. Organobentonites as multifunctional adsorbents of organic and inorganic water pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović-Jovičić Natаša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a low cost, easy to synthesize and efficient adsorbent for the simultaneous adsorption of both organic and inorganic pollutants (including textile dyes, toxic metals etc.. The starting material, domestic bentonite clay from Bogovina was modified with amounts of hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0 times of the value of the cation exchange capacity value. The organobentonites were tested as adsorbents in a three-dye-containing solution, a three-component solution of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ and a hexa- component solution containing all investigated dyes and toxic metal cations. The used adsorbents showed the highest affinity toward Acid Yellow 99 and Ni2+ ions. Dye adsorption was enhanced in the presence of toxic metal cations, while the adsorption of all toxic cations from the hexa-component solution was lower than from the three-component solution containing only toxic cations. The synthesized hexadecyltrimethylammonium bentonite could be regarded as an efficient multifunctional adsorbent for the investigated type of water pollutants.

  6. [Water pollution and health risks at Yaoundé, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmbi, Jean Ghislain Tabué; Feumba, Roger; Njitat, Valérie Tsama; de Marsily, Ghislain; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article consists of developing an ecosystemic approach to collect information about groundwater pollution in order to determine its origin and infer the health risks in Mingoa's watershed through the study of 12 spontaneous settlements. From an environmental point of view, family interviews and direct observations allowed us to inventory springs, wells and latrines, and to collect information. So, we have selected, on the basis of predefined criteria, 21 wells and springs for physico-chemical and bacteriological laboratory analyses. Two hundred children aged less than 5 years were subjected to KOAP examination. A number of 1224 latrines were inventoried, for an average use of 15 people per latrine, producing 913.3 kg/year of excreta. Most of 91% of people use these latrines. The superficial aquifers, connected to the wells and springs, present high values of nitrogen, phosphorous pollutant and fecal contamination indicators (coliforms and fecal streptococcus), which make water inappropriate to human consumption. PCA analysis establishes that water pollution comes mainly from traditional pit latrines. The overall prevalence of diarrhea and parasite infestation was important (=40%). The presence of cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris limbricoides, and Entamoeba coli confirms this high prevalence and testify to very approximate hygiene and environment conditions. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Land use and water pollution in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbona, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, previous water-quality analyses have indicated that most surface-water bodies, as well as ground water, are polluted with both organic and inorganic substances. Contributions to water-quality deterioration come from point and nonpoint sources. These pose a threat on a densely populated island. Urban and industrial development occurred rapidly with a lag in the required infrastructure for expansion. Water pollution has been a by-product of this process and is regarded as the most serious environmental problem on the island. This study examines water-quality parameters in three hydrological basins. It attempts to determine how extensive a problem it is and how the concentration of pollutants compare in different land-use situations. A total of 33 sampling sites distributed among the three watersheds was chosen. Fifteen water-quality parameters were examined. All of the water bodies in spatial association with the land use considered presented detectable concentrations of the selected water-quality parameters

  8. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  9. Robust predictive modelling of water pollution using biomarker data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budka, Marcin; Gabrys, Bogdan; Ravagnan, Elisa

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the methodology of building a predictive model for the purpose of marine pollution monitoring, based on low quality biomarker data. A step-by-step, systematic data analysis approach is presented, resulting in design of a purely data-driven model, able to accurately discriminate between various coastal water pollution levels. The environmental scientists often try to apply various machine learning techniques to their data without much success, mostly because of the lack of experience with different methods and required 'under the hood' knowledge. Thus this paper is a result of a collaboration between the machine learning and environmental science communities, presenting a predictive model development workflow, as well as discussing and addressing potential pitfalls and difficulties. The novelty of the modelling approach presented lays in successful application of machine learning techniques to high dimensional, incomplete biomarker data, which to our knowledge has not been done before and is the result of close collaboration between machine learning and environmental science communities.

  10. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  11. Yeast as an indicator of surface water pollution; Hefe als Bioindikator fuer Gewaesserverunreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomhard, S. von [Gymnasium Saarburg (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The vitality of yeast strains in aqueous solutions is affected by pollutants. In her contribution to 'Jugend forscht', the author added typical water pollutants like kitchen salt, salad oil, detergents and diesel oil to a nutrient broth with yeast in laboratory conditions and measured and analyzed their effects on the basis of CO{sub 2} emissions. In a practical test, water samples of the Saar river were investigated in the same manner, with interesting results. [German] Die Vitalitaet von Hefestaemmen in waessrigen Loesungen wird durch Verunreinigungen beeinflusst. In einer Arbeit zum Wettbewerb 'Jugend forscht' hat die Autorin unter Laborbedingungen typische Gewaesserschadstoffe wie Kochsalz, Speiseoel, Waschmittel und Dieseloel in eine Naehrloesung mit Hefe eingebracht und die Wirkung der Verunreinigungen anhand der freigesetzten CO{sub 2}-Menge gemessen und bewertet. Als praktische Anwendung der Versuche wurden Wasserproben der Saar in gleicher Weise mit interessanten Resultaten untersucht.

  12. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  13. Study of Water Pollution Early Warning Framework Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengfang, H.; Xiao, X.; Dingtao, S.; Bo, C.; Xiongfei, W.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  14. STUDY OF WATER POLLUTION EARLY WARNING FRAMEWORK BASED ON INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chengfang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  15. Evaluation of policy measures and methods to reduce diffuse water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ute; Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Goemann, Horst; Jaeger, Peter; Kreins, Peter; Moeller, Christine; Prigge, Achim; Ristenpart, Erik; Schultheiss, Ute

    2006-11-15

    After considerable improvements of wastewater treatment, the loads of nutrients and plant protection agents, deriving from agriculture and heavy metals from urban drainages effluents as well as from erosion of agricultural soils are the main sources of nutrients and harmful substances in the loads of water bodies. The targets of the project were on the one hand the analysis of the political and legislative framework of both policy fields and on the other hand the evaluation of several, selected water protection measures with regard to their contribution to reduce water pollution, their economical effects as well as their political enforceability. The focus was laid on diffuse water pollution caused by agriculture. As main reasons for the diffuse water pollution stagnating at high level, the analysis of the political framework identified a lack of implementation discipline of water law, followed by the fragmented and insufficient water protection legislation itself and the previous design of the common agricultural policy slanted towards increasing productivity. For the future co-operation of agricultural and water authorities in implementation of their reforms and better definition of 'Good Farming Practice' are recommended. The second investigation level focuses on the analysis and assessment of selected measures to reduce the input of nutrients and plant protection agents. This part was done with help of calculation models focussing on the specific cost/benefit ratios for water protection. In detail the following measures have been analysed: decoupling of direct payments, coupling of livestock farming to areas, tax on mineral nitrogen, pesticide levy, buffer stripes alongside of watercourses, all season crop cover on arable land, soil cultivation procedures, changing the use of arable land, optimisation of animal nutrition, optimisation of manure storage and application, co-operative agreements, education and training. Co-operations and water protection

  16. Absence of liver tumor promoting effects of annatto extract (norbixin), a natural carotenoid food color, in a medium-term liver carcinogenesis bioassay using male F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Nabae, Kyoko; Hirota, Takeshi; Yoshino, Hiroko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Tsushima, Yoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Koda, Takatoshi; Nakamura, Mikio; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-09-10

    Modifying potential of annatto extract (norbixin) on liver carcinogenesis was investigated in male F344/DuCrj rats initially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Two weeks after a single dose of DEN (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), rats were given annatto extract at dietary levels of 0, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3%, or phenobarbital sodium at 0.05% as a positive control for 6 weeks. All animals were subjected to partial hepatectomy at week 3, and were killed at week 8. There were no deaths related to annatto extract ingestion, and the treatment had no effects on body weights, or food and water consumption. Statistically significant increases of absolute and relative liver weights were apparent in the 0.1 and 0.3% groups. However, annatto extract did not significantly increase the quantitative values for glutathione S-transferase placental form positive liver cell foci observed after DEN initiation, in clear contrast to the positive control case. The results thus demonstrate that annatto extract at a dietary level of 0.3% (200 mg/kg/day) lacks modifying potential for liver carcinogenesis in our medium-term bioassay system.

  17. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  18. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  19. Lack of data for predicting storm water pollutant removal by post-construction best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The project objective was to conduct a detailed literature review of storm water pollutants and mitigation technologies and synthesize : the information so that INDOT can implement project results into standards. Because it is a municipal separate st...

  20. Monitoring of pesticides water pollution-The Egyptian River Nile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy Abdel-Goad; Nabawy, Ehab; Elbana, Mariam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD. Organochlorine pesticides mean concentrations along the River Nile water samples were 0.403, 1.081, 1.209, 3.22, and 1.192 μg L -1 for endrin, dieldrin, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE, respectively. Dieldrin, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE were above the standard guidelines of the World Health Organization. Detected organophosphorus pesticides were Triazophos (2.601 μg L -1 ), Quinalphos (1.91 μg L -1 ), fenitrothion (1.222 μg L -1 ), Ethoprophos (1.076 μg L -1 ), chlorpyrifos (0.578 μg L -1 ), ethion (0.263 μg L -1 ), Fenamiphos (0.111 μg L -1 ), and pirimiphos-methyl (0.04 μg L -1 ). Toxicity characterization of organophosphorus pesticides according to water quality guidelines indicated the hazardous risk of detected chemicals to the public and to the different environmental compartments. The spatial distribution patterns of detected pesticides reflected the reverse relationship between regional temperature and organochlorine pesticides distribution. However, organophosphorus was distributed according to the local inputs of pollutant compounds. Toxicological and water quality standards data revealed the hazardous risk of detected pesticides in the Egyptian River Nile water to human and aquatic life. Thus, our monitoring data will provide viewpoints by which stricter legislation and regulatory controls can be admitted to avoid River Nile pesticide water pollution.

  1. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  2. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based bioassay for assessing pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estève, Karine; Poupot, C; Dabert, P; Mietton-Peuchot, M; Milisic, V

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the toxic effect of three pesticides (Azoxystrobin, Cymoxanil, and Diuron) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the development of a new bioassay based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae metabolic activity at the level of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, as compared with two different toxicity tests based on inhibition of Daphnia magna mobility (NF EN ISO 6341) and inhibition of Vibrio fisheri activity (NF EN ISO 11348). The S. cerevisiae bioassay is cheaper and 96 times faster than the D. magna toxicity bioassay, but has lower sensitivity. It is as fast as the V. fisheri bioassay and more sensitive. Thus, this new toxicity test can be proposed for rapid detection of pesticide residues in environmental samples as a complement to the more expensive and time-consuming D. magna toxicity test.

  3. Experiences of European Union Countries in Water Pollution Control System and Their Inspirations to China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yin

    2007-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of industry and agriculture, growth of population, improvement of urbanization level, China has been confronted with increasingly serious deficiency and pollution of water resource. In order to deal with the challenge as well as reduce waste discharge, it is necessary to strengthen all the possible efforts in controlling water pollution. Therefore, the control and management of water pollution is of vital significance to the development of national economy and...

  4. Applied in vitro radio bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.G.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    1992-11-01

    The aim of this publication is to show the concepts and in vitro bioassay techniques as well as experimental procedures related with internal contamination evaluation. The main routes of intake, metabolic behavior, and the possible types of bioassay samples that can be collected for radionuclides analysis are described. Both biological processes and the chemical and physical behavior of the radioactive material of interest are considered and the capabilities of analytical techniques to detect and quantify the radionuclides are discussed. Next, the need of quality assurance throughout procedures are considered and finally a summary of the techniques applied to the internal routine monitoring of IPEN workers is given. (author)

  5. Effect of fixation on brain and lymphoreticular vCJD prions and bioassay of key positive specimens from a retrospective vCJD prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Dalmau-Mena, Inmaculada; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; O'Malley, Catherine; Powell, Caroline; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Ironside, James W; Hilton, David A; Collinge, John

    2011-03-01

    Anonymous screening of lymphoreticular tissues removed during routine surgery has been applied to estimate the UK population prevalence of asymptomatic vCJD prion infection. The retrospective study of Hilton et al (J Pathol 2004; 203: 733-739) found accumulation of abnormal prion protein in three formalin-fixed appendix specimens. This led to an estimated UK prevalence of vCJD infection of ∼1 in 4000, which remains the key evidence supporting current risk reduction measures to reduce iatrogenic transmission of vCJD prions in the UK. Confirmatory testing of these positives has been hampered by the inability to perform immunoblotting of formalin-fixed tissue. Animal transmission studies offer the potential for 'gold standard' confirmatory testing but are limited by both transmission barrier effects and known effects of fixation on scrapie prion titre in experimental models. Here we report the effects of fixation on brain and lymphoreticular human vCJD prions and comparative bioassay of two of the three prevalence study formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) appendix specimens using transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP). While transgenic mice expressing human PrP 129M readily reported vCJD prion infection after inoculation with frozen vCJD brain or appendix, and also FFPE vCJD brain, no infectivity was detected in FFPE vCJD spleen. No prion transmission was observed from either of the FFPE appendix specimens. The absence of detectable infectivity in fixed, known positive vCJD lymphoreticular tissue precludes interpreting negative transmissions from vCJD prevalence study appendix specimens. In this context, the Hilton et al study should continue to inform risk assessment pending the outcome of larger-scale studies on discarded surgical tissues and autopsy samples.

  6. The risk assessment of sudden water pollution for river network system under multi-source random emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.

    2016-12-01

    Sudden water pollution accidents are unavoidable risk events that we must learn to co-exist with. In China's Taihu River Basin, the river flow conditions are complicated with frequently artificial interference. Sudden water pollution accident occurs mainly in the form of a large number of abnormal discharge of wastewater, and has the characteristics with the sudden occurrence, the uncontrollable scope, the uncertainty object and the concentrated distribution of many risk sources. Effective prevention of pollution accidents that may occur is of great significance for the water quality safety management. Bayesian networks can be applied to represent the relationship between pollution sources and river water quality intuitively. Using the time sequential Monte Carlo algorithm, the pollution sources state switching model, water quality model for river network and Bayesian reasoning is integrated together, and the sudden water pollution risk assessment model for river network is developed to quantify the water quality risk under the collective influence of multiple pollution sources. Based on the isotope water transport mechanism, a dynamic tracing model of multiple pollution sources is established, which can describe the relationship between the excessive risk of the system and the multiple risk sources. Finally, the diagnostic reasoning algorithm based on Bayesian network is coupled with the multi-source tracing model, which can identify the contribution of each risk source to the system risk under the complex flow conditions. Taking Taihu Lake water system as the research object, the model is applied to obtain the reasonable results under the three typical years. Studies have shown that the water quality risk at critical sections are influenced by the pollution risk source, the boundary water quality, the hydrological conditions and self -purification capacity, and the multiple pollution sources have obvious effect on water quality risk of the receiving water body

  7. Effect of dietary manganese and age on tissue trace mineral composition of broiler-type chicks as a bioassay of manganese sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J R; Ammerman, C B; Henry, P R; Miles, R D

    1985-04-01

    An experiment was conducted with 144 Cobb broiler-type chicks in a 4 X 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to investigate the effects of dietary manganese (Mn) and age on trace mineral composition in tissues. Day-old chicks were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (112 ppm Mn) supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000, or 3000 ppm Mn as manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4 X H2O) for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. There were two pen replications per treatment combination and six chicks per pen. Liver, kidney, pancreas, skeletal muscle, and bone were excised from 4 chicks per replication. Plasma was pooled from the remaining 2 chicks, and all samples were frozen for subsequent mineral analysis. There was a reduction in average daily feed intake (P less than .05) at the 3000 ppm dietary level accompanied by a nonsignificant decrease in average daily gain and an increase in feed per unit gain. Tissue Mn increased (P less than .001) for all tissues as dietary Mn increased. Tissue Mn concentration was reduced with age in kidney, pancreas, muscle (P less than .001), and plasma (P less than .05). Manganese in bone was lowest (P less than .01) at 1 week of age. Of those ages tested, the optimum for bioassay based on lambda criterion values appeared to be 3 weeks. The highest lambda criterion values were obtained at 3 weeks of age in kidney followed by bone at 2 weeks. High dietary Mn increased copper (Cu) concentration in liver (P less than .05) and plasma (P less than .05) and reduced iron (Fe) in pancreas (P less than .001). Liver Fe was lower (P less than .001) at 3000 ppm than at 1000 or 2000 ppm dietary Mn. Plasma zinc (Zn) was higher (P less than .05) at all supplemental Mn levels than the unsupplemented control, and kidney Zn increased (P less than .001) at 3000 ppm dietary Mn.

  8. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

    2007-06-15

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  9. Paramecium: a promising non-animal bioassay to study the effect of 808 nm infrared diode laser photobiomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Parker, Steven; Dorigo, Gianluca; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Photobiostimulation and photobiomodulation (PBM) are terms applied to the manipulation of cellular behavior using low intensity light sources, which works on the principle of inducing a biological response through energy transfer. The aim of this investigation was to identify a laboratory assay to test the effect of an infrared diode laser light (808 nm) on cell fission rate. Sixty cells of Paramecium primaurelia were divided in two groups of 30. The first group (test group) was irradiated, at a temperature of 24°C, for 50 sec by a 808 nm diode laser with a flat top handpiece [1 cm of spot diameter, 1 W in continuous wave (CW), 50 sec irradiation time, 64 J/cm(2) of fluence]. The second group (control group) received no laser irradiation. All cells were transferred onto a depression slide, fed, and incubated in a moist chamber at a temperature of 24°C. The cells were exposed and monitored for 10 consecutive fission rates. Changes in temperature and pH were also evaluated. The exposed cells had a fission rate rhythm faster than the control cells, showing a binary fission significantly (pParamecium's lettuce infusion medium were observed. The 808 nm infrared diode laser light, at the irradiation parameters used in our work, results in a precocious fission rate in P. primaurelia cells, probably through an increase in metabolic activity, secondary to an energy transfer.

  10. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  11. A Colorimetric Bioassay for Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinnickel, M. L.; Smith, S.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    are not effective unless an accompanying dye is used as a shuttle. N-methylphenazinium methosulfate (PMS) was selected as the most suitable dye because of its interaction with NADH, an oxygen stable reductant. In addition, the positive redox potential of PMS (E°' = +80 mV), makes it significantly less reactive than MV (E°' = -450 mV). A comparison of actual concentrations of ClO4- reduced vs. NADH oxidized show exactly four molecules of NADH oxidized for each molecule of ClO4- that is reduced (8 electrons). These studies have resulted in the successful development of a method that can accurately determine ClO4- concentrations with a small error using the enzyme Pcr and indicate the great potential for the ultimate development of a simple, robust, and highly sensitive colorimetric bioassay for perchlorate that can be widely used to screen laboratory and environmental samples .

  12. The Economics of Mitigation of Water Pollution Externalities from Biomass Production for Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Adusumilli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill the national bioenergy goals of the United States, conversion of marginal lands to intensive biomass crop production and/or application of greater amounts of nutrients to existing cropland could be expected. Such change in agricultural practices could produce unintended environmental consequences such as water quality degradation. Select Best Management Practices (BMPs are evaluated for water quality mitigation effectiveness as well as for their relative cost-effectiveness, issues that are often ignored in evaluation of biofuels as a sustainable solution for energy demand. The water quality impacts of converting pastureland to intensive biomass production for biofuel, evaluated using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, indicate significant increases in erosion and nutrient loadings to water bodies. Hydrologic and economic evaluation of the BMPs indicate their implementation produced effective water pollution mitigation but at substantial costs, accentuating the sustainability issue related to the economics of renewable fuels. U.S. national energy policy designed around achieving energy independence should also consider environmental and economic trade-offs for biofuels to be an economically and environmentally sustainable alternative to fossil fuels.

  13. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-01-01

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  14. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluvaihtoehtojen tapauskohtainen vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-12-31

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  15. Political economy of transnational water pollution: what do the LMB data (1985-2000) say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongxing; Yang, Kaizhong

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of the cross-section and time-series data of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)--including large sections of Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia, we find little evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Instead, our regressions support the general views that water pollution had been positively related to income level and that, as a result of the end of the Cold War era, it had been significantly reduced in the 1990s vis-à-vis the 1980s. In most circumstances, water resources were more seriously polluted in the transnational border areas than in the other areas. Specifically, the estimated coefficients on the political boundary dummies show that political influence on transnational water pollution was more significant in areas near "the international border along which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER2) than in places near "the international border across which the river runs" (denoted by BORDER1). The estimated coefficients on the ASEAN dummy present some information about the positive role of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) membership in the reduction of transnational water pollution. Finally, the country-specific dummies are found to present conflicting information about the transnational differences of water pollution, although Thailand is found to have the least water pollution in the LMB.

  16. Studies on Erythropoietin Bioassay Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyoung Sam; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Mun Ho

    1975-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to design the most preferable method of erythropoietin bioassay in Korea. Bioassay utilizing polycythemic mice are currently in general use for the indirect determination of erythropoietin. Assay animals are usually prepared either by transfusion or by exposure to reduced oxygen tension in specially constructed chamber. We prepared the polycythemic mice by the specially constructed hypobaric chamber. We observed weights and hematocrits of the mice in the hypobaric chamber, then hematocrits and 72 hours 59 Fe red cell uptake ratio of the polycythemic mice induced by hypoxia after removal from the hypobaric chamber. We designed the method of erythropoietin bioassay according to the results obtained by above experiments. Then we measured the 72 hours 59 Fe red cell uptake ratio of the polycythemic mice with normal saline, normal plasma and anemic plasma according to the method we designed. The results are followed:1) The hematocrits of the mice in hypobaric chamber increased to 74% in 11 days. It is preferable to maintain the pressure of the chamber to 400 mmHg for first 4 days then 300 mmHg for last 10 days to reduce the death rate and time consuming in hypobaric chamber. 2) After removal from the hypobaric chamber, the 72 hours 59 Fe red cell uptake ratio decreased rapidly and maintained the lowest level from the fourth day to tenth day. 3) We design the method of erythropoietin bioassay according to the results of above experiment and to the half life of erythropoietin. 4) The Korean product 59 Fe is mixture of 55 Fe and 59 Fe. And the 59 Fe red cell uptake ratio in normal mice was far less with Korean product 59 Fe than with pure 59 Fe of foreign product. So it is desirable to use pure 59 Fe in this method of erythropoietin bioassay. 5) Considering the cost, the technique, the time consuming and the sensitivity it is the most preferable method of erythropoietin bioassay in Korea using hypobaric chamber to induce the polycythemia.

  17. Simulation models for water pollution in rivers and lakes; Suishitsu osen no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosomi, M. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1996-11-05

    Rivers, lakes, and dam lakes are taken up as fields related to urban environment, and simulation models for water pollution control is introduced which are considered to be important for controlling water quality. In connection with rivers, a model showing the relationship between organic contamination and DO (dissolved oxygen) as well as an analyzed example of the use of continuous data of easy-to-measure DO are introduced. DO and pH in urban rivers sometimes exceed the environmental standards in the dry season. The cause is greater effect of biofilm adhesion at the river bed due to elongated staying time, and the establishment of the maintained river flow rate must be reviewed. One of the problems of ecological models is the deficiency of the data for the verification of the ecological models, and arrangement to solve the problem is required. Although it is admitted that simulation of phytoplankton in which neural network is employed has just started, it is expected to become an effective means for the study of phenomena which can not be elucidated by the modeling using normal numeric models. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Water pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Pellia neesiana (Gottsche) Limpr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; Lentini, Marco; Conte, Barbara; Esposito, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily contaminated Sarno River (Campania, South Italy), using Pellia neesiana (Pelliaceae Metzgeriales) in order to propose this liverwort as a potential bioindicator, able to record the effects of water pollution, particularly the one related to metal (loid) contamination. Samples of P. neesiana in nylon bags were disposed floating for one week on the waters of Sarno River in three sites characterised by an increasing pollution. As control, some specimens were cultured in vitro in Cd- and Pb-added media, at the same pollutants' levels as measured in the most polluted site. P. neesiana cell ultrastructure was modified and severe alterations were observed in chloroplasts from samples exposed in the most polluted site, and Cd- and Pb-cultured samples. Concurrently, a strong increase in the occurrence of Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) was detected in gametophytes following the pollution gradient. In conclusion, ultrastructural damages can be directly related to HSP 70 occurrence in liverwort tissues, and proportional to the degree of pollution present in the river; thus our study suggests P. neesiana as an affordable bioindicator of freshwaters pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Development of a Chronic Sublethal Bioassay for Evaluating Contaminated Sediment with the Marine Polychaete Worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    are typically exposed to a continu- First-generation bioassays in aquatic toxicology ous (i.e., chronic) but low level of contamination. measured...arenaceodentata. In W.E. Storrs, CT. Bishop, R.D. Cardwell and B.B. Heidolph, eds., 38. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1985. Am- Aquatic Toxicology and...sulfide poisoning of respiration of the W.H. van der Schalie, eds., Aquatic Toxicology and hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftiapachyptila. Sci- Hazard

  20. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  1. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. Power asymmetry in conflict resolution with application to a water pollution dispute in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Kilgour, D. Marc; Hipel, Keith W.; Zhao, Min

    2015-10-01

    The concept of power asymmetry is incorporated into the framework of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) and then applied to a water pollution dispute in China in order to show how it can provide strategic insights into courses of action. In a new definition of power asymmetry, one of the decision makers (DMs) in a conflict can influence the preferences of other DMs by taking advantage of additional options reflecting the particular DM's more powerful position. The more powerful DM may have three different kinds of power: direct positive, direct negative, or indirect. It is useful to analyze a model of a conflict without power asymmetry, and then to analyze a power-asymmetric model. As demonstrated by analysis of the water quality controversy that took place at the border separating the Chinese provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang, this novel conflict resolution methodology can be readily applied to real-world strategic conflicts to gain an enhanced understanding of the effects of asymmetric power.

  3. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  4. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period.

  5. The genetic algorithm for the nonlinear programming of water pollution control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Zhang, J. [China University of Geosciences (China)

    1999-08-01

    In the programming of water pollution control system the combined method of optimization with simulation is used generally. It is not only laborious in calculation, but also the global optimum of the obtained solution is guaranteed difficult. In this paper, the genetic algorithm (GA) used in the nonlinear programming of water pollution control system is given, by which the preferred conception for the programming of waste water system is found in once-through operation. It is more succinct than the conventional method and the global optimum of the obtained solution could be ensured. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  7. 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase: a new biomarker of fish exposure to water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallottini, Valentina; Scalici, Massimiliano; Gibertini, Giancarlo; Marino, Maria; Trentalance, Anna

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a new putative biomarker in Salmo trutta exposed to water pollution. Variations in the levels of hepatic 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, were compared to heat shock protein 70 and hypoxia inducible factor α, biomarkers of pollution exposure and lowered O₂, respectively. The results confirm that HMG-CoAR levels increase in polluted water irrespective of water temperature or O₂ content, indicating that HMG-CoAR could be used as a specific biomarker for water pollution.

  8. Chemopreventive Activity of Ferulago angulate against Breast Tumor in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of Polycerasoidin in MCF7 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Karimian

    Full Text Available Ferulago angulata leaf hexane extract (FALHE was found to be a potent inducer of MCF7 cell apoptosis. The aims of the present study were to investigate the in vivo chemopreventive effect of FALHE in rats, to identify the contributing anticancer compound in FALHE and to determine its potential mechanism of action against MCF7 cells. Thirty rats harboring LA7-induced breast tumors were divided into five groups: tumor control, low-dose FALHE, high-dose FALHE, treatment control (tamoxifen and normal control. Breast tissues were then subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. A bioassay-guided investigation on FALHE was performed to identify the cytotoxic compound and its mechanism of action through flow cytometry, real-time qPCR and western blotting analyses. An in vivo study showed that FALHE suppressed the expression of the tumor markers PCNA and Ki67. The tumor size was reduced from 2031 ± 281 mm3 to 432 ± 201 mm3 after FALHE treatment. FALHE administration induced apoptosis in breast tumor cells, and this was confirmed by high expression levels of Bax, p53 and caspase 3. Cell cycle arrest was suggested by the expression of p21 and p27. The in vitro experimental results resulted in the isolation of polycerasoidin as a bioactive ingredient of FALHE with an IC50 value of 3.16 ± 0.31 μg/ml against MCF7 cells. Polycerasoidin induced mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cells via caspase activation and changes in the mRNA and protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the treated MCF7 cells were arrested at the G1 phase, and this was associated with the up-regulation of p21 and p27 at both the mRNA and protein levels. The results of the present study reinforce further investigations scrutinizing the promising potential of the F. angulata chemical constituents as breast cancer chemopreventive agents.

  9. Chemopreventive Activity of Ferulago angulate against Breast Tumor in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of Polycerasoidin in MCF7 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Razavi, Mahboubeh; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Ibrahim Noordin, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Ferulago angulata leaf hexane extract (FALHE) was found to be a potent inducer of MCF7 cell apoptosis. The aims of the present study were to investigate the in vivo chemopreventive effect of FALHE in rats, to identify the contributing anticancer compound in FALHE and to determine its potential mechanism of action against MCF7 cells. Thirty rats harboring LA7-induced breast tumors were divided into five groups: tumor control, low-dose FALHE, high-dose FALHE, treatment control (tamoxifen) and normal control. Breast tissues were then subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. A bioassay-guided investigation on FALHE was performed to identify the cytotoxic compound and its mechanism of action through flow cytometry, real-time qPCR and western blotting analyses. An in vivo study showed that FALHE suppressed the expression of the tumor markers PCNA and Ki67. The tumor size was reduced from 2031 ± 281 mm3 to 432 ± 201 mm3 after FALHE treatment. FALHE administration induced apoptosis in breast tumor cells, and this was confirmed by high expression levels of Bax, p53 and caspase 3. Cell cycle arrest was suggested by the expression of p21 and p27. The in vitro experimental results resulted in the isolation of polycerasoidin as a bioactive ingredient of FALHE with an IC50 value of 3.16 ± 0.31 μg/ml against MCF7 cells. Polycerasoidin induced mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cells via caspase activation and changes in the mRNA and protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the treated MCF7 cells were arrested at the G1 phase, and this was associated with the up-regulation of p21 and p27 at both the mRNA and protein levels. The results of the present study reinforce further investigations scrutinizing the promising potential of the F. angulata chemical constituents as breast cancer chemopreventive agents.

  10. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter “Reservoir Area”). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. PMID:29077006

  11. A Semi-Infinite Interval-Stochastic Risk Management Model for River Water Pollution Control under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-infinite interval-stochastic risk management (SIRM model is developed for river water pollution control, where various policy scenarios are explored in response to economic penalties due to randomness and functional intervals. SIRM can also control the variability of the recourse cost as well as capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. Then, the SIRM model is applied to water pollution control of the Xiangxihe watershed. Tradeoffs between risks and benefits are evaluated, indicating any change in the targeted benefit and risk level would yield varied expected benefits. Results disclose that the uncertainty of system components and risk preference of decision makers have significant effects on the watershed's production generation pattern and pollutant control schemes as well as system benefit. Decision makers with risk-aversive attitude would accept a lower system benefit (with lower production level and pollutant discharge; a policy based on risk-neutral attitude would lead to a higher system benefit (with higher production level and pollutant discharge. The findings can facilitate the decision makers in identifying desired product generation plans in association with financial risk minimization and pollution mitigation.

  12. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Huang, Shuaijin; Qu, Xuexin

    2017-10-27

    The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter "Reservoir Area"). However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM) to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1) model, and build a new GM (1,1) model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1) model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  13. Water Pollution Prediction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Countermeasures for Sustainable Development of the Water Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Project was implemented in 1994 to promote sustainable water resource use and development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (hereafter “Reservoir Area”. However, massive discharge of wastewater along the river threatens these goals; therefore, this study employs a grey prediction model (GM to predict the annual emissions of primary pollution sources, including industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and oily and domestic wastewater from ships, that influence the Three Gorges Reservoir Area water environment. First, we optimize the initial values of a traditional GM (1,1 model, and build a new GM (1,1 model that minimizes the sum of squares of the relative simulation errors. Second, we use the new GM (1,1 model to simulate historical annual emissions data for the four pollution sources and thereby test the effectiveness of the model. Third, we predict the annual emissions of the four pollution sources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area for a future period. The prediction results reveal the annual emission trends for the major wastewater types, and indicate the primary sources of water pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Based on our predictions, we suggest several countermeasures against water pollution and towards the sustainable development of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

  14. Rationalization of bioassay for radiation protection management in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hattori, Takatoshi

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the objective is the rationalization of the technique of radiation protection management for internal irradiation, and we improved on utility of bioassay method. The major results obtained are as follows: 1. We develop the computing code which can analyze the behavior of excretion of radioactive nuclides and estimate the effective dose equivalent. And, we proposed the direct evaluation method of the effective dose equivalent of internal irradiation using the curve of the excretion. 2. We develop the Tiolet Monitor which can monitor the intake of 54 Mn, 137 Cs, etc. Practical screening level of Toilet Monitor is investigated as usable. 3. Any kinds of correction factors of bioassay data are investigated. 4. Practical usage of the bioassay system for management of internal irradiation protection is proposed. (author)

  15. Soil bioassays and the {sup 129}I problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Iodine-129 is a very long-lived radionuclide associated with spent nuclear fuel. Because {sup 129}I has a 10{sup 7}-year half-life, is very mobile in the environment and is a biologically essential element, it is the most limiting radionuclide affecting disposal of spent fuel. Traditionally, the potential impacts of {sup 129}I have been estimated for human receptors, with the implicit assumption that all other organisms are less at risk. Risk is the operative word, the objective for protection of humans is to protect individuals, whereas the objective for other biota is usually to protect populations. Here, {sup 129}I poses an interesting problem: the half-life is so long it is barely radioactive. Thus, the chemical toxicity may be more limiting than the radiological impact. A series of soil bioassays were employed, including a life-cycle plant (Brassica rapa) bioassay, a modified earthworm survival bioassay, a microarthropod colonization/survival bioassay, and a series of more common soil and aquatic bioassays. Chemical toxicity was indicated at soil concentrations as low as 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. At these levels, radiological impact on non-human biota would not be expected, and therefore the chemical toxicity effects are more critical. However, human food-chain model estimates show these levels, as pure {sup 129}I, would be unacceptable for human radiological exposure, so that for {sup 129}I, protection of the human environment should also be protective of non-human biota.

  16. Herbicide impact on Hormosira banksii gametes measured by fluorescence and germination bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, Cliff R. [Institute for Water and Environmental Resource Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Westbourne Street, Gore Hill, 2065 NSW (Australia); Gunthorpe, Leanne [Primary Industries Research Victoria (PIRVic), VIC (Australia); Ralph, Peter J. [Institute for Water and Environmental Resource Management, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Westbourne Street, Gore Hill, 2065 NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: peter.ralph@uts.edu.au

    2006-03-15

    The innovative bioassay described here involves chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements of gametes from the macroalgae, Hormosira banksii, where gametes (eggs) were exposed to Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil. Response was assessed as percent inhibition from control of effective quantum yield ({delta}F/Fm') of photosystem II, herein referred to as % PSII Inhibition. This was measured with the dual-channelled pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, ToxY-PAM. The fluorescence bioassay was run simultaneously with an established H. banksii germination bioassay to compare sensitivity, precision, and time-to-result. The fluorescence bioassay gave highly sensitive results evidenced by EC{sub 5}s (% PSII Inhibition) for Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil being three, four and three orders of magnitude (respectively) lower than EC{sub 5}s generated from the germination bioassays. Precision of the fluorescence bioassay was demonstrated with low coefficient of variations (<30%) for all three toxicants. With regard to time, the fluorescence bioassay gave results within 6 h, as opposed to more than 50 h for the germination bioassay. - Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements form the basis of a macroalgal bioassay with many advantages over germination-based methods.

  17. Herbicide impact on Hormosira banksii gametes measured by fluorescence and germination bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seery, Cliff R.; Gunthorpe, Leanne; Ralph, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    The innovative bioassay described here involves chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements of gametes from the macroalgae, Hormosira banksii, where gametes (eggs) were exposed to Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil. Response was assessed as percent inhibition from control of effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm') of photosystem II, herein referred to as % PSII Inhibition. This was measured with the dual-channelled pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, ToxY-PAM. The fluorescence bioassay was run simultaneously with an established H. banksii germination bioassay to compare sensitivity, precision, and time-to-result. The fluorescence bioassay gave highly sensitive results evidenced by EC 5 s (% PSII Inhibition) for Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil being three, four and three orders of magnitude (respectively) lower than EC 5 s generated from the germination bioassays. Precision of the fluorescence bioassay was demonstrated with low coefficient of variations (<30%) for all three toxicants. With regard to time, the fluorescence bioassay gave results within 6 h, as opposed to more than 50 h for the germination bioassay. - Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements form the basis of a macroalgal bioassay with many advantages over germination-based methods

  18. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    , this paper explored the economic feasibility of implementing a constructed wetland. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands so as to establish the most cost effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analysis......Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...... show that cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio (CER) on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that, SFCW would be a better optimal nutrients...

  19. Regulating water pollution in China and the European Union in terms of agricultural pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory instruments, are the most commonly used policy instruments in both China and the EU. This article explores how China and the EU establish their water quality objectives by regulation and how they design implementation strategies, with a particular focus of agricultural water pollution

  20. Water pollution control legislation in Israel: understanding implementation processes from an actor-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for

  1. Training Course on Water Pollution. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course on water pollution developed by the staff of the National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. This course, which is organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), is intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates from various Arab countries. The duration of the…

  2. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  3. The use of radio-release methods for the determination of some water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Klehr, E.H.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from the problem of water pollutant determination the use of 85 Kr for determining the pH value and pollutants such as oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, and hydrochloric acid is described in detail. Various types of apparatuses for carrying out the analyses are presented

  4. An Ontology-Underpinned Emergency Response System for Water Pollution Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the unceasing development and maturation of environment geographic information system, the response to water pollution accidents has been digitalized through the combination of monitoring sensors, management servers, and application software. However, most of these systems only achieve the basic and general geospatial data management and functional process tasks by adopting mechanistic water-quality models. To satisfy the sustainable monitoring and real-time emergency response application demand of the government and public users, it is a hotspot to study how to make the water pollution information being semantic and make the referred applications intelligent. Thus, the architecture of the ontology-underpinned emergency response system for water pollution accidents is proposed in this paper. This paper also makes a case study for usability testing of the water ontology models, and emergency response rules through an online water pollution emergency response system. The system contributes scientifically to the safety and sustainability of drinking water by providing emergency response and decision-making to the government and public in a timely manner.

  5. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  6. A Recourse-Based Type-2 Fuzzy Programming Method for Water Pollution Control under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a recourse-based type-2 fuzzy programming (RTFP method is developed for supporting water pollution control of basin systems under uncertainty. The RTFP method incorporates type-2 fuzzy programming (TFP within a two-stage stochastic programming with recourse (TSP framework to handle uncertainties expressed as type-2 fuzzy sets (i.e., a fuzzy set in which the membership function is also fuzzy and probability distributions, as well as to reflect the trade-offs between conflicting economic benefits and penalties due to violated policies. The RTFP method is then applied to a real case of water pollution control in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China, where chemical oxygen demand (COD, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Solutions of optimal production plans of economic activities under each probabilistic pollutant discharge allowance level and membership grades are obtained. The results are helpful for the authorities in exploring the trade-off between economic objective and pollutant discharge decision-making based on river water pollution control.

  7. An Instructors Guide to Water Pollution. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David E.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on water pollution includes the following units: (1) Overview of World Pollution; (2) History, Definition, Criteria; (3) Ecosystem Theory; (4) Biological…

  8. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section 2543.86 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  10. Application of remote sensing methods for detection of water pollution degree in rivers and water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyworzeka, M.; Piasek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents non-contact registration methods of the electromagnetic radiation which can be used for the detection of water pollution in rivers and water reservoirs. These methods include aerial photographs, satellite images and thermograms. The satellite images need reprocessing to obtain the mutual comparability of the images from various multispectral scanners (TM and MSS)

  11. Controlling flooding and water pollution with upland and streamside vegetation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosskey

    2003-01-01

    Substantial research and development effort in the U.S. is being spent on developing strategies that address flooding and water pollution problems in agricultural areas. Concerns have been raised about the costs of flood damage, degradation of productive farm land, and declining water quality that are now recognized as unintended consequences of intensive, high-yield...

  12. Water pollution by Pangasius production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: causes and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Ahn,; Kroeze, C.; Bush, S.R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse water pollution caused by farming and processing Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results show that 1 tonne of frozen fillets releases 740 kg BOD, 1020 kg COD, 2050 kg TSS, 106 kg nitrogen and 27 kg phosphorus, of which wastewater from fish

  13. The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

  14. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  15. Borehole Water Pollution and its Implication on Health on the Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borehole Water Pollution and its Implication on Health on the. Rural Communities of Malawi. J.B. Chimphamba1, and O.L. Phiri2. 1 Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Chancellor College, University of Malawi. email: jameschimphamba@cc.ac.mw. 2 Regional Water Development Offices (S), Ministry of Irrigation ...

  16. We All Live Downstream. A Guide to Waste Treatment That Stops Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costner, Pat; And Others

    Based on the idea that the prevention and treatment of water pollution should begin at its source, this document focuses on some methods that individuals can use in their homes and businesses to treat wastewater. Chapter one, "What Is the Water Crisis?" explains the basic concepts of the hydrologic cycle, evapotranspiration, and the quantity of…

  17. Social Status Variations in Attitudes and Conceptualization Pertaining to Water Pollution and Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Irving A.

    Data, secured by questionnaire from single household dwelling units in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used to ascertain differences among social status groups with respect to attitudes and conceptualization pertaining to water pollution and water supply. A social status index was used to delineate three status groups having high, middle, and low rank…

  18. India’s urban environment: air and water pollution and pollution abatement

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Kala S.; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on air and water pollution in India’s cities, provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the seriousness of the challenges, discusses the relevant policies of national and local government that are used to address the challenges, discusses relevant political economy issues related to introducing pollution taxes or other policies which are aimed at “green” cities.

  19. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND... control and air pollution control requirements applicable to such program. Incorporation of the air and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control...

  20. Reservoir operation schemes for water pollution accidents in Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-kang Xin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Three Gorges Reservoir starts running, it can not only take into consideration the interest of departments such as flood control, power generation, water supply, and shipping, but also reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of pollutants by discharge regulation. The evolution of pollutant plumes under different operation schemes of the Three Gorges Reservoir and three kinds of pollutant discharge types were calculated with the MIKE 21 AD software. The feasibility and effectiveness of the reservoir emergency operation when pollution accidents occur were investigated. The results indicate that the emergency operation produces significant effects on the instantaneous discharge type with lesser effects on the constant discharge type, the impact time is shortened, and the concentration of pollutant is reduced. Meanwhile, the results show that the larger the discharge is and the shorter the operation duration is, the more favorable the result is.

  1. Risk assessment of water pollution sources based on an integrated k-means clustering and set pair analysis method in the region of Shiyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Sun, Lian; Jia, Junxiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    Source water areas are facing many potential water pollution risks. Risk assessment is an effective method to evaluate such risks. In this paper an integrated model based on k-means clustering analysis and set pair analysis was established aiming at evaluating the risks associated with water pollution in source water areas, in which the weights of indicators were determined through the entropy weight method. Then the proposed model was applied to assess water pollution risks in the region of Shiyan in which China's key source water area Danjiangkou Reservoir for the water source of the middle route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project is located. The results showed that eleven sources with relative high risk value were identified. At the regional scale, Shiyan City and Danjiangkou City would have a high risk value in term of the industrial discharge. Comparatively, Danjiangkou City and Yunxian County would have a high risk value in terms of agricultural pollution. Overall, the risk values of north regions close to the main stream and reservoir of the region of Shiyan were higher than that in the south. The results of risk level indicated that five sources were in lower risk level (i.e., level II), two in moderate risk level (i.e., level III), one in higher risk level (i.e., level IV) and three in highest risk level (i.e., level V). Also risks of industrial discharge are higher than that of the agricultural sector. It is thus essential to manage the pillar industry of the region of Shiyan and certain agricultural companies in the vicinity of the reservoir to reduce water pollution risks of source water areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.; van Staalduinen, M.A.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we

  3. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  4. Buffering capacity: its relevance in soil and water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigliani, W.M. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Buffering capacities in soils are essential for neutralizing or immobilizing inputs of acids and heavy metals. There are four major buffering regimes, each of which operates in a defined pH range. When the rate of pollutant inputs exceeds the rate of natural replenishment of the buffer in a specific regime, the supply of buffer will be exhausted over time, and the soil may switch to a regime at lower pH. As the pH of the soil declines, so does its capacity to immobilize heavy metals. If the soil initially has a moderately high buffering capacity, the time scale before exhaustion is on the order of decades to a century. Over this time there may be no observable environmental effects. When the effects do become obvious, it may be too late to reverse the damage. The importance of buffering capacity as a valued environmental resource must be recognized, and its preservation must be a major component of long-term soil protection policies. (Author). 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Exploratory analysis of fines for water pollution in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Haque

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of rapid industrialization, the waterbodies of Bangladesh have transformed into seasonal dead zones from the ensuing pollution. Despite having environmental regulations to control industrial pollution, lack of effective enforcement has jeopardized environmental quality. Evaluation of enforcement mechanisms have not gained attention from researchers until recently. This qualitative and descriptive analysis illustrates the current enforcement regime for environmental compliance in Bangladesh focusing on fines levied on polluters. Although there are no official guidelines for fines based on type of violation, this paper identified that there are differences of fines among violation based on historical data. It was also found that textile factories are not penalized heavily compared to non-textile factories. Repeat offenders were found to be penalized at the same rate. This study can be used to design appropriate penalty structure based on violation types, and reform the enforcement system so that polluters pay principle is actually implemented.

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  9. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Status of water pollution in relation to industrialization in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ritu Singh; Pandey, Sonali; Bhadauria, Seema

    2017-09-26

    India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one. Many industrial units discharge wastewater locally without treatment. Many industries directly discharged their waste into lakes, rivers and ocean. Water contamination impacts the environment. Pesticides, chemical, waste oil and heavy metals are regularly transported into their waters. Humans and other living organisms can accumulate heavy metals from industrial discharges in their tissues. Industrial waste may be reactive, corrosive, flammable, or toxic. When untreated sewage is emptied into rivers, it causes diseases like typhoid, dysentery and cholera. Natural elements and plant supplements like nitrate and phosphates stimulate growth of algae on the water surface. The algae reduce the oxygen in the water and cause eutrophication. It is harmful to the water ecosystem. In Rajasthan proper, there are a number of sites bordering rivers and lakes where the pace of industrialization has proceeded far beyond the ability of regulators to establish and enforce meaningful limits on the amount of point source pollution permitted to the various industrial complexes, which include cement, chemical, fertilizer, textile, mining, quarrying, dyeing and printing facilities. The scale of the problem is obvious to the casual observer, but actual documentation of the total impact remains to be done.

  11. The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for water pollution: Do regions matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.-C., E-mail: leecc@seed.net.t [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-Sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Y.-B. [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-Sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sun, C.-H. [Department of Economics, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    This study revisits the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for water pollution by using a recent dynamic technique, which is the generalized method of moments (GMM) approach, for a board sample of 97 countries during the period 1980-2001. On a global scale, as we cannot obtain the EKC relationship between real income and biological oxygen demand (BOD) emissions, this paper further classifies these countries into four regional groups - Africa, Asia and Oceania, America, and Europe - to explore whether the different regions have different ECK relationships. The empirical results show evidence of the inverted U-shaped EKC relationships' existence in America and Europe, but not in Africa and Asia and Oceania. Thus, the regional difference of EKC for water pollution is supported. Furthermore, the estimated turning points are, approximately, US$13,956 and US$38,221 for America and Europe, respectively.

  12. Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka river using the WPI (Water Pollution Index method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Borska Reka river (47 km long, 373 km2 of basin area is located in eastern Serbia and it is the biggest tributary of the river Veliki Timok. It is also one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. Using the data of the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper analyzes water pollution using the combined physical-chemical WPI index (water pollution index over two periods: 1993-1996 and 2006-2009. The analysis of parameters showed significantly increased values of heavy metals (especially iron and manganese which are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily because of mining, but also increased values of organic pollution indicators (Biological Oxygen Demand-BOD5, ammonium, coliform germs, as the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.

  13. The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for water pollution: Do regions matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-C.; Chiu, Y.-B.; Sun, C.-H.

    2010-01-01

    This study revisits the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for water pollution by using a recent dynamic technique, which is the generalized method of moments (GMM) approach, for a board sample of 97 countries during the period 1980-2001. On a global scale, as we cannot obtain the EKC relationship between real income and biological oxygen demand (BOD) emissions, this paper further classifies these countries into four regional groups - Africa, Asia and Oceania, America, and Europe - to explore whether the different regions have different ECK relationships. The empirical results show evidence of the inverted U-shaped EKC relationships' existence in America and Europe, but not in Africa and Asia and Oceania. Thus, the regional difference of EKC for water pollution is supported. Furthermore, the estimated turning points are, approximately, US$13,956 and US$38,221 for America and Europe, respectively.

  14. The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for water pollution. Do regions matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang; Chiu, Yi-Bin [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-Sen University Kaohsiung (China); Sun, Chia-Hung [Department of Economics, National Chung Cheng University (China)

    2010-01-15

    This study revisits the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for water pollution by using a recent dynamic technique, which is the generalized method of moments (GMM) approach, for a board sample of 97 countries during the period 1980-2001. On a global scale, as we cannot obtain the EKC relationship between real income and biological oxygen demand (BOD) emissions, this paper further classifies these countries into four regional groups - Africa, Asia and Oceania, America, and Europe - to explore whether the different regions have different ECK relationships. The empirical results show evidence of the inverted U-shaped EKC relationships' existence in America and Europe, but not in Africa and Asia and Oceania. Thus, the regional difference of EKC for water pollution is supported. Furthermore, the estimated turning points are, approximately, US$13,956 and US$38,221 for America and Europe, respectively. (author)

  15. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics

    1997-12-01

    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  16. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  17. Measuring a Level of Water Pollution in Sungai Pinang Using a Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamud, Mohd Amirul; Ramasamy, Rajasegeran

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models are now a popular tool in many applications such as physics, economics and engineering; and provide useful information for decision making and planning. Water pollution in Malaysia has reached a level that needs attention and intervention from environmental department and government. In order to make a strong case, this paper has done a study on measuring the pollution level of Sungai Pinang which is located in Penang Island, Malaysia. Advection-Dispersion equation is one ...

  18. A study of air and water pollution by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guilin

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric aerosols and water pollution in Shanghai were studied by the nuclear microprobe, then the pattern recognition technique was applied to trace the emitter source of aerosol particles. Three iron-containing atmospheric aerosols collected from different area zone were analyzed by Moessbauer spectroscopy, their chemical composition, size of particles and concentration were determined. The intensities of α, β radioactivity were determined by a low background detector

  19. Assessing temporal trends and industry contributions to air and water pollution using stochastic dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Agliardi, Elettra; Pinar, Mehmet; Stengos, Thanasis

    2014-01-01

    We employ a stochastic dominance (SD) approach to analyze the components that contribute to environmental degradation over time. The variables that are considered include countries’ greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water pollution. Our approach is based on pair-wise SD tests. First, we study the dynamic progress of each separate variable over time, from 1990 to 2005, within 5-year horizons. Then, pair-wise SD tests are used to study the major industry contributors to the overall GH...

  20. Assessment of complex water pollution with heavy metals and Pyrethroid pesticides on transcript levels of metallothionein and immune related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Haneen A; Abdel-Razek, Mohamed A S; El Nahas, Abeer F; Mahmoud, Shawky

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of immunological function of an aquatic organism can be used as an indicator for evaluating the direct effect of exposure to pollutants. The aim of this work is to assess the impact of complex water pollution with special reference to Pyrethroid pesticides and heavy metals on mRNA transcript levels of Metallothionine and some immune related genes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromas Niloticus). Residues of six heavy metals and six Pyrethroid were assessed in water as well as fish tissues at three different sites of Lake Burullus, located at Northern Egypt. Variations of water physicochemical properties associated with different levels of heavy metals at the three different sections were recorded. Tissue residues of Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu, Ni exceed water levels in contrast to elevated water level of Pb. All assessed Pyrethroids are detected in fish tissue samples with higher concentration (3-42 folds) than that found in water samples especially Cypermethrin. Significant down-regulation of expression levels of metallothionein (MT) at the three sections of the lake was observed. The expression of immune related genes (IgM) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL.8 and IL.1) were affected. IgM and TNF were significantly down-regulated at eastern and western section of the lake; meanwhile the expression of IL8 is down regulated at the three sections of the lack. IL1 was significantly up-regulated at eastern and middle sections. We conclude that, variable gene expression of MT and immune-related genes at the three sections of the lack impose different response to complex water pollution in relation to variable aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Public environmental awareness of water pollution from urban growth: The case of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers in Rasht, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A; Moghaddam, Sina Siavash

    2017-12-01

    Rivers in urban areas have been associated with water quality problems because of the practice of discharging untreated domestic and industrial waste into the water bodies. However, to what extent the public can identify specific environmental problems and whether people are ready to cope with potential risks is to a great extent unknown. Public environmental awareness of factors underpinning the pollution of rivers and approaches for reducing it were studied in Rasht City of Guilan Province in northern Iran, with Zarjub and Goharrud rivers as a case study. Data were collected from residents on the banks of the studied rivers using a questionnaire. Industrial areas, hospitals, and poultry farms were perceived as the main factors deteriorating water pollution of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers in Guilan Province. The discharge of urban sewage into the rivers was the second most important polluting factor. Most residents on the banks of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers showed high interest in the conservation of the environment. Overall, 62.7% of the residents had moderate, 20% had high, and 4% had very high environmental awareness. Families and mass media (TV and radio) were perceived of being the most important sources of information of family members concerning environmental awareness. According to the residents, the main approach for alleviating the pollution of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers were creating green spaces, dredging the rivers, establishing a water purifying system, and establishing a waste incinerator with a separation system (based on municipal planning). The public in the study area appeared well prepared to cope with the risks of water pollution, but further improving environmental awareness of the community can be a first step for preventing environmental degradation. The positive attitudes of the residents towards environmental conservation, the use of proper information sources, and practical training in the context of extension services can be effective in

  2. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  3. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NIEHS Home Page Office of the Director Organizational Structure 2018-2023 Strategic Plan Advisory Boards & Councils Community ... Home Page About NIEHS Office of the Director Organizational Structure 2018-2023 Strategic Plan Advisory Boards & Councils Community ...

  4. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  5. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  6. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  7. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths. PMID:29462929

  8. Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Surveys series. Data on class influence and class political power are derived from the testimony of witnesses at the US Senate hearings. Major findings note that the Act of 1972 was proposed and passed during a period of severe crisis in the public's trust in government and business. The federal government responded to that crisis, in part, through the enactment of a water pollution control policy that featured public participation and strict national water quality standards. The formation of the 1972 act is found to be independent of direct class influences. The Amendments of 1977 extended industrial compliance deadlines for meeting the national water quality standards and weakened the implementation of provisions that encouraged public participation

  9. The Chemopreventive Effect of Tanacetum Polycephalum Against LA7-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of a Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactone in MCF7 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Karimian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanacetum polycephalum L. Schultz-Bip is a member of the Asteraceae family. This study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of a T. polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE using in in vivo and in vitro models. Methods and Results: Five groups of rats: normal control, cancer control, TPHE low dose, TPHE high dose and positive control (tamoxifen were used for the in vivo study. Histopathological examination showed that TPHE significantly suppressed the carcinogenic effect of LA7 tumour cells. The tumour sections from TPHE-treated rats demonstrated significantly reduced expression of Ki67 and PCNA compared to the cancer control group. Using a bioassay-guided approach, the cytotoxic compound of TPHE was identified as a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone, namely, 8β- hydroxyl- 4β, 15- dihydrozaluzanin C (HDZC. Signs of early and late apoptosis were observed in MCF7 cells treated with HDZC and were attributed to the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway based on the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. HDZC induced cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells and increased the expression of p21 and p27 at the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusion: This results of this study substantiate the anticancer effect of TPHE and highlight the involvement of HDZC as one of the contributing compounds that act by initiating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

  10. The Chemopreventive Effect of Tanacetum Polycephalum Against LA7-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of a Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactone in MCF7 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Zahedifard, Maryam; Razavi, Mahboubeh; Safi, Sher Zaman; Mohan, Syam; Khalifa, Shaden A M; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Abdulla, Mahmood Amin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Noordin, Mohamad Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tanacetum polycephalum L. Schultz-Bip is a member of the Asteraceae family. This study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of a T. polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE) using in in vivo and in vitro models. Five groups of rats: normal control, cancer control, TPHE low dose, TPHE high dose and positive control (tamoxifen) were used for the in vivo study. Histopathological examination showed that TPHE significantly suppressed the carcinogenic effect of LA7 tumour cells. The tumour sections from TPHE-treated rats demonstrated significantly reduced expression of Ki67 and PCNA compared to the cancer control group. Using a bioassay-guided approach, the cytotoxic compound of TPHE was identified as a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone, namely, 8β- hydroxyl- 4β, 15- dihydrozaluzanin C (HDZC). Signs of early and late apoptosis were observed in MCF7 cells treated with HDZC and were attributed to the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway based on the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. HDZC induced cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells and increased the expression of p21 and p27 at the mRNA and protein levels. This results of this study substantiate the anticancer effect of TPHE and highlight the involvement of HDZC as one of the contributing compounds that act by initiating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  12. US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ward, R.C.; Maddox, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker's rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual's external exposure

  13. US Army Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry: The RBD software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K. F.; Ward, R. C.; Maddox, L. B.

    1993-01-01

    The RBD (Radiological Bioassay and Dosimetry) software package was developed for the U. S. Army Material Command, Arlington, Virginia, to demonstrate compliance with the radiation protection guidance 10 CFR Part 20 (ref. 1). Designed to be run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer, RBD consists of a data base module to manage bioassay data and a computational module that incorporates algorithms for estimating radionuclide intake from either acute or chronic exposures based on measurement of the worker's rate of excretion of the radionuclide or the retained activity in the body. In estimating the intake,RBD uses a separate file for each radionuclide containing parametric representations of the retention and excretion functions. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent. For a given nuclide, if measurements exist for more than one type of assay, an auxiliary module, REPORT, estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. Bioassay data and computed results (estimates of intake and committed dose equivalent) are stored in separate data bases, and the bioassay measurements used to compute a given result can be identified. The REPORT module creates a file containing committed effective dose equivalent for each individual that can be combined with the individual's external exposure.

  14. Water pollution - control of pollution regulations: water pollution from abandoned mines; pre-notification of mine abandonment consultation paper and draft regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The paper contains proposals to specify the content of the pre-abandonment notices which UK mine operators will be required to give in the future. The proposals are designed to enhance the Environment Agency`s ability to tackle water pollution from abandoned mines. They set out the precise contents of the notification, which mine operators will have to send to the Agency at least six months in advance of any intended abandonment. The regulations will cover coal and non-coal mines. Estimated compliance costs to business have been drawn up following consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, the Health and Safety Executive, the Coal Authority and the Environment Agency. The regulations are due in late spring 1998.

  15. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: → Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. → Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. → Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. → Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  16. Bioassays for monitoring insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audra L E; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B Rogers

    2010-12-30

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pesticide resistance has been estimated at approximately $ 1.5 billion annually in the United States. This paper will describe protocols, currently used to monitor arthropod (specifically insects) populations for the development of resistance. The adult vial test is used to measure the toxicity to contact insecticides and a modification of this test is used for plant-systemic insecticides. In these bioassays, insects are exposed to technical grade insecticide and responses (mortality) recorded at a specific post-exposure interval. The mortality data are subjected to Log Dose probit analysis to generate estimates of a lethal concentration that provides mortality to 50% (LC(50) of the target populations and a series of confidence limits (CL's) as estimates of data variability. When these data are collected for a range of insecticide-susceptible populations, the LC(50) can be used as baseline data for future monitoring purposes. After populations have been exposed to products, the results can be compared to a previously determined LC(50) using the same methodology.

  17. Two-generation saccharin bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D L

    1983-04-01

    The controversy regarding the safety of saccharin for human consumption started shortly after its discovery over 100 years ago and has yet to subside appreciably. The consumption of saccharin, particularly in North America, began to escalate when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration set new standards of identity which allowed foods containing artificial sweeteners to be promoted as "nonnutritive" or "noncaloric" sweeteners for use by the general public. In 1969, when cyclamates were banned, at least 10 single-generation feeding studies were undertaken with saccharin to more accurately assess the potential toxicological consequences resulting from the anticipated increase in its consumption. None of these studies resulted in any overt regulatory action. Subsequently, the introduction of the two-generation chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity bioassay added a new tool to the toxicologist's arsenal. Three two-generation studies using saccharin have since been conducted. The results from these studies clearly show that when rats were exposed to diets containing 5 or 7.5% sodium saccharin from the time of conception to death, an increased frequency of urinary bladder cancers was found, predominantly in the males. While some study results suggested that impurities in commercial saccharin or the presence of urinary tract calculi may have been responsible for the observed bladder tumors, it now appears that these possibilities are highly unlikely. The mechanism by which saccharin elicited the bladder tumors using the two-generation experiment has not been ascertained.

  18. Application and Interpretation of Bioassay and Biomonitoring: A Planning Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-13

    earthworm ( Eisenia foetida ) bioassay should be conducted on the air- dried dredged material or sediment to allow for the evaluation of the effects of...Methodology Earthworms, Eisenia foetida , were placed in a reduced; highly contaminated, sediment from a freshwater harbor as a screening test prior to the...earthworm, Eisen!a foetida . The most consequential environmental effects of persistent contaminants are expected to be found at the level of the soil

  19. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  20. Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2014-01-01

    Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process.

  1. EVALUATION OF WATER POLLUTION STATUS IN SIRET HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN (SUCEAVA REGION DUE TO AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zaharia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data concerning the water pollution status of Siret hydrographical basin (i.e. surface and ground waters, lakes in Suceava County area (different controlling/monitoring sections due to agricultural productive activities, especially regarding some quality indicators (nitrogen-based nutrient concentrations evaluated for 2008. These data are recommending the necessity of continuous monitoring of water quality in the Siret River hydrographical basin, in all existing control sections, for identification of any pollution episodes, non-reported by polluters to the local environmental regulators.

  2. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  3. Robust predictive modelling of water pollution using\\ud biomarker data

    OpenAIRE

    Budka, Marcin; Gabrys, Bogdan; Ravagnan, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of building a predictive model for the\\ud purpose of marine pollution monitoring, based on low quality biomarker data.\\ud A step–by–step, systematic data analysis approach is presented, resulting in\\ud design of a purely data–driven model, able to accurately discriminate between\\ud various coastal water pollution levels.\\ud The environmental scientists often try to apply various machine learning\\ud techniques to their data without much success, mostly beca...

  4. Integration of laboratory bioassays into the risk-based corrective action process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.; Messina, F.; Clark, J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent data generated by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and others indicate that residual hydrocarbon may be bound/sequestered in soil such that it is unavailable for microbial degradation, and thus possibly not bioavailable to human/ecological receptors. A reduction in bioavailability would directly equate to reduced exposure and, therefore, potentially less-conservative risk-based cleanup soil goals. Laboratory bioassays which measure bioavailability/toxicity can be cost-effectively integrated into the risk-based corrective action process. However, in order to maximize the cost-effective application of bioassays several site-specific parameters should be addressed up front. This paper discusses (1) the evaluation of parameters impacting the application of bioassays to soils contaminated with metals and/or petroleum hydrocarbons and (2) the cost-effective integration of bioassays into a tiered ASTM type framework for risk-based corrective action

  5. Establishment of a bioassay for the toxicity evaluation and quality control of Aconitum herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yi; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Shan, Li-mei; Li, Bao-cai; Fang, Fang; Jin, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new bioassay was optimized to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. ► Characterizing total toxicity is its unique advantage over chemical analysis methods. ► The application of this bioassay promotes the safe use of Aconitum herbs in clinic. - Abstract: Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs.

  6. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-03

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA, the cluster analysis (CA and the discriminant analysis (DA were used to assess the water pollution status and analyze its spatio-temporal variation. Ten sites were classified by the high pollution (HP region and the low pollution (LP region, while 12 months were divided into the wet season and the dry season. It was found that the HP region was mainly in the small tributaries with small drainage areas and low average annual discharges, and it was also found that most of these rivers went through urban areas with industrial and domestic sewages input into the water body. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA was applied to reveal potential pollution sources, whereas absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR was used to identify their contributions to each water quality variable. The study area was found as being generally affected by industrial and domestic sewage. Furthermore, the HP region was polluted by chemical industries, and the LP region was influenced by agricultural and livestock sewage.

  9. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Adham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  10. Change Detection Analysis of Water Pollution in Coimbatore Region using Different Color Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin; Devi, R. Naveena

    2017-12-01

    The data acquired through remote sensing satellites furnish facts about the land and water at varying resolutions and has been widely used for several change detection studies. Apart from the existence of many change detection methodologies and techniques, emergence of new ones continues to subsist. Existing change detection techniques exploit images that are either in gray scale or RGB color model. In this paper we introduced color models for performing change detection for water pollution. Here the polluted lakes are classified and post-classification change detection techniques are applied to RGB images and results obtained are analysed for changes to exist or not. Furthermore RGB images obtained after classification when converted to any of the two color models YCbCr and YIQ is found to produce the same results as that of the RGB model images. Thus it can be concluded that other color models like YCbCr, YIQ can be used as substitution to RGB color model for analysing change detection with regard to water pollution.

  11. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  13. Validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypotheses in Water Pollution A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediyeh Alishiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different environmental pollutions, water pollution is of especial importance due to the rather unchanging supply of this vital resource on a global scale and because of the dire consequences of its pollution for human health. The relationship between water production and its pollution can thus established and used as a measure of environmental degradation. This relationship can then be captured and analyzed in terms of environmental Kuznets hypotheses. It may be claimed that the early stages of economic growth is associated with lower per capita income and water pollution but the trend is reversed with increasing per capita income and improved economic growth. The present study was conducted using the panel data technique and the Kuznets environmental hypotheses were examined for the two groups of developed and developing countries under the two scenarios of using either per capita GDP or the share of industry to the added value in GDP as an indicator of economic growth. Results indicate that under both scenarios, Kuznets hypotheses are confirmed when studying the situation in developing countries but refuted in the case of developed countries.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of primary water pollutant control in China's pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zong-guo; Di, Jing-han; Zhang, Xue-ying

    2016-03-15

    The total emission control target of water pollutants (e.g., COD and NH4-N) for a certain industrial sector can be predicted and analysed using the popular technology-based bottom-up modelling. However, this methodology has obvious uncertainty regarding the attainment of mitigation targets. The primary uncertainty comes from macro-production, pollutant reduction roadmap, and technical parameters. This research takes the paper and pulp industry in China as an example, and builds 5 mitigation scenarios via different combinations of raw material structure, scale structure, procedure mitigation technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology. Using the methodology of uncertainty analysis via Monte Carlo, random sampling was conducted over a hundred thousand times. According to key parameters, sensitive parameters that impact total emission control targets such as industrial output, technique structure, cleaner production technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology are discussed in this article. It appears that scenario uncertainty has a larger influence on COD emission than NH4-N, hence it is recommended that a looser total emission control target for COD is necessary to increase its feasibility and availability while maintaining the status quo of NH4-N. Consequently, from uncertainty analysis, this research recognizes the sensitive products, techniques, and technologies affecting industrial water pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing water pollution level and gray water footprint of anthropogenic nitrogen in agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guorui; Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing

    2017-04-01

    Water pollution has become a global problem which is one of the most critical issues of today's water treatment. At a spatial resolution of 10km, we use the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the biogeochemical processes for major cropping systems from 1955 to 2014, estimate the anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh, and calculate the resultant grey water footprints and N-related water pollution level in China. The accumulated annual Nitrogen loads to fresh from agricultural system is 0.38Tg in 1955 and 4.42Tg in 2014, while the grey water footprints vary from 1.53 billion m3 to 17.67 billion m3, respectively. N loads in north of China contributes much more on the N leaching because of the high fertilizer but in south of China, it is mainly focused on the N runoff because of the heavy rain. There are more than 25% of grids with WPL>1 (exceed the water capacity of assimilation), which is mainly located on the North China Plain.

  16. An integrated specification for the nexus of water pollution and economic growth in China: Panel cointegration, long-run causality and environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Yuan; Song, Xiaowei; Kubota, Jumpei; He, Yanmin; Tojo, Junji; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-12-31

    This paper concentrates on a Chinese context and makes efforts to develop an integrated process to explicitly elucidate the relationship between economic growth and water pollution discharge-chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge and ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), using two unbalanced panel data sets covering the period separately from 1990 to 2014, and 2001 to 2014. In our present study, the panel unit root tests, cointegration tests, and Granger causality tests allowing for cross-sectional dependence, nonstationary, and heterogeneity are conducted to examine the causal effects of economic growth on COD/NH 3 -N discharge. Further, we simultaneously apply semi-parametric fixed effects estimation and parametric fixed effects estimation to investigate environmental Kuznets curve relationship for COD/NH 3 -N discharge. Our empirical results show a long-term bidirectional causality between economic growth and COD/NH 3 -N discharge in China. Within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology framework, we find evidence in support of an inverted U-shaped curved link between economic growth and COD/NH 3 -N discharge. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been any efforts made in investigating the nexus of economic growth and water pollution in such an integrated manner. Therefore, this study takes a fresh look on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrao-Filho, Aloysio da S.; Soares, Maria Carolina S.; Freitas de Magalhaes, Valeria; Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O.

    2010-01-01

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET 50 ) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between ∼0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET 50 vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. - A new Daphnia bioassay, as an alternative to the mouse bioassay, is able to detect effects of fast-acting, potent neurotoxins in raw water.

  18. BioAssay templates for the semantic web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Annotation of bioassay protocols using semantic web vocabulary is a way to make experiment descriptions machine-readable. Protocols are communicated using concise scientific English, which precludes most kinds of analysis by software algorithms. Given the availability of a sufficiently expressive ontology, some or all of the pertinent information can be captured by asserting a series of facts, expressed as semantic web triples (subject, predicate, object. With appropriate annotation, assays can be searched, clustered, tagged and evaluated in a multitude of ways, analogous to other segments of drug discovery informatics. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO has been previously designed for this express purpose, and provides a layered hierarchy of meaningful terms which can be linked to. Currently the biggest challenge is the issue of content creation: scientists cannot be expected to use the BAO effectively without having access to software tools that make it straightforward to use the vocabulary in a canonical way. We have sought to remove this barrier by: (1 defining a BioAssay Template (BAT data model; (2 creating a software tool for experts to create or modify templates to suit their needs; and (3 designing a common assay template (CAT to leverage the most value from the BAO terms. The CAT was carefully assembled by biologists in order to find a balance between the maximum amount of information captured vs. low degrees of freedom in order to keep the user experience as simple as possible. The data format that we use for describing templates and corresponding annotations is the native format of the semantic web (RDF triples, and we demonstrate some of the ways that generated content can be meaningfully queried using the SPARQL language. We have made all of these materials available as open source (http://github.com/cdd/bioassay-template, in order to encourage community input and use within diverse projects, including but not limited to our own

  19. New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    AD-A258 002 AD NEW ROTIFER BIOASSAYS FOR AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY FINAL REPORT TERRY W. SNELL JULY 15, 1991 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND...Incluce Securiy Cawhca•r• on) New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Terry W. Snell 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. riME COVERED...rotifers. I. A test for brackish and marine environments with Brachionus plicatilis. Aquatic Toxicology . 14: 65-80. Snell, T. W. and G. Persoone. 1989

  20. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  1. Proposing of an aerated water treatment plant for reducing water pollution problem in Losari Beach after reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Maharani, Hamzah, Muhammad Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    Losari Beach is the most important site in Makassar. It lies at the west side of Makassar city. This place is known as the place where people are relaxed and gathering with friends or family after working, and now it becomes the icon of Makassar city. As the biggest city in eastern Indonesia, Makassar grows very fast. We can find constructions for building hospitals, shopping malls, bussines activities, and residences everywhere. The most important construction activities that will effect Losari Beach is the reclamation to build the Center Point of Indonesia that takes an area of 157 hectares and it is located at the west side of Losari Beach. In the last research presented in 9th International Conference on Marine Technology (October 2014) using surface-water modeling system (SMS) software showed that reclamation will significantly increase concentrations of BOD and COD (± 7 mg/L for BOD and 6.2 mg/L for COD). This condition will cause Losari Beach becomes very polluted. A probable solution to overcome this problem is to clean the wastewater before introducing to the sea. This paper will describe the type of the wastewater treatment plant that can be used to solve the water pollution problem in Losari Beach.

  2. Influence of TiO{sub 2} Surface Properties on Water Pollution Treatment and Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Min [Southwest Univ. of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China)

    2013-03-15

    The titania surface showed different characteristics depending on the charge of the dye molecules. Compared with the MB molecules, the negatively charged MO molecules strongly adsorbed on the titania surface. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics of the dye molecules by the photocatalytic activity also deepened with the charge of the dye molecules. The relation between the UV irradiation time and the molar ratio of the decomposed dye molecules followed the Avrami equation. According to the results of the analysis by using the Avrami equation, the MO molecules were decomposed on the titania particle surface. In contrast, the MB molecules were decomposed in the aqueous solution. The difference in kinetics was related to the interaction of the dye molecules and the titania surface. These preferential adsorption and decomposition characteristics will improve its applications in water pollution treatment.

  3. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN THE MEADOW OF BORCEA ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the factors leading to water pollution by nitrates in the Meadow of Borcea arm, mainly derived from agricultural sources. mIn oder to model the amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil, which can be partially used by plants or leached into the ground water, research was made on alluvial soil in the Meadow of Borcea arm. I tried to study in the laboratory the influence of three factors of nitrate nitrogen pollution of ground water: soil type, environmental conditions (temperature and humidity and the amount of mineral fertilizers incorporated. The resulting amount of nitrate nitrogen resulted with nitrogen fertilizer dose, and the temperature and it was affected by humidity especially 40-80% of field capacity.

  5. Water Pollution Control Legislation in Israel: Understanding Implementation Processes from an Actor-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Hophmayer-Tokich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for decades, with the main source of pollution being untreated or partially treated domestic wastewater. This has been mainly the result of lack of enforcement of the existing laws. During the 1990s and onwards, a shift to forceful enforcement has been observed and wastewater treatment substantially improved. The paper analyzes the implementation processes of the pollution control legislations (the lack-of and the shift to forceful enforcement based on an actor-centered approach, using the contextual interaction theory.

  6. Natural attenuation: A feasible approach to remediation of ground water pollution at landfills?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, T.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Kjeldsen, P.

    2000-12-31

    Remediation of ground water pollution at old landfills with no engineered leachate collection system is a demanding and costly operation. It requires control of the landfill body, since the majority of the pollutants are still present in the landfilled waste for decades after the site has been closed. However, natural attenuation of the plume without removing the source is an attractive approach to managing leachate plumes. Natural attenuation has been implemented for petroleum hydrocarbon plumes and for chlorinated solvent plumes, primarily in the US. Natural attenuation has not yet gained a foothold with respect to leachate plumes, however. Based on the experiences gained from 10 years of research on two Danish landfills, it is suggested that natural attenuation is a feasible approach but is more complicated and demanding than in the case of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvent.

  7. Adapting ecological risk valuation for natural resource damage assessment in water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhen; Wu, Desheng

    2018-07-01

    Ecological risk assessment can address requirements of natural resource damage assessment by quantifying the magnitude of possible damages to the ecosystem. This paper investigates an approach to assess water damages from pollution incident on the basis of concentrations of contaminants. The baseline of water pollution is determined with not-to-exceed concentration of contaminants required by water quality standards. The values of damage cost to water quality are estimated through sewage treatment cost. To get a reliable estimate of treatment cost, DEA is employed to classify samples of sewage plants based on their efficiency of sewage treatment. And exponential fitting is adopted to determine the relation between treatment cost and the decrease of COCs. The range of damage costs is determined through the fitting curves respectively based on efficient and inefficient samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  9. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    Full Text Available Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg, EEAML (500 mg/kg and positive control (5-fluorouracil. Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing

  10. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones.

  11. Development and validation of microbial bioassay for quantification of Levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant A. Dafale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise and cost-effective one-level agar diffusion (5+1 bioassay for estimation of potency and bioactivity of Levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparation which has not yet been reported in any pharmacopoeia. Among 16 microbial strains, Bacillus pumilus ATCC-14884 was selected as the most significant strain against Levofloxacin. Bioassay was optimized by investigating several factors such as buffer pH, inoculums concentration and reference standard concentration. Identification of Levofloxacin in commercial sample Levoflox tablet was done by FTIR spectroscopy. Mean potency recovery value for Levofloxacin in Levoflox tablet was estimated as 100.90%. A validated bioassay method showed linearity (r2=0.988, precision (Interday RSD=1.05%, between analyst RSD=1.02% and accuracy (101.23%, RSD=0.72%. Bioassay was correlated with HPLC using same sample and estimated potencies were 100.90% and 99.37%, respectively. Results show that bioassay is a suitable method for estimation of potency and bioactivity of Levofloxacin pharmaceutical preparations. Keywords: Levofloxacin, Antibiotic resistance, Microbiological bioassay, HPLC, Pharmacopoeia

  12. Solar photo-ozonation: A novel treatment method for the degradation of water pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chávez, Ana M.; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J.; Álvarez, Pedro M., E-mail: pmalvare@unex.es

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Aqueous ozone decomposition is accelerated by solar radiation. • Hydrogen peroxide is identifies as a main intermediate of decomposition of aqueous ozone under solar irradiation. • Solar photo-ozonation leads to higher Rct ratios than single ozonation. • Solar photo-ozonation is a promising AOP for the degradation of water pollutants. - Abstract: The decomposition of aqueous ozone by UV–vis radiation has been investigated with focus on the impact of ozone photolysis on the degradation of water pollutants during solar ozonation processes. The apparent first-order rate constants of the decomposition of ozone (k{sub obs}) have been determined at various pHs in the 4–9 range using radiation of different wavelengths in the UV–vis range. It was found that UVA–visible radiation (λ > 320 nm) highly enhanced ozone decomposition, especially at pH 4, for which k{sub obs} was three-folded with respect to the process in the absence of radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was identified as a main intermediate of ozone photo-decomposition at pH 4. Experiments of degradation of oxalic acid by ozone showed that solar irradiation brings about an increase in the hydroxyl radical to ozone exposures ratio (R{sub ct}). Finally, photo-ozonation (λ > 300 nm) was shown advantageous over single ozonation in the mineralization of a selection of emerging contaminants (metoprolol, ibuprofen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide and clofibric acid) in both ultrapure water and a synthetic secondary effluent. Thus, TOC removal in 2-h treatments increased from 10 to 25% in the absence of radiation to about 50% in the presence of radiation.

  13. Solar photo-ozonation: A novel treatment method for the degradation of water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez, Ana M.; Rey, Ana; Beltrán, Fernando J.; Álvarez, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ozone decomposition is accelerated by solar radiation. • Hydrogen peroxide is identifies as a main intermediate of decomposition of aqueous ozone under solar irradiation. • Solar photo-ozonation leads to higher Rct ratios than single ozonation. • Solar photo-ozonation is a promising AOP for the degradation of water pollutants. - Abstract: The decomposition of aqueous ozone by UV–vis radiation has been investigated with focus on the impact of ozone photolysis on the degradation of water pollutants during solar ozonation processes. The apparent first-order rate constants of the decomposition of ozone (k obs ) have been determined at various pHs in the 4–9 range using radiation of different wavelengths in the UV–vis range. It was found that UVA–visible radiation (λ > 320 nm) highly enhanced ozone decomposition, especially at pH 4, for which k obs was three-folded with respect to the process in the absence of radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was identified as a main intermediate of ozone photo-decomposition at pH 4. Experiments of degradation of oxalic acid by ozone showed that solar irradiation brings about an increase in the hydroxyl radical to ozone exposures ratio (R ct ). Finally, photo-ozonation (λ > 300 nm) was shown advantageous over single ozonation in the mineralization of a selection of emerging contaminants (metoprolol, ibuprofen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide and clofibric acid) in both ultrapure water and a synthetic secondary effluent. Thus, TOC removal in 2-h treatments increased from 10 to 25% in the absence of radiation to about 50% in the presence of radiation.

  14. SCREENING AND BIOASSAY-GUIDED ISOLATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... from the leaves and stem-root of the plant were sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ... Keywords: Bioassay-guided isolation, antimicrobial activity, Laggera mollis, clinical isolates, extracts. INTRODUCTION ... technology (Das et al., 2009). The powdered leaf/stem-root ...

  15. A specific bioassay for the inhibition of flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J

    1972-06-01

    A bioassay for the inhibition of flowering involving the in vitro culture of excised, partially-induced, apices of Viscaria candida is described. This bioassay has been used to detect flowering inhibition in extracts from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.

  16. Brine Shrimp Bioassays: A Useful Technique in Biological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stanley A.; Maness, Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    A technique to measure the potency of leaf compounds against herbivores with the use of a bioassay is described. Bioassays are useful in classes where students have career plans like medicine in which bioassays can be used as tools for screening plants for possible medicinal potency.

  17. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree... Sections 301 and 308 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in...

  18. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211...

  19. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby given that on February 16, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree was filed with the United States District Court for the District of Nebraska in United States et al. v. City of West Point, et al., No. 08-00293 (D. Neb.). Th...

  20. Cure for the nation`s water pollution problem: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, J.F.

    1998-08-31

    This paper discusses federal and state implementation of the water quality-based strategy. It focuses on the development and implementation of water quality standards-based limitations (namely, total maximum daily loads or TMDLs) under section 303(d). It addresses the impact of such limitations on entities and activities that generate water pollution.

  1. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  2. Appropriation System: water rights in the western United States; water pollution problems peculiar to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The legal framework surrounding water rights acquisition and usage in the western United States and the steps which should be taken in analyzing potential sources of water are dealt with. Some of the applicable water pollution control laws and regulations are discussed briefly

  3. Farmers, Trust, and the Market Solution to Water Pollution: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Water Quality Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariola, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market arrangement in which a point-source water polluter pays farmers to implement conservation practices and claims the resulting benefits as credits toward meeting a pollution permit. Success rates of WQT programs nationwide are highly variable. Most of the literature on WQT is from an economic perspective…

  4. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals.

  5. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal

  6. The influence of drinking-water pollution with heavy metal on the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ in mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbin, Rayhaneh; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, JamshidKhan

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, water pollution has been converted to a challenging discussion in health area of human being. Heavy elements are one of the most important water pollutants and their negative adverse effects on body systems have been confirmed. In this study, investigation of effects of two heavy elements including lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) on expression of interlukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as humoral and cellular immunity biomarkers, respectively, was aimed and PCR, real-time PCR and electrophoresis techniques were used. In this study, BALB/c mice were studied that had free access to drinking water which contained Cu or Pb salts. After 2 weeks, spleens of mice were removed, RNA extracted, and cDNA was prepared for RT-PCR. Then the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ genes were assessed by real-time PCR. The expression of IFN-γ was up-regulated in both treated groups and the expression of IL-4 was only up-regulated in the group treated with Cu and down-regulated in the group treated with Pb. This study shows that the presence of heavy elements as drinking-water pollutants results in a disproportion of natural cytokines balances, and thus may result in a negative effect on immune system.

  7. Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed and Something Blue Tackling Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture in China: Drawing Inspiration from the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Liping

    Diffuse water pollution caused by agriculture is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to water pollution both in China and in Europe. A great deal of effort has been spent on mechanisms to address such pollution, especially through legislation and policy. The legal challenge for China is

  8. Integration of Microfractionation, qNMR and Zebrafish Screening for the In Vivo Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Quantitative Bioactivity Analysis of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bohni, Nadine; Cordero-Maldonado, Mar?a Lorena; Maes, Jan; Siverio-Mota, Dany; Marcourt, Laurence; Munck, Sebastian; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R.; Moshi, Mainen J.; Esguerra, Camila V.; de Witte, Peter A. M.; Crawford, Alexander D.; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are an attractive source of chemical diversity for small-molecule drug discovery. Several challenges nevertheless persist with respect to NP discovery, including the time and effort required for bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive NPs, and the limited biomedical relevance to date of in vitro bioassays used in this context. With regard to bioassays, zebrafish have recently emerged as an effective model system for chemical biology, allowing in vivo high-content screens...

  9. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal

  10. The Combined Application of the Caco-2 Cell Bioassay Coupled with In Vivo (Gallus gallus Feeding Trial Represents an Effective Approach to Predicting Fe Bioavailability in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Tako

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research methods that predict Fe bioavailability for humans can be extremely useful in evaluating food fortification strategies, developing Fe-biofortified enhanced staple food crops and assessing the Fe bioavailability of meal plans that include such crops. In this review, research from four recent poultry (Gallus gallus feeding trials coupled with in vitro analyses of Fe-biofortified crops will be compared to the parallel human efficacy studies which used the same varieties and harvests of the Fe-biofortified crops. Similar to the human studies, these trials were aimed to assess the potential effects of regular consumption of these enhanced staple crops on maintenance or improvement of iron status. The results demonstrate a strong agreement between the in vitro/in vivo screening approach and the parallel human studies. These observations therefore indicate that the in vitro/Caco-2 cell and Gallus gallus models can be integral tools to develop varieties of staple food crops and predict their effect on iron status in humans. The cost-effectiveness of this approach also means that it can be used to monitor the nutritional stability of the Fe-biofortified crop once a variety has released and integrated into the food system. These screening tools therefore represent a significant advancement to the field for crop development and can be applied to ensure the sustainability of the biofortification approach.

  11. An Enzymatic Bioassay for Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    idea of using DTT as an antioxidant in the reaction was abandoned. Figure 26. Effect of cysteine on the oxidation of NADH by Pcr in the presence of...oxidized by molecular oxygen. The experiments shown above disproved the hypothesis that antioxidants could be added to the reaction to quench molecular... polypropylene tubes and spun in a Beckman TI-50 centrifuge at 35,000 RPM for 1 hour. The supernatant was retained, and the pellet was discarded

  12. Chemopreventive Activity of Ferulago angulate against Breast Tumor in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of Polycerasoidin in MCF7 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Razavi, Mahboubeh; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Ibrahim Noordin, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Ferulago angulata leaf hexane extract (FALHE) was found to be a potent inducer of MCF7 cell apoptosis. The aims of the present study were to investigate the in vivo chemopreventive effect of FALHE in rats, to identify the contributing anticancer compound in FALHE and to determine its potential mechanism of action against MCF7 cells. Thirty rats harboring LA7-induced breast tumors were divided into five groups: tumor control, low-dose FALHE, high-dose FALHE, treatment control (tamoxifen) and n...

  13. The antibacterial effects of silver, titanium dioxide and silica dioxide nanoparticles compared to the dental disinfectant chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans using a suite of bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinis, Alexandros; De Peralta, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Metal-containing nanomaterials have the potential to be used in dentistry for infection control, but little is known about their antibacterial properties. This study investigated the toxicity of silver (Ag), titanium dioxide and silica nanoparticles (NPs) against the oral pathogenic species of Streptococcus mutans, compared to the routine disinfectant, chlorhexidine. The bacteria were assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration assay for growth, fluorescent staining for live/dead cells, and measurements of lactate. All the assays showed that Ag NPs had the strongest antibacterial activity of the NPs tested, with bacterial growth also being 25-fold lower than that in chlorhexidine. The survival rate of bacteria under the effect of 100 mg l−1 Ag NPs in the media was 2% compared to 60% with chlorhexidine, while the lactate concentration was 0.6 and 4.0 mM, respectively. Silica and titanium dioxide NPs had limited effects. Dialysis experiments showed negligible silver dissolution. Overall, Ag NPs were the best disinfectant and performed better than chlorhexidine. Improvements to the MIC assay are suggested. PMID:23092443

  14. Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YounJung Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA using multi-species of luminescent bacteria. The salt stability of four different AgNPs was measured by UV absorbance at 400 nm wavelength, and different surface-charged AgNPs in combination with bacteria were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Both branched polyethylenimine (BPEI-AgNPs and polyethylene glycol (PEG-AgNPs were shown to be stable with 2% NaCl (non-aggregation, whereas both citrate (Cit-AgNPs and tannic acid (Tan-AgNPs rapidly aggregated in 2% NaCl solution. The values of the 50% effective concentration (EC50 for BPEI-AgNPs in marine bacteria strains (1.57 to 5.19 mg/L were lower than those for the other surface-coated AgNPs (i.e., Cit-AgNPs, Tan-AgNPs, and PEG-AgNPs. It appears that the toxicity of AgNPs could be activated by the interaction of positively charged AgNPs with the negatively charged bacterial cell wall from the results of LumiMARA. LumiMARA for toxicity screening has advantageous compared to a single-species bioassay and is applicable for environmental samples as displaying ranges of assessment results.

  15. Politics of corporate social control: the federal response to industrial water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    In the annals of criminology and the sociology of law, the phenomenon of corporate illegalities has been seriously neglected. Moreover, the relatively few social scientific studies of illegal corporate behavior have often approached the subject from limited theoretical perspectives. These studies have generally overlooked a critical element in criminological understanding; the role of law and its administration in generating violation rates that may be said to be characteristic of the prevailing social structure. This dissertation develops an integrated theoretical approach to a type of corporate illegality, environmental pollution. In this approach, law is seen as integral to the understanding of crime, and both are situated within the broad socio-economic structure of the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. This research first reviews and analyzes the history of the federal government's efforts to control industrial water pollution, seeking to identify the social structural limits on regulatory activity. Statistical analyses of data on the federal processing of industrial pollution violations are then presented, with a view toward analyzing the correlates of both business behavior and the federal response. The analyses test a proposed model of industrial regulation, and provide important support for the perspective linking law and crime.

  16. Investigating water pollution of the Dareh Morad Beik River in the Hamadan District, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoram, Mahdi Reyahi; Nafea, Minoo

    2008-10-01

    Water-related hazards, such as drought, floods, erosion, and various kinds of pollution, should be factored into any integrated approach to water-resource management. This research attempt has been made to assess the process of water pollution in the Dareh Morad Beik (DMB) River, whose length is about 18 km and whose average flow rate is 250 L/s. The quality of river water, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, fecal coliform, and total coliform, were all measured and evaluated at three different sampling stations within different months of the year. The information was gathered by conducting experiments and through field visits, as well as by library study. The results of this research showed that, from a microbiological point of view, the water of the DMB was polluted during the year. Based on the results obtained it was determined that the amount of COD and BOD at station 1 was negligible. Also the influx of qantas waters from Hamadan City into the DMB has caused dilution of COD, BOD, and nitrate of that river at station 3.

  17. Water pollution risk associated with natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, Daniel J; Reaven, Sheldon J

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, shale gas formations have become economically viable through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. These techniques carry potential environmental risk due to their high water use and substantial risk for water pollution. Using probability bounds analysis, we assessed the likelihood of water contamination from natural gas extraction in the Marcellus Shale. Probability bounds analysis is well suited when data are sparse and parameters highly uncertain. The study model identified five pathways of water contamination: transportation spills, well casing leaks, leaks through fractured rock, drilling site discharge, and wastewater disposal. Probability boxes were generated for each pathway. The potential contamination risk and epistemic uncertainty associated with hydraulic fracturing wastewater disposal was several orders of magnitude larger than the other pathways. Even in a best-case scenario, it was very likely that an individual well would release at least 200 m³ of contaminated fluids. Because the total number of wells in the Marcellus Shale region could range into the tens of thousands, this substantial potential risk suggested that additional steps be taken to reduce the potential for contaminated fluid leaks. To reduce the considerable epistemic uncertainty, more data should be collected on the ability of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facilities to remove contaminants from used hydraulic fracturing fluid. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  19. Clan in Transition: Societal Changes of Villages in China from the Perspective of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidong Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Societal relations in rural areas have entered into a new stage of adjustment over the past decade. However, the adjustment, which might bring about profound societal changes in countryside as well as in China as a whole, have not been paid much attention and very few studies have been conducted from the perspective of ecological resource crises. We use the case of a village as an example to show how water pollution, as one of the contributory factors, possibly affect the transition of clans and societal changes in Chinese villages. Through observation and interviews, we find that there is an apparent rise of “New Clanism” within clans, which gradually abandons the tradition of supremacy of clan interests and places family or individual interests at top priority. We also find that clan boundaries get increasingly obscure since the integrity of clans is undermined by the rise of new interest groups across clans, but the boundaries remain relatively clear due to the consistency (albeit incomplete of clan interests. Some new clan élites and representatives of new interest groups get involved in village governance, which indicates that their goals have shifted from natural resources to social or political capital. The significance of our findings is that they provide not only a unique perspective for the interaction between society and resources, but also some new ideas for the future study of rural China at the environment-social interface.

  20. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  1. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal projects of sudden water pollution incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao; Khan, Afed Ullah; Wang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Without an engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal in response to sudden water pollution incidents, responders are prone to be challenged during emergency decision making. To address this gap, the concept and framework of emergency disposal engineering risks are reported in this paper. The proposed risk index system covers three stages consistent with the progress of an emergency disposal project. Fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA), a logical and diagrammatic method, was developed to evaluate the potential failure during the process of emergency disposal. The probability of basic events and their combination, which caused the failure of an emergency disposal project, were calculated based on the case of an emergency disposal project of an aniline pollution incident in the Zhuozhang River, Changzhi, China, in 2014. The critical events that can cause the occurrence of a top event (TE) were identified according to their contribution. Finally, advices on how to take measures using limited resources to prevent the failure of a TE are given according to the quantified results of risk magnitude. The proposed approach could be a potential useful safeguard for the implementation of an emergency disposal project during the process of emergency response.

  3. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Achieving multiple compliance objectives through a storm water pollution prevention plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, K.J.; Cataldo, R. [ENSR, Acton, MA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    All across the US, facility managers and environmental staff are trying to keep up with proliferating regulations and associated filing and reporting requirements. Added to the already full plate of regulations is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program for storm water management. The NPDES program requires a permit for the discharge of runoff from facilities based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. Some businesses do not yet need to comply with NPDES, as not all types of facilities were included in the Phase 1 list of regulated activities (September 1992). However, most businesses will be included as part of Phase 2 by 2002. Furthermore, states adopting administration of the NPDES program have the option of accelerating the process. In addition to filing for a permit, the NPDES storm water program requires the preparation and implementation of a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). A properly prepared SWPPP can help facilities more easily comply with regulatory requirements and serve as an overall facility management tool.

  5. Bioaccumulation and rhizofiltration potential of Pistia stratiotes L. for mitigating water pollution in the Egyptian wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M; Eid, Ebrahem M; Dakhil, Mohammed A; Hassan, Loutfy M

    2018-04-16

    The bioaccumulation and rhizofiltration potential of P. stratiotes for heavy metals were investigated to mitigate water pollution in the Egyptian wetlands. Plant and water samples were collected monthly through nine quadrats equally distributed along three sites at Al-Sero drain in Giza Province. The annual mean of the shoot biomass was 10 times that of the root. The concentrations of shoot heavy metals fell in the order: Fe < Mn < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn < Ni < Co < Cd, while that of the roots were: Fe < Mn < Cr < Pb < Zn < Ni < Co < Cu < Cd. The bio-concentration factor (BCF) of most investigated heavy metals, except Cr and Pb, was greater than 1000, while the translocation factor (TF) of most investigated metals, except Pb and Cu, did not exceed one. The rhizofiltration potential (RP) of heavy metals was higher than 1000 for Fe, and 100 for Cr, Pb and Cu. Significant positive correlations between Fe and Cu in water with those in plant roots and leaves, respectively were recorded, which, in addition to the high BCF and RP, indicate the potential use of P. stratiotes in mitigating these toxic metals.

  6. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  7. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.

    2010-01-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  8. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  9. Association of bioassays and molecular characterization to select new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates effective against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatoretto, Julio C.; Sena, Janete A.D.; Lemos, Manoel V.F.; Junior Boica, Arlindo L. , Jaboticabal, SP . Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade; Brazil)

    2007-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main corn pests and Bacillus thuringiensis is important in its control because of its entomopathogenic property. The objective of this study was the molecular characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates for cry1 locus presence and the assessment of the efficiency of these isolates in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars. Gral-cry1 was used in the PCR analyses to confirm the presence of the cry1 locus in 15 isolates. A 3 x 108 spore/ml suspension bathed the diet used to feed 30 caterpillars per isolate, with three replications. The cry1 locus type genes of the different isolates were identified for five gene subclasses; linear regression analyses were carried out to ascertain possible associations between the presence of an individual cry1 locus gene and high levels of toxicity. All the DNAs amplified with Gral-cry1 presented an amplification product with the expected size. Regarding the levels of insecticide efficiency against the cob worm, 41 isolates presented 100% mortality and 16 presented an index between 70% and 90%. The cry1Ab gene was present in 80 isolates, cryb in 69 isolates, cry1Ac in all the isolates and cryv and cry1E in 93 and 27 isolates, respectively. The values regarding the individual effect of each gene on caterpillar mortality were significant at 1% probability for the cry1Ac and cry1E genes. (author)

  10. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  11. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2015-01-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  12. Symmetry or asymmetry -- Comfort is the question. (A study of the second floor of the west office wing of the Water Pollution Control Laboratory in Portland, Oregon.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.F.; Gaba, P.; Kowitanupong, C.

    1999-07-01

    This article explores the effects of an asymmetric distribution of building components, and their relation to human comfort. The studied building was the Water Pollution Control Laboratory in Portland, Oregon. This project, designed by the Miller/Hull Partnership, provides the perfect conditions to do such a study since it has very different ceiling heights within the same space, and an asymmetric distribution of the fenestration as well. Findings show that: (a) Variable ceiling heights affect the quantity of daylight received, and also affect the quality and distribution of electric light; (b) An asymmetric distribution of the fenestration creates very different conditions in both the luminous and thermal environments; and (c) The design of lighting and HVAC systems must take into consideration variations in ceiling height and the position of the fenestration into the space.

  13. SURFACE WATER POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS IN THE LOWER CATCHMENT OF JIU RIVER BASIN, ACCORDING TO THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA SANDA ŞERBAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water pollution with heavy metals in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC. The Water Framework Directive establishes a single transparent, effective and coherent water policy by defining a strategy to combat pollution by requiring specific action programs.Chemical pollution of surface water presents a threat to the aquatic environment with acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms, accumulation in the ecosystem and losses of habitats and biodiversity, as well as a threat to human health (art.1 from Directive 2008/105/EC regarding the environmental quality standards for water policy.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical status for surface water bodies in the lower catchment of Jiu river basin. The assessment was made taking into account the water impact of four heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, mercury (Hg and lead (Pb.

  14. Progress in herbicide determination with the thylakoid bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapmann, S; Etxebarria, N; Schnabl, H; Grobecker, K H

    1998-01-01

    Chloroplast thylakoids are used as biological units to determine herbicides in different kinds of water samples as well as in aqueous extracts of compost, soil or food samples. The thylakoid bioassay shows clearly inhibition of fluorescence yield in the presence of photosystem II specific herbicides. Due to this method the ecotoxicological effect of samples with unknown pollutants can be tested fast and cost effective. It has been proven that all photosynthetic active compounds are recorded at the same time because only additive interactions occur. Therefore, the contamination level can be expressed as cumulative parameter for photosystem II active substances. Application was improved clearly by the addition of the radical scavenger sodium ascorbate to the isolation media and by a higher concentration of the measuring medium. A new data evaluation method is described yielding in a lower detection limit of 0.4 microg diuron/1. The guidelines for the quality of water for human consumption with an allowable concentration of pesticides in groups is 0,5 microg/1 and can be controlled with the thylakoid bioassay without performing any preconcentration steps.

  15. Best management practices to reduce and prevent water pollution with herbicides from run-off and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural phenomenon of run-off and erosion lead to unpreventable pesticide water pollution in case of extreme weather conditions. In this relationship the use of herbicides involves a higher risk than other pesticides because of the specific terms of application. Directive 2009/128/EC for the sustainable use of pesticides aspires to enhanced water protection. German national action plan contains quantitative objectives which require strong reduction of water pollution by run-off and erosion of pesticides and accordingly herbicides. The European TOPPS prowadis project developed a consolidated and basic diagnosis concept for the first time to determine the field specific run-off risk. Compatible mitigation measures were linked to specific risk scenarios. Risk diagnosis and suitable mitigation measures determine best management practices for the prevention of run-off and erosion. Different new diagnosis methods and the implementation are presented. Further documents and information are available on the web [http://www.topps-life.org/].

  16. Assessment of water pollution induced by human activities in Burullus Lake using Landsat 8 operational land imager and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    El-Zeiny, Ahmed; El-Kafrawy, Sameh

    2017-01-01

    Burullus Lake is the second largest lake along the Mediterranean Sea and represents one of the most subjected lakes to pollution at the delta’s coastline. The present study explores the use of Landsat data and GIS for assessing water pollution at Burullus Lake, Egypt. Multi-spectral Landsat-8 OLI image dated 2015 provided the necessary information to this study. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections were applied to the image. Land use/cover map was obtained to identify natural resources and...

  17. The characteristics and evaluation of water pollution in Ganjiang Tail River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. J.; Li, Z. B.; Zou, D. S.; Ren, C. J.; Pei, Q. B.

    2017-08-01

    The water quality in Ganjiang River has an important impact on the ecological environment of Poyang Lake, because Ganjiang River is an important water supply of Poyang Lake. In this paper, the electrical conductivity (ED), turbidity (NTU), suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (NP), total nitrogen (NT), ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and chemical oxygen demand quantity (COD) have been considered as indicators of water quality while performing an assessment of water in Ganjiang River. We evaluated and analyzed comprehensively the quality of surface and underground water by using the Water Quality Identification Index Method. The sample water was retrieved every 50 days from eight monitoring points located in three sections of downstream Ganjiang River in Nanchang city; the study was conducted from September 10, 2015 to June 1, 2016. The results indicate that the pollution index of northern, central, and southern tributaries in Ganjiang River downstream are 3.807, 3.567, and 3.795, respectively; these results were obtained by performing the primary pollutants quality identification index method (PP-WQI); the pollution index for the same tributaries was found to be 3.8077, 3.5003, 3.7465, respectively when we performed comprehensive water quality identification index method (CWQI). The water pollution grades are between level 3 and level 4. The main pollutants are COD, TN, and SS; moreover, there is a linear relationship between the pollution index in groundwater and surface water. The water quality is the best in the central branch, and worst in the south; the water quality is moderate in the north. Furthermore, the water of upstream is better than that of downstream. Finally, the water quality is worst in summer but best in winter.

  18. The EU Nitrates Directive: A European Approach to Combat Water Pollution from Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Monteny

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1991 onward, the European Union (EU member states have had to comply with the Nitrates Directive. The aim of this directive is to sustainably protect ground and surface waters from pollution with nitrogen (nitrate originating from agriculture. Agriculture is, on an EU level, the largest single source of nitrate (runoff, leaching pollution, although households and industries also contribute to some extent. An important element in the directive is the reporting every 4 years on the monitoring of ground- and surface-water quality. Furthermore, all 15 member states are compelled to designate so-called Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs. These are regions where the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater amount to 50 mg/l or more. In addition to Codes of Good Agricultural Practice, valid on a countrywide basis and often consisting of voluntary-based measures, specific Action Programmes with mandatory measures have to be developed for the NVZs. The first reporting period ended in 1995. This paper describes the progress in member states’ compliance with the Nitrates Directive during the second period (1996–1999, with a focus on the agricultural practices and action pro- grammes. An evaluation of the member states’ reports shows that good progress is being made on the farmers’ awareness of the need to comply with EU regulations on the protection of the aquatic environment. Action programmes are valuable tools to enforce measures that lead to a reduction of the water pollution by agricultural activities. Regional projects show that significant improvements can be achieved (e.g., reduced fertiliser inputs while maintaining crop yields and thus maintaining the economic potential of agriculture.

  19. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-11-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow.

  20. WATER POLLUTION AND RIVER ALGAE: STUDY IN ZAYANDEH ROOD RIVER – ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H POUR MOGHADAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dischange of domestic, agricultural and industrial waste water into the rivers increase chemical substances such as nitrate and phosphate. These chemical changes increase algal population. High density of algae may cause changes in color, odor and taste of water. Some of the algae such as Oscillatoria, Microcystis and Anabeana produce toxins and in high concentrations may kill fishes. While Zayandehrud river is considered as one of the main water supply sources for drinking water and valuable water resources of Isfahan Province, water quality control of this river is important. The study of algae of the river in relation with the concentration of nitrate and phosphate is the purpose of this research project. Methods: To perform this projects, seven sampling stations from "Pole Vahid" to .Pole choom. were selected. Grab methods were used for sampling of the river water. 147 water samples were collected in one year of the study.The samples were analyzed for phosphate, nitrate and genera of the algae. Nitrate and phosphate of the water samples were determined using Phenol Disulfonic Acid and Stanous chloride methods, respectively. The genera of the algae were detennined using the keys. Results and Disccusion:The result of the study showed that the frequency of the algae increased with increasing nitrate and phosphate. Overall.35 genera of algae in the area of the study were observed, which six of them were indicators of water pollution. Minimum frequency of indicators of pollution was observed in the enterance of Isfahan city and maximum frequency was observed after the discharge of municipal water from waste water treatment plant (pole Choom.

  1. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-01-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow

  2. Development by flow cytometry of bioassays based on chlorella for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrescu C-M,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In ecotoxicological assessments, bioassays (ecotoxicity tests or biotests are one of the main tools, defined as methods which use living cells, tissues, organism or communities to assess exposure-related effects of chemicals. The increasing complexity of environmental degradation requires an increase in the capacity of scientific approach in monitoring and notification as early as possible risks. Our own objective concerns the detection of aquatic environment pollution in Romania and particularly in the Danube basin. For assessing aquatic environment pollution degree or for assessing cytotoxicity or ecotoxicity of pollutants (heavy metals, nanoparticles, pesticides, etc. we developed news experimental bioassays based on the use of viability and apoptosis biomarkers of Chlorella cells by flow cytometry. Our proposed bioassays could be rapid and very sensitive tests for in laboratory aquatic risk assessment and biomonitoring.

  3. Strategy of Water Pollution Control Base On Social Economic Activitiy, in Karang Mumus River, Samarinda East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramaningsih Vita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Pollution in Karang Mumus River caused society behavior along the river. Daily activity such as bath, washing and defecate at the river. Garbage, sediment, domestic waste and flood are river problems should be solved. Purpose this research is make strategy of water pollution control in the Karang Mumus River. Method used observation in the field, interview to the society, industry, public activity along the river and government of environment department. Further create data using tool of Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP to get the strategy to control water pollution in the river. Actors have contribute pollution control are government, industry and society. Criteria to pollution control are society participation, low, human resources and sustainable. Alternative of pollution control are unit garbage storage; license loyalty for industry and waste; communal waste water installation; monitoring of water quality. Result for actor priority are government (0.4; Industry (0.4; Society (0.2. Result for priority criteria are society participation (0.338, low (0.288, human resources (0.205 and sustainable (0.169. Result for priority alternative are unit garbage storage (0.433; license loyalty for industry and waste (0.238; communal waste water installation (0.169; monitoring of water quality (0.161.

  4. Strategy of Water Pollution Control Base On Social Economic Activitiy, in Karang Mumus River, Samarinda East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramaningsih, Vita; Suprayogi, Slamet; Purnama, Setyawan

    2018-02-01

    Water Pollution in Karang Mumus River caused society behavior along the river. Daily activity such as bath, washing and defecate at the river. Garbage, sediment, domestic waste and flood are river problems should be solved. Purpose this research is make strategy of water pollution control in the Karang Mumus River. Method used observation in the field, interview to the society, industry, public activity along the river and government of environment department. Further create data using tool of Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) to get the strategy to control water pollution in the river. Actors have contribute pollution control are government, industry and society. Criteria to pollution control are society participation, low, human resources and sustainable. Alternative of pollution control are unit garbage storage; license loyalty for industry and waste; communal waste water installation; monitoring of water quality. Result for actor priority are government (0.4); Industry (0.4); Society (0.2). Result for priority criteria are society participation (0.338), low (0.288), human resources (0.205) and sustainable (0.169). Result for priority alternative are unit garbage storage (0.433); license loyalty for industry and waste (0.238); communal waste water installation (0.169); monitoring of water quality (0.161).

  5. The water pollution representative. The specialist knowledge for the internal wastewater treatment; Der Gewaesserschutzbeauftragte. Das Fachwissen fuer die innerbetriebliche Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahne, D.; Graef, R.; Kratsch, D.

    1998-05-01

    The first chapter deals with the most important legal aspects, handles the regulations after which plants with waste water and water pollutants are to be operated as well as the duties and rights of the water pollution representative. In the second chapter, proved and common means are discussed as they are adopted for the processing of chemicals and waste waters on the point of origin. To this belong major handling of water polluting substances and the corresponding plants as well as examples of off waste water saving processes and plants for waste water processing. In the third chapter, the environment analytical measures are described. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Das erste Kapitel geht auf die wichtigsten rechtlichen Aspekte ein, behandelt die Regelungen, nach denen Anlagen mit Abwasser und wassergefaehrdenden Stoffen zu betreiben sind, sowie die Pflichten und Rechte des Gewaesserschutzbeauftragten. Im zweiten Kapitel werden bewaehrte und verbreitete Methoden besprochen, wie sie fuer die Behandlung von Chemikalien und Abwaessern am Entstehungsort eingefuehrt sind. Dazu gehoeren vorrangig der Umgang mit wassergefaehrdenden Stoffen und den entsprechenden Anlagen sowie auch Beispiele abwassersparender Behandlungsverfahren und Anlagen zur Abwasserbehandlung. Im dritten Kapitel werden die umweltanalytischen Massnahmen erlaeutert. Dabei werden einfach durchzufuehrende Massnahmen der Vor-Ort-Analytik, wie sie sich im `Feldeinsatz` bewaehrt haben, in den Vordergrund gestellt. (orig./GL)

  6. Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed and Something Blue
    Tackling Diffuse Water Pollution from Agriculture in China: Drawing Inspiration from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse water pollution caused by agriculture is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to water pollution both in China and in Europe. A great deal of effort has been spent on mechanisms to address such pollution, especially through legislation and policy. The legal challenge for China is to develop an adequate legal framework to tackle diffuse pollution. By providing an overview of the current policy design regarding diffuse water pollution management in both China and the European Union, this article discusses the extent to which the EU legal framework could provide inspiration for China.

  7. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Tang, Janet Y M; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, arylhydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  8. In vitro bioassays to evaluate complex chemical mixtures in recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ai; Escher, Beate I.; Leusch, Frederic D.L.; Tang, Janet Y.M.; Prochazka, Erik; Dong, Bingfeng; Snyder, Erin M.; Snyder, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    With burgeoning population and diminishing availability of freshwater resources, the world continues to expand the use of alternative water resources for drinking, and the quality of these sources has been a great concern for the public as well as public health professionals. In vitro bioassays are increasingly being used to enable rapid, relatively inexpensive toxicity screening that can be used in conjunction with analytical chemistry data to evaluate water quality and the effectiveness of water treatment. In this study, a comprehensive bioassay battery consisting of 36 bioassays covering 18 biological endpoints was applied to screen the bioactivity of waters of varying qualities with parallel treatments. Samples include wastewater effluent, ultraviolet light (UV) and/or ozone advanced oxidation processed (AOP) recycled water, and infiltrated recycled groundwater. Based on assay sensitivity and detection frequency in the samples, several endpoints were highlighted in the battery, including assays for genotoxicity, mutagenicity, estrogenic activity, glucocorticoid activity, aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, oxidative stress response, and cytotoxicity. Attenuation of bioactivity was found to be dependent on the treatment process and bioassay endpoint. For instance, ozone technology significantly removed oxidative stress activity, while UV based technologies were most efficient for the attenuation of glucocorticoid activity. Chlorination partially attenuated genotoxicity and greatly decreased herbicidal activity, while groundwater infiltration efficiently attenuated most of the evaluated bioactivity with the exception of genotoxicity. In some cases, bioactivity (e.g., mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and arylhydrocarbon receptor) increased following water treatment, indicating that transformation products of water treatment may be a concern. Furthermore, several types of bioassays with the same endpoint were compared in this study, which could help guide the selection

  9. A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Castro-Acuna, Carlos Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    Presents discussions on sources, health impacts, methods of analysis as well as lengthy discussions of lead, nitrates, and atrazine as related to water pollution and the interdisciplinary nature of the modern chemistry curriculum. (DKM)

  10. Effect of Water Pollution on Blood Elements in the Human Population of Hail, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Shokr AM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between contaminated drinking water with trace elements and thyroid diseases hypertension, liver functions disorder and kidney functions disorder was studied in this research. The thyroid diseases hypertension, liver functions disorder and kidney functions disorder are due to contaminant drinking water with trace elements. The present study concerned with water toxicity. The heavy metals belonging to the most important pollutants. A strong relationship between contaminated drinking water with heavy metals from some of the stations of water shopping in Hail, KSA and thyroid diseases hypertension, liver functions disorder and kidney functions disorder has been identified in this study. These diseases are apparently related to contaminant drinking water with heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, Ni, Mn, Co and Cr. kidney functions disorder is related to contaminate drinking water with lead and cadmium, liver functions disorder to copper and molybdenum, and thyroid functions disorder to iodide, copper, and cadmium. Long-term exposure to lead, cadmium, zinc, iron, and arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to primarily in the form of thyroid, liver, and kidney functions disorder. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to toxic materials in the groundwater and thereby led to the contamination of drinking water in these areas. The result of this study showed that increase in the thyroid hormones, and liver functions test as AST and ALT enzymes. Also, there were increase in the hypertension and kidney functions test as creatinine and uric acid. These increases due to the pollution of drinking water by heavy metals.

  11. Possible effects of water pollution on the community structure of Red Sea corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loya, Y.

    1975-02-28

    The community structure and species diversity of hermatypic corals was studied during 1969 to 1973, in 2 reef flats in the northern Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea: the reef flat of the mature reserve at Eilat, which is chronically polluted by oil and minerals, and a control reef, located 5 km further S, which is free of oil pollution. In 1969, the nature reserve and the control reef had similar coral community structure. In Sept. 1970, both reefs suffered approximately 90 percent mortality of corals, as a result of an unexpected and extremely low tide. In 1973 the control reef was blooming with a highly diverse coral community, while almost no signs of coral recolonization have been observed at the nature reserve, and it is significantly lower in diversity. Phosphate eutrophication and chronic oil pollution are probably the major man-made disturbances that interfere with coral colonization of the reef flat at the nature reserve. Although no direct evidence is provided that oil damages hermatypic corals, the data strongly suggest that chronic oil spills prevent normal settlement and development of coral larvae. Chronic oil pollution results in either one or a combination of the following: damage to the reproductive system of corals, decreased viability of coral larvae, or changes in some physical properties of the reef flat which interfere with normal settlement of coral larvae.

  12. Effect of water pollution on expression of immune response genes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by means of suppression subtractive hybridization. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 25: 205-217. Bishai HM, Kirollus SY (1980). The water budget of Lake Qarun and its physicochemical characteristics. Wat. Supp. Manage. 4: 93-97. Bombail V, Aw D, Gordon E, Batty J (2001).

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, Gert-Jan; Becker, Mathias; Nga, La Thi; Sebesvari, Zita; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2014-07-01

    Surface water pollution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (MD) could threaten human, animal and ecosystem health given the fact that this water source is intensively used for drinking, irrigation and domestic services. We therefore determined the levels of pollution by organic pollutants, salts, metals and microbial indicators by (bi)monthly monitoring of canals between November 2011 and July 2012 at 32 sampling locations, representing fresh and saline/brackish environments. The results were compared with national water quality guidelines, between the studied regions and with water quality data from main waterways. Key factors explaining the observed levels of pollution in surface water were identified through principal component analysis (PCA). Temporal variations due to tidal regime and seasonality were also assessed. Based on regression models, the spatial variability of five water quality parameters was visualized using GIS based maps. Results indicate that pH (max. 8.6), turbidity (max. 461 FTU), maximum concentrations of ammonium (14.7 mg L(-1)), arsenic (44.1 μg L(-1)), barium (157.5 μg L(-1)), chromium (84.7 μg L(-1)), mercury (45.5 μg L(-1)), manganese (1659.7 μg L(-1)), aluminum (14.5 mg L(-1)), iron (17.0 mg L(-1)) and the number of Escherichia coli (87,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) and total coliforms (2,500,000 CFU 100 mL(-1)) in canals exceed the thresholds set by Vietnamese quality guidelines for drinking and domestic purposes. The PCA showed that i) urbanization; ii) metal leaching from soils; iii) aquaculture; and iv) tidal regime explain 85% of the variance of surface water quality attributes. Significant differences in water quality were found due to daily tidal regime and as a result of seasonality. Surface water quality maps for dissolved oxygen, ammonium, ortho-phosphate, manganese and total coliforms were developed to highlight hot-spot areas of pollution. The results of this study can assist policy makers in developing water management strategies

  14. Toxicity assessment using different bioassays and microbial biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Abskharon, Romany; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity assessment of water streams, wastewater, and contaminated sediments, is a very important part of environmental pollution monitoring. Evaluation of biological effects using a rapid, sensitive and cost effective method can indicate specific information on ecotoxicity assessment. Recently, different biological assays for toxicity assessment based on higher and lower organisms such as fish, invertebrates, plants and algal cells, and microbial bioassays have been used. This review focuses on microbial biosensors as an analytical device for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Different techniques which are commonly used in microbial biosensing include amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cells, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry. Examples of the use of different microbial biosensors in assessing a variety of environments are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determining UV Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by Using Cell Culture and a Mouse Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of UV exposure on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has not been completely defined for use in water disinfection. This study evaluated UV irradiated oocysts by three assays: a SCID mouse bioassay, an in vitro T. gondii oocyst plaque assay (TOP-assay), and a quantitative reve...

  16. Applications of bioassay for fission and activation products - Sept. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This guide identifies the bases that will be used by the NRC staff in evaluating the need for license provisions to require bioassay programs in installations where employees may be subject to internal radiation exposure from the inhalation or ingestion of fission or neutron activation products. It also describes methods acceptable to the NRC staff for determining the persons to be included in a bioassay program, the sampling and measurement techniques to be used, the frequency of bioassay measurements to be made, actions to be taken based on designated levels of internal radioactivity, estimations of internal dose to be calculated from bioassay measurements, and record systems to be maintained appropriate to such bioassay programs

  17. A rapid and high-throughput quantum dots bioassay for monitoring of perfluorooctane sulfonate in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jiong; Wan Yanjian; Li Yuanyuan; Zhang Qiongfang; Xu Shunqing [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China); Zhu Huijun [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Kempston, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Shu Baihua, E-mail: shubaihua@hotmail.com [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Currently HPLC/MS is the state of the art tool for environmental/drinking water perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) monitoring. PFOS can bind to peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}), which forms heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and binds to PPAR response elements. In this bioassay free PFOS in water samples competes with immobilized PFOS in ELISA plates for a given amount of PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha}. It can be determined indirectly by immobilizing PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha}-PFOS complex to another plate coated with PPAR{alpha} antibody and subsequent measuring the level of PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} by using biotin-modified PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} probes-quantum dots-streptavidin detection system. The rapid and high-throughput bioassay demonstrated a detection limit of 2.5 ng L{sup -1} with linear range between 2.5 ng L{sup -1} and 75 ng L{sup -1}. Detection results of environmental water samples were highly consistent between the bioassay and HPLC/MS. - We developed a rapid and high-throughput bioassay for monitoring of PFOS in environmental water samples. - Highlights: > We developed a rapid and high-throughput bioassay for monitoring of PFOS in water. > We detected the PFOS concentration of water samples by two methods. > The bioassay is effective for evaluating PFOS contamination level.

  18. Bioassay techniques for 55Fe in urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregan, S.P.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for 55 Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH) 3 . precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2013-10-15

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental quality and economic growth: Searching for environmental Kuznets curves for air and water pollutants in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orubu, Christopher O.; Omotor, Douglason G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation in Africa, using longitudinal data on suspended particulate matter and organic water pollutants. The specific objective was to estimate environmental Kuznets curves for two indicators of environmental quality and to establish whether the estimated relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. The results of the empirical investigation generally suggest the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. In the case of organic water pollutants, the evidence weighs more in favor of rising pollution as per capita income increases. The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators of environmental quality were however generally low, when compared to evidence from existing studies. On the face value, this suggests that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income, much in line with the emerging idea of a 'revised environmental Kuznets curve'. The results also suggest that economic growth and rising incomes may matter in African countries in order to curb pollution from these pollutants, but more stringent policy measures, particularly at the industrial level would be required to curb environmental degradation from organic water pollutants. - Highlights: → The specific objective was to establish whether the relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. → Evidence suggests the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. → The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators were however generally low. → We conclude that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income.

  1. Development of the MOOSY4 eNose IoT for Sulphur-Based VOC Water Pollution Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Enric; Pelegri-Sebastia, Jose; Sogorb, Tomas; Talens, J B; Chilo, Jose

    2017-08-20

    In this paper, we describe a new low-cost and portable electronic nose instrument, the Multisensory Odor Olfactory System MOOSY4. This prototype is based on only four metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors suitable for IoT technology. The system architecture consists of four stages: data acquisition, data storage, data processing, and user interfacing. The designed eNose was tested with experiment for detection of volatile components in water pollution, as a dimethyl disulphide or dimethyl diselenide or sulphur. Therefore, the results provide evidence that odor information can be recognized with around 86% efficiency, detecting smells unwanted in the water and improving the quality control in bottled water factories.

  2. Environmental protection and management: A water pollution case study within the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.A.; Wright, S.; Graham, K.; Burgin, S. [University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The Grose River is contained almost entirely within a World Heritage Area. While sewage pollution in the area has been addressed, pollution at damaging levels continues from a disused coal mine, closed in 1997. Despite some surface rehabilitation, no action has occurred to remediate zinc polluted waters emanating from the mine. We examine the historical regulation and management of the Australian Commonwealth and New South Wales governments and highlight gaps in both regulatory systems. We conclude that there is an urgent need to improve regulation of water pollution, mining and management of the environment in highly valued world heritage areas.

  3. Androgen Bioassay for the Detection of Nonlabeled Androgenic Compounds in Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elliot R; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Li, XiaoHong; Heather, Alison K

    2018-01-01

    Both athletes and the general population use nutritional supplements. Athletes often turn to supplements hoping that consuming the supplement will help them be more competitive and healthy, while the general population hopes to improve body image or vitality. While many supplements contain ingredients that may have useful properties, there are supplements that are contaminated with compounds that are banned for use in sport or have been deliberately adulterated to fortify a supplement with an ingredient that will produce the advertised effect. In the present study, we have used yeast cell and mammalian cell androgen bioassays to characterize the androgenic bioactivity of 112 sports supplements available from the Australian market, either over the counter or via the Internet. All 112 products did not declare an androgen on the label as an included ingredient. Our findings show that six out of 112 supplements had strong androgenic bioactivity in the yeast cell bioassay, indicating products spiked or contaminated with androgens. The mammalian cell bioassay confirmed the strong androgenic bioactivity of five out of six positive supplements. Supplement 6 was metabolized to weaker androgenic bioactivity in the mammalian cells. Further to this, Supplement 6 was positive in a yeast cell progestin bioassay. Together, these findings highlight that nutritional supplements, taken without medical supervision, could expose or predispose users to the adverse consequences of androgen abuse. The findings reinforce the need to increase awareness of the dangers of nutritional supplements and highlight the challenges that clinicians face in the fast-growing market of nutritional supplements.

  4. Bioassays for the determination of nitrification inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunditz, Camilla

    1999-07-01

    Requirements for nitrogen reduction in wastewater treatment plants were introduced in Sweden in the early 1990's. This was a governmental move to reduce the nitrogen discharges to the Baltic and Kattegat in order to prevent eutrophication. The nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants is performed by nitrifying bacteria. These are susceptible to inhibition and it is of great importance that the influent water does not contain toxic compounds. Therefore, there is a need for assays for the determination of nitrification inhibition. This thesis describes the development and applications of such bioassays. Pure cultures of Nitrosomonas sp. and Nitrobacter sp. were isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant. These cultures were used as test organisms in the development of bioassays for nitrification inhibition measurements. The assays are based on two different principles; cell suspensions of the bacteria, performed in test tubes, and mediated amperometric biosensors with the bacteria immobilised. Ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation are studied separately without interference from other organisms, which makes it easier to interpret the results. The cell suspension assays were applied to samples of industrial and municipal wastewater. The Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter assays showed to have different inhibition patterns. A large percentage of the Swedish municipal wastewater treatment plants were found to receive inhibitory influent water, but the inhibition level was generally low. Compared to an assay based on activated sludge, the screening method, the pure culture assays found more samples of influent water strongly inhibitory or stimulating. The highest correlation was found between the screening method and the Nitrosomonas assay. The Nitrobacter assay was found to be the most sensitive method. Assessment of toxicity of a number of chemical substances was studied using the biosensors, together with the cell suspension assays

  5. Source Apportionment of Annual Water Pollution Loads in River Basins by Remote-Sensed Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to determine the efficiency of estimating annual water pollution loads from remote-sensed land cover classification and ground-observed hydrological data, an empirical model was investigated. Remote sensing data imagery from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer were applied to an 11 year (1994–2004 water quality dataset for 30 different rivers in Japan. Six water quality indicators—total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen (DO—were examined by using the observed river water quality data and generated land cover map. The TN, TP, BOD, COD, and DO loads were estimated for the 30 river basins using the empirical model. Calibration (1994–1999 and validation (2000–2004 results showed that the proposed simulation technique was useful for predicting water pollution loads in the river basins. We found that vegetation land cover had a larger impact on TP export into all rivers. Urban areas had a very small impact on DO export into rivers, but a relatively large impact on BOD and TN export. The results indicate that the application of land cover data generated from the remote-sensed imagery could give a useful interpretation about the river water quality.

  6. Cr(VI) and Conductivity as Indicators of Surface Water Pollution from Ferrochrome Production in South Africa: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loock-Hattingh, M. M.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Tiedt, L. R.

    2015-10-01

    South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface waters. In the remaining case study areas, drinking water, originating from groundwater, was severely polluted with Cr(VI). The main factors causing pollution were surface run-off and/or seepage, while atmospheric deposition did not seem to contribute significantly. The extinction of diatoms during a severe Cr(VI) surface water pollution event (concentrations up to 216 µg/L) in one of the case study areas was also observed, which clearly indicates the ecological impact of such surface water pollution events.

  7. Integration of Rs/gis for Surface Water Pollution Risk Modeling. Case Study: Al-Abrash Syrian Coastal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Y.; Salim, H.

    2017-09-01

    Recently the topic of the quality of surface water (rivers - lakes) and the sea is an important topics at different levels. It is known that there are two major groups of pollutants: Point Source Pollution (PSP) and non-point Source pollution (NPSP). Historically most of the surface water pollution protection programs dealing with the first set of pollutants which comes from sewage pipes and factories drainage. With the growing need for current and future water security must stand on the current reality of the coastal rivers basin in terms of freshness and cleanliness and condition of water pollution. This research aims to assign the NPS pollutants that reach Al Abrash River and preparation of databases and producing of risk Pollution map for NPS pollutants in order to put the basin management plan to ensure the reduction of pollutants that reach the river. This research resulted of establishing of Databases of NPSP (Like pesticides and fertilizers) and producing of thematic maps for pollution severity and pollution risk based on the pollution models designed in GIS environment and utilizing from remote sensing data. Preliminary recommendations for managing these pollutants were put.

  8. INTEGRATION OF RS/GIS FOR SURFACE WATER POLLUTION RISK MODELING. CASE STUDY: AL-ABRASH SYRIAN COASTAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yaghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the topic of the quality of surface water (rivers – lakes and the sea is an important topics at different levels. It is known that there are two major groups of pollutants: Point Source Pollution (PSP and non-point Source pollution (NPSP. Historically most of the surface water pollution protection programs dealing with the first set of pollutants which comes from sewage pipes and factories drainage. With the growing need for current and future water security must stand on the current reality of the coastal rivers basin in terms of freshness and cleanliness and condition of water pollution. This research aims to assign the NPS pollutants that reach Al Abrash River and preparation of databases and producing of risk Pollution map for NPS pollutants in order to put the basin management plan to ensure the reduction of pollutants that reach the river. This research resulted of establishing of Databases of NPSP (Like pesticides and fertilizers and producing of thematic maps for pollution severity and pollution risk based on the pollution models designed in GIS environment and utilizing from remote sensing data. Preliminary recommendations for managing these pollutants were put.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of diuron and its derivatives on Lemna gibba using a fluorescence toxicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, David; Marchand, Mathieu; Eullaffroy, Philippe; Popovic, Radovan

    2002-10-01

    The herbicide diuron (DCMU) [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is largely used in agricultural practices which contribute to water pollution in large areas. Its degradation induced by light or microbial activity is known to be a slow process, and may result in the accumulation of DCMU derivatives in the environment. In this report we used the yield of PSII variable fluorescence of Lemna gibba affected by the DCMU derivatives DCPMU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea], DCPU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea], and DCA [3,4-dichloroaniline] to calculate the fluorescence toxicity index. We found the fluorescence toxicity index to be a useful parameter to evaluate the inhibitory effect on PSII electron transport in L. gibba exposed to DCMU and its derivatives. The variations observed for the inhibitory effect between DCMU and its derivatives seem to be caused by the modification of the dimethylurea group within the DCMU molecule. The fluorescence toxicity index demonstrated a strong quantitative dependency between the inhibitory effect of PSII electron transport and pollutant concentrations. We propose the fluorescence toxicity index to be a useful tool for future bioassays in evaluating the quality of water polluted with herbicides that induce an inhibition to PSII photochemistry. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Miniature-dispenser-based bioassay to evaluate the compatibility of powder formulations used in an entomovectoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Put, Kurt; Vandeven, Jessica; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-06-01

    Entomovectoring as a plant protection strategy demands the design of an appropriate bioassay to assess the risks of potential side effects of the powder formulations in the dispenser towards the vectoring insect. This study reports on the development of a laboratory miniature-dispenser-based bioassay. This bioassay system was used to investigate the compatibility of five model products, Prestop-Mix, Signum, kaolin, wheat flour and cellulose, with the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L. The laboratory one-way miniature-dispenser bioassay showed that the fungicides and the carrier/diluent kaolin caused a worker mortality of > 70% after 5 weeks of exposure, while worker loss with wheat flour and cellulose was no higher than in the blank control (i.e. empty miniature dispenser) (dispenser bioassay comprised separated passageways and demonstrated that only kaolin was toxic (89 ± 11%). These results were also confirmed in a flight-cage experiment. In addition, a negative effect was observed against reproduction/colony development when nests were exposed to kaolin (P dispenser and flight-cage bioassays. In the context of entomovectoring technology, the developed laboratory two-way miniature-dispenser bioassay gives a reliable prediction of the hazards associated with powder products. Additionally, the present data indicate the possibility of using cellulose and kaolin as respective negative and positive control carriers/diluents in future risk assessment experiments. Overall, the results show that, apart from kaolin, the tested fungicides and carriers/diluents are safe to be used with B. terrestris. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The influence of fresh water pollutants and interaction with Asellus aquaticus (L.) on the feeding activity of Gammarus pulex (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockwell, S J; Taylor, E J; Jones, I; Pascoe, D

    1998-01-01

    The feeding response of juvenile amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.) was investigated following exposure to freshwater pollutants. The method employed is nondestructive, provides a rapid indication of the status of groups of individuals, and is based on a time-response analysis of the consumption of the eggs of Artemia salina and the determination of median feeding times or FT50s. The feeding activity of juvenile G. pulex was found to be a sensitive response criterion for use in assessing the sublethal toxicity of copper, lindane, and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA). Reductions in gammarid feeding activity were identified following 96 hours exposure at 12.1 microg/L copper or 8.4 microg/L lindane and 240 hours exposure at 918 microg/L 3,4-DCA. However, a significant increase was observed in the feeding rate of gammarids that had been exposed for 240 h at 0.09 microg/L lindane in comparison with control values. The increase in feeding rate may be interpreted as a possible stimulatory effect associated with the toxicant action of lindane. Increases in gammarid feeding activity were not determined during the experiments conducted with either copper or 3,4-DCA. A sustained reduction in G. pulex feeding rates may cause growth inhibition and impaired reproduction which have previously been identified as sublethal responses of other freshwater organisms exposed to comparable concentrations of lindane, 3,4-DCA, or copper. The feeding bioassay was also used as a tool in an investigation of species interactions in toxicant systems. The feeding responses of G. pulex, which had been maintained in the presence of Asellus aquaticus (as interacting pairs) and exposed to a range of concentrations of lindane or 3,4-DCA, were recorded and compared. The findings illustrate the complex nature of test systems that integrate the stresses of toxicant and competition. In the lindane test system a reduction in gammarid feeding activity was observed following a 96-h exposure with A. aquaticus at 3

  12. Annotating Human P-Glycoprotein Bioassay Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Pinto, Marta; Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Williams, Antony J; Balderud, Linda Zander; Engkvist, Ola; Chichester, Christine; Hersey, Anne; Overington, John P; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2012-08-01

    Huge amounts of small compound bioactivity data have been entering the public domain as a consequence of open innovation initiatives. It is now the time to carefully analyse existing bioassay data and give it a systematic structure. Our study aims to annotate prominent in vitro assays used for the determination of bioactivities of human P-glycoprotein inhibitors and substrates as they are represented in the ChEMBL and TP-search open source databases. Furthermore, the ability of data, determined in different assays, to be combined with each other is explored. As a result of this study, it is suggested that for inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein it is possible to combine data coming from the same assay type, if the cell lines used are also identical and the fluorescent or radiolabeled substrate have overlapping binding sites. In addition, it demonstrates that there is a need for larger chemical diverse datasets that have been measured in a panel of different assays. This would certainly alleviate the search for other inter-correlations between bioactivity data yielded by different assay setups.

  13. Morphogenesis of a Floodplain as a Criterion for Assessing the Susceptibility to Water Pollution in an Agriculturally Rich Valley of a Lowland River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sieczka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the influence of the specific geological landforms occurring in a lowland river floodplain on the recharge and drainage conditions in an agricultural area. Particular attention has been paid to the presence of the buried erosional channels of flood waters, which may constitute the preferential paths for migration of agricultural contaminants. Moreover, the changes of effective infiltration which affect the hydrogeological regime of the tested area were analyzed. Priority was also given to the use of laboratory techniques in order to determine the parameters influencing the contaminant migration in the soil-water environment for the purpose of hydrogeological modeling. Laboratory tests, based on a column experiment, were performed in a Trautwein apparatus with reference to the constant head procedure, using conservative and reactive markers. The parameters of advection, dispersion, and sorption, obtained in the laboratory experiment were then used as the input data for the hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow and contaminant migration in the research area. Based on the created digital model of groundwater flow, the multi-variant analysis of the effect of specific geological features on the conditions of contaminant transport in a valley was performed. The presented tools and methods contributed to a significant increase in the accuracy of recognizing zones susceptible to water pollution and should be adopted in other valley areas exposed to contamination.

  14. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  15. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X. Geroge

    2011-01-01

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  16. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing Schemes to Mitigate Non-Point Source Water Pollution from Agriculture: The Value of High-Resolution Hydrochemical and Hydrophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    To effectively mitigate non-point source water pollution from agriculture, first it is vital to have an awareness of a watershed's hydrological and contaminant regime. Understanding the magnitude and timing of pollutant export, as well as the pathways by which different constituents are delivered to a water course, is paramount. One approach to gaining this type of knowledge is to observe pollutant fluxes at the watershed outlet. The River Eden Demonstration Test Catchments programme uses in-situ monitoring equipment to provide high-resolution (30 minute) data for three mixed-agriculture watersheds (ca. 10km2) in north western England. Determinands measured include turbidity, phosphorus, nitrate, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH and temperature, along with river discharge and rainfall. Provided with these data, and an awareness of significant agricultural activities carried out in the watershed on an annual basis, this study demonstrates how it is possible to identify different pollutant transfer pathways, along with their spatio-temporal nature, and their relative importance. This information is then used to inform appropriate mitigation design. In relation to this purpose, the pros and cons of the different hydrochemical and hydrophysical data are described, and recommendations made for other determinands that should be considered for measurement in future similar studies.

  18. Toxicity bioassays for water from black-odor rivers in Wenzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p water. Typical black-odor river water displays different

  19. Assessing the potential risk of oil-field produced waters using a battery of bioassays/biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ma, Mei; Cui, Qing; Wang, Zijian

    2008-06-01

    A battery of in vitro bioassays was conducted to assess the potential risks of organic extracts from oilfield produced wastewaters and from the receiving waters. In SOS/umu bioassay for the genotoxicity, our results showed that direct and indirect genotoxic substances were observed and metabolic activation greatly enhanced the genotoxic effects. In Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase bioassay, levels of AhR-agonists, expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalences, varied from 13.3 to 16.7 pg L(-1). We conclude that oilfield produced wastewater contains substantial quantity of indirect genotoxic substances exclusive of AhR agonists. Both genotoxic and AhR agonistic chemicals could not be effectively removed by the treatment processes.

  20. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  1. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholster, P.J.; Botha, A.-M.; Cloete, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources

  2. Iodine-131 in sewage sludge from a small water pollution control plant serving a thyroid cancer treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence

    2013-08-01

    Iodine-131 (half-life = 8.04 d) is the most widely used radionuclide in medicine for therapeutic purposes. It is excreted by patients and is discharged directly to sewer systems. Despite considerable dilution in waste water and the relatively short half-life of I, it is readily measured in sewage. This work presents I concentrations in sewage sludge from three water pollution control plants (WPCPs) on Long Island, NY. Iodine-131 concentrations ranged from 0.027 ± 0.002 to 148 ± 4 Bq g dry weight. The highest concentrations were measured in the Stony Brook WPCP, a relatively small plant (average flow = 6.8 × 10 L d) serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY. Preliminary radiation dose calculations suggested further evaluation of dose to treatment plant workers in the Stony Brook WPCP based on the recommendations of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards.

  3. The recovery of a time-dependent point source in a linear transport equation: application to surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Adel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to localize the position of a point source and recover the history of its time-dependent intensity function that is both unknown and constitutes the right-hand side of a 1D linear transport equation. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove that recording the state with respect to the time at two observation points framing the source region leads to the identification of the source position and the recovery of its intensity function in a unique manner. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that determines quasi-explicitly the source position and transforms the task of recovering its intensity function into solving directly a well-conditioned linear system. Some numerical experiments done on a variant of the water pollution BOD model are presented

  4. Escherichia coli. A sanitary methodology for faecal water pollution tests; Escherichia coli nelle acque. Significato sanitario e metodologie di analisi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonadonna, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    Among the traditional indictors of faecal water pollution, Escherichia coli has shown to fit better with the definition of indicator organism. Till now its recovery has been time-consuming and needs confirmation tests. In this report more rapid and direct methods, based on enzymatic reactions, are presented. [Italian] Per talune peculiari caratteristiche, Escherichia coli sembra meglio soddisfare i requisiti insiti nella definizione di organismo indicatore, rispetto ai tradizionali indicatori di contaminazione fecale dell'acqua. Finora, i substrati disponibili per il suo rilevamento necessitano tutti di almeno una prova di conferma. Di qui l'esigenza di indicare metodi di rilevamento a riposta piu' rapida, anche in relazione all'inserimento, nelle piu' recenti normative nazionali ed europee, del microrganismo tra i parametri microbiologici da ricercare.

  5. Transboundary water pollution management
    Lessons learned from river basin management in China, Europe and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary water pollution management is a challenge for China at this moment in time. By introducing relevant legal arrangements, we mainly discuss the competent authorities, the legal instruments and dispute settlement procedures concerning this issue in China. The experiences from international, EU and Dutch water law gives us a comparative perspective. As a conclusion, we agree that China has set up a basic legal system to solve the problem, but a greater effort can still be made, for instance including more public opinion, clearly defining the competent authorities, and enacting more legislation. At the same time, the Chinese experience, such as a new model for a monitoring system and a target responsibility system, also provides the rest of the world with a new approach.

  6. In situ prompt gamma-ray activation analysis of water pollutants using a shallow 252Cf-HPGe probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Chien; Tseng Tzucheng

    1988-01-01

    A shallow 252 Cf-HPGe probe used for in situ prompt γ-ray activation of water pollutants is described. A 2.7 μg 252 Cf neutron source and a 10% HPGe detector are inserted into a waterproof stainless steel probe, which is designed to be submerged and recovered in field operation. A laboratory test is performed to obtain the neutron flux distribution and prompt γ-ray contribution to the HPGe detector counts from around the submerged probe. The concentrations of toxic cadmium and chlorine in water are determined in the prompt γ-ray spectrum. The detection limit of industrial pollutants and some improvements of the current design are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  8. Scales of freshwater fish Labeo rohita as bioindicators of water pollution in Tung Dhab Drain, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of municipal wastewater on scale morphology of freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (17.7, 26.6, or 35.4%) of municipal wastewater for durations of 15, 30, and 60 d. Recovery experiments were also performed for a duration of 60 d. Scales were extracted after respective exposure periods, cleaned, and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Results showed concentration- and exposure duration-dependent alterations in the morphology of scales. Severe damage was observed at the anterior and posterior portions of scales in the form of lepidontal breakage and uprooting, destructions at the base of circuli and radii along with complete structural loss in the focal region and adjacent circuli and radii, and alterations in structure of tubercles. Data indicate that scales of fish L. rohita may be employed as bioindicators of water pollution and could be incorporated into water monitoring surveillance.

  9. Assessment of water pollution induced by human activities in Burullus Lake using Landsat 8 operational land imager and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zeiny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Burullus Lake is the second largest lake along the Mediterranean Sea and represents one of the most subjected lakes to pollution at the delta’s coastline. The present study explores the use of Landsat data and GIS for assessing water pollution at Burullus Lake, Egypt. Multi-spectral Landsat-8 OLI image dated 2015 provided the necessary information to this study. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections were applied to the image. Land use/cover map was obtained to identify natural resources and types of human activities in the area surrounding the Lake. Three previously developed water quality empirical models for BOD, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP were applied on the calibrated image. Then, a GIS model was generated to identify areas recording high levels of BOD, TN and TP. Results confirmed that the Lake water is subjected to pollution from multiple sources; particularly domestic and agricultural drains. Shallow water (i.e. Lake Shores, where human activities are influencing, reported high levels of water studied pollutants. The model indicated that south western and north eastern parts of the Lake are the most polluted parts, recording relatively high levels of BOD, TN and TP; >4.46 mg L−1, >18.33 mg L−1 and >15.59 mg L−1, respectively. Results were ascertained based on water quality investigations in relevant research studies on the Lake. It was concluded that Burullus Lake is extensively subjected to interrupting human activities which have a great negative impact on water quality. Also data-observation techniques and water quality empirical models were successful in assessing and mapping water pollution.

  10. Evaluation of biotoxicity of textile dyes using two bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Hassan; El-Rahim, Wafaa M Abd; Khalafallah, M

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of eight textile dyes was evaluated using two bioassays namely: Ames test and seed germination test. The Ames test is widely used for the evaluation of hazardous mutagenic effect of different chemicals, as a short-term screening test for environmental impact assessment. The eight-textile dyes and Eithidium bromide dye (as positive control) were tested with five "his" Salmonella typhimurium strains: TA 100; TA 98; TA 1535; TA 1537; TA 1538. Using six concentrations of each dye (2.5 microg/ml, 4.5 microg/ml, 9 microg/ml, 13.5 microg/ml, 18 microg/ml, and 22.5 microg/ml) revealed that, most of the dyes were mutagenic for the test strains used in this study. The high concentrations of dye eliminated microbial colonies due to the high frequency of mutation causing lethal effect on the cells. In this work the phytotoxicity of different soluble textile dyes was estimated by measuring the relative changes in seed germination of four plants: clover, wheat, tomato and lettuce. The changes in shooting percentages and root length as affected by dye were also measured. Seed germination percent and shoot growth as well as root length were recorded after 6 days of exposure to different concentrations of textile dyes in irrigation water. The results show that high concentrations of dyes were more toxic to seed germination as compared with the lower concentrations. However, the low concentrations of the tested dyes adversely affected the shooting percent significantly.

  11. Analyzing bioassay data using Bayesian methods-A primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The classical statistics approach used in health physics for the interpretation of measurements is deficient in that it does not allow for the consideration of needle in a haystack effects, where events that are rare in a population are being detected. In fact, this is often the case in health physics measurements, and the false positive fraction is often very large using the prescriptions of classical statistics. Bayesian statistics provides an objective methodology to ensure acceptably small false positive fractions. The authors present the basic methodology and a heuristic discussion. Examples are given using numerically generated and real bioassay data (Tritium). Various analytical models are used to fit the prior probability distribution, in order to test the sensitivity to choice of model. Parametric studies show that the normalized Bayesian decision level k α -L c /σ 0 , where σ 0 is the measurement uncertainty for zero true amount, is usually in the range from 3 to 5 depending on the true positive rate. Four times σ 0 rather than approximately two times σ 0 , as in classical statistics, would often seem a better choice for the decision level

  12. A rapid fecal bioassay method for Pu/Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.; Leon, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Fecal radiobioassay is a sensitive tool to estimate intake of radionuclides, especially for insoluble or poorly absorbed actinides. To increase efficiency and reduce turnaround time, improvements were introduced in the sample digestion step of a fecal bioassay method to rapidly detect Pu and Am. The acid- and microwave-digestion of the spiked fecal samples (5-10 g) were effectively completed in 1 h. The turnaround time for the sample analysis was minimized to 6 h. The average recoveries for Pu and Am were 35% and 60% for artificial fecal samples, respectively. Much better recoveries for Pu and Am were obtained for natural fecal samples. Observed relative biases for Pu and Am were marginally in the range of -0.25 to +0.50. The relative precision values for both radionuclides were, however, within the performance index of 0.4. This rapid fecal method is a potential candidate for an acceptable quantitative radiobioassay and screening method for the suspected Pu/Am exposures. (author)

  13. A real-time, dynamic early-warning model based on uncertainty analysis and risk assessment for sudden water pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dibo; Ge, Xiaofan; Huang, Pingjie; Zhang, Guangxin; Loáiciga, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    A real-time, dynamic, early-warning model (EP-risk model) is proposed to cope with sudden water quality pollution accidents affecting downstream areas with raw-water intakes (denoted as EPs). The EP-risk model outputs the risk level of water pollution at the EP by calculating the likelihood of pollution and evaluating the impact of pollution. A generalized form of the EP-risk model for river pollution accidents based on Monte Carlo simulation, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, and the risk matrix method is proposed. The likelihood of water pollution at the EP is calculated by the Monte Carlo method, which is used for uncertainty analysis of pollutants' transport in rivers. The impact of water pollution at the EP is evaluated by expert knowledge and the results of Monte Carlo simulation based on the analytic hierarchy process. The final risk level of water pollution at the EP is determined by the risk matrix method. A case study of the proposed method is illustrated with a phenol spill accident in China.

  14. Critical review and evaluation of the uterotrophic bioassay for the identification of possible estrogen agonists and antagonists: in support of the validation of the OECD uterotrophic protocols for the laboratory rodent. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J William; Ashby, John

    2002-01-01

    A current issue for regulatory agencies is endocrine-related modes of action such as those mediated by the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid nuclear receptors. At the national and international levels, the consensus recommendation for the assessment of such modes of action is a tiered series of in vitro and in vivo protocols. The tiered framework begins with screens for structural alerts and then moves to rapid, mechanistic in vitro screening assays, and then to in vivo screening bioassays. The objective of these screens is to identify substances that may warrant testing for endocrine-mediated adverse effects. The final framework tier as needed is to test these substances in long-term bioassays for adverse endocrine-mediated reproductive and/or developmental effects. The subject of this review, the rodent uterotrophic bioassay, is intended to be a rapid in vivo screening bioassay for possible estrogen agonists and based on the response of the estrogen-sensitive uterus. The central metric of bioassay is a statistically significant increase in the weight of the uterus after 3 consecutive days of test substance administration. The extensive background literature is summarized in this review on the mode of action underlying the bioassay and the uterine response to estrogens. The review includes the bioassay's history of development and how its employment has changed and evolved over time. The review describes two major uterotrophic bioassay versions, the intact, immature female and the mature, ovariectomized female, and the protocol factors likely to influence relevance, reproducibility, and reliability of bioassay. The emphasis of the review is the ability of the uterotrophic bioassay to identify the substances of current interest: weak estrogen agonists with binding affinities relative to the natural 17beta-estradiol in the log 0 to log -3 range. Using selected model substances having RBAs in this target range, the bioassay's performance in a hierarchical, tiered

  15. Recombinant Streptomyces clavuligerus strain including cas2 gene production and analysis its antibiotic overproduction by bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hojati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptomyces clavuligerus is one of the most important strain that produce clavulanic acid that wildly used in combination of strong but sensitive to β-lactamase antibiotics in clinics. The cas2 is one of the important genes in the biosynthesis pathway of clavulanic acid. Materials and Methods: The recombinant construct pMTcas2 which contain cas2 gene is obtained from Isfahan University. Recombinant plasmid extracts from streptomyces lividans and confirm by enzyme digestion. The streptomyces clavuligerus protoplast was prepared and transformation was done by using polyethylene glycol. Transformation was confirmed by plasmid extraction and PCR using cas2 specific primers. Finally, bioassay method was used to survey the effect of extra copy of cas2 on clavulanic acid production. Result: Plasmid extraction was initially carried out and the structure of plasmid was confirmed by digestion. The typical white colony was seen on protoplast recovery culture containing thiostrepton antibiotic and gray spores were detected after one week. Plasmid extraction was done from transformed strain and transformation was confirmed by PCR. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the cas2 gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 4.1 fold increase in clavulanic acid production. Conclusion: The bioassay was done and the diameters of zone of inhibition in control and sample were compared. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the cas2 gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 4.1 fold increase in clavulanic acid production. Overproduction of clavulanic acid decreases the cost of its dependent drug production.

  16. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  17. A novel approach to measure elemental concentrations in cation exchange resins using XRF-scanning technique, and its potential in water pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Lin, Sheng-Chi; Löwemark, Ludvig; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Chang, Queenie; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Croudace, Ian W.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core-scanning is a fast, and convenient technique to assess elemental variations for a wide variety of research topics. However, the XRF scanning counts are often considered a semi-quantitative measurement due to possible absorption or scattering caused by down core variability in physical properties. To overcome this problem and extend the applications of XRF-scanning to water pollution studies, we propose to use cation exchange resin (IR-120) as an "elemental carrier", and to analyze the resins using the Itrax-XRF core scanner. The use of resin minimizes the matrix effects during the measurements, and can be employed in the field in great numbers due to its low price. Therefore, the fast, and non-destructive XRF-scanning technique can provide a quick and economical method to analyze environmental pollution via absorption in the resin. Five standard resin samples were scanned by the Itrax-XRF core scanner at different exposure times (1 s, 5 s, 15 s, 30 s, 100 s) to allow the comparisons of scanning counts with the absolute concentrations. The regression lines and correlation coefficients of elements that are generally used in pollution studies (Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were examined for the different exposure times. The result shows that within the test range (from few ppm to thousands ppm), the correlation coefficients are all higher than 0.97, even at the shortest exposure time (1 s). Therefore, we propose to use this method in the field to monitor for example sewage disposal events. The low price of resin, and fast, multi elements and precise XRF-scanning technique provide a viable, cost- and time-effective approach that allows large sample numbers to be processed. In this way, the properties and sources of wastewater pollution can be traced for the purpose of environmental monitoring and environmental forensics.

  18. Impacts on quality-induced water scarcity: drivers of nitrogen-related water pollution transfer under globalization from 1995 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liyang; Cai, Wenjia; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can

    2016-07-01

    Globalization enables the transfer of impacts on water availability. We argue that the threat should be evaluated not only by decrease of quantity, but more importantly by the degradation of water quality in exporting countries. Grouping the world into fourteen regions, this paper establishes a multi-region input-output framework to calculate the nitrogen-related grey water footprint and a water quality-induced scarcity index caused by pollution, for the period of 1995 to 2009. It is discovered that grey water embodied in international trade has been growing faster than total grey water footprint. China, the USA and India were the three top grey water exporters which accounted for more than half the total traded grey water. Dilemma rose when China and India were facing highest grey water scarcity. The EU and the USA were biggest grey water importers that alleviated their water stress by outsourcing water pollution. A structural decomposition analysis is conducted to study the drivers to the evolution of virtual flows of grey water under globalization during the period of 1995 to 2009. The results show that despite the technical progress that offset the growth of traded grey water, structural effects under globalization including both evolution in the globalized economic system and consumption structure, together with consumption volume made a positive contribution. It is found that the structural effect intensified the pollution-induced water scarcity of exporters as it generally increased all nations’ imported grey water while resulting in increases in only a few nations’ exported grey water, such as Brazil, China and Indonesia. At last, drawing from the ‘cap-and-trade’ and ‘boarder-tax-adjustment’ schemes, we propose policy recommendations that ensure water security and achieve environmentally sustainable trade from both the sides of production and consumption.

  19. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S.; Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S.; Monarca, S.; Moretti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  20. Comparison of the sensitivity of seven marine and freshwater bioassays as regards antidepressant toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laetitia; Di Poi, Carole; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Benchouala, Amira; Bojic, Clément; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Costil, Katherine; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The hazards linked to pharmaceutical residues like antidepressants are currently a major concern of ecotoxicology because they may have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Our study assesses the ecotoxicity of three antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline and clomipramine) using a battery of marine and freshwater species representing different trophic levels, and compares the bioassay sensitivity levels. We selected the following bioassays: the algal growth inhibition test (Skeletonema marinoi and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), the microcrustacean immobilization test (Artemia salina and Daphnia magna), development and adult survival tests on Hydra attenuata, embryotoxicity and metamorphosis tests on Crassostrea gigas, and in vitro assays on primary cultures of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The results showed high inter-species variability in EC50-values ranging from 43 to 15,600 µg/L for fluoxetine, from 67 to 4,400 µg/L for sertraline, and from 4.70 µg/L to more than 100,000 µg/L for clomipramine. Algae (S. marinoi and P. subcapitata) and the embryo-larval stages of the oyster C. gigas were the most sensitive taxa. This raises an issue due to their ecological and/or economic importance. The marine crustacean A. salina was the least sensitive species. This difference in sensitivity between bioassays highlights the importance of using a test battery.

  1. The interpretation of disease phenotypes to identify TSE strains following murine bioassay: characterisation of classical scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katy E; Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Holder, Thomas; Thorne, Leigh; Terry, Linda A; Denyer, Margaret; Webb, Paul; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2012-11-01

    Mouse bioassay can be readily employed for strain typing of naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy cases. Classical scrapie strains have been characterised historically based on the established methodology of assessing incubation period of disease and the distribution of disease-specific vacuolation across the brain following strain stabilisation in a given mouse line. More recent research has shown that additional methods could be used to characterise strains and thereby expand the definition of strain "phenotype". Here we present the phenotypic characteristics of classical scrapie strains isolated from 24 UK ovine field cases through the wild-type mouse bioassay. PrPSc immunohistochemistry (IHC), paraffin embedded tissue blots (PET-blot) and Western blotting approaches were used to determine the neuroanatomical distribution and molecular profile of PrPSc associated with each strain, in conjunction with traditional methodologies. Results revealed three strains isolated through each mouse line, including a previously unidentified strain. Moreover IHC and PET-blot methodologies were effective in characterising the strain-associated types and neuroanatomical locations of PrPSc. The use of Western blotting as a parameter to define classical scrapie strains was limited. These data provide a comprehensive description of classical scrapie strain phenotypes on isolation through the mouse bioassay that can provide a reference for further scrapie strain identification.

  2. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  3. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  4. Categorization of worker bioassay programs based on intake potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.A.; McFee, M.C.; La Bone, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    The routine bioassay program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has undergone considerable change in the last ten years. The causes of this change may be traced to changes in personnel and regulations during this time. Prior to the 1980's, the workforce was relatively small, stable, and experienced. Bioassay programs were administered in the field by Health Protection personnel who were very familiar with all the personnel in their facility and the potential problems that could occur in those facilities. The radiation protection regulations had not changed drastically in 20 years, and they were based on readily understood quantities such as the quantity of radioactive material in the body

  5. Manual on theory and practical aspects of bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraini Hambali.

    1985-06-01

    This manual is set to provide necessary basic guidance on theory and practical aspects of bioassay specially for the newcomer in this field and the man in the laboratory. The first part is a brief information on the entry of radionuclides into the body, the metabolism and the programs of bioassay. All other factors to be considered in assessing internal contamination in man have also been brought up. In the second part, various procedures of radiochemical separations, detection and measurements are abstracted from journals and other revisions. Some methods have been attempted and to be followed where appropriate. (author)

  6. Bioassay-guided isolation of apigenin with GABA-benzodiazepine activity from Tanacetum parthenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Krydsfeldt, Katrine; Rasmussen, Hasse Bonde

    2009-01-01

    was fractionated by VLC on silica and preparative C18 HPLC. Each step was monitored with the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine bioassay. The fractionation led to the isolation of apigenin, which may be responsible for CNS-effects of T. parthenium extracts. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  7. Organic halogen compounds and surface water pollution; Composti organoalogenati alifatici e contaminazione delle acque superficiali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocchioni, M.; Pellegrini, M. G.; Grappasonni, I.; Nacciarriti, L.; Bernacchia, G. [Camerino, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Igienistiche e Sanitarie-Ambientali

    1997-03-01

    A brief review of the effects of halogenated organic compounds on the fluvial ecosystem is followed by results from a detailed monitoring of these substances in all the Marches Region rivers. The results show generally modest concentrations, except for sporadic peaks for chloroform. Sites revealing significant concentrations of halogenated organic compounds also manifested a worsening of the biological quality of the waters with lessening of E.B.I. Attention is drawn to the negative effects of indiscriminate chlorination of purification plant outputs, as this practice often fails to resolve infective problems and in itself adds toxicity to the watercourse.

  8. The Intervention of Adult Education in Surface Water Pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vulnerability of surface water in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria to frequent oil spills and has other pollutants have had negative effects on the fragile mangrove ecosystem, wildlife, aquatic resources and most importantly on man. It is in this regard that the intervention of adult education came into being to see that the ...

  9. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  10. Prolonged river water pollution due to variable-density flow and solute transport in the riverbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangqiu; Tang, Hongwu; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    A laboratory experiment and numerical modeling were used to examine effects of density gradients on hyporheic flow and solute transport under the condition of a solute pulse input to a river with regular bed forms. Relatively low-density gradients due to an initial salt pulse concentration of 1.55 kg m-3 applied in the experiment were found to modulate significantly the pore-water flow and solute transport in the riverbed. Such density gradients increased downward flow and solute transport in the riverbed by factors up to 1.6. This resulted in a 12.2% increase in the total salt transfer from the water column to the riverbed over the salt pulse period. As the solute pulse passed, the effect of the density gradients reversed, slowing down the release of the solute back to the river water by a factor of 3.7. Numerical modeling indicated that these density effects intensified as salt concentrations in the water column increased. Simulations further showed that the density gradients might even lead to unstable flow and result in solute fingers in the bed of large bed forms. The slow release of solute from the bed back to the river led to a long tail of solute concentration in the river water. These findings have implications for assessment of impact of pollution events on river systems, in particular, long-term effects on both the river water and riverbed due to the hyporheic exchange.

  11. Water pollution of ammonia cooling installations; Verontreiniging met water van ammoniak-koelinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaerbaek Nielsen, P. [Danfoss Industrial Refrigeration, Hasselager (Denmark)

    2001-09-01

    Danfoss Industrial Refrigeration claims to have the knowledge to help businesses and industry in saving energy and to decrease maintenance cost of cooling systems. Part of its knowledge and experiences in this field is laid down in a technical document 'Effects of Water Contamination in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems'. A summary of the document is presented in this article. 2 refs.

  12. Industrial water pollution: characterization, classification, measurements; Pollution industrielle de l`eau: caracterisation, classification, mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, J.C. [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, IRH-environnement, 54 - Nancy (France)]|[Institut de Promotion Industrielle, IPI-environnement indistriel, 68 - Colmar (France)]|[Centre International de l`eau de Nancy, 54 (France)

    1999-01-01

    In this work is described: 1)the characterization of the industrial wastes pollution and the study of their harmfulness and effects on the environment 2)a classification of the pollution for the different industries 3)the measurements and control of the industrial pollution. (authors) 5 refs.

  13. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. © 2013.

  14. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use

  15. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the

  16. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Physical and chemical changes in water pollutants caused by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.

    1978-01-01

    Ionization and excitation as primary effects of ionizing radiation form secondary activated intermediary products (H and OH radicals and hydrated electrons esub(aq) - ) in water systems, which act on all in substances present in water. Physical and chemical changes speeding the sludge sedimentation in waste-water show complex dependences. It is, however, possible to prove them even at low radiation doses (0.07 to 0.35 kJ/kg). Chemical effects can be observed at higher radiation doses (1 to 10 kJ/kg) and are based on oxidative destruction of pollutants. Some of these reactions may be based on chain mechanisms (phenol oxidizing in water), but there are limited chances for application of these chain mechanisms in waste-water systems. Slight damage of biologically important macromolecules leads to changes, or even stops biological processes. Therefore, biological effects of ionizing radiation have the most remarkable impact. The utilization of these reactions in water management may be possible in suppressing biological ochration (ochre sedimentation) in wells and for ensuring hygienic conditions of sludge in waste-water processing for agrotechnical purposes. (author)

  18. Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ming Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  19. Applying the Taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-04-15

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  20. Synthesis of copper-based catalyst supported on bentonite for the removal of water pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna ZOUAOUI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective is to characterize the catalytic efficiency in the oxidation reaction of two BM and MO dyes using H2O2 alone and / Sun. Methodes. In this work, supported catalysts (Cu / bentonite to different metal content (1%, 2.5%, 5% were prepared in order to study their catalytic behavior in the photodegradation reaction of organic pollutants by the diffusional impregnation method and characterized by IR spectroscopy by Fourier transform. Solutions loaded by orange and methylen methyl blue were taken as samples to investigate the effect of the contents in the degradation kinetics. Results. The results show that the degradation of BM is considerably effective. The effect of sunlight on the mineralization of the MO is very efficient compared to that in the presence of H2O2 alone Conclusions. Biomass made from two aquatic animal biomass can be used as adsorbents for the removal of methyl orange and opens prospects for their recovery with other pollutants

  1. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L M; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  2. [Explore the spatial and temporal patterns of water pollution in the Yincungang canal of the Lake Taihu basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Ying; Luo, Xing-Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Fang, Shu-Bo

    2012-09-01

    Two high-density snap-shot samplings were conducted along the Yincungang canal, one important tributary of the Lake Tai, in April (low flow period) and June (high flow period) of 2010. Geostatistical analysis based on the river network distance was used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of the pollutant concentrations along the canal with an emphasis on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN). Study results have indicated: (1) COD and TN concentrations display distinctly different spatial and temporal patterns between the low and high flow periods. COD concentration in June is lower than that in April, while TN concentration has the contrary trend. (2) COD load is relatively constant during the period between the two monitoring periods. The spatial correlation structure of COD is exponential for both April and June, and the change of COD concentration is mainly influenced by hydrological conditions. (3) Nitrogen load from agriculture increased significantly during the period between the two monitoring periods. Large amount of chaotic fertilizing by individual farmers has led to the loss of the spatial correlation among the observed TN concentrations. Hence, changes of TN concentration in June are under the dual influence of agricultural fertilizing and hydrological conditions. In the view of the complex hydrological conditions and serious water pollution in the Lake Taihu region, geostatistical analysis is potentially a useful tool for studying the characteristics of pollutant distribution and making predictions in the region.

  3. The impact of water pollution on fish species in southeast region of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz S Silva, Sabrina; Dias, Aurélio Henrique C; Dutra, Elaine S; Pavanin, Alfredo L; Morelli, Sandra; Pereira, Boscolli B

    2016-01-01

    The rivers from the region of Catalão, Southeast Goiás State, Brazil, are exposed to intense anthropogenic influences including agricultural activities, industry, and urban waste. The aim of this study was to determine the severity of water pollution by conducting an experiment involving in situ biomonitoring of water constituents on genotoxicity in fish inhabiting these sites. The genotoxicity of three sites of the region were analyzed utilizing the micronucleus (MN) test. It was of interest to determine whether there were differences between sampling sites such as urban perimeter, agriculture, and fertilizer industry in control, and monitored species including Astyanax fasciatus, Astyanax altiparanae, and Characidium fasciatum. Data demonstrated that the species at sites 1, 2, and 3 exhibited a marked increase in frequency of MN compared to fish from site 4. Significant elevation in frequency of MN occurred in erythrocytes of A. fasciatus and A. altiparanae at sites 1 and 2. At site 3 higher frequencies of MN were observed in C. fasciatum. MN induction in C. fasciatum was correlated with chromium levels in water and sediment, while A. fasciatum and A. altiparanae showed an association with zinc in water and sediment. Data suggest that benthic and nektonic fish species display different sensitivities in relation to anthropogenic contaminant influences.

  4. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources.

  5. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L. M.; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  6. Integrated waste load allocation for river water pollution control under uncertainty: a case study of Tuojiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Hou, Shuhua; Yao, Liming; Li, Chaozhi

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a bi-level optimization waste load allocation programming model under a fuzzy random environment to assist integrated river pollution control. Taking account of the leader-follower decision-making in the water function zones framework, the proposed approach examines the decision making feedback relationships and conflict coordination between the river basin authority and the regional Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the Stackelberg-Nash equilibrium strategy. In the pollution control system, the river basin authority, as the leader, allocates equitable emissions rights to different subareas, and the then subarea EPA, as the followers, reallocates the limited resources to various functional zones to minimize pollution costs. This research also considers the uncertainty in the water pollution management, and the uncertain input information is expressed as fuzzy random variables. The proposed methodological approach is then applied to Tuojiang River in China and the bi-level linear programming model solutions are achieved using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker condition. Based on the waste load allocation scheme results and various scenario analyses and discussion, some operational policies are proposed to assist decision makers (DMs) cope with waste load allocation problem for integrated river pollution control for the overall benefits.

  7. Bacillus Probiotic Enzymes: External Auxiliary Apparatus to Avoid Digestive Deficiencies, Water Pollution, Diseases, and Economic Problems in Marine Cultivated Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos Soto, Jorge

    Exploitation of marine fishes is the main source of several life-supporting feed compounds such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that maintain the production of most trading marine organisms by aquaculture. However, at this rate the marine inventory will go to the end soon, since fishery resources are finite. In this sense, the availability of the principal ingredients obtained from marine fishes is going to decrease considerably, increasing the diet prices and affecting the economy of this activity. Therefore, aquaculture industry needs to find nonexpensive land unconventional resources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and use bacterial probiotics to improve digestion-assimilation of these unfamiliar compounds. Bacillus subtilis is a cosmopolitan probiotic bacterium with a great enzymatic profile that could improve nutrient digestion-assimilation, induce healthy growth, and avoid water pollution, decreasing economic problems and increasing yields in the aquaculture industry. In this chapter, we present how Bacillus enzymes can help marine animals to assimilate nutrients from unconventional and economic plant resources. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid: a rebuttal and some new analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina G Vijver

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface waters was hypothesised in a recent paper by Van Dijk, Van Staalduinen and Van der Sluijs (PLOS ONE, May 2013. Although we do not disagree with imidacloprid's inherent toxicity to aquatic organisms, we have fundamental concerns regarding the way the data were analysed and interpreted. Here, we demonstrate that the underlying toxicity of imidacloprid in the field situation cannot be understood except in the context of other co-occurring pesticides. Although we agree with Van Dijk and co-workers that effects of imidacloprid can emerge between 13 and 67 ng/L we use a different line of evidence. We present an alternative approach to link imidacloprid concentrations and biological data. We analysed the national set of chemical monitoring data of the year 2009 to estimate the relative contribution of imidacloprid compared to other pesticides in relation to environmental quality target and chronic ecotoxicity threshold exceedances. Moreover, we assessed the relative impact of imidacloprid on the pesticide-induced potential affected fractions of the aquatic communities. We conclude that by choosing to test a starting hypothesis using insufficient data on chemistry and biology that are difficult to link, and by ignoring potential collinear effects of other pesticides present in Dutch surface waters Van Dijk and co-workers do not provide direct evidence that reduced taxon richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates can be attributed to the presence of imidacloprid only. Using a different line of evidence we expect ecological effects of imidacloprid at some of the exposure profiles measured in 2009 in the surface waters of the Netherlands.

  9. Water pollution and income relationships: A seemingly unrelated partially linear analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Mahesh; Paudel, Krishna P.

    2016-10-01

    We used a seemingly unrelated partially linear model (SUPLM) to address a potential correlation between pollutants (nitrogen, phosphorous, dissolved oxygen and mercury) in an environmental Kuznets curve study. Simulation studies show that the SUPLM performs well to address potential correlation among pollutants. We find that the relationship between income and pollution follows an inverted U-shaped curve for nitrogen and dissolved oxygen and a cubic shaped curve for mercury. Model specification tests suggest that a SUPLM is better specified compared to a parametric model to study the income-pollution relationship. Results suggest a need to continually assess policy effectiveness of pollution reduction as income increases.

  10. LEAD POISONING OF WATERFOWL AS INDICATORS OF WATER POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmud M.E.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of lead shot in waterfowl gizzards, surveyed in 1969-1985 years was considered in the south ofWestern Siberia and in the southern Ukraine. The gastric contents were investigated of 1722 birds of 13 species. ForMallard, Garganey, Eurasian Teal, and Common Pochard the lead shot was detected in the coastal areas of theDanube Delta. Maximum infestation was registered for Garganey (33,3% and Common Pochard (25,0%. Theresults are compared with data for other European countries. The necessity and effectiveness of interventions aimedat reducing the extent of lead contamination of waterfowl was discussed.

  11. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeve, B.

    1997-11-01

    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs.

  12. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeve, B.

    1997-01-01

    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs

  13. Immunomodulatory Potency of Microcystin, an Important Water-Polluting Cyanobacterial Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Ondrej; Moosova, Zdena; Pekarova, Michaela; Basu, Amrita; Babica, Pavel; Svihalkova Sindlerova, Lenka; Kubala, Lukas; Blaha, Ludek

    2015-10-20

    Microcystins (MCs) are primarily hepatotoxins produced by cyanobacteria and are responsible for intoxication in humans and animals. There are many incidents of chronic exposure to MCs, which have been attributed to the inappropriate treatment of water supplies or contaminated food. Using RAW 264.7 macrophages, we showed the potency of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6) as a consequence of fast nuclear factor κB and nitrogen-activated protein kinase activation. In contrast to other studies, the observed effects were not attributed to the intracellular inhibition of protein phosphatases 1/2A due to lack of specific transmembrane transporters for MCs. However, the MC-LR-induced activation of macrophages was effectively inhibited by a specific peptide that blocks signaling of receptors, which play a pivotal role in the innate immune responses. Taken together, we showed for the first time that MC-LR could interfere with macrophage receptors that are responsible for triggering the above-mentioned signaling pathways. These findings provide an interesting mechanistic explanation of some adverse health outcomes associated with toxic cyanobacteria and MCs.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations, to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related, domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future.

  15. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  16. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  17. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff for livestock. ... AFW using day-old cockerels and considering performance parameters showed that treated AFW improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio even better ...

  18. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  19. Sewage water pollutants removal efficiency correlates to the concentration gradient of amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Z.A.; Mahmood, Q.; Raja, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Three coagulants viz. alum, FeCl/sub 3/ and Moringa oleifera seed extract were compared for treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater samples were collected from a drain near the Murree Road in Abbottabad city. The initial treatment depicted that alum was a suitable coagulant, while the other two caused color development and increased chemical oxygen demand in the effluent. Subsequently, wastewater samples were treatment with graded concentrations (4 32 mg.L/sup -1/ of alum in batch series, and shacked at 600-620 rpm for five minutes. The treated samples were analyzed for various water quality parameters to examine the effective coagulation and flocculation process in the wastewater. There was an increase in TDS and electrical conductivity with the increasing levels of alum above the optimized values (22 to 30 mg L/sup -1/). The process primary treatment strategy of wastewater treatment with alum is suitable for reducing the pollutants load in the sewer system. (author)

  20. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

    2010-10-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  1. Chemical oxidation of carwash industry wastewater as an effort to decrease water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Mahmood, Qaisar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Malik, Amir Haider; Khan, Muhammad Suleman; Wu, Donglei

    Car wash wastewater (CWW) contains petroleum, hydrofluoric acid, ammonium bifluoride products, paint residues, rubber, phosphates, oil, grease and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The present study dealt with various investigations conducted for the treatment of CWW. A treatment system of 5 L capacity was designed in the laboratory. Due to high load of oil and grease, CWW was aerated and scum was removed. Alum was used as coagulant in primary treatment which resulted 93% and 97% reduction in COD and turbidity. During secondary treatment CWW was further treated with waste hydrogen peroxide which resulted in further 71% and 83% reduction in COD and turbidity, respectively. Other desirable changes were also observed in pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity and dissolved oxygen contents. It was concluded that designed system could be effectively used to treat carwash wastewater that could be reused in the same station.

  2. Initial sample extract stock concentration affects in vitro bioassay-based toxicological risk characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Loffmann, L.; Murk, A.J.; Gutleb, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bioassays have become an alternative for sediment risk profiling, including potential compliance with sediment quality criteria (SQC). In vitro functional bioassays have evolved through standardization and validation towards a confident toxicological hazard estimate of sediments. Sample

  3. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  4. Advances in Magnetically Separable Photocatalysts: Smart, Recyclable Materials for Water Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcina Mamba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic compounds utilised at different stages of various industrial processes are lost into effluent water and eventually find their way into fresh water sources where they cause devastating effects on the ecosystem due to their stability, toxicity, and non-biodegradable nature. Semiconductor photocatalysis has been highlighted as a promising technology for the treatment of water laden with organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants. However, these semiconductor photocatalysts are applied in powdered form, which makes separation and recycling after treatment extremely difficult. This not only leads to loss of the photocatalyst but also to secondary pollution by the photocatalyst particles. The introduction of various magnetic nanoparticles such as magnetite, maghemite, ferrites, etc. into the photocatalyst matrix has recently become an area of intense research because it allows for the easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated water using an external magnetic field. Herein, we discuss the recent developments in terms of synthesis and photocatalytic properties of magnetically separable nanocomposites towards water treatment. The influence of the magnetic nanoparticles in the optical properties, charge transfer mechanism, and overall photocatalytic activity is deliberated based on selected results. We conclude the review by providing summary remarks on the successes of magnetic photocatalysts and present some of the future challenges regarding the exploitation of these materials in water treatment.

  5. Microbiological surveillance and state of the art technological strategies for the prevention of dialysis water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  6. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution in the Kinta River Using Multivariate Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza Ahmad Isiyaka; Hafizan Juahir

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the spatial variation in the characteristics of water quality monitoring sites, identify the most significant parameters and the major possible sources of pollution, and apportion the source category in the Kinta River. 31 parameters collected from eight monitoring sites for eight years (2006-2013) were employed. The eight monitoring stations were spatially grouped into three independent clusters in a dendrogram. A drastic reduction in the number of monitored parameters from 31 to eight and nine significant parameters (P<0.05) was achieved using the forward stepwise and backward stepwise discriminate analysis (DA). Principal component analysis (PCA) accounted for more than 76 % in the total variance and attributes the source of pollution to anthropogenic and natural processes. The source apportionment using a combined multiple linear regression and principal component scores indicates that 41 % of the total pollution load is from rock weathering and untreated waste water, 26 % from waste discharge, 24 % from surface runoff and 7 % from faecal waste. This study proposes a reduction in the number of monitoring stations and parameters for a cost effective and time management in the monitoring processes and multivariate technique can provide a simple representation of complex and dynamic water quality characteristics. (author)

  7. A newly validated and characterized spectrophotometric method for determination of a three water pollutants metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Marwa E.; Frag, Eman Y. Z.; Mohamed, Mona A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple, fast and accurate spectrophotometric method had been developed to determine lead (II), chromium (III) and barium (II) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples using thoron (THO) as a reagent forming colored complexes. It was found that the formed complexes absorbed maximally at 539, 540 and 538 nm for Pb(II)-THO, Cr(III)-THO and Ba(II)-THO complexes, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions for these complexes had been studied carefully. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 1-35, 1-70, and 1-45 μg mL- 1 for Pb (II), Cr(III) and Ba(II) ions with THO reagent, respectively. Different parameters such as linearity, selectivity, recovery, limits of quantification and detection, precision and accuracy were also evaluated in order to validate the proposed method. The results showed that, THO was effective in simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cr(III) and Ba(III) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples. Also, the results of the proposed method were compared with that obtained from atomic absorption spectrometry. The isolated solid complexes had been characterized using elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), IR, mass spectrometry and TD-DFT calculations. Their biological activities were investigated against different types of bacteria and fungi organisms.

  8. Sorption of organic water pollutants on dead vegetable biomass; Sorption organischer Wasserschadstoffe an abgestorbene pflanzliche Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeuter, A.

    2001-03-01

    Hemp-derived biological sorption agents were produced, and their physical, chemical and sorptive characteristics were tested in batch and filter tests. The experiments were accompanied by model calculations. In the natural state, the sorption agents had a kation exchange capacity of 0.1-0.3 mmol/g, modified sorption agents had about 2 mmol/g. Kationized hemp had values of 0.34 mmol/g and thermally modified hemp absorption agents absorbed more than 1.2 mmol/g of dichlorophenol. In the case of a liquid effluent from a textile dyeing plant, only a discoloration effect was achieved. The absorption agents can be regenerated, combusted or composted after use. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden naturbelassene und modifizierte Billig-Biosorbentien aus Hanfschaeben zur Entfernung organischer Schadstoffe aus Waessern hergestellt und ihre physikalischen, chemischen und sorptiven Eigenschaften in Batch- und Filterversuchen untersucht. Wegen der Komplexheit des Systems ''Biosorption organischer Wasserschadstoffe'' wurden die ermittelten Sorptionsisothermen mit den Ansaetzen nach Langmuir und Freundlich beschrieben. Die Sorptionskinetik und das Durchbruchsverhalten wurde ebenfalls mit einfachen Ansaetzen modelliert. Naturbelassene Hanfschaeben erreichten Kationenaustauschkapazitaeten von 0,1-0,3 mmol/g, entsprechend modifizierte Hanfschaeben ca. 2 mmol/g. Kationisierte Hanfschaeben dagegen erreichten Anionenaustauschkapazitaeten von 0,34 mmol/g und thermisch modifizierte Hanfschaeben sorbierten bis ueber 1,2 mmol/g Dichlorphenol. Bei der Behandlung eines Abwassers aus einer Textilfaerberei beschraenkte sich die Reinigungsleistung der hergestellten Biosorbentien auf eine Entfaerbung. Nach Schadstoffbeladung koennen die Hanfschaeben regeneriert, thermisch verwertet oder kompostiert werden. (orig.)

  9. Use of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles for the Oxidative Degradation of Persistent Organic Water Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, I.; Ben Moshe, T.; Berkowitz, B.

    2008-12-01

    The continuous release of persistent organic chemicals such as pesticides, halogenated organic solvents, PAHs, and PCBs to the subsurface environment is an unfortunate reality. These compounds are recognized as toxic, and often carcinogenic and/or mutagenic, and they thus require highly efficient treatment procedures in aqueous systems. The current study presents an oxidation process, to decontaminate polluted water, using nanosized copper oxide particles as the catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidation agent. The process shows complete and rapid degradation of a wide range of organic contaminants under ambient pressure and temperature. In contrast, control runs that measured the degradation through exposure to hydrogen peroxide only or copper oxide nanoparticles only showed less than 10% reduction in contaminant concentration, as compared to the complete degradation achieved when particles and oxidation agent were used. Lack of exposure to light and the method of mixing seem to have no influence on the reaction rate or products. The reaction was found to proceed effectively in the range pH 3-8.5, and much slower at pH 10. Testing various concentrations of oxidation agent, an optimum point was found, with an increase above this concentration resulting in a reduced reaction rate. Moreover, measurements of reaction kinetics demonstrated a conversion from exponential decay of a contaminant, typical of a first-order reaction, to a linear decrease in contaminant concentration which is typical of a pseudo-zero-order reaction. This behavior indicates that upon increase in oxidation agent concentration, a different reaction pathway which is independent of the contaminant concentration becomes the prevailing process. The copper oxide nanoparticles were characterized before and after the reaction, and also shown to retain reactivity for several cycles after refreshing the contaminant solution and adding more hydrogen peroxide.

  10. Simultaneous extraction and concentration of water pollution tracers using ionic-liquid-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Teresa B V; Passos, Helena; Lima, Diana L D; Sousa, Ana C A; Coutinho, João A P; Esteves, Valdemar I; Freire, Mara G

    2017-07-29

    Human activities are responsible for the release of innumerous substances into the aquatic environment. Some of these substances can be used as pollution tracers to identify contamination sources and to prioritize monitoring and remediation actions. Thus, their identification and quantification are of high priority. However, due to their presence in complex matrices and at significantly low concentrations, a pre-treatment/concentration step is always required. As an alternative to the currently used pre-treatment methods, mainly based on solid-phase extractions, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and K 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 are here proposed for the simultaneous extraction and concentration of mixtures of two important pollution tracers, caffeine (CAF) and carbamazepine (CBZ). An initial screening of the IL chemical structure was carried out, with extraction efficiencies of both tracers to the IL-rich phase ranging between 95 and 100%, obtained in a single-step. These systems were then optimized in order to simultaneously concentrate CAF and CBZ from water samples followed by HPLC-UV analysis, for which no interferences of the ABS phase-forming components and other interferents present in a wastewater effluent sample have been found. Based on the saturation solubility data of both pollution tracers in the IL-rich phase, the maximum estimated concentration factors of CAF and CBZ are 28595- and 8259-fold. IL-based ABS can be thus envisioned as effective pre-treatment techniques of environmentally-related aqueous samples for a more accurate monitoring of mixtures of pollution tracers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of Land use Change on Water Pollution Index of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranatasari Dyah Susanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use change is one of the effects of population growth and increased human activities. Land use change that overlooked the rule of ecosystem sustainability has a propensity to adversely affect the environment, including the decline of water quality. Kali Madiun is a sub-watershed of Bengawan Solo Watershed that allegedly endured the impacts of land use change. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of land use change on the water quality index of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed. Land use change analysis was done by overlay analysis of spatial data including the maps of land use in 2010 and 2015. Samples were the surface water in the upper, middle and lower part of Kali Madiun Sub-Watershed. Water quality analysis was carried out by comparing the results of water quality parameter assessment based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001, while water quality index was figured out by an assessment based on the Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 115 of 2003. The results indicated that during the five years observation, there were land use changes in the upper, middle and lower part of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed. Several parameters increased in 2010 to 2015, namely: TDS, BOD, COD, nitrate, detergents, oils and greases. Pollution index shifted from slightly polluted in 2010 into moderately polluted in 2015. We propose a strategy to solve these problems by the involvement of stakeholders and the participation of local community in managing both domestic and industrial wastes. Also, it should be supported by palpable regulations related to land conversion. Furthermore, it is expected that the effort will reduce the potential of pollution and improve the water quality.

  12. Confusion in regulating coal mine water pollution: Regulatory overlap in SMCRA and the CWA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Whenever a government uses two major pieces of legislation to combat a single public enemy, complaints of over-regulation and questions of jurisdiction from the individuals and industries affected are inevitable. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a harmful and elusive enemy which threatens the integrity of our nation`s waters. The threat it poses to our environment cannot be solved without the awesome power of government; however, a fair and consistent enforcement of these two acts is imperative. The mining industry`s push to exempt landowners from liability for the acid discharges from abandoned mines is questionable in light of the serious AMD problems from these sources. The burden imposed on landowners to take abatement measures under the CWA is far outweighed by the continuing threat of abandoned mine AMD. The state environmental authorities who must completely reclaim these abandoned mine lands must pursue the landowners and make them pay the costs. In order to accomplish this, the state SMCRA regulators must increase coordination with the EPA`s state counterparts. The deficit problem in the ANL trust fund likely to improve anytime soon. Since SMCRA prohibits holding landowners liable for reclamation costs, the only way the abandoned mine AMD problem can be effectively remedied is by state environmental authorities seeking sanctions under the probably correct in claiming that the current CWA laws governing in-stream impoundments are overly burdensome. The EPA`s interest in protecting the quality of industrial impoundments that have no meaningful wetlands or recreational use seems to serve no rational purpose, especially in light of the onerous burden it places on coal operators attempting to comply with the CWA.

  13. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G J

    2010-01-20

    Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers with accurate effective spore concentrations. The mosquito bioassay

  14. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Methods Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. Results K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Conclusions K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers

  15. Risks assessment of water pollution by pesticides at local scale (PESTEAUX project): study of polluting pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Stéphanie; Billo Bah, Boubacar

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of water resources (surface waters and ground waters) by pesticide uses is one of the key point of the European policy with the implementation of the Water Frame Work Directive (2000/60/EC) and the thematic Strategy on the Sustainable use of pesticides. According to this legislation, the Member States must initiate measures to limit environmental and toxicological effects caused by pesticide uses. The Agricultural Research Centre of Wallonia (CRA-W) emphasized the need of a tool for spatial risk analysis and develOPs it within the framework of PESTEAUX project. The originality of the approach proposed by the CRA-W is to generate maps to identify the risk of pollution at locale scale (agricultural parcel). The risk will be assessed according to the study of different factors, grouped under 3 data's layers: polluting pressure, vulnerability of the physical environment (soil) and meteorological data. This approach is directly based on the risk's definition which takes into account the polluting pressure, linked to the human activities, and the vulnerability of the soil, defined by factors of physical environment which characterize the water flow in the parcel. Moreover, meteorological data influence the intensity and likelihood flow of water, and indirectly pesticide by leaching or runoff. The PESTEAUX's approach to study the pollution is based on the model "source-vector-target". The source is the polluting pressure, in other words, the pesticides which could reach the targets. The main vector is the water which vehicles the pesticide on and trough the soil until the target which are the surface waters or ground waters. In this paper we introduce the factors contributing to the polluting pressure. These factors are linking to the human activities and more precisely, to the pesticide uses. The factors considered have an influence on pesticide's transport by water (in its solid state or in dissolved state by leaching, run-off, or erosion) but also on a set of

  16. Resistance to water pollution in natural gudgeon (Gobio gobio) populations may be due to genetic adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapen, Dries; Bervoets, Lieven; Verheyen, Erik; Blust, Ronny

    2004-04-14

    Anthropogenic disturbances cause the environment to change relatively fast. It is reasonable to assume that it is very unlikely for individuals to develop genetic adaptations to their polluted habitats, since adaptation through natural selection is a relatively slow process. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that such adaptations to changing environmental conditions may develop faster than anticipated. This study investigates the impact of historical metal pollution on a natural population of the gudgeon, Gobio gobio. Specimens from a contaminated site and a reference population were subjected to a series of three exposure experiments to cadmium after an acclimation period to reconstituted fresh water of 36 days. First, we performed an acute toxicity test on a sub-sample of both experimental groups to determine times-to-death (TTD) and lethal body burdens (LBB). The remaining individuals were used in a chronic Cd-exposure experiment, after which total Cd-body concentration, as well as Cd-concentrations and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) levels in liver and gill tissue were determined. From the specimens that were not sacrificed for these measurements, a random subsample was subjected to a second acute toxicity test to evaluate the effect of chronic Cd-exposure (acclimation) on TTD and LBB. Our results show that, particularly after an extra acclimation period to a sublethal Cd-concentration, specimens originating from the contaminated sample area survived the acute exposure experiments better, despite the fact that neither the average Cd-accumulation rate, nor the lethal body concentrations differed between fishes from both groups. We also find that gudgeons from both populations translocated Cd from the gills (and probably also from other compartments) to the liver, where it can be more efficiently detoxified by MTLPs. Indeed, MTLP levels were found to increase faster in liver and gill tissue of specimens from the contaminated site, resulting in

  17. Temporal evolution of wildfire ash and its implications for water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Otero, Xose L.; Chafer, Chris J.

    2015-04-01

    Ash, the burnt residue generated from combustion of vegetation, litter and surface soil, covers the ground after every wildfire. The effects of wildfire ash on the post-fire landscape are many and very diverse. It is a source of nutrients and can, therefore, help the recovery of vegetation after fire. Furthermore, in its initial state, the ash layer on the ground can protect the bare soil from rain splash erosion and can act as an adsorbent layer, preventing or delaying post-fire water erosion by runoff. However, when the adsorbent capability of the ash layer is exceeded, this highly erodible material can be transported into the hydrological network and be a major contributor to water contamination. Most previous studies on post-fire erosion and water contamination have focused on soil erosion and associated sediment transfer and overlooked the ash component or, when considered, ash has been included as an unidentified part of the eroded sediment. One of the reasons for overlooking this key post-fire component is the difficulty of ash sampling before it is lost by wind or water erosion or altered by aging on-site. Here we compare the water contamination potential of ash obtained from two fires in the dry eucalyptus forest environment of the Sydney tablelands, Australia: i) 'aged ash' produced during the severe Balmoral wildfire and sampled two months after the event (Jan. 2014) and ii) 'fresh ash' sampled immediately after a high-intensity experimental fire in the same region (Sept. 2014). At the time of sampling, neither of the ash types had been affected by water erosion, however, the aged ash had been subjected to rainfall events and, potentially, to wind erosion during the two months of exposure. Vegetation type, fuel loads and fire severity, determined using remote sensing and on-site observations, were comparable between both areas sampled. Ash physicochemical properties differed, with 'fresh ash' having higher pH and EC values and higher concentration of

  18. Bioassay for aquatic ecosystems review and classification; Rassegna dei principali test di ecotossicologia acquatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanci, Antonella; Rosa, Silvia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    Bioassay play a crucial role in assessing the actual or potential impacts of anthropogenic agents on the natural environment. In this technical report, literature on bioassays for aquatic ecosystems has been reviewed and classified. Problems associated with the choice and application of bioassays are discussed.

  19. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  20. An integrated environmental decision support system for water pollution control based on TMDL--A case study in the Beiyun River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Li, Yueqiang; Zhang, Tianxiang; Peng, Yang

    2015-06-01

    This paper details the development and application of an integrated environmental decision support system (EDSS) for water pollution control based on total maximum daily load (TMDL). The system includes an infrastructure, simulation, and application platforms. Using the water pollution control of Beiyun River in China as a case study, the key development processes and technologies of the EDSS are discussed including relations and links between various environmental simulation models, and model integration, visualization and real-time simulation methods. A loose coupling method is used to connect the environmental models, and an XML file is used to complete data exchange between different models. Project configuration and scheme configuration are used for simulation data organization. The integration approach is easy to implement and enables different development languages and reuse of existing models. The EDSS has been applied to water environment management of Beiyun River, and can be applied to other geographic regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transboundary river basin management in Europe
    Legal instruments to comply with European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Keessen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although modern European water policy follows a river basin approach where Member States have to cooperate in order to achieve a ‘good status’ of their water bodies, the obligations arising from the European water directives are to be achieved by each Member State individually. This situation creates problems when water pollution and water quantity problems cross borders. It is still unclear whether Member States can be held responsible for not achieving objectives due to causes (partly originating abroad. This article describes some of the legal instruments that water authorities have at their disposal to comply with the European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods and thus shape transboundary river management. The article describes instruments to create, implement and enforce transboundary cooperation, and addresses the possibility of transboundary compensation if cooperation fails. Here, the focus is on a civil lawsuit before a domestic court.

  2. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  3. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  4. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  5. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  6. CISADANE RIVER WATER POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumoro Palupi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sungai Cisadane berfungsi sebagai sumber air baku untuk sistem penyediaan air bersih wilayah Serpong dan Tangerang, Kabupaten Tangerang. Meskipun demikian, sungai Cisadane berfungsi pula sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah bagi rumah tangga dan industri yang berlokasi di sepanjang sungai tersebut. Untuk memperoleh gambaran mengenai tingkat pencemaran airnya, pada bulan September 1992 telah dilakukan pengambilan sampel air sungai Cisadane. Sampel air diambil di sebelah hulu intake instalasi pengolahan air di Cikokol (Tangerang dan Serpong, masing-masing sebanyak lima dan tiga lokasi. Sebanyak 21 parameter dianalisis, kemudian dihitung Individual Index (II dan Pollution Index (PI - nya. Hasil yang diperoleh, yang menggambarkan kualitas pencemaran air sungai Cisadane pada saat itu, adalah sebagai berikut : Tangerang PI=1891. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan II- 110 dan lemak & minyak, dengan II = 2670.Serpong, PI=574. Pencemar utama adalah fenol, dengan 11 = 810 Parameter lain yang mempunyai II > 1 adalah oksigen terlarut, fosfat, zat besi, fecal coli, nitrat, COD dan zat padat tersuspensi. Hasil tersebut menggambarkan baliwa sungai Cisadane telah tercemar oleh limbah industri dan rumah tangga, serta mungkin pula telah tercemar oleh limbah pertanian, peternakan dan perbengkelan.

  7. Bioassay-based risk assessment of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Brown, K.W.; He, L.Y. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Microbial bioassays have been used to assess the genotoxic hazard at more than 30 different hazardous waste sites. Environmental samples were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol, and the resulting residue tested using GC/MS analysis as well as the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. At a munitions wastewater contaminated site, there was no correlation between mutagenicity in bacteria, and the risk as estimated from chemical analysis data of trinitrotoluene. Samples 202 and 204 from a coal gasification site contained 72 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene, whereas the mutagenic responses of these samples were 231 net revertants/mg and 902 revertants/mg, respectively. The data suggest that microbial bioassays provide a valuable tool for monitoring the interactions of the components of a complex mixture.

  8. Identification of key factors affecting the water pollutant concentration in the sluice-controlled river reaches of the Shaying River in China via statistical analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Zuo, Qiting; Mi, Qingbin

    2015-08-01

    The construction of sluices creates a strong disturbance in water environmental factors within a river. The change in water pollutant concentrations of sluice-controlled river reaches (SCRRs) is more complex than that of natural river segments. To determine the key factors affecting water pollutant concentration changes in SCRRs, river reaches near the Huaidian Sluice in the Shaying River of China were selected as a case study, and water quality monitoring experiments based on different regulating modes were implemented in 2009 and 2010. To identify the key factors affecting the change rates for the chemical oxygen demand of permanganate (CODMn) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations in the SCRRs of the Huaidian Sluice, partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis and principal factor analysis were used. The results indicate four factors, i.e., the inflow quantity from upper reaches, opening size of sluice gates, water pollutant concentration from upper reaches, and turbidity before the sluice, which are the common key factors for the CODMn and NH3-N concentration change rates. Moreover, the dissolved oxygen before a sluice is a key factor for the permanganate concentration from CODMn change rate, and the water depth before a sluice is a key factor for the NH3-N concentration change rate. Multiple linear regressions between the water pollutant concentration change rate and key factors were established via multiple linear regression analyses, and the quantitative relationship between the CODMn and NH3-N concentration change rates and key affecting factors was analyzed. Finally, the mechanism of action for the key factors affecting the water pollutant concentration changes was analyzed. The results reveal that the inflow quantity from upper reaches, opening size of sluice gates, permanganate concentration from CODMn from upper reaches and dissolved oxygen before the sluice have a negative influence and the turbidity before the sluice has a positive

  9. Fast and accurate semantic annotation of bioassays exploiting a hybrid of machine learning and user confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics and computer aided drug design rely on the curation of a large number of protocols for biological assays that measure the ability of potential drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. These assay protocols are generally published by scientists in the form of plain text, which needs to be more precisely annotated in order to be useful to software methods. We have developed a pragmatic approach to describing assays according to the semantic definitions of the BioAssay Ontology (BAO project, using a hybrid of machine learning based on natural language processing, and a simplified user interface designed to help scientists curate their data with minimum effort. We have carried out this work based on the premise that pure machine learning is insufficiently accurate, and that expecting scientists to find the time to annotate their protocols manually is unrealistic. By combining these approaches, we have created an effective prototype for which annotation of bioassay text within the domain of the training set can be accomplished very quickly. Well-trained annotations require single-click user approval, while annotations from outside the training set domain can be identified using the search feature of a well-designed user interface, and subsequently used to improve the underlying models. By drastically reducing the time required for scientists to annotate their assays, we can realistically advocate for semantic annotation to become a standard part of the publication process. Once even a small proportion of the public body of bioassay data is marked up, bioinformatics researchers can begin to construct sophisticated and useful searching and analysis algorithms that will provide a diverse and powerful set of tools for drug discovery researchers.

  10. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report.

  11. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report

  12. Novel bioassay using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracycline in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumini, Melisa; Nagel, Orlando G; Molina, Pilar; Althaus, Rafael L

    2016-01-01

    Tetracyclines are used for the prevention and control of dairy cattle diseases. Residues of these drugs can be excreted into milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a microbiological method using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and tetracycline) in milk. In order to approximate the limits of detection of the bioassay to the Maximum Residue Limit (100μg/l) for milk tetracycline, different concentrations of chloramphenicol (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000μg/l) were tested. The detection limits calculated were similar to the Maximum Residue Limits when a bioassay using B. megaterium ATCC 9885 spores (2.8×10(8)spores/ml) and chloramphenicol (2000μg/l) was utilized. This bioassay detects 105μg/l of chlortetracycline, 100μg/l of oxytetracycline and 134μg/l of tetracycline in 5h. Therefore, this method is suitable to be incorporated into a microbiological multi-residue system for the identification of tetracyclines in milk. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay for detection of carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T H

    2001-01-01

    The Tradescantia-Micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay is one of the tests used in the International Program on Plant bioassays (IPPB) under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Using chromosome damage as the indicator of the carcinogenic properties of environmental agents, the Trad-MCN bioassay is a quick and efficient tool for screening carcinogens in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Test results can be obtained within 24-48 hr after the exposure either on site or in the laboratory. The international standard protocol of this test was published in 1994 and a list of test results of carcinogens and clastogens compiled from publications in the last 23 years will be presented. Under the IPPB/UNEP, more than 40 institutes including public health, medical and cancer research in the major countries of the world are carrying on the monitoring task on genotoxicity of polluted air, water and soil. At the same time, the Trad-MCN can be used in a global scale to detect carcinogens as a preventive measure of cancer.

  14. Evaluation of internal exposure of nuclear medicine staff through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, E.A.; Araujo, F.; Sousa, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebelo, A.M.O.; Corbo, R. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, HU-UFRJ, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowsky, s/n, ILHA do Fundao, CEP 21945-560, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The manipulation of a wide variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine results in a significant risk of internal exposure of the workers. {sup 131}I should be highlighted among the most frequently used radionuclides because of its large application for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. The increasing use of radionuclides for medical purposes creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Currently in Brazil, there are {approx}300 nuclear medicine centres in operation but individual monitoring is still restricted to the control of external exposure. This work presents the development of in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques aimed to quantify incorporation of radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine. It is also presented the results of a preliminary survey of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in the preparation of therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I. Workers were monitored with a gamma camera available in the Nuclear Medicine Service of the University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro and at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Whole-Body Counter (IRDWBC). The in vivo detection systems were calibrated with a neck-thyroid phantom developed in IRD. Urine samples from radiopharmacy workers were collected after preparation and administration of therapeutic doses (10-250 mCi) of {sup 131}I and measured with a HPGe detection system available in the Bioassay Laboratory of IRD. The results show that the bioassay methods developed in this work present enough sensitivity for routine monitoring of nuclear medicine workers. All workers monitored in this survey presented positive results for {sup 131}I in urine samples and two workers presented detectable activities in thyroid when measured at the IRD-WBC. The highest committed effective dose per preparation was estimated to be 17 {mu}Sv. (authors)

  15. DOSEXPRT: A bioassay dosimetry code for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-04-01

    The bioassay code DOSEXPRT was developed for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to provide compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480, Chapter 11. DOSEXPRT computes the intake of a radionuclide in any year (considering both acute and chronic intakes) from in vivo measurements of the retained activity and/or measurements of the activity in excreta. The committed effective and organ doses for the intake are computed as well as the effective and organ doses expected to be received in each calendar year out to 50 years beyond the year of intake. The bioassay records used as input for DOSEXPRT are extracted from the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Occupational Health Information System (OHIS). DOSEXPRT implements a set of algorithms with parameters governing the translocation, retention, and excretion of the nuclide contained in data files specific to the nuclide. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent for the intakes in the year. Annual organ and effective doses are computed using additional dose-rate files that contain data on the dose rate at various times following a unit intake. If measurements are presented for more than one assay for a given nuclide, DOSEXPRT estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. DOSEXPRT is accessed off the OHIS MENU No. 4 and designed to be run as a batch processor, but can also be run interactively for testing purposes.

  16. DOSEXPRT: A bioassay dosimetry code for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-04-01

    The bioassay code DOSEXPRT was developed for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to provide compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480, Chapter 11. DOSEXPRT computes the intake of a radionuclide in any year (considering both acute and chronic intakes) from in vivo measurements of the retained activity and/or measurements of the activity in excreta. The committed effective and organ doses for the intake are computed as well as the effective and organ doses expected to be received in each calendar year out to 50 years beyond the year of intake. The bioassay records used as input for DOSEXPRT are extracted from the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Occupational Health Information System (OHIS). DOSEXPRT implements a set of algorithms with parameters governing the translocation, retention, and excretion of the nuclide contained in data files specific to the nuclide. These files also contain dose-per-unit-intake coefficients used to compute the committed dose equivalent for the intakes in the year. Annual organ and effective doses are computed using additional dose-rate files that contain data on the dose rate at various times following a unit intake. If measurements are presented for more than one assay for a given nuclide, DOSEXPRT estimates the intake by applying weights assigned in the nuclide file for each assay. DOSEXPRT is accessed off the OHIS MENU No. 4 and designed to be run as a batch processor, but can also be run interactively for testing purposes.

  17. Sensitive bioassay for detection of PPAR{alpha} potentially hazardous ligands with gold nanoparticle probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Wei; Wan, Yan-Jian [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China); Wang, Xianliang [Division of Environmental Pollution and Human Health, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Chun-Xiang [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China); Xu, Shun-qing, E-mail: shunqing@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We develop a sensitive and high throughput method to screen PPAR{alpha} ligands. {yields} This method is based on the ligand-receptor interaction on microplate. {yields} The sensitivity is increased through sliver enhancement on captured gold nanoparticle probes. {yields} There is a significant correlation between the bioassay and LC-MS for water spiked samples. - Abstract: There are so many kinds of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) ligands with hazardous effect for human health in the environment, such as certain herbicides, plasticizers and drugs. Among these agonists, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) are mostly investigated due to their persistence and accumulation in environment and their potential toxicity via PPAR{alpha}. This investigation aims at developing a bioassay method to detect PPAR{alpha} ligands based on the ligand-receptor interaction on microplate. PPAR{alpha}, which formed heterodimers with retinoid X receptor-{alpha} (RXR{alpha}), were activated by PPAR{alpha} ligands to form ligands-PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} complexes. Then the complexes were transferred into a microplate and captured via monoclonal anti-PPAR{alpha} antibody. The PPAR{alpha} responsive elements (PPRE) modified-gold nanoparticle probes were captured by the ligand-PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} complexes immobilized on the microplate, and then could be quantified through measuring the optical density after silver enhancement. The results showed that PFOS was quantified with a linear range from 100 pM to 1 {mu}M and the detection limit was 10 pM. In addition to PFOS, PFOA and MEHP were also quantified within a proper range through the proposed bioassay. This bioassay was compared with that of liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for water spiked samples with a significant correlation (r = 0.9893). This study provides a high-throughput detection

  18. Nonsteroidal mycotoxin alternariol is a full androgen agonist in the yeast reporter androgen bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypuła-Trębas, Sylwia; Minta, Maria; Radko, Lidia; Jedziniak, Piotr; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Alternariol (AOH) is a toxic metabolite of phytopathogenic fungi of the Alternaria spp. and important contaminant of agricultural commodities. According to the recent studies, AOH has a potential to modulate the endocrine system of humans and animals. In the view of these reports, our study addressed the effects of AOH on human estrogen receptor (hERα) and androgen receptor (hAR) signaling with the use of the yeast estrogen and androgen reporter bioassays. Our results show that, apart from a weak estrogenic response, AOH induces full androgenic response of the bioassay with the EC50 of 269.4μM. The androgenic potency of AOH relative to testosterone (T) is 0.046%. Moreover, in the presence of T, AOH at 5μM acts as a weak antiandrogen, whereas at higher concentrations AOH sum up with the androgenic activity of T in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting additive effect. To our knowledge it is the first report of the androgenic potency of natural, nonsteroidal substance and may have the impact on the direction of the further studies. Further research is warranted to clarify the role of AOH in disruption of AR signaling in humans and animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro bioassays reveal that additives are significant contributors to the toxicity of commercial household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Neale, Peta A; Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-03-28

    Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay. The commercial products were up to an order of magnitude more toxic than the active ingredient(s) alone. In addition, two commercial products with the same listed active ingredients in the same ratio had a 600× difference in potency. These results clearly demonstrate that additives in commercial formulations are significant contributors to the toxicity of household pesticides. The toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems is therefore likely underestimated by conventional chemical monitoring and risk assessment when only the active ingredients are considered. Regulators and customers should require more clarity from pesticide manufacturers about the nature and concentrations of not only the active ingredients, but also additives used in commercial formulations. In addition, monitoring programmes and chemical risk assessments schemes should develop a structured approach to assessing the toxic effects of commercial formulations, including additives, rather than simply those of the listed active ingredients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Bioassay-Guided Isolated Compounds from Morinda officinalis Inhibit Alzheimer’s Disease Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyoung Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the side effects of synthetic drugs, the therapeutic potential of natural products for Alzheimer’s disease (AD has gained interest. Morinda officinalis has demonstrated inhibitory effects on geriatric diseases, such as bone loss and osteoporosis. However, although AD is a geriatric disease, M. officinalis has not been evaluated in an AD bioassay. Therefore, M. officinalis extracts and fractions were tested for AD-related activity, including inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, and advanced glycation end-product (AGE formation. A bioassay-guided approach led to isolation of 10 active compounds, eight anthraquinones (1–8, one coumarin (9, and one phytosterol (10, from n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of M. officinalis. The five anthraquinones (4–8 were stronger inhibitors of AChE than were other compounds. Compounds 3 and 9 were good inhibitors of BChE, and compounds 3 and 8 were good inhibitors of BACE1. Compounds 1–5 and 7–9 were more active than the positive control in inhibiting AGE formation. In addition, we first suggested a structure-activity relationship by which anthraquinones inhibit AChE and BACE1. Our findings demonstrate the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of M. officinalis for AD and its potential use as a natural alternative medicine.