WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds

  1. Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

  2. Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Venugopal, J; Sundarrajan, S; Ramakrishna, S, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.s [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

  3. Hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds from electrospinning of a synthetic biodegradable elastomer and urinary bladder matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Stankus, John J.; Freytes, Donald O.; Badylak, Stephen F.; Wagner, William R.

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic materials can be electrospun into submicron or nanofibrous scaffolds to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) scale and architecture with reproducible composition and adaptable mechanical properties. However, these materials lack the bioactivity present in natural ECM. ECM-derived scaffolds contain bioactive molecules that exert in vivo mimicking effects as applied for soft tissue engineering, yet do not possess the same flexibility in mechanical property control as some synthetics. The ...

  4. Bio-functionalized PCL nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface properties of scaffolds such as hydrophilicity and the presence of functional groups on the surface of scaffolds play a key role in cell adhesion, proliferation and migration. Different modification methods for hydrophilicity improvement and introduction of functional groups on the surface of scaffolds have been carried out on synthetic biodegradable polymers, for tissue engineering applications. In this study, alkaline hydrolysis of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out for different time periods (1 h, 4 h and 12 h) to increase the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. The formation of reactive groups resulting from alkaline hydrolysis provides opportunities for further surface functionalization of PCL nanofibrous scaffolds. Matrigel was attached covalently on the surface of an optimized 4 h hydrolyzed PCL nanofibrous scaffolds and additionally the fabrication of blended PCL/matrigel nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out. Chemical and mechanical characterization of nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurement. In vitro cell adhesion and proliferation study was carried out after seeding nerve precursor cells (NPCs) on different scaffolds. Results of cell proliferation assay and SEM studies showed that the covalently functionalized PCL/matrigel nanofibrous scaffolds promote the proliferation and neurite outgrowth of NPCs compared to PCL and hydrolyzed PCL nanofibrous scaffolds, providing suitable substrates for nerve tissue engineering.

  5. Surface modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Venugopal, J.; Chan, Casey K.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2008-11-01

    The development of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with surface properties that dominate interactions between the material and biological environment is of great interest in biomedical applications. In this regard, poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning process and surface modified by a simple plasma treatment process for enhancing the Schwann cell adhesion, proliferation and interactions with nanofibers necessary for nerve tissue formation. The hydrophilicity of surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds (p-PCL) was evaluated by contact angle and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. Naturally derived polymers such as collagen are frequently used for the fabrication of biocomposite PCL/collagen scaffolds, though the feasibility of procuring large amounts of natural materials for clinical applications remains a concern, along with their cost and mechanical stability. The proliferation of Schwann cells on p-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds showed a 17% increase in cell proliferation compared to those on PCL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds after 8 days of cell culture. Schwann cells were found to attach and proliferate on surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds expressing bipolar elongations, retaining their normal morphology. The results of our study showed that plasma treated PCL nanofibrous scaffolds are a cost-effective material compared to PCL/collagen scaffolds, and can potentially serve as an ideal tissue engineered scaffold, especially for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  6. Surface modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with surface properties that dominate interactions between the material and biological environment is of great interest in biomedical applications. In this regard, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning process and surface modified by a simple plasma treatment process for enhancing the Schwann cell adhesion, proliferation and interactions with nanofibers necessary for nerve tissue formation. The hydrophilicity of surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds (p-PCL) was evaluated by contact angle and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. Naturally derived polymers such as collagen are frequently used for the fabrication of biocomposite PCL/collagen scaffolds, though the feasibility of procuring large amounts of natural materials for clinical applications remains a concern, along with their cost and mechanical stability. The proliferation of Schwann cells on p-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds showed a 17% increase in cell proliferation compared to those on PCL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds after 8 days of cell culture. Schwann cells were found to attach and proliferate on surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds expressing bipolar elongations, retaining their normal morphology. The results of our study showed that plasma treated PCL nanofibrous scaffolds are a cost-effective material compared to PCL/collagen scaffolds, and can potentially serve as an ideal tissue engineered scaffold, especially for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  7. Fabrication and in vitro biomineralization of bioactive glass (BG) nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioactive glass nanofibres have excellent bioactivity and cell compatibility, and are regarded as a promising next-generation biomaterial in the bone-regeneration field. This paper is concentrated on the effect of electrospinning parameters on the diameter and morphology of bioactive glass nanofibres, and the process of in vitro biomineralization. In this work, sol-gel glass nanofibres with high bioactivity were prepared by electrospinning processing in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and pluronic P123 (EO20-PO70-EO20) as chain entanglements. The influence of the polymer concentration, types of polymer and electric field strength on the fibre diameter was examined. The average diameter of these BG nanofibres could be controlled in the range from 85 to 400 nm. The addition of PVP resulted in sufficient chain entanglement and the formation of smooth BG nanofibres, and the addition of P123 led to a further decrease of the diameter with appropriate electric field strength, which held the balance between the electrostatic repulsive force and surface tension of the electrospinning solution. Furthermore, the early stage of in vitro biomineralization of the BG nanofibres in the simulated body fluid (SBF) was studied in this work. The behaviour of in vitro biomineralization of bioactive glass nanofibres was different to the conventional ones, and the structure of bioactive glasses contributed to the formation process of hydroxyapatite

  8. Cell penetration to nanofibrous scaffolds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rampichová, Michala; Buzgo, Matej; Chvojka, J.; Prosecká, Eva; Kofroňová, Olga; Amler, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 36-41. ISSN 1933-6918 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 384311; GA UK(CZ) 626012; GA UK(CZ) 270513; GA UK(CZ) 330611; GA UK(CZ) 648112; GA MZd(CZ) NT12156; GA MŠk(CZ) project IPv6 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : fibrous scaffold * mesenchymal stem cell s * Forcespinning (R) Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 4.505, year: 2014

  9. Partially Nanofibrous Architecture of 3D Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Guobao; Ma, Peter X.

    2009-01-01

    An ideal tissue-engineering scaffold should provide suitable pores and appropriate pore surface to induce desired cellular activities and to guide 3D tissue regeneration. In the present work, we have developed macroporous polymer scaffolds with varying pore wall architectures from smooth (solid), microporous, partially nanofibrous, to entirely nanofibrous ones. All scaffolds are designed to have well-controlled interconnected macropores, resulting from leaching sugar sphere template. We exami...

  10. Hemocompatible surface of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds by ATRP modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wenjie [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@hotmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Weijin Road 92, 300072 Tianjin (China); Wang, Heyun [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002 (China); Yang, Dazhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); An, Bo [Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Zhang, Wencheng [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China); Khan, Musammir [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Jintang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Weijin Road 92, 300072 Tianjin (China)

    2013-10-15

    The electrospun scaffolds are potential application in vascular tissue engineering since they can mimic the nano-sized dimension of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). We prepared a fibrous scaffold from polycarbonateurethane (PCU) by electrospinning technology. In order to improve the hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of the fibrous scaffold, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto the fiber surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. Although SI-ATRP has been developed and used for surface modification for many years, there are only few studies about the modification of electrospun fiber by this method. The modified fibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The scaffold morphology showed no significant difference when PEGMA was grafted onto the scaffold surface. Based on the water contact angle measurement, the surface hydrophilicity of the scaffold surface was improved significantly after grafting hydrophilic PEGMA (P = 0.0012). The modified surface showed effective resistance for platelet adhesion compared with the unmodified surface. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the PCU-g-PEGMA scaffold was much longer than that of the unmodified PCU scaffold. The cyto-compatibility of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was tested by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The images of 7-day cultured cells on the scaffold surface were observed by SEM. The modified scaffolds showed high tendency to induce cell adhesion. Moreover, the cells reached out pseudopodia along the fibrous direction and formed a continuous monolayer. Hemolysis test showed that the grafted chains of PEGMA reduced blood coagulation. These results indicated that the modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were potential application as artificial blood vessels. Highlights: • Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully

  11. Hemocompatible surface of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds by ATRP modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrospun scaffolds are potential application in vascular tissue engineering since they can mimic the nano-sized dimension of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). We prepared a fibrous scaffold from polycarbonateurethane (PCU) by electrospinning technology. In order to improve the hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of the fibrous scaffold, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto the fiber surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. Although SI-ATRP has been developed and used for surface modification for many years, there are only few studies about the modification of electrospun fiber by this method. The modified fibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The scaffold morphology showed no significant difference when PEGMA was grafted onto the scaffold surface. Based on the water contact angle measurement, the surface hydrophilicity of the scaffold surface was improved significantly after grafting hydrophilic PEGMA (P = 0.0012). The modified surface showed effective resistance for platelet adhesion compared with the unmodified surface. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the PCU-g-PEGMA scaffold was much longer than that of the unmodified PCU scaffold. The cyto-compatibility of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was tested by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The images of 7-day cultured cells on the scaffold surface were observed by SEM. The modified scaffolds showed high tendency to induce cell adhesion. Moreover, the cells reached out pseudopodia along the fibrous direction and formed a continuous monolayer. Hemolysis test showed that the grafted chains of PEGMA reduced blood coagulation. These results indicated that the modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were potential application as artificial blood vessels. Highlights: • Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully

  12. Synthesis of polyester urethane urea and fabrication of elastomeric nanofibrous scaffolds for myocardial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadi, Elham Sadat; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Morshed, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Morteza; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-06-01

    Fabrication of bioactive scaffolds is one of the most promising strategies to reconstruct the infarcted myocardium. In this study, we synthesized polyester urethane urea (PEUU), further blended it with gelatin and fabricated PEUU/G nanofibrous scaffolds. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterization of the synthesized PEUU and properties of nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ATR-FTIR, contact angle measurement, biodegradation test, tensile strength analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). In vitro biocompatibility studies were performed using cardiomyocytes. DMA analysis showed that the scaffolds could be reshaped with cyclic deformations and might remain stable in the frequencies of the physiological activity of the heart. On the whole, our study suggests that aligned PEUU/G 70:30 nanofibrous scaffolds meet the required specifications for cardiac tissue engineering and could be used as a promising construct for myocardial regeneration. PMID:27040201

  13. Nanofibrous yet injectable polycaprolactone-collagen bone tissue scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Gayathri; Bialorucki, Callan [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Yildirim-Ayan, Eda, E-mail: eda.yildirimayan@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we developed a nanofibrous, yet injectable orthobiologic tissue scaffold that is capable of hosting osteoprogenitor cells and controlling kinetic release profile of the encapsulated pro-osteogenic factor without diminishing its bioactivity over 21 days. This innovative injectable scaffold was synthesized by incorporating electrospun and subsequently O{sub 2} plasma-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers within the collagen type-I solution along with MC3T3-E1 cells (pre-osteoblasts) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). Through changing the PCL nanofiber concentration within the injectable scaffolds, we were able to tailor the mechanical strength, protein retention capacity, bioactivity preservation, and osteoinductive potential of the scaffolds. The nanofibrous internal structure of the scaffold allowed us to use a low dose of BMP2 (200 ng/ml) to achieve osteoblastic differentiation in in vitro culture. The osteogenesis capacity of the injectable scaffolds were evaluated though measuring MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, ALP activity, matrix mineralization, and early- and late-osteoblast specific gene expression profiles over 21 days. The results demonstrated that the nanofibrous injectable scaffold provides not only an osteoinductive environment for osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate, but also a suitable biomechanical and biochemical environment to act as a reservoir for osteogenic factors with controlled release profile. - Highlights: • Injectable nanofibrous scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and BMP2 was synthesized. • PCL nanofiber concentration within collagen scaffold affected the BMP2 retention and bioactivity. • Optimal PCL concentration was identified for mechanical stability, injectability, and osteogenic activity. • Scaffolds exhibited long-term osteoinductive capacity for bone repair and regeneration.

  14. Nanofibrous yet injectable polycaprolactone-collagen bone tissue scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we developed a nanofibrous, yet injectable orthobiologic tissue scaffold that is capable of hosting osteoprogenitor cells and controlling kinetic release profile of the encapsulated pro-osteogenic factor without diminishing its bioactivity over 21 days. This innovative injectable scaffold was synthesized by incorporating electrospun and subsequently O2 plasma-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers within the collagen type-I solution along with MC3T3-E1 cells (pre-osteoblasts) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). Through changing the PCL nanofiber concentration within the injectable scaffolds, we were able to tailor the mechanical strength, protein retention capacity, bioactivity preservation, and osteoinductive potential of the scaffolds. The nanofibrous internal structure of the scaffold allowed us to use a low dose of BMP2 (200 ng/ml) to achieve osteoblastic differentiation in in vitro culture. The osteogenesis capacity of the injectable scaffolds were evaluated though measuring MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, ALP activity, matrix mineralization, and early- and late-osteoblast specific gene expression profiles over 21 days. The results demonstrated that the nanofibrous injectable scaffold provides not only an osteoinductive environment for osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate, but also a suitable biomechanical and biochemical environment to act as a reservoir for osteogenic factors with controlled release profile. - Highlights: • Injectable nanofibrous scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and BMP2 was synthesized. • PCL nanofiber concentration within collagen scaffold affected the BMP2 retention and bioactivity. • Optimal PCL concentration was identified for mechanical stability, injectability, and osteogenic activity. • Scaffolds exhibited long-term osteoinductive capacity for bone repair and regeneration

  15. Aligned and random nanofibrous nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Doustgani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Aligned and random nanocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL, poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA. The morphology and mechanical characteristics of the nanofibers were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fibers with an average diameter of 123 ± 32 nm and 339 ± 107 nm for aligned and random nanofibers, respectively. The mechanical data indicated the higher tensile strength and elastic modulus of aligned nanofibers. The in vitro biocompatibility of aligned and random nanofibrous scaffolds was also assessed by growing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and investigating the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP on different nanofibrous scaffolds. Our  findings  showed  that  the  alignment  orientation  of  nanofibers  enhanced  the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. The in vitro results showed that the aligned biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds of PCL/nHA/PVA could be a potential substrate for tissue engineering applications, especially in the field of artificial bone implant.

  16. Electrodeposition on nanofibrous polymer scaffolds: Rapid mineralization, tunable calcium phosphate composition and topography

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chuanglong; Xiao, Guiyong; Jin, Xiaobing; Sun, Chenghui; Ma, Peter X.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a straightforward, fast, and versatile technique to fabricate mineralized nanofibrous polymer scaffolds for bone regeneration in this work. Nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) scaffolds were fabricated using both electrospinning and phase separation techniques. An electrodeposition process was designed to deposit calcium phosphate on the nanofibrous scaffolds. Such scaffolds contain a high quality mineral coating on the fiber surface with tunable surface topography and chemical compo...

  17. Effect of novel blend nanofibrous scaffolds on diabetic wounds healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour-Kanani, Adeleh; Bahrami, S Hajir; Rabbani, Shahram

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) (Cs: PVA) (2:3) and poly (caprolactone)-chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) (PCL: Cs: PVA) (2:1:1.5) nanofibrous blend scaffolds were fabricated using the electrospinning technique in the authors' previous studies. The results of the previous studies confirmed the high biological properties of the scaffolds and their ability in healing of burn and excision wounds on rat model. In the present study, the biological scaffolds were applied on diabetic dorsum skin wounds and diabetic foot wound on rat models (n = 16). Macroscopic and microscopic investigations were carried out using digital images and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining respectively, to measure the wound areas and to track wound healing rate. It was found that at all time points the areas of wounds treated with nanofibrous scaffolds were smaller compared with the controls. Pathological results showed much better healing efficacy for the test samples compared with the control ones. Pathological investigations proved the presence of more pronounced granulation tissues in the scaffold-treated wounds compared with the control ones. At 20 days post excision, the scaffold-treated groups achieved complete repair. The results indicated that Cs: PVA and PCL: Cs: PVA nanofibrous webs could be considered to be promising materials for burn, excision and diabetic wounds healing. PMID:26766866

  18. Biologically improved nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanofibrous structure developed by electrospinning technology provides attractive extracellular matrix conditions for the anchorage, migration and differentiation of stem cells, including those responsible for regenerative medicine. Recently, biocomposite nanofibers consisting of two or more polymeric blends are electrospun more tidily in order to obtain scaffolds with desired functional and mechanical properties depending on their applications. The study focuses on one such an attempt of using copolymer Poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PLACL), silk fibroin (SF) and Aloe Vera (AV) for fabricating biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. SEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless, uniform nanofibers with interconnected pores and obtained fibre diameter in the range of 459 ± 22 nm, 202 ± 12 nm and 188 ± 16 nm respectively. PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV electrospun mats obtained at room temperature with an elastic modulus of 14.1 ± 0.7, 9.96 ± 2.5 and 7.0 ± 0.9 MPa respectively. PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers have more desirable properties to act as flexible cell supporting scaffolds compared to PLACL for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). The PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers had a contact angle of 51 ± 12° compared to that of 133 ± 15° of PLACL alone. Cardiac cell proliferation was increased by 21% in PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers compared to PLACL by day 6 and further increased to 42% by day 9. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins myosin and connexin 43 was observed better by day 9 compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The results proved that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds have good potentiality for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium in cardiac tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless and uniform structures. • PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers improve the

  19. Biologically improved nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaarathy, V. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Nanoscience and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 138673 (Singapore); Venugopal, J., E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Gandhimathi, C. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Ponpandian, N.; Mangalaraj, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ramakrishna, S. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-11-01

    Nanofibrous structure developed by electrospinning technology provides attractive extracellular matrix conditions for the anchorage, migration and differentiation of stem cells, including those responsible for regenerative medicine. Recently, biocomposite nanofibers consisting of two or more polymeric blends are electrospun more tidily in order to obtain scaffolds with desired functional and mechanical properties depending on their applications. The study focuses on one such an attempt of using copolymer Poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PLACL), silk fibroin (SF) and Aloe Vera (AV) for fabricating biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. SEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless, uniform nanofibers with interconnected pores and obtained fibre diameter in the range of 459 ± 22 nm, 202 ± 12 nm and 188 ± 16 nm respectively. PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV electrospun mats obtained at room temperature with an elastic modulus of 14.1 ± 0.7, 9.96 ± 2.5 and 7.0 ± 0.9 MPa respectively. PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers have more desirable properties to act as flexible cell supporting scaffolds compared to PLACL for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). The PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers had a contact angle of 51 ± 12° compared to that of 133 ± 15° of PLACL alone. Cardiac cell proliferation was increased by 21% in PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers compared to PLACL by day 6 and further increased to 42% by day 9. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins myosin and connexin 43 was observed better by day 9 compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The results proved that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds have good potentiality for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium in cardiac tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless and uniform structures. • PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers improve the

  20. Fabrication and characterization of modified nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds by thermally induced phase separation technique and aminolysis for promoting cyctocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shunyu; He, Zhihang; Xu, Guojie; Xiao, Xiufeng

    2016-07-01

    Modified nanofibrous Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds were fabricated by aminolysis combined with thermally induced phase separation technique using PLLA/1,4-dioxane/urea-NaOH-H2O system at -40 °C freeze temperature. Aminolysis led to the modification of scaffold resulting in enhancement in the bioactivity. The surface of the modified nanofibrous scaffold provided a good environment for attachment and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 cells, exhibiting significant potential for bone tissue regeneration and for promoting cytocompatibility. PMID:27095503

  1. In Vivo Study of Ligament-Bone Healing after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Autologous Tendons with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Affinity Peptide Conjugated Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning nanofibrous scaffold was commonly used in tissue regeneration recently. Nanofibers with specific topological characteristics were reported to be able to induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. In this in vivo study, autologous tendon grafts with lattice-like nanofibrous scaffold wrapping at two ends of autologous tendon were used to promote early stage of ligament-bone healing after rabbit ACL reconstruction. To utilize native MSCs from bone marrow, an MSCs specific affinity peptide E7 was conjugated to nanofibrous meshes. After 3 months, H-E assessment and specific staining of collagen type I, II, and III showed direct ligament-bone insertion with typical four zones (bone, calcified fibrocartilage, fibrocartilage, and ligament in bioactive scaffold reconstruction group. Diameters of bone tunnel were smaller in nanofibrous scaffold conjugated E7 peptide group than those in control group. The failure load of substitution complex also indicated a stronger ligament-bone insertion healing using bioactive scaffold. In conclusion, lattice-like nanofibrous scaffold with specific MSCs affinity peptide has great potential in promoting early stage of ligament-bone healing after ACL reconstruction.

  2. Investigation of cancer cell behavior on nanofibrous scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering and the use of nanofibrous biomaterial scaffolds offer a unique perspective for studying cancer development in vitro. Current in vitro models of tumorigenesis are limited by the use of static, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture monolayers that lack the structural architecture necessary for cell-cell interaction and three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that are too simplistic for studying basic pathological mechanisms. In this study, two nanofibrous biomaterials that mimic the structure of the extracellular matrix, bacterial cellulose and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen I, were investigated as potential 3D scaffolds for an in vitro cancer model. Multiple cancer cell lines were cultured on each scaffold material and monitored for cell viability, proliferation, adhesion, infiltration, and morphology. Both bacterial cellulose and electrospun PCL/collagen I, which have nano-scale structures on the order of 100-500 nm, have been used in many diverse tissue engineering applications. Cancer cell adhesion and growth were limited on bacterial cellulose, while all cellular processes were enhanced on the electrospun scaffolds. This initial analysis has demonstrated the potential of electrospun PCL/collagen I scaffolds toward the development of an improved 3D in vitro cancer model.

  3. Investigation of cancer cell behavior on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szot, Christopher S.; Buchanan, Cara F. [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Rylander, Marissa Nichole [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Freeman, Joseph W., E-mail: jwfreeman@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering and the use of nanofibrous biomaterial scaffolds offer a unique perspective for studying cancer development in vitro. Current in vitro models of tumorigenesis are limited by the use of static, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture monolayers that lack the structural architecture necessary for cell-cell interaction and three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that are too simplistic for studying basic pathological mechanisms. In this study, two nanofibrous biomaterials that mimic the structure of the extracellular matrix, bacterial cellulose and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen I, were investigated as potential 3D scaffolds for an in vitro cancer model. Multiple cancer cell lines were cultured on each scaffold material and monitored for cell viability, proliferation, adhesion, infiltration, and morphology. Both bacterial cellulose and electrospun PCL/collagen I, which have nano-scale structures on the order of 100-500 nm, have been used in many diverse tissue engineering applications. Cancer cell adhesion and growth were limited on bacterial cellulose, while all cellular processes were enhanced on the electrospun scaffolds. This initial analysis has demonstrated the potential of electrospun PCL/collagen I scaffolds toward the development of an improved 3D in vitro cancer model.

  4. Microstructure and properties of nano-fibrous PCL-b-PLLA scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L He

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-fibrous scaffolds which could potentially mimic the architecture of extracellular matrix (ECM have been considered a good candidate matrix for cell delivery in tissue engineering applications. In the present study, a semicrystalline diblock copolymer, poly(e-caprolactone-block-poly(L-lactide (PCL-b-PLLA, was synthesized and utilized to fabricate nano-fibrous scaffolds via a thermally induced phase separation process. Uniform nano-fibrous networks were created by quenching a PCL-b-PLLA/THF homogenous solution to -20ºC or below, followed by further gelation for 2 hours due to the presence of PLLA and PCL microcrystals. However, knot-like structures as well as continuously smooth pellicles appeared among the nano-fibrous network with increasing gelation temperature. DSC analysis indicated that the crystallization of PCL segments was interrupted by rigid PLLA segments, resulting in an amorphous phase at high gelation temperatures. Combining TIPS (thermally induced phase separation with salt-leaching methods, nano-fibrous architecture and interconnected pore structures (144±36 mm in diameter with a high porosity were created for in vitro culture of chondrocytes. Specific surface area and protein adsorption on the surface of the nano-fibrous scaffold were three times higher than on the surface of the solid-walled scaffold. Chondrocytes cultured on the nano-fibrous scaffold exhibited a spherical condrocyte-like phenotype and secreted more cartilage-like extracellular matrix (ECM than those cultured on the solid-walled scaffold. Moreover, the protein and DNA contents of cells cultured on the nano-fibrous scaffold were 1.2-1.4 times higher than those on the solid-walled scaffold. Higher expression levels of collagen II and aggrecan mRNA were induced on the nano-fibrous scaffold compared to on the solid-walled scaffold. These findings demonstrated that scaffolds with a nano-fibrous architecture could serve as superior scaffolds for cartilage tissue

  5. Microstructure and properties of nano-fibrous PCL-b-PLLA scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    L. He; B. Liu; G Xipeng; Xie, G; S. Liao; D Quan; Cai, D.; Lu, J.; S. Ramakrishna

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibrous scaffolds which could potentially mimic the architecture of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been considered a good candidate matrix for cell delivery in tissue engineering applications. In the present study, a semicrystalline diblock copolymer, poly(e-caprolactone)-block-poly(L-lactide) (PCL-b-PLLA), was synthesized and utilized to fabricate nano-fibrous scaffolds via a thermally induced phase separation process. Uniform nano-fibrous networks were created by quenching a PCL-b-PLL...

  6. Nanofibrous Scaffolds of Bio-Polyesters: In Vitro and In Vivo Characterizations and Tissue Response

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hui Ying; Ishii, Daisuke; Sudesh, Kumar; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this research was to electrospin P(3HB-co-97mol%-4HB) for fabricating tissue-engineering scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties, bioabsorption and biocompatibility. Its performance as a nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering was compared with electrospun homopolymer P(3HB) and its copolymers containing 5mol%3HHx and 7mol%-4HB as well as with electrospun PLA-based scaffolds. All of these nanofibrous scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in rats to evaluate their...

  7. In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Electrospun Polycaprolactone/Gelatine Nanofibrous Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mim Mim Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds which mimic the native extracellular matrix of tissues to promote cell adhesion and growth is emphasized recently. Many polymers have been utilized in scaffold fabrication, but there is still a need to fabricate hydrophilic nanosized fibrous scaffolds with an appropriate degradation rate for skin tissue engineering applications. In this study, nanofibrous scaffolds of a biodegradable synthetic polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL, and blends of PCL with a natural polymer, gelatine (Ge, in three different compositions: 85 : 15, 70 : 30, and 50 : 50 were fabricated via an electrospinning technique. The nanofibrous scaffold prepared from 14% w/v PCL/Ge (70 : 30 exhibited more balanced properties of homogeneous nanofibres with an average fibre diameter of 155.60 ± 41.13 nm, 83% porosity, and surface roughness of 176.27 ± 2.53 nm. In vitro cell culture study using human skin fibroblasts (HSF demonstrated improved cell attachment with a flattened morphology on the PCL/Ge (70 : 30 nanofibrous scaffold and accelerated proliferation on day 3 compared to the PCL nanofibrous scaffold. These results show that the PCL/Ge (70 : 30 nanofibrous scaffold was more favourable and has the potential to be a promising scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications.

  8. An electrospun triphasic nanofibrous scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catledge, S A [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1170 (United States); Clem, W C [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-4440 (United States); Shrikishen, N [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1170 (United States); Chowdhury, S [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1170 (United States); Stanishevsky, A V [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1170 (United States); Koopman, M [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-4461 (United States); Vohra, Y K [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1170 (United States)

    2007-06-01

    A nanofibrous triphasic scaffold was electrospun from a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), type-I collagen and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HA) with a mixture dry weight ratio of 50/30/20, respectively. Scaffolds were characterized by evaluating fiber morphology and chemical composition, dispersion of HA particles and nanoindentation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fibers with an average diameter of 180 {+-} 50 nm, which coincides well with the collagen fiber bundle diameter characteristic of the native extracellular matrix of bone. The triphasic fibers, stained with calcein and imaged with confocal microscopy, show a uniform dispersion of apatite particles throughout their length with minor agglomeration. Scaffold fibers of triphasic (50/30/20), collagen/nano-HA (80/20), PCL/nano-HA (80/20), pure PCL and pure collagen were each pressure consolidated into non-porous pellets for evaluation by transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. While the majority of apatite particles are uniformly dispersed having an average size of 30 nm, agglomerated particles as large as a few microns are sparsely distributed. Nanoindentation of the pressure-consolidated scaffolds showed a range of Young's modulus (0.50-3.9 GPa), with increasing average modulus in the order of (PCL < PCL/nano-HA < collagen < triphasic < collagen/nano-HA). The modulus data emphasize the importance of collagen and its interaction with other components in affecting mechanical properties of osteoconductive scaffolds.

  9. An electrospun triphasic nanofibrous scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nanofibrous triphasic scaffold was electrospun from a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), type-I collagen and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HA) with a mixture dry weight ratio of 50/30/20, respectively. Scaffolds were characterized by evaluating fiber morphology and chemical composition, dispersion of HA particles and nanoindentation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fibers with an average diameter of 180 ± 50 nm, which coincides well with the collagen fiber bundle diameter characteristic of the native extracellular matrix of bone. The triphasic fibers, stained with calcein and imaged with confocal microscopy, show a uniform dispersion of apatite particles throughout their length with minor agglomeration. Scaffold fibers of triphasic (50/30/20), collagen/nano-HA (80/20), PCL/nano-HA (80/20), pure PCL and pure collagen were each pressure consolidated into non-porous pellets for evaluation by transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. While the majority of apatite particles are uniformly dispersed having an average size of 30 nm, agglomerated particles as large as a few microns are sparsely distributed. Nanoindentation of the pressure-consolidated scaffolds showed a range of Young's modulus (0.50-3.9 GPa), with increasing average modulus in the order of (PCL < PCL/nano-HA < collagen < triphasic < collagen/nano-HA). The modulus data emphasize the importance of collagen and its interaction with other components in affecting mechanical properties of osteoconductive scaffolds

  10. Development of polyamide-6,6/chitosan electrospun hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu Kumar; Mousa, Hamouda M; Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Ko, Sung Won; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-09-01

    The development of biofunctional and bioactive hybrid polymeric scaffolds seek to mitigate the current challenges in the emerging field of tissue engineering. In this paper, we report the fabrication of a biomimetic and biocompatible nanofibrous scaffolds of polyamide-6,6 (PA-6,6) blended with biopolymer chitosan via one step co-electrospinning technique. Different weight percentage of chitosan 10wt%, 15wt%, and 20wt% were blended with PA-6,6, respectively. The nanocomposite electrospun scaffolds mats enabled to provide the osteophilic environment for cells growth and biomineralization. The morphological and physiochemical properties of the resulted scaffolds were studied using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The improvement in hydrophilicity and mechanical strength of the bio-nanocomposite mesh with 20wt% chitosan embedded, was the desired avenue for adhesion, proliferation and maturation of osteoblast cells as compared to other sample groups and pure PA-6,6 fibrous mat. The biomineralization of the nanocomposite electrospun mats also showed higher ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate (Ca/P) nanoparticles comparing to pristine PA-6,6. Furthermore, the biomimetic nature of scaffolds exhibited the cells viability and regeneration of pre-osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells which were assessed via in vitro cell culture test. Collectively, the results suggested that the optimized 20wt% of chitosan supplemented hybrid electrospun fibrous scaffold has significant effect in biomedical field to create osteogenic capabilities for tissue engineering. PMID:27185121

  11. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro drug release behavior of electrospun PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The fenbufen loaded PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning. The hydrophilicity of nanofibrous scaffold was enhanced with the increase of chitosan content. The drug release also is accelerated with chitosan increasing because the higher hydrophilicity makes drug diffusing from scaffold more easily. Research highlights: → The average diameter increased with the increase of chitosan content and then decreased. → The release rate of fenbufen increased with the increase of chitosan. → The aligned nanofibrous scaffold exhibits lower drug release rate. → The drug release could be controlled by crosslinking in glutaraldehyde vapor. - Abstract: In this study both aligned and randomly oriented poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold have been prepared by electrospinning. The ratio of PLGA to chitosan was adjusted to get smooth nanofiber surface. Morphological characterization using scanning electron microscopy showed that the aligned nanofiber diameter distribution obtained by electrospinning of polymer blend increased with the increase of chitosan content which was similar to that of randomly oriented nanofibers. The release characteristic of model drug fenbufen (FBF) from the FBF-loaded aligned and randomly oriented PLGA and PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds was investigated. The drug release rate increased with the increase of chitosan content because the addition of chitosan enhanced the hydrophilicity of the PLGA/chitosan composite scaffold. Moreover, for the aligned PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold the release rate was lower than that of randomly oriented PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold, which indicated that the nanofiber arrangement would influence the release behavior. In addition, crosslinking in glutaraldehyde vapor would decrease the burst release of FBF from FBF-loaded PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold with a PLGA/chitosan ratio less than 9/1, which would be beneficial

  12. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro drug release behavior of electrospun PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Z.X.; Zheng, W.; Li, L. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The fenbufen loaded PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning. The hydrophilicity of nanofibrous scaffold was enhanced with the increase of chitosan content. The drug release also is accelerated with chitosan increasing because the higher hydrophilicity makes drug diffusing from scaffold more easily. Research highlights: {yields} The average diameter increased with the increase of chitosan content and then decreased. {yields} The release rate of fenbufen increased with the increase of chitosan. {yields} The aligned nanofibrous scaffold exhibits lower drug release rate. {yields} The drug release could be controlled by crosslinking in glutaraldehyde vapor. - Abstract: In this study both aligned and randomly oriented poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold have been prepared by electrospinning. The ratio of PLGA to chitosan was adjusted to get smooth nanofiber surface. Morphological characterization using scanning electron microscopy showed that the aligned nanofiber diameter distribution obtained by electrospinning of polymer blend increased with the increase of chitosan content which was similar to that of randomly oriented nanofibers. The release characteristic of model drug fenbufen (FBF) from the FBF-loaded aligned and randomly oriented PLGA and PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds was investigated. The drug release rate increased with the increase of chitosan content because the addition of chitosan enhanced the hydrophilicity of the PLGA/chitosan composite scaffold. Moreover, for the aligned PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold the release rate was lower than that of randomly oriented PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold, which indicated that the nanofiber arrangement would influence the release behavior. In addition, crosslinking in glutaraldehyde vapor would decrease the burst release of FBF from FBF-loaded PLGA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffold with a PLGA/chitosan ratio less than 9/1, which

  13. Fabrication and characterization of curcumin-loaded silk fibroin/P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yuan; Zhan, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Kui-Hua; Mo, Xiu-Mei

    2014-12-01

    Curcumin exhibited excellent properties including antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and anticoagulant activities. In this study, curcumin was incorporated into silk fibroin (SF)/poly(L-lactic acid- co-e-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) nanofibrous scaffolds via electrospinning, and changes brought about by raising the curcumin content were observed: SEM images showed that the average nanofibrous diameter decreased at the beginning and then increased, and the nanofibers became uniform; FTIR showed that the conformation of SF transforming from random coil form to β-sheet structure had not been induced, while SF conformation converted to β-sheet after being treated with 75% ethanol vapor; XRD results confirmed that the crystal structure of (P(LLA-CL)) had been destroyed; The mechanical test illustrated that nanofibrous scaffolds still maintained good mechanical properties. Further, curcumin-loaded nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated for drug release, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in vitro. The results showed that curcumin presented a sustained release behavior from nanofibrous scaffolds and maintained its free radical scavenging ability, and such scaffolds could effectively inhibit S. aureus growth (> 95%). Thus, curcumin-loaded SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds might be potential candidates for wound dressing and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  14. The influence of fiber thickness, wall thickness and gap distance on the spiral nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a 3D nanofibrous spiral scaffold for bone tissue engineering which has shown enhanced cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation compared to traditional cylindrical scaffolds due to the spiral structures and the nanofiber incorporation. Some important parameters of these spiral scaffolds including gap distance, wall thickness and especially fiber thickness are crucial to the performance of the spiral structured scaffolds. In this study, we investigated the fiber thickness, gap distance and wall thickness of the spiral structure on the behavior of osteoblast cells. The human osteoblast cells are seeded on spiral structured scaffolds with various fiber thickness, gap distance and wall thickness and cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and mineralized matrix deposition on the scaffolds are evaluated. It was found that increasing the thickness of nanofiber layer not only limited the cell infiltration into the scaffolds, but also restrained the osteoblastic cell phenotype development. Moreover, the geometric effect studies indicated that scaffolds with the thinner wall and gap distance 0.2 mm show the best bioactivity for osteoblasts.

  15. In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Electrospun Polycaprolactone/Gelatine Nanofibrous Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mim Mim Lim; Tao Sun; Naznin Sultana

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds which mimic the native extracellular matrix of tissues to promote cell adhesion and growth is emphasized recently. Many polymers have been utilized in scaffold fabrication, but there is still a need to fabricate hydrophilic nanosized fibrous scaffolds with an appropriate degradation rate for skin tissue engineering applications. In this study, nanofibrous scaffolds of a biodegradable synthetic polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL), and bl...

  16. Novel nanofibrous scaffolds for water filtration with bacteria and virus removal capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Anna; Wang, Ran; Ma, Hongyang; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Chu, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a new class of composite fibrous membranes, consisting of an ultra-fine cellulose nanofibrous network infused into an electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous scaffold on a melt-blown polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven substrate for water purification. Depending on the infusion process and the ultra-fine cellulose nanofibers (UFCNs) used [e.g. modified ultra-fine cellulose nanofibers (m-UFCNs) or microcrystalline cellulose nanofibers (MCCNs)], different nanostructured scaffolds were formed as seen by electron microscopy. Membranes with UFCNs consist of an interwoven two-dimensional ultra-fine nanofibrous network that is deeply entangled with the electrospun scaffold and organized in a quasi-three-dimensional fashion, while those with MCCNs tend to locally wrap around the electrospun scaffolding nanofibers without forming a major network. Filtration tests illustrated that both membranes, while maintaining high permeation flux, exhibited excellent retention capabilities for simultaneous sieving for bacteria and adsorption for viruses. PMID:21562026

  17. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  18. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.T. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Huang, L.F. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, I.L., E-mail: 84004@cch.org.tw [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang-Hua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  19. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers

  20. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Abbas [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Peyman [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Soleimani, Masoud [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers.

  1. Evaluation of an air spinning process to produce tailored biosynthetic nanofibre scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbatier, Gad, E-mail: gad.sabbatier.1@ulaval.ca [Laboratoire de Physique et Mécanique Textile, École Nationale Supérieure d' Ingénieurs du Sud Alsace, Université de Haute Alsace, 11 rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex, Mulhouse (France); Laboratoire d' Ingénierie de Surface, Centre de Recherche sur les Matériaux Avancés, Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval 1045 avenue de la Médecine, Bureau 1033, Québec, G1V 0A6 Québec (Canada); Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, Hôpital St François d' Assise, 10 rue de l' Espinay, local E0-165, Québec (QC), G1L 3L5 Québec (Canada); and others

    2014-02-01

    We optimised the working parameters of an innovative air spinning device to produce nanofibrous polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fibre scaffolds which were then used to identify various scaffold morphologies based on the ratio of surface occupied by the polymer fibres on that covered by the entire polymer scaffold assembly. Scaffolds were then produced with the spinning experimental parameters, resulting in 90% of fibres in the overall polymer construct, and were subsequently used to perform a multiple linear regression analysis to highlight the relationship between nanofibre diameter and the air spinning parameters. Polymer solution concentration was deemed as the most significant parameter to control fibre diameter during the spinning process, despite interactions between experimental parameters. Based on these findings, viscosity measurements were performed to clarify the effect of the polymer solution property on scaffold morphology. - Highlights: • An air spinning device for nanofibre scaffold production was optimised. • Relationships between fibre diameter and spinning parameters were established. • Polymer solution concentration was the most significant parameter. • Interactions between experimental parameters also influence the spinning process. • Nanofibres were formed due to polymer chain entanglements.

  2. Preparation of Nanofibrous Structure of Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Microbeads for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiao-Wen Tsai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A highly ordered, mesoporous (pore size 2~50 nm bioactive glass (MBG structure has a greater surface area and pore volume and excellent bone-forming bioactivity compared with traditional bioactive glasses (BGs. Hence, MBGs have been used in drug delivery and bone tissue engineering. MBGs can be developed as either a dense or porous block. Compared with a block, microbeads provide greater flexibility for filling different-shaped cavities and are suitable for culturing cells in vitro. In contrast, the fibrous structure of a scaffold has been shown to increase cell attachment and differentiation due to its ability to mimic the three-dimensional structure of natural extracellular matrices. Hence, the aim of this study is to fabricate MBG microbeads with a fibrous structure. First, a sol-gel/electrospinning technique was utilized to fabricate the MBG nanofiber (MBGNF structure. Subsequently, the MBGNF microbeads (MFBs were produced by an electrospraying technology. The results show that the diameter of the MFBs decreases when the applied voltage increases. The drug loading and release profiles and mechanisms of the MFBs were also evaluated. MFBs had a better drug entrapment efficiency, could reduce the burst release of tetracycline, and sustain the release over 10 days. Hence, the MFBs may be suitable drug carriers. In addition, the cellular attachment of MG63 osteoblast-like cells is significantly higher for MFBs than for glass microbeads after culturing for 4 h. The nanofibrous structure of MFBs could provide an appropriate environment for cellular spreading. Therefore, MFBs have great potential for use as a bone graft material in bone tissue engineering applications.

  3. Effects of surface modification on the mechanical and structural properties of nanofibrous poly(ε-caprolactone)/forsterite scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite scaffolds consisting of polymers reinforced with ceramic nanoparticles are widely applied for hard tissue engineering. However, due to the incompatible polarity of ceramic nanoparticles with polymers, they tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix which results in undesirable effects on the integral properties of composites. In this research, forsterite (Mg2SiO4) nanoparticles was surface esterified by dodecyl alcohol and nanofibrous poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL)/modified forsterite scaffolds were developed through electrospinning technique. The aim of this research was to investigate the properties of surface modified forsterite nanopowder and PCL/modified forsterite scaffolds, before and after hydrolytic treatment, as well as the cellular attachment and proliferation. Results demonstrated that surface modification of nanoparticles significantly enhanced the tensile strength and toughness of scaffolds upon 1.5- and 4-folds compared to unmodified samples, respectively, due to improved compatibility between matrix and filler. Hydrolytic treatment of scaffolds also modified the bioactivity and cellular attachment and proliferation due to greatly enhanced hydrophilicity of the forsterite nanoparticles after this process compared to surface modified samples. Results suggested that surface modification of forsterite nanopowder and hydrolytic treatment of the developed scaffolds were effective approaches to address the issues in the formation of composite fibers and resulted in development of bioactive composite scaffolds with ideal mechanical and structural properties for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Forsterite nanopowder was surface modified with dodecyl alcohol. • Nanofibrous PCL/forsterite scaffolds were developed through electrospinning. • Composite scaffolds were treated in boiled water to remove the dodecyl chains. • Surface modification resulted in improved mechanical properties. • Hydrolytic treatment improved

  4. Effects of surface modification on the mechanical and structural properties of nanofibrous poly(ε-caprolactone)/forsterite scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharaziha, M., E-mail: Kharaziha.ma@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, M.H. [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Edris, H. [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Composite scaffolds consisting of polymers reinforced with ceramic nanoparticles are widely applied for hard tissue engineering. However, due to the incompatible polarity of ceramic nanoparticles with polymers, they tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix which results in undesirable effects on the integral properties of composites. In this research, forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) nanoparticles was surface esterified by dodecyl alcohol and nanofibrous poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL)/modified forsterite scaffolds were developed through electrospinning technique. The aim of this research was to investigate the properties of surface modified forsterite nanopowder and PCL/modified forsterite scaffolds, before and after hydrolytic treatment, as well as the cellular attachment and proliferation. Results demonstrated that surface modification of nanoparticles significantly enhanced the tensile strength and toughness of scaffolds upon 1.5- and 4-folds compared to unmodified samples, respectively, due to improved compatibility between matrix and filler. Hydrolytic treatment of scaffolds also modified the bioactivity and cellular attachment and proliferation due to greatly enhanced hydrophilicity of the forsterite nanoparticles after this process compared to surface modified samples. Results suggested that surface modification of forsterite nanopowder and hydrolytic treatment of the developed scaffolds were effective approaches to address the issues in the formation of composite fibers and resulted in development of bioactive composite scaffolds with ideal mechanical and structural properties for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Forsterite nanopowder was surface modified with dodecyl alcohol. • Nanofibrous PCL/forsterite scaffolds were developed through electrospinning. • Composite scaffolds were treated in boiled water to remove the dodecyl chains. • Surface modification resulted in improved mechanical properties. • Hydrolytic treatment

  5. Electrospun silk fibroin-hydroxybutyl chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds to biomimic extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuihua; Qian, Yongfang; Wang, Hongsheng; Fan, Linpeng; Huang, Chen; Mo, Xiumei

    2011-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)-hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) blend nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as solvents to biomimic the native ECM by electrospinning. SEM results showed that the average nanofibrous diameter increased when the content of HBC was raised from 20% to 100%. Whereas water contact angle measurements confirmed that SF/HBC nanofibrous scaffolds with different weight ratios were of good hydrophilicity. Both the tensile strength and the elongation at break were improved obviously when the weight ratio of SF to HBC was 20:80. (13)C-NMR clarified that SF and HBC molecules existed in H-bond interactions, but HBC did not induce SF conformation to transform from random coil form to β-sheet structure. Moreover, the use of genipin vapour not only induced conformation of SF to convert from random coil to β-sheet structure but also acted as a cross-linking agent for SF and HBC. Cell viability studies demonstrated that SF/HBC nanofibrous scaffolds presented good cellular compatibility. Thus, electrospun SF/HBC blended nanofibres may provide an ideal biomimic tissue-engineering scaffold. PMID:20615313

  6. Engineered electrospun poly(caprolactone)/polycaprolactone-g-hydroxyapatite nano-fibrous scaffold promotes human fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keivani, F; Shokrollahi, P; Zandi, M; Irani, S; F Shokrolahi; Khorasani, S C

    2016-11-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/hydroxyapatite nano-composites are among the best candidates for tissue engineering. However, interactions between nHAp and PCL are difficult to control leading to inhomogeneous dispersion of the bio-ceramic particles. Grafting of polymer chains at high density/chain length while promotes the phase compatibility may result in reduced HAp exposed surface area and therefore, bioactivity is compromised. This issue is addressed here by grafting PCL chains onto HAp nano-particles through ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (PCL-g-HAp). FTIR and TGA analysis showed that PCL (6.9wt%), was successfully grafted on the HAp. PCL/PCL-g-HAp nano-fibrous scaffold showed up to 10 and 33% enhancement in tensile strength and modulus, respectively, compared to those of PCL/HAp. The effects of HAp on the in vitro HAp formation were investigated for both the PCL/HAp and PCL/PCL-g-HAp scaffolds. Precipitation of HAp on the nano-composite scaffolds observed after 15days incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF), as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Human fibroblasts were seeded on PCL, PCL/HAp and PCL/PCL-g-HAp scaffolds. According to MTT assay, the highest cell proliferation was recorded for PCL/PCL-g-HAp nano-composite, at all time intervals (1-21days, P<0.001). Fluorescent microscopy (of DAPI stained samples) and electron microscopy images showed that all nano-fibrous scaffolds (PCL, PCL/HAp, and PCL/PCL-g-HAp), were non-toxic against cells, while more cell adhesion, and the most uniform cell distribution observed on the PCL/PCL-g-HAp. Overall, grafting of relatively short chains of PCL on the surface of HAp nano-particles stimulates fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on the PCL/PCL-g-HAp nano-composite. PMID:27523999

  7. Nanofibrous scaffolds supporting optimal central nervous system regeneration: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamudzandu M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Munyaradzi Kamudzandu, Paul Roach, Rosemary A Fricker, Ying Yang Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK Abstract: Restoration of function following damage to the central nervous system (CNS is severely restricted by several factors. These include the hindrance of axonal regeneration imposed by glial scars resulting from inflammatory response to damage, and limited axonal outgrowth toward target tissue. Strategies for promoting CNS functional regeneration include the use of nanotechnology. Due to their structural similarity, synthetic nanofibers could play an important role in regeneration of CNS neural tissue toward restoration of function following injury. Two-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds have been used to provide contact guidance for developing brain and spinal cord neurites, particularly from neurons cultured in vitro. Three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds have been used, both in vitro and in vivo, for creating cell adhesion permissive milieu, in addition to contact guidance or structural bridges for axons, to control reconnection in brain and spinal cord injury models. It is postulated that nanofibrous scaffolds made from biodegradable and biocompatible materials can become powerful structural bridges for both guiding the outgrowth of neurites and rebuilding glial circuitry over the “lesion gaps” resulting from injury in the CNS. Keywords: scaffold, nanofibrous scaffold, CNS, regeneration, alignment

  8. Effects of Chitosan Alkali Pretreatment on the Preparation of Electrospun PCL/Chitosan Blend Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Roozbahani; Naznin Sultana; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Hamed Nouparvar

    2013-01-01

    Recently, nanofibrous scaffolds have been used in the field of biomedical engineering as wound dressings, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug delivery applications. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds can be used as carriers for several types of drugs, genes, and growth factors. PCL is one of the most commonly applied synthetic polymers for medical use because of its biocompatibility and slow biodegradability. PCL is hydrophobic and has no cell recognition sites on its structure. Electro...

  9. Spray deposition of live cells throughout the electrospinning process produces nanofibrous three-dimensional tissue scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seil J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Justin T Seil, Thomas J WebsterLaboratories for Nanomedicine Research, School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Compared with traditional in-vitro cell culture materials, three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds provide a superior environment for promoting cell functions. Since nanofibrous scaffolds have nanometer pore sizes, cells are unable to penetrate on their own, so must be incorporated into the scaffold during fabrication to ensure proper cell distribution. In this study, biodegradable and cytocompatible poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibers were produced using an electrospinning process. As a model cell line, fibroblasts were periodically sprayed from a pump-action spray bottle onto the developing scaffold. The viability of cells before and after spraying, and also after incorporation into the scaffold, was compared. Results indicated that cell spraying and the scaffold fabrication process did not significantly reduce cell viability. These findings, thus, contribute to the understanding of how to produce more physiological relevant cell-seeded nanofibrous scaffolds, an important element for the future of nanotechnology and tissue engineering.Keywords: nanomaterials, tissue engineering, PLGA, nanotechnology

  10. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  11. Nanofibre-assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes in macroscopic polymer matrix via a scaffold-based method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile way for alignment of carbon nanotubes in macroscopic polymer matrix was developed by combining electrospinning and in-situ polymerization. The approach is based on the formation of nanofibre scaffolds with wellaligned arrays, which is filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs. CNTs will be well aligned in macroscopic polymer matrix when the aligned nanofibre scaffold containing CNTs has been incorporated into the poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA matrix by in-situ polymerization. We demonstrate that this scaffold approach is broadly applicable and allows for the fabrication of nanocomposites with accurately aligned nanofillers. The results presented in this report show that the approach is ideal by using polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibres as a scaffold of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs, and PMMA as the macroscopic polymer matrix. The tensile strength (7.2 wt% MWNTs/PAN nanofibres loadings reaches 48.61 MPa, 87% higher than that pure PMMA, and the tensile modulus is increased by 175%.

  12. Bioactive glasses-incorporated, core-shell-structured polypeptide/polysaccharide nanofibrous hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianyan; Han, Chunmao; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2013-01-30

    Although the synthetic hydrogel materials capable of accelerating wound healing are being developed at a rapid pace, achieving inorganic-organic hybrid at nanoscale dimension in nanofibrous hydrogels is still a great challenge because of its notorious brittleness and microstructural stability in wet state. Here, we developed a new nanofibrous gelatin/bioactive glass (NF-GEL/BG) composite hydrogel by phase separation method and followed by arming the nanofibers network with counterionic chitosan-hyaluronic acid pairs for improving microstructural and thermal integrity. We achieve this feature by carrying an optimal balance of charges that allows the inorganic ion release in aqueous solution without minimal structure collapse. Therefore, such NF-GEL-based, polysaccharide-crosslinked bioactive hydrogel could afford a close biomimicry to the fibrous nanostructure and constituents of the hierarchically organized natural soft tissues to facilitate chronic, nonhealing wound treatment. PMID:23218343

  13. Electrospun Polyhydroxybutyrate and Poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone Composites as Nanofibrous Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donraporn Daranarong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning can produce nanofibrous scaffolds that mimic the architecture of the extracellular matrix and support cell attachment for tissue engineering applications. In this study, fibrous membranes of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB with various loadings of poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL were successfully prepared by electrospinning. In comparison to PLCL scaffolds, PLCL blends with PHB exhibited more irregular fibre diameter distributions and higher average fibre diameters but there were no significant differences in pore size. PLCL/PHB scaffolds were more hydrophilic (<120° with significantly reduced tensile strength (ca. 1 MPa compared to PLCL scaffolds (150.9±2.8∘ and 5.8±0.5 MPa. Increasing PLCL loading in PHB/PLCL scaffolds significantly increased the extension at break, (4–6-fold. PLCL/PHB scaffolds supported greater adhesion and proliferation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs than those exhibiting asynchronous growth on culture plates. Mitochondrial activity of cells cultivated on the electrospun blended membranes was enhanced compared to those grown on PLCL and PHB scaffolds (212, 179, and 153%, resp.. Analysis showed that PLCL/PHB nanofibrous membranes promoted cell cycle progression and reduced the onset of necrosis. Thus, electrospun PLCL/PHB composites promoted adhesion and proliferation of OECs when compared to their individual PLCL and PHB components suggesting potential in the repair and engineering of nerve tissue.

  14. Improved cellular infiltration into nanofibrous electrospun cross-linked gelatin scaffolds templated with micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatin-based nanofibrous scaffolds with a mean fiber diameter of 300 nm were prepared with and without micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol (PEG) fibers that served as sacrificial templates. Upon fabrication of the scaffolds via electrospinning, the gelatin fibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and the PEG templates were removed using tert-butanol to yield nanofibrous scaffolds with pore diameters ranging from 10 to 100 μm, as estimated with mercury intrusion porosimetry. Non-templated gelatin-based nanofibrous matrices had an average pore size of 1 μm. Fibroblasts were seeded onto both types of the gelatin-based nanofibrous surfaces and cultured for 14 days. For comparative purposes, chitosan-based and polyurethane-based macroporous scaffolds with pore sizes of 100 and 170 μm, respectively, were also included. The number of cells as a function of the depth into the scaffold was judged and quantitatively assessed using nuclei staining. Cell penetration up to a depth of 250 and 90 μm was noted in gelatin scaffolds prepared with sacrificial templates and gelatin-only nanofibrous scaffolds. Noticeably, scaffold preparation protocol presented here allowed the structural integrity to be maintained even with high template content (95%) and can easily be extended toward other classes of electrospun polymer matrices for tissue engineering.

  15. Improved cellular infiltration into nanofibrous electrospun cross-linked gelatin scaffolds templated with micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skotak, Maciej [Biomechanics, Biomaterials and Biomedicine Instrumentation Facility, College of Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588-0642 (United States); Ragusa, Jorge; Gonzalez, Daniela; Subramanian, Anuradha, E-mail: asubramanian2@unl.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588-0643 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Gelatin-based nanofibrous scaffolds with a mean fiber diameter of 300 nm were prepared with and without micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol (PEG) fibers that served as sacrificial templates. Upon fabrication of the scaffolds via electrospinning, the gelatin fibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and the PEG templates were removed using tert-butanol to yield nanofibrous scaffolds with pore diameters ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}m, as estimated with mercury intrusion porosimetry. Non-templated gelatin-based nanofibrous matrices had an average pore size of 1 {mu}m. Fibroblasts were seeded onto both types of the gelatin-based nanofibrous surfaces and cultured for 14 days. For comparative purposes, chitosan-based and polyurethane-based macroporous scaffolds with pore sizes of 100 and 170 {mu}m, respectively, were also included. The number of cells as a function of the depth into the scaffold was judged and quantitatively assessed using nuclei staining. Cell penetration up to a depth of 250 and 90 {mu}m was noted in gelatin scaffolds prepared with sacrificial templates and gelatin-only nanofibrous scaffolds. Noticeably, scaffold preparation protocol presented here allowed the structural integrity to be maintained even with high template content (95%) and can easily be extended toward other classes of electrospun polymer matrices for tissue engineering.

  16. Peptide functionalized polyhydroxyalkanoate nanofibrous scaffolds enhance Schwann cells activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masaeli, E.; Wieringa, P.A.; Morshed, M.; Nasr-Esfahani, M.H.; Sadri, S.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Moroni, L.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between Schwann cells (SCs) and scaffolds are important for tissue development during nerve regeneration, because SCs physiologically assist in directing the growth of regenerating axons. In this study, we prepared electrospun scaffolds combining poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly

  17. PREPARATION OF BIOACTIVE NANOSTRUCTURE SCAFFOLD WITH IMPROVED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. EMADI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous scaffolds with open structure are today the best candidates for bone substitution to ensure bone oxygenation and angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new route to enhance the compressive strength of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold made of natural bone. Briefly, the spongy bone of an adult bovine was extracted, annealed, and coated by a nanostructure bioactive glass layer to be subsequently sintered at different temperatures. The apatite formation ability on the surfaces of the coated scaffolds was investigated by standard procedures. Our results showed that the scaffold and coating microstructure consisted of the grains smaller than 100 nm. These nanostructures improved the compressive strength and bioactivity of highly porous scaffold. The results showed that with increasing the sintering temperature, the compressive strength of scaffolds increased while their in vitro bioactivity decreased.

  18. Development of a novel collagen-GAG nanofibrous scaffold via electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Shaoping [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent 119260 (Singapore); Teo, Wee Eong [Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent 119260 (Singapore); Zhu Xiao [Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751 (Singapore); Beuerman, Roger [Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751 (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent 119260 (Singapore); Yung, Lin Yue Lanry [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent 119260 (Singapore)]. E-mail: cheyly@nus.edu.sg

    2007-03-15

    Collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) are native constituents of human tissues and are widely utilized to fabricate scaffolds serving as an analog of native extracellular matrix (ECM).The development of blended collagen and GAG scaffolds may potentially be used in many soft tissue engineering applications since the scaffolds mimic the structure and biological function of native ECM. In this study, we were able to obtain a novel nanofibrous collagen-GAG scaffold by electrospinning with collagen and chondroitin sulfate (CS), a widely used GAG. The electrospun collagen-GAG scaffold exhibited a uniform fiber structure in nano-scale diameter. By crosslinking with glutaraldehyde vapor, the collagen-GAG scaffolds could resist from collagenase degradation and enhance the biostability of the scaffolds. This led to the increased proliferation of rabbit conjunctiva fibroblast on the scaffolds. Incorporation of CS into collagen nanofibers without crosslinking did not increase the biostability but still promoted cell growth. In conclusion, the electrospun collagen-GAG scaffolds, with high surface-to-volume ratio, may potentially provide a better environment for tissue formation/biosynthesis compared with the traditional scaffolds.

  19. Oxygen-plasma-modified biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Pappa; Varvara Karagkiozaki; Silke Krol; Spyros Kassavetis; Dimitris Konstantinou; Charalampos Pitsalidis; Lazaros Tzounis; Nikos Pliatsikas; Stergios Logothetidis

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds have been extensively used in several biomedical applications for tissue engineering due to their morphological resemblance to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Especially, there is a need for the cardiovascular implants to exhibit a nanostructured surface that mimics the native endothelium in order to promote endothelialization and to reduce the complications of thrombosis and implant failure. Thus, we herein fabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) electrospun na...

  20. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L. Y.; Yang, X. B.; Weng, J.

    2008-12-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

  1. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L.Y.; Yang, X.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Weng, J. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: jweng@swjtu.cn

    2008-12-30

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

  2. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications

  3. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  4. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Sneh [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Chou, Chia-Fu [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Biology, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India)

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  5. Oxygen-plasma-modified biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds have been extensively used in several biomedical applications for tissue engineering due to their morphological resemblance to the extracellular matrix (ECM. Especially, there is a need for the cardiovascular implants to exhibit a nanostructured surface that mimics the native endothelium in order to promote endothelialization and to reduce the complications of thrombosis and implant failure. Thus, we herein fabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds, to serve as coatings for cardiovascular implants and guide tissue regeneration. Oxygen plasma treatment was applied in order to modify the surface chemistry of the scaffold and its effect on cell attachment and growth was evaluated. The conditions of the surface modification were properly adjusted in order to define those conditions of the treatment that result in surfaces favorable for cell growth, while maintaining morphological integrity and mechanical behavior. Goniometry (contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements were used to evaluate the morphological and chemical changes induced by the plasma treatment. Moreover, depth-sensing nanoindentation was performed to study the resistance of the plasma-treated scaffolds to plastic deformation. Lastly, the cell studies indicated that all scaffolds were cytocompatible, with the plasma-treated ones expressing a more pronounced cell viability and adhesion. All the above findings demonstrate the great potential of these biomimetic tissue-engineering constructs as efficient coatings for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants.

  6. Osteoinduction of human mesenchymal stem cells by bioactive composite scaffolds without supplemental osteogenic growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Polini

    Full Text Available The development of a new family of implantable bioinspired materials is a focal point of bone tissue engineering. Implant surfaces that better mimic the natural bone extracellular matrix, a naturally nano-composite tissue, can stimulate stem cell differentiation towards osteogenic lineages in the absence of specific chemical treatments. Herein we describe a bioactive composite nanofibrous scaffold, composed of poly-caprolactone (PCL and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA or beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP, which was able to support the growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs and guide their osteogenic differentiation at the same time. Morphological and physical/chemical investigations were carried out by scanning, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, mechanical and wettability analysis. Upon culturing hMSCs on composite nanofibers, we found that the incorporation of either HA or TCP into the PCL nanofibers did not affect cell viability, meanwhile the presence of the mineral phase increases the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, an early marker of bone formation, and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes, such as the Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2 and bone sialoprotein (BSP, in total absence of osteogenic supplements. These results suggest that both the nanofibrous structure and the chemical composition of the scaffolds play a role in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs.

  7. Woven silk fabric-reinforced silk nanofibrous scaffolds for regenerating load-bearing soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, F; Liu, S; Liu, X; Pei, Y; Bai, S; Zhao, H; Lu, Q; Ma, F; Kaplan, D L; Zhu, H

    2014-02-01

    Although three-dimensional (3-D) porous regenerated silk scaffolds with outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability and low inflammatory reactions have promising application in different tissue regeneration, the mechanical properties of regenerated scaffolds, especially suture retention strength, must be further improved to satisfy the requirements of clinical applications. This study presents woven silk fabric-reinforced silk nanofibrous scaffolds aimed at dermal tissue engineering. To improve the mechanical properties, silk scaffolds prepared by lyophilization were reinforced with degummed woven silk fabrics. The ultimate tensile strength, elongation at break and suture retention strength of the scaffolds were significantly improved, providing suitable mechanical properties strong enough for clinical applications. The stiffness and degradation behaviors were then further regulated by different after-treatment processes, making the scaffolds more suitable for dermal tissue regeneration. The in vitro cell culture results indicated that these scaffolds maintained their excellent biocompatibility after being reinforced with woven silk fabrics. Without sacrifice of porous structure and biocompatibility, the fabric-reinforced scaffolds with better mechanical properties could facilitate future clinical applications of silk as matrices in skin repair. PMID:24090985

  8. Development of electrospun nanofibrous-based scaffolds for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Albino

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials and scaffolds play a significant role in many strategies followed in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Those systems are intended and designed to help and guide the cells to contribute for the tissue regeneration process. To achieve that goal, the system needs to actively participate in the signaling process for the cells. It is widely believed that a successful scaffold should mimic the main properties and structure of the extracellular matrix of the tiss...

  9. Synthesis of functional polyester for fabrication of nano-fibrous scaffolds and its effect on PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Na; Tang, Shuo; Shi, Xiao-jun; Li, Hao; Ma, Yi-hong; Tao, Hai-xia; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    An ideal scaffold should mimic the advantageous characteristics of a natural extracellular matrix for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. In this study, well-defined block copolymer with functional groups was synthesized. The structure of the block copolymer was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. Thermally induced phase separation was employed to fabricate nano-fibrous scaffolds based on the synthesized block copolymer. The scaffold, with fiber diameter ranging from 400 to 500 nm, was fabricated for in vitro culture of PC12 cells. The carboxyl groups on the side chain resulted in increased hydrophilicity of nano-fibrous scaffolds and enhanced cell proliferation. In addition, this scaffold structure was beneficial in directing the growth of regenerating axons in nerve tissue engineering. Results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the nano-fibrous scaffolds with functional groups were suitable for PC12 cells growth. Moreover, the carboxyl groups were suitable for coupling with biological signals. Thus, the nano-fibrous scaffolds have potential applications in tissue engineering. PMID:26514960

  10. Porous SiO2 nanofiber grafted novel bioactive glass-ceramic coating: A structural scaffold for uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation on inert implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indranee; De, Goutam; Hupa, Leena; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-05-01

    A composite bioactive glass-ceramic coating grafted with porous silica nanofibers was fabricated on inert glass to provide a structural scaffold favoring uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation. The coating surfaces were investigated thoroughly before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. In addition, the proliferation behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface was observed for several culture times. The nanofibrous exterior of this composite bioactive coating facilitated homogeneous growth of flake-like carbonated hydroxyapatite layer within a short period of immersion. Moreover, the embedded porous silica nanofibers enhanced hydrophilicity which is required for proper cell adhesion on the surface. The cells proliferated well following a particular orientation on the entire coating by the assistance of nanofibrous scaffold-like structural matrix. This newly engineered composite coating was effective in creating a biological structural matrix favorable for homogeneous precipitation of calcium phosphate, and organized cell growth on the inert glass surface. PMID:26952416

  11. Electrospun chitosan-graft-poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/poly (ɛ-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds for retinal tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Honglin; Fan, Xianqun; Xia, Jing; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Xiaojian; Huang, Jin; Yu, Jiahui; Gu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    A promising therapy for retinal diseases is to employ biodegradable scaffolds to deliver retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) for repairing damaged or diseased retinal tissue. In the present study, cationic chitosan-graft-poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/polycaprolactone (CS-PCL/PCL) hybrid scaffolds were successfully prepared by electrospinning. Characterization of the obtained nanofibrous scaffolds indicated that zeta-potential, fiber diameter, and the content of amino groups on their surface were closely c...

  12. Hierarchical multilayer assembly of an ordered nanofibrous scaffold via thermal fusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major challenge in muscle tissue engineering is mimicking the ordered nanostructure of native collagen fibrils in muscles. Electrospun nanofiber constructs have been proposed as promising candidate alternatives to natural extracellular matrix. Here, we introduce a novel method to fabricate a two-dimension (2D) sheet-type and three-dimensionally integrated nanofibrous scaffolds by combining electrospinning and rapid prototyping. The aligned 2D nanofiber mats can be processed into different configurations by the CAD/CAM-based deposition of thermally extruded microstructures. We demonstrate the feasibility of these microstructures for application in muscle tissue engineering by culturing C2C12 myoblasts and then evaluating their viability and alignment. Highly aligned cellular morphologies were successfully achieved along the direction of the nanofibers in all types of scaffolds. The hybrid scaffolds provided mechanical support and served as a topographical guide at the nanoscale, exhibiting their potential to meet the requirements for practical use in tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  13. Characterization of Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Nanobiomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emul, E.; Saglam, S.; Ates, H.; Korkusuz, F.; Saglam, N.

    2016-08-01

    The electrospinning method is employed in the production of porous fiber scaffolds, and the usage of electrospun scaffolds especially as drug carrier and bone reconstructive material such as implants is promising for future applications in tissue engineering. The number of publications has grown very rapidly in this field through the fabrication of complex scaffolds, novel approaches in nanotechnology, and improvements of imaging methods. Hence, characterization of these materials has also grown significantly important for getting satisfied and accurate results. This advantageous and versatile method is ideal for mimicking bone extracellular matrix, and many biodegradable and biocompatible polymers are preferred in the field of bone reconstruction. In this study, gelatin, gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and gelatin/PLLA/nHAp scaffolds were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These composite fibers showed clear and continuous morphology according to observation through a scanning electron microscope and their component analyses were also determined by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analyses. These characterization experiments revealed the great effects of the electrospinning method for biomedical applications and have an especially important role in bone reconstruction and production of implant coating material.

  14. Characterization of Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Nanobiomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emul, E.; Saglam, S.; Ates, H.; Korkusuz, F.; Saglam, N.

    2016-05-01

    The electrospinning method is employed in the production of porous fiber scaffolds, and the usage of electrospun scaffolds especially as drug carrier and bone reconstructive material such as implants is promising for future applications in tissue engineering. The number of publications has grown very rapidly in this field through the fabrication of complex scaffolds, novel approaches in nanotechnology, and improvements of imaging methods. Hence, characterization of these materials has also grown significantly important for getting satisfied and accurate results. This advantageous and versatile method is ideal for mimicking bone extracellular matrix, and many biodegradable and biocompatible polymers are preferred in the field of bone reconstruction. In this study, gelatin, gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and gelatin/PLLA/nHAp scaffolds were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These composite fibers showed clear and continuous morphology according to observation through a scanning electron microscope and their component analyses were also determined by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analyses. These characterization experiments revealed the great effects of the electrospinning method for biomedical applications and have an especially important role in bone reconstruction and production of implant coating material.

  15. In Vitro Assessment of Antibacterial Activity and Cytocompatibility of Quercetin-Containing PLGA Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Cai Xing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell adhesion, and the viability and proliferation of KB epithelial cells. Quercetin- (1, 5 wt%-containing poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds (PLGA/Q 1, PLGA/Q 5 were prepared by electrospinning technique and their antibacterial properties were examined. Two types of bacteria strains, Staphylococcus aureus (SA and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP, were used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. The results showed that the quercetin-containing PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited significant antibacterial effects against the two bacterial strains. KB epithelial cells were also used to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the scaffolds. From the results, it was found that the PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds with 1 wt% of quercetin had good cell compatibility. It is considered that the PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds with 1 wt% quercetin have potential to be used in tissue engineering.

  16. The nanofibrous PAN-PANi scaffold as an efficient substrate for skeletal muscle differentiation using satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Mahmoudifard, Matin; Mohamadyar-Toupkanlou, Farzaneh; Dodel, Masomeh; Hajarizadeh, Atena; Adabi, Mahdi; Soleimani, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Among polymers, polyaniline (PANi) has been introduced as a good candidate for muscle regeneration due to high conductivity and also biocompatibility. Herein, for the first time, we report the use of electrospun nanofibrous membrane of PAN-PANi as efficient scaffold for muscle regeneration. The prepared PAN-PANi electrospun nanofibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and tensile examination. The softer scaffolds of non-composite electrospun nanofibrous PAN govern a higher rate of cell growth in spite of lower differentiation value. On the other hand, PAN-PANi electrospun nanofibrous membrane exposed high cell proliferation and also differentiation value. Thank to the conductive property and higher Young's modulus of composite type due to the employment of PANi, satellite cells were induced into more matured form as analyzed by Real-Time PCR. On the other hand, grafting of composite nanofibrous electrospun scaffold with gelatin increased the surface stiffness directing satellite cells into lower cell proliferation and highest value of differentiation. Our results for first time showed the significant role of combination between conductivity, mechanical property and surface modification of PAN-PANi electrospun nanofibers and provid new insights into most biocompatible scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The schematic figure conveys the effective combination of conductive and surface stiffness on muscle tissue engineering. PMID:27086138

  17. A novel gellan-PVA nanofibrous scaffold for skin tissue regeneration: Fabrication and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Priya; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Pruthi, Parul A; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-01-20

    In this investigation, we have introduced novel electrospun gellan based nanofibers as a hydrophilic scaffolding material for skin tissue regeneration. These nanofibers were fabricated using a blend mixture of gellan with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA reduced the repulsive force of resulting solution and lead to formation of uniform fibers with improved nanostructure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the average diameter of nanofibers down to 50 nm. The infrared spectra (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis evaluated the crosslinking, thermal stability and highly crystalline nature of gellan-PVA nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, the cell culture studies using human dermal fibroblast (3T3L1) cells established that these gellan based nanofibrous scaffold could induce improved cell adhesion and enhanced cell growth than conventionally proposed gellan based hydrogels and dry films. Importantly, the nanofibrous scaffold are biodegradable and could be potentially used as a temporary substrate/or biomedical graft to induce skin tissue regeneration. PMID:26572421

  18. Skeletal muscle regeneration via engineered tissue culture over electrospun nanofibrous chitosan/PVA scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmandi, Mahsa; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Ghiaseddin, Ali; Ganji, Fariba

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue shows a remarkable potential in regeneration of injured tissue. However, in some of chronic and volumetric muscle damages, the native tissue is incapable to repair and remodeling the trauma. In the same condition, stem-cell therapy increased regeneration in situations of deficient muscle repair, but the major problem seems to be the lack of ability to attachment and survive of injected cells on the exact location. In this study, chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous scaffold was studied to promote cell attachment and provide mechanical support during regeneration. Scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and tensile test. Degradation and swelling behavior of scaffold were studied for 20 days. The cell-scaffold interaction was characterized by MTT assay for 10 days and in vivo biocompatibility of scaffold in a rabbit model was evaluated. Results showed that cells had a good viability, adhesion, growth, and spread on the scaffold, which make this mat a desirable engineered muscular graft. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1720-1727, 2016. PMID:26945909

  19. Human unrestricted somatic stem cells loaded in nanofibrous PCL scaffold and their healing effect on skin defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hoda; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Chari, Aliakbar Jafari; Biazar, Esmaeil

    2016-09-01

    Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) loaded in nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds can be used for skin regeneration when grafted onto full-thickness skin defects of rats. Nanofibrous PCL scaffolds were designed by the electrospinning method and crosslinked with laminin protein. Afterwards, the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and physical and mechanical assays. In this study, nanofibrous PCL scaffolds loaded with USSCs were grafted onto the skin defects. The wounds were subsequently investigated 21 days after grafting. Results of mechanical and physical analyses showed good resilience and compliance to movement as a skin graft. In animal models; study samples exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen at 21 days post-operatively. Histological examinations of healed wounds from all samples showed a thin epidermis plus recovered skin appendages in the dermal layer for samples with cell. Thus, the graft of nanofibrous PCL scaffolds loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat models. PMID:26140614

  20. Preparation and investigation of polylactic acid, calcium carbonate and polyvinylalcohol nanofibrous scaffolds for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Doustgani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, the effect of electrospun fiber orientation on proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Aligned and random nanocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds were electrospun from polylactic acid (PLA, poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA and calcium carbonate nanoparticles (nCaP. The surface morphology of prepared nanofibrous scaffolds with and without cell was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were determined with a  universal testing machine. The in vitro properties of fabricated scaffolds was also investigated by the MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP.Results: The average fiber diameter for aligned and random nanofibers were 82 ± 12 nm and 124 ± 25 nm, respectively. The mechanical testing indicated the higher tensile strength and elastic modulus of aligned nanofibers. MTT and ALP results showed that alignment of nanofiber increased the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.Conclusion: Aligned nanofibrous nanocomposite scaffolds of PLA/nCaP/PVA could be an excellent substrate for MSCs and represents a potential bone-filling material.

  1. A uniaxially oriented nanofibrous cellulose scaffold from pellicles produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus in dissolved oxygen culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Aya; Tsuji, Tsubasa; Kondo, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter xylinus, was successfully employed to produce a stretchable cellulose nanofiber pellicle using dissolved oxygen in a conventional cultured medium. The obtained nanofibers were highly crystalline with the metastable cellulose Iα phase being apparently the dominant phase by more than 90%. The obtained pellicle could be stretched by up to 1.5 times to provide oriented crystalline nanofibrous films. Low heating of the nanofibrous film induced the transformation of the dominant cellulose Iα crystalline phase into the Iβ crystalline phase without a loss of crystallinity or the high Young's modulus. The film also exhibited unique and anisotropic viscoelastic and mechanical properties as well as superior thermal stability compared with conventional high-performance synthetic polymeric materials. In addition, when G. xylinus cells were transferred to the oriented surface after stretched, they started to synthesize cellulose ribbons that parallel the nanofiber orientation of the substrate. This function as a template was evidenced by direct video imaging of the motion of the bacteria. The application of a bacterial culture using dissolved oxygen in the medium offers the fabrication of novel anisotropic and nanofibrous scaffold of cellulose Iα. PMID:26453871

  2. Development of nanofibrous scaffolds containing gum tragacanth/poly (ε-caprolactone) for application as skin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outstanding wound healing activity of gum tragacanth (GT) and higher mechanical strength of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) may produce an excellent nanofibrous patch for either skin tissue engineering or wound dressing application. PCL/GT scaffold containing different concentrations of PCL with different blend ratios of GT/PCL was produced using 90% acetic acid as solvent. The results demonstrated that the PCL/GT (3:1.5) with PCL concentration of 20% (w/v) produced nanofibers with proper morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to characterize the nanofibers. Surface wettability, functional groups analysis, porosity and tensile properties of nanofibers were evaluated. Morphological characterization showed that the addition of GT to PCL solution results in decreasing the average diameter of the PCL/GT nanofibers. However, the hydrophilicity increased in the PCL/GT nanofibers. Slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. PCL/GT nanofibers were used for in vitro cell culture of human fibroblast cell lines AGO and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. MTT assay and SEM results showed that the biocomposite PCL/GT mats enhanced the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation compared to PCL scaffolds. The antibacterial activity of PCL/GT and GT nanofibers against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also examined. - Highlights: • A new skin tissue engineering scaffold from poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gum tragacanth (GT) has been developed. • These scaffolds might be an effectual simulator of the structure and composition of native skin. • Very slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. • Biodegradation, water uptake and hydrophilicity properties of these scaffolds showed that produced scaffolds were adherent. • The electrospun PCL/GT scaffold can promote the skin regeneration of full

  3. Development of nanofibrous scaffolds containing gum tragacanth/poly (ε-caprolactone) for application as skin scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrami, S. Hajir, E-mail: hajirb@aut.ac.ir [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for excellence Modern Textile Characterization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Outstanding wound healing activity of gum tragacanth (GT) and higher mechanical strength of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) may produce an excellent nanofibrous patch for either skin tissue engineering or wound dressing application. PCL/GT scaffold containing different concentrations of PCL with different blend ratios of GT/PCL was produced using 90% acetic acid as solvent. The results demonstrated that the PCL/GT (3:1.5) with PCL concentration of 20% (w/v) produced nanofibers with proper morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to characterize the nanofibers. Surface wettability, functional groups analysis, porosity and tensile properties of nanofibers were evaluated. Morphological characterization showed that the addition of GT to PCL solution results in decreasing the average diameter of the PCL/GT nanofibers. However, the hydrophilicity increased in the PCL/GT nanofibers. Slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. PCL/GT nanofibers were used for in vitro cell culture of human fibroblast cell lines AGO and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. MTT assay and SEM results showed that the biocomposite PCL/GT mats enhanced the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation compared to PCL scaffolds. The antibacterial activity of PCL/GT and GT nanofibers against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also examined. - Highlights: • A new skin tissue engineering scaffold from poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gum tragacanth (GT) has been developed. • These scaffolds might be an effectual simulator of the structure and composition of native skin. • Very slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. • Biodegradation, water uptake and hydrophilicity properties of these scaffolds showed that produced scaffolds were adherent. • The electrospun PCL/GT scaffold can promote the skin regeneration of full

  4. Silk fibroin/sodium alginate composite nano-fibrous scaffold prepared through thermally induced phase-separation (TIPS) method for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haiping, E-mail: zhp9810_a@163.com; Liu, Xiaotian, E-mail: xtianliu@126.com; Yang, Mingying, E-mail: yangm@zju.edu.cn; Zhu, Liangjun, E-mail: ljzhu@zju.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    To mimic the natural fibrous structure of the tissue extracellular matrix, a nano-fibrous silk fibroin (SF)/sodium alginate (SA) composite scaffold was fabricated by a thermally-induced phase-separation method. The effects of SF/SA ratio on the structure and the porosity of the composite scaffolds were examined. Scanning electron microscopy and porosity results showed that the 5SF/1SA and 3SF/1SA scaffolds possessed an excellent nano-fibrous structure and a porosity of more than 90%. Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry results indicated the physical interaction between SF and SA molecules and their good compatibility in the 5SF/1SA and 3SF/1SA scaffolds, whereas they showed less compatibility in the 1SF/1SA scaffold. Cell culture results showed that MG-63 cells can attach and grow well on the surface of the SF/SA scaffolds. The nano-fibrous SF/SA scaffold can be potentially used in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricate a nano-fibrous silk fibroin (SF)/sodium alginate (SA) composite scaffold. • The scaffold was prepared through a thermally induced phase separation method. • SF molecules are physically interacted with SA molecules. • Good molecular compatibility can be found in 5SF/1SA and 3SF/1SA scaffolds. • The nano-fibrous SF/SA scaffold is biocompatible.

  5. Ionic solutes impact collagen scaffold bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, K M; Husmann, A; Wardale, R J; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

    2015-02-01

    The structure of ice-templated collagen scaffolds is sensitive to many factors. By adding 0.5 wt% of sodium chloride or sucrose to collagen slurries, scaffold structure could be tuned through changes in ice growth kinetics and interactions of the solute and collagen. With ionic solutes (sodium chloride) the entanglements of the collagen molecule decreased, leading to fibrous scaffolds with increased pore size and decreased attachment of chondrocytes. With non-ionic solutes (sucrose) ice growth was slowed, leading to significantly reduced pore size and up-regulated cell attachment. This highlights the large changes in structure and biological function stimulated by solutes in ice-templating systems. PMID:25649518

  6. Nanofibrous Chitosan-Polyethylene Oxide Engineered Scaffolds: A Comparative Study between Simulated Structural Characteristics and Cells Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazemi Pilehrood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D nanofibrous chitosan-polyethylene oxide (PEO scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning at different processing parameters. The structural characteristics, such as pore size, overall porosity, pore interconnectivity, and scaffold percolative efficiency (SPE, were simulated by a robust image analysis. Mouse fibroblast cells (L929 were cultured in RPMI for 2 days in the presence of various samples of nanofibrous chitosan/PEO scaffolds. Cell attachments and corresponding mean viability were enhanced from 50% to 110% compared to that belonging to a control even at packed morphologies of scaffolds constituted from pores with nanoscale diameter. To elucidate the correlation between structural characteristics within the depth of the scaffolds’ profile and cell viability, a comparative analysis was proposed. This analysis revealed that larger fiber diameters and pore sizes can enhance cell viability. On the contrary, increasing the other structural elements such as overall porosity and interconnectivity due to a simultaneous reduction in fiber diameter and pore size through the electrospinning process can reduce the viability of cells. In addition, it was found that manipulation of the processing parameters in electrospinning can compensate for the effects of packed morphologies of nanofibrous scaffolds and can thus potentially improve the infiltration and viability of cells.

  7. Biocompatibility evaluation of electrospun aligned poly(propylene carbonate) nanofibrous scaffolds with peripheral nerve tissues and cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu; ZHAO Zhe; ZHAO Bin; QI Hong-xu; PENG Jiang; ZHANG Li; XU Wen-jing; HU Ping; LU Shi-bi

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve regeneration across large gaps is clinically challenging. Scaffold design plays a pivotal role in nerve tissue engineering. Recently, nanofibrous scaffolds have proven a suitable environment for cell attachment and proliferation due to similarities of their physical properties to natural extracellular matrix. Poly(propylene carbonate)(PPC) nanofibrous scaffolds have been investigated for vascular tissue engineering. However, no reports exist of PPC nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. This study aimed to evaluate the potential role of aligned and random PPC nanofibrous scaffolds as substrates for peripheral nerve tissue and cells in nerve tissue engineering. Methods Aligned and random PPC nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and their chemical characterization were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured on the nanofibrous substrates for 7 days. Neurite outgrowth and Schwann-cell migration from DRG were observed and quantified using immunocytochemistry and SEM. Schwann cells derived from rat sciatic nerves were cultured in electrospun PPC scaffold-extract fluid for 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days. The viability of Schwann cells was evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethyl(thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl] tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results The diameter of aligned and random fibers ranged between 800 nm and 1200 nm, and the thickness of the films was approximately 10-20 μm. Quantification of aligned fiber films revealed approximately 90% alignment of all fibers along the longitudinal axis. However, with random fiber films, the alignment of fibers was random through all angle bins. Rat DRG explants were grown on PPC nanofiber films for up to 1 week. On the aligned fiber films, the majority of neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell migration from the DRG extended unidirectionally, parallel to the aligned fibers.However, on the random fiber films

  8. Nanofiltration membranes based on polyvinylidene fluoride nanofibrous scaffolds and crosslinked polyethyleneimine networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we describe the synthesis of new and ion-selective nanofiltration (NF) membranes using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers and hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) as building blocks. These new nanofibrous composite (NFC) membranes consist of crosslinked hyperbranched PEI networks supported by PVDF nanofibrous scaffolds that are electrospun onto commercial PVDF microfiltration (MF) membranes. A major objective of our study was to fabricate positively charged NF membranes that can be operated at low pressure with high water flux and improved rejection for monovalent cations. To achieve this, we investigated the effects of crosslinker chemistry on membrane properties (morphology, composition, hydrophobicity, and zeta potential) and membrane performance (salt rejection and permeate flux) in aqueous solutions (2,000 mg/L) of four salts (NaCl, MgCl2, Na2SO4, and MgSO4) at pH 4, 6, and 8. We found that an NFC–PVDF membrane with a network of PEI macromolecules crosslinked with trimesoyl chloride has a high water flux (∼30 L m−2 h−1) and high rejections for MgCl2 (∼88 %) and NaCl (∼65 %) at pH 6 using a pressure of 7 bar. The overall results of our study suggest that PVDF nanofibers and hyperbranched PEI are promising building blocks for the fabrication of high performance NF membranes for water purification.

  9. Nanofiltration membranes based on polyvinylidene fluoride nanofibrous scaffolds and crosslinked polyethyleneimine networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong-Jik [Hankyong National University, Department of Bioresources and Rural Systems Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Cheedrala, Ravi Kumar; Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: mdiallo@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changmin; Kim, In S. [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Goddard, William A. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    In this article, we describe the synthesis of new and ion-selective nanofiltration (NF) membranes using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers and hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) as building blocks. These new nanofibrous composite (NFC) membranes consist of crosslinked hyperbranched PEI networks supported by PVDF nanofibrous scaffolds that are electrospun onto commercial PVDF microfiltration (MF) membranes. A major objective of our study was to fabricate positively charged NF membranes that can be operated at low pressure with high water flux and improved rejection for monovalent cations. To achieve this, we investigated the effects of crosslinker chemistry on membrane properties (morphology, composition, hydrophobicity, and zeta potential) and membrane performance (salt rejection and permeate flux) in aqueous solutions (2,000 mg/L) of four salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and MgSO{sub 4}) at pH 4, 6, and 8. We found that an NFC-PVDF membrane with a network of PEI macromolecules crosslinked with trimesoyl chloride has a high water flux ({approx}30 L m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) and high rejections for MgCl{sub 2} ({approx}88 %) and NaCl ({approx}65 %) at pH 6 using a pressure of 7 bar. The overall results of our study suggest that PVDF nanofibers and hyperbranched PEI are promising building blocks for the fabrication of high performance NF membranes for water purification.

  10. Bioactivity of polyurethane-based scaffolds coated with Bioglass (registered)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyurethane (PUR) and polyurethane/poly(d, l-lactide) acid (PUR/PDLLA) based scaffolds coated with Bioglass (registered) particles for application in bone tissue engineering were fabricated. The slurry-dipping method was used for coating preparation. The homogeneous structure of the Bioglass (registered) coatings on the surface of the PUR and PUR/PDLLA foams indicated a good adhesion of the bioactive glass particles to polyurethane without any additional surface treatment. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed to study the influence of Bioglass (registered) coating on biodegrability and bioactivity of PUR-based scaffolds. The surface of Bioglass (registered) -coated samples was covered by a layer of carbonate-containing apatite after 7 days of immersion in SBF, while in uncoated polymer samples apatite crystals were not detected even after 21 days of immersion in SBF. The apatite layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS analysis and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR-ATR). Weight loss measurements showed that the in vitro degradation rate of the composite scaffolds in SBF was higher in comparison to uncoated polyurethane samples. PUR and PUR/PDLLA foams with Bioglass (registered) coating have potential to be used as bioactive, biodegradable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering

  11. Preparation and characterization of novel electrospun poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-based nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Alireza; Bakhtiary, Mohsen; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Salehi, Roya; Frakhani, Samad Mussa; Ebrahimi, Ommolbanin; Rahmati-yamchi, Mohammad; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2016-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have many advantages that make them excellent candidates for tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds with high surface area to volume ratio favor cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and differentiation. In the present study, the preparation of electrospun poly (ϵ-caprolactone)-polyethylene glycol-poly (ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) nanofibers is shown for the first time. PCL-PEG-PCL copolymers were synthesized using a ring-opening polymerization method. The polymers were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DSC. Nanofibers with mean diameters ranging from 60 to 170 nm were obtained by the electrospinning method. Their morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An MTT assay was used to compare the number of cells in the nanofiber scaffold. It was found that the morphology and diameter of the nanofiber depended on the chemical composition and molecular weight of the PEG segment of the copolymer used for electrospinning. Increasing the molecular weight of PEG blocks from 2000 to 6000 led to a decrease of the diameter of the fibers and the formation of beads. PMID:25307268

  12. Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds increase the efficacy of stem cell-mediated therapy of surgically resected glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagó, Juli R; Pegna, Guillaume J; Okolie, Onyi; Mohiti-Asli, Mahsa; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Hingtgen, Shawn D

    2016-06-01

    Engineered stem cell (SC)-based therapy holds enormous promise for treating the incurable brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM). Retaining the cytotoxic SCs in the surgical cavity after GBM resection is one of the greatest challenges to this approach. Here, we describe a biocompatible electrospun nanofibrous scaffold (bENS) implant capable of delivering and retaining tumor-homing cytotoxic stem cells that suppress recurrence of post-surgical GBM. As a new approach to GBM therapy, we created poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) bENS bearing drug-releasing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We discovered that bENS-based implant increased hMSC retention in the surgical cavity 5-fold and prolonged persistence 3-fold compared to standard direct injection using our mouse model of GBM surgical resection/recurrence. Time-lapse imaging showed cytotoxic hMSC/bENS treatment killed co-cultured human GBM cells, and allowed hMSCs to rapidly migrate off the scaffolds as they homed to GBMs. In vivo, bENS loaded with hMSCs releasing the anti-tumor protein TRAIL (bENS(sTR)) reduced the volume of established GBM xenografts 3-fold. Mimicking clinical GBM patient therapy, lining the post-operative GBM surgical cavity with bENS(sTR) implants inhibited the re-growth of residual GBM foci 2.3-fold and prolonged post-surgical median survival from 13.5 to 31 days in mice. These results suggest that nanofibrous-based SC therapies could be an innovative new approach to improve the outcomes of patients suffering from terminal brain cancer. PMID:27016620

  13. Influence of Post-Treatment with 75% (v/v) Ethanol Vapor on the Properties of SF/P(LLA-CL) Nanofibrous Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Yong Yan; Qing Ye; Kui-Hua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the water-resistant ability of silk fibroin (SF) and SF/P(LLA-CL) blended nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, 75% (v/v) ethanol vapor was used to post-treat electrospun nanofibers. SEM indicated that the treated SF and SF/ P(LLA-CL) nanofibrous scaffolds maintained a nanofibrous structure and possessed good water-resistant ability. Characterization of 13C CP-MAS NMR clarified that 75% (v/v) ethanol vapor could induce SF conformation from random coil ...

  14. Fabrication and characterization of strontium incorporated 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue from biosilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Ali Can; Yücel, Sevil

    2016-11-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds that contain silica are high viable biomaterials as bone supporters for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactive behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the human body, these materials help inorganic bone structure formation due to a combination of the particular ratio of elements such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P), and the doping of strontium (Sr) into the scaffold structure increases their bioactive behaviour. In this study, bioactive glass scaffolds were produced by using rice hull ash (RHA) silica and commercial silica based bioactive glasses. The structural properties of scaffolds such as pore size, porosity and also the bioactive behaviour were investigated. The results showed that undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds have better bioactivity than that of commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds. Moreover, undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds will be able to be used instead of undoped and Sr-doped commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. Scaffolds that are produced from undoped or Sr-doped RHA silica have high potential to form new bone for bone defects in tissue engineering. PMID:27524030

  15. Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering applications by electrospinning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, composite nanofibrous tissue engineering-scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone and gelatin, was fabricated by electrospinning method, using a new cost-effective solvent mixture: chloroform/methanol for polycaprolactone (PCL) and acetic acid for gelatin. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold was investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) which clearly indicates that the morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL to gelatin in the solution. Uniform fibers were produced only when the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin is sufficiently high (10:1). The scaffold was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR and TG analysis indicated some interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules within the scaffold, while XRD results demonstrated crystalline nature of PCL/gelatin composite scaffold. Cytotoxicity effect of scaffold on L929 mouse fibroblast cells was evaluated by MTT assay and cell proliferation on the scaffold was confirmed by DNA quantification. Positive results of MTT assay and DNA quantification L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated that the scaffold made from the combination of natural polymer (gelatin) and synthetic polymer (PCL) may serve as a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► PCL/Gelatin scaffold was successfully fabricated by electrospinning method. PCL in CHCl3/CH3OH and gelatin in acetic acid: a novel polymer-solvent system. ► The morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin. ► Chemical interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules enhanced cell growth. ► Cell culture studies indicate the suitability of scaffold for tissue regeneration

  16. Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering applications by electrospinning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Sneh [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India); Dinda, Amit Kumar [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi, 110029 (India); Mishra, Narayan Chandra, E-mail: mishrawise@googlemail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India)

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, composite nanofibrous tissue engineering-scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone and gelatin, was fabricated by electrospinning method, using a new cost-effective solvent mixture: chloroform/methanol for polycaprolactone (PCL) and acetic acid for gelatin. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold was investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) which clearly indicates that the morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL to gelatin in the solution. Uniform fibers were produced only when the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin is sufficiently high (10:1). The scaffold was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR and TG analysis indicated some interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules within the scaffold, while XRD results demonstrated crystalline nature of PCL/gelatin composite scaffold. Cytotoxicity effect of scaffold on L929 mouse fibroblast cells was evaluated by MTT assay and cell proliferation on the scaffold was confirmed by DNA quantification. Positive results of MTT assay and DNA quantification L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated that the scaffold made from the combination of natural polymer (gelatin) and synthetic polymer (PCL) may serve as a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► PCL/Gelatin scaffold was successfully fabricated by electrospinning method. ► PCL in CHCl{sub 3}/CH{sub 3}OH and gelatin in acetic acid: a novel polymer-solvent system. ► The morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin. ► Chemical interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules enhanced cell growth. ► Cell culture studies indicate the suitability of scaffold for tissue regeneration.

  17. Protocol and cell responses in three-dimensional conductive collagen gel scaffolds with conductive polymer nanofibres for tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Pareta, Rajesh; Harrison, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    It has been established that nerves and skeletal muscles respond and communicate via electrical signals. In regenerative medicine, there is current emphasis on using conductive nanomaterials to enhance electrical conduction through tissue-engineered scaffolds to increase cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. We investigated the role of chemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conductive polymer nanofibres for conductive gels. To mimic a na...

  18. Biomimetic component coating on 3D scaffolds using high bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun HS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hui-suk Yun1, Sang-Hyun Kim2, Dongwoo Khang3, Jungil Choi4, Hui-hoon Kim2, Minji Kang31Functional Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Gyeongnam, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Jung-Gu, Daegu, Korea; 3School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering and Center for NMBE, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea; 4Department of Anatomy, Institute of Health Science and School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam, KoreaBackground: Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs are very attractive materials for use in bone tissue regeneration because of their extraordinarily high bone-forming bioactivity in vitro. That is, MBGs may induce the rapid formation of hydroxy apatite (HA in simulated body fluid (SBF, which is a major inorganic component of bone extracellular matrix (ECM and comes with both good osteoconductivity and high affinity to adsorb proteins. Meanwhile, the high bioactivity of MBGs may lead to an abrupt initial local pH variation during the initial Ca ion-leaching from MBGs at the initial transplant stage, which may induce unexpected negative effects on using them in in vivo application. In this study we suggest a new way of using MBGs in bone tissue regeneration that can improve the strength and make up for the weakness of MBGs. We applied the outstanding bone-forming bioactivity of MBG to coat the main ECM components HA and collagen on the MBG-polycarplolactone (PCL composite scaffolds for improving their function as bone scaffolds in tissue regeneration. This precoating process can also expect to reduce initial local pH variation of MBGs.Methods and materials: The MBG-PCL scaffolds were immersed in the mixed solution of the collagen and SBF at 37°C for 24 hours. The coating of ECM components on the MBG-PCL scaffolds and the effect of ECM coating on in vitro cell behaviors were confirmed.Results: The ECM components were fully

  19. A biocompatibility study of new nanofibrous scaffolds for nervous system regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, A.; Marchini, A.; Pugliese, R.; Mauri, M.; Maleki, M.; Vasita, R.; Gelain, F.

    2015-12-01

    effective therapy will require contribution of different disciplines such as materials science, cell biology, drug delivery and nanotechnology. One of the biggest challenges in SCI regeneration is to create an artificial scaffold that could mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and support nervous system regeneration. Electrospun constructs and hydrogels based on self-assembling peptides (SAPs) have been recently preferred. In this work SAPs and polymers were assembled by using a coaxial electrospinning setup. We tested the biocompatibility of two types of coaxially electrospun microchannels: the first one made by a core of poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PCL-PLGA) and a shell of an emulsion of PCL-PLGA and a functionalized self-assembling peptide Ac-FAQ and the second one made by a core of Ac-FAQ and a shell of PCL-PLGA. Moreover, we tested an annealed scaffold by PCL-PLGA microchannel heat-treatment. The properties of coaxial scaffolds were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed via viability and differentiation assays with neural stem cells (NSCs); whereas in vivo inflammatory response was evaluated following scaffold implantation in rodent spinal cords. Emulsification of the outer shell turned out to be the best choice in terms of cell viability and tissue response: thus suggesting the potential of using functionalized SAPs in coaxial electrospinning for applications in regenerative medicine. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: In vivo analysis to evaluate tissue reaction in the scaffold implant walls (Fig. S1) and to test axonal regeneration (Fig. S2). Waters LC-MS Alliance-3100 analysis to confirm the molecular weight and the integrity of peptides following the electrospray process (Fig. S3). Water contact angle of electrospun nanofibrous mats (Fig. S4). See DOI: 10

  20. Study on surface modification of porous apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Zhou, Dali; Xue, Ming; Li, Guangda; Yang, Weizhong; Long, Qin; Ji, Li

    2008-11-01

    Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the surface of apatite-wollastonite bioactive glass ceramic (AW GC) scaffold to prepare AW/CS composite scaffold. The in vitro bioactivity of the AW/CS composite scaffold was investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking experiment. Cell growth on the surface of the material was evaluated by co-culturing osteogenic marrow stromal cells (MSCs) of rabbits with the scaffold. The results showed that the compressive strength of AW GC scaffold was improved dramatically after being modified by CS, whereas the mineralization rate was delayed. MSCs can attach well on the surface of the composite scaffold.

  1. Synergistic effect of topography, surface chemistry and conductivity of the electrospun nanofibrous scaffold on cellular response of PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lingling; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Hu, Jue; Chen, Menglin; Besenbacher, Flemming; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous nerve implants is a promising therapy for peripheral nerve injury, and its performance can be tailored by chemical cues, topographical features as well as electrical properties. In this paper, a surface modified, electrically conductive, aligned nanofibrous scaffold composed of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polypyrrole (Ppy), referred to as o-PLAPpy_A, was fabricated for nerve regeneration. The morphology, surface chemistry and hydrophilicity of nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle, respectively. The effects of these nanofibers on neuronal differentiation using PC12 cells were evaluated. A hydrophilic surface was created by Poly-ornithine coating, which was able to provide a better environment for cell attachment, and furthermore aligned fibers were proved to be able to guide PC12 cells grow along the fiber direction and be beneficial for neurite outgrowth. The cellular response of PC12 cells to pulsed electrical stimulation was evaluated by NF 200 and alpha tubulin expression, indicating that electrical stimulation with a voltage of 40mV could enhance the neurite outgrowth. The PC12 cells stimulated with electrical shock showed greater level of neurite outgrowth and smaller cell body size. Moreover, the PC12 cells under electrical stimulation showed better viability. In summary, the o-PLAPpy_A nanofibrous scaffold supported the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of PC12 cells in the absence of electrical stimulation, which could be potential candidate for nerve regeneration applications. PMID:27232305

  2. Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds of segmented polyurethanes based on PEG, PLLA and PTMC blocks: Physico-chemical properties and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, Rafael Bergamo; Abraham, Gustavo A; Felisberti, Maria Isabel

    2015-11-01

    Biocompatible polymeric scaffolds are crucial for successful tissue engineering. Biomedical segmented polyurethanes (SPUs) are an important and versatile class of polymers characterized by a broad spectrum of compositions, molecular architectures, properties and applications. Although SPUs are versatile materials that can be designed by different routes to cover a wide range of properties, they have been infrequently used for the preparation of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds. This study reports the preparation of new electrospun polyurethane scaffolds. The segmented polyurethanes were synthesized using low molar masses macrodyols (poly(ethylene glycol), poly(l-lactide) and poly(trimethylene carbonate)) and 1,6-hexane diisocyanate and 1,4-butanodiol as isocyanate and chain extensor, respectively. Different electrospinning parameters such as solution properties and processing conditions were evaluated to achieve smooth, uniform bead-free fibers. Electrospun micro/nanofibrous structures with mean fiber diameters ranging from 600nm to 770nm were obtained by varying the processing conditions. They were characterized in terms of thermal and dynamical mechanical properties, swelling degree and morphology. The elastomeric polyurethane scaffolds exhibit interesting properties that could be appropriate as biomimetic matrices for soft tissue engineering applications. PMID:26249621

  3. Structural characterization of electrospun micro/nanofibrous scaffolds by liquid extrusion porosimetry: A comparison with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) micro/nanofibrous scaffolds obtained by electrospinning technique from polymer solutions were characterized in terms of fiber diameter (as measured by scanning electron microscopy-SEM), pore size and its distribution (as measured by liquid extrusion porosimetry), and porosity (as determined by gravimetric measurement, liquid intrusion method, SEM image analysis and liquid extrusion porosimetry — LEP). Nonwoven micro/nanofibrous scaffolds were formed by uniform bead-free fibers with mean diameters in the range of 0.4 to 7 μm. The results indicate that pore size and pore size distribution are strongly associated to fiber diameter. Porosity results were analyzed taking into account the accuracy and limitations of each method. LEP resulted as the most suitable technique for measuring through-pore diameter and porosity. In order to compare empirical data of pore size from LEP, a theoretical multiplanar model for stochastic fiber networks was applied. The results predicted by the model were in good agreement with the experimental data provided by LEP for mean diameters higher than 1 μm. The present study shows the potential of LEP as a valuable instrumental technique for characterizing the porous structure of electrospun fibrous scaffolds. - Highlights: • Pore size and pore size distribution are strongly associated to fiber diameter. • SEM image analysis shows porosity values close to those measured by LEP. • LEP is a valuable technique for characterizing the electrospun scaffold structure. • The multiplanar model is in good agreement with LEP in predicting the pore sizes

  4. Structural characterization of electrospun micro/nanofibrous scaffolds by liquid extrusion porosimetry: A comparison with other techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez Tornello, Pablo R., E-mail: pablocortez@fi.mdp.edu.ar; Caracciolo, Pablo C., E-mail: pcaracciolo@fi.mdp.edu.ar; Cuadrado, Teresita R., E-mail: trcuadra@fi.mdp.edu.ar; Abraham, Gustavo A., E-mail: gabraham@fi.mdp.edu.ar

    2014-08-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) micro/nanofibrous scaffolds obtained by electrospinning technique from polymer solutions were characterized in terms of fiber diameter (as measured by scanning electron microscopy-SEM), pore size and its distribution (as measured by liquid extrusion porosimetry), and porosity (as determined by gravimetric measurement, liquid intrusion method, SEM image analysis and liquid extrusion porosimetry — LEP). Nonwoven micro/nanofibrous scaffolds were formed by uniform bead-free fibers with mean diameters in the range of 0.4 to 7 μm. The results indicate that pore size and pore size distribution are strongly associated to fiber diameter. Porosity results were analyzed taking into account the accuracy and limitations of each method. LEP resulted as the most suitable technique for measuring through-pore diameter and porosity. In order to compare empirical data of pore size from LEP, a theoretical multiplanar model for stochastic fiber networks was applied. The results predicted by the model were in good agreement with the experimental data provided by LEP for mean diameters higher than 1 μm. The present study shows the potential of LEP as a valuable instrumental technique for characterizing the porous structure of electrospun fibrous scaffolds. - Highlights: • Pore size and pore size distribution are strongly associated to fiber diameter. • SEM image analysis shows porosity values close to those measured by LEP. • LEP is a valuable technique for characterizing the electrospun scaffold structure. • The multiplanar model is in good agreement with LEP in predicting the pore sizes.

  5. Electrospun Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-3(S-methyl-morpholine-2,5-dione Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakai Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic scaffolds have been investigated in vascular tissue engineering for many years. Excellent biodegradable materials are desired as temporary scaffolds to support cell growth and disappear gradually with the progress of guided tissue regeneration. In the present paper, a series of biodegradable copolymers were synthesized and used to prepared micro/nanofibrous scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-3(S-methyl-morpholine-2,5-dione [P(LA-co-GA-co-MMD] copolymers with different l-lactide (LA, glycolide (GA, and 3(S-methyl-2,5-morpholinedione (MMD contents were synthesized using stannous octoate as a catalyst. Moreover, the P(LA-co-GA-co-MMD nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning technology. The morphology of scaffolds was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the results showed that the fibers are smooth, regular, and randomly oriented with diameters of 700 ± 100 nm. The weight loss of scaffolds increased significantly with the increasing content of MMD, indicating good biodegradable property of the scaffolds. In addition, the cytocompatibility of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was tested by human umbilical vein endothelial cells. It is demonstrated that the cells could attach and proliferate well on P(LA-co-GA-co-MMD scaffolds and, consequently, form a cell monolayer fully covering on the scaffold surface. Furthermore, the P(LA-co-GA-co-MMD scaffolds benefit to excellent cell infiltration after subcutaneous implantation. These results indicated that the P(LA-co-GA-co-MMD nanofibrous scaffolds could be potential candidates for vascular tissue engineering.

  6. The Effects of Plasma Treated Electrospun Nanofibrous Poly (ε-caprolactone Scaffolds with Different Orientations on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Abbasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assessments of cell reactions such as motility, orientation and activation to the topography of the substratum will assist with the fabrication of a proper implantable scaffold for future tissue engineering applications.The current challenge is to analyze the orientation effect of elecrospun nanofibers of poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL on viability and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we used the electrospinning method to fabricate nanofibrous PCL scaffolds. Chemical and mechanical characterizations were specified by the contact angle and tensile test. O2 plasma treatment was used to improve surface hydrophilicity. We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay to evaluate mESCs adhesion and proliferation before and after surface modification. The influence of the orientation of the nanofibers on mESCs growth was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA With differences considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. Results: The results showed that plasma treatment improved the hydrophilic property of PCL scaffolds. MTT assay showed a significant increase in proliferation of mESCs on plasma treated PCL (p-PCL scaffolds compared to non-treated PCL (p≤0.05. However gelatin coated tissue culture plate (TCP had a better effect in initial cell attachment after one day of cell seeding. There was more cell proliferation on day 3 in aligned plasma treated (AP nanofibers compared to the TCP. SEM showed optical density of the cell colonies. Aligned nanofibrous scaffolds had larger colony sizes and spread more than random nanofibrous scaffolds. Conclusion: This study showed that plasma treating of scaffolds was a more suitable substrate for growth and cell attachment. In addition, aligned nanofibrous scaffolds highly supported the proliferation and spreading

  7. Electrospun chitosan-graft-poly (ε-caprolactone/poly (ε-caprolactone nanofibrous scaffolds for retinal tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Honglin Chen1,2, Xianqun Fan1, Jing Xia1, Ping Chen1, Xiaojian Zhou1, Jin Huang2, Jiahui Yu2, Ping Gu11Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 2Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A promising therapy for retinal diseases is to employ biodegradable scaffolds to deliver retinal progenitor cells (RPCs for repairing damaged or diseased retinal tissue. In the present study, cationic chitosan-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone/polycaprolactone (CS-PCL/PCL hybrid scaffolds were successfully prepared by electrospinning. Characterization of the obtained nanofibrous scaffolds indicated that zeta-potential, fiber diameter, and the content of amino groups on their surface were closely correlated with the amount of CS-PCL in CS-PCL/PCL scaffolds. To assess the cell–scaffold interaction, mice RPCs (mRPCs were cultured on the electrospun scaffolds for 7 days. In-vitro proliferation assays revealed that mRPCs proliferated faster on the CS-PCL/PCL (20/80 scaffolds than the other electrospun scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that mRPCs grown on CS-PCL/PCL (20/80 scaffolds were more likely to differentiate towards retinal neurons than those on PCL scaffolds. Taken together, these results suggest that CS-PCL/PCL(20/80 scaffolds have potential application in retinal tissue engineering.Keywords: electrospun, retinal progenitor cells, proliferation, differentiation, tissue engineering

  8. Co-cultivation of keratinocyte-human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) on sericin loaded electrospun nanofibrous composite scaffold (cationic gelatin/hyaluronan/chondroitin sulfate) stimulates epithelial differentiation in hMSCs: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sirsendu; Scharnweber, Dieter; Koul, Veena

    2016-05-01

    Fortifying the scaffold with bioactive molecules and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), is an efficient way to design new generation tissue engineered biomaterials. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic effect of electrospun nanofibrous composite scaffold (cationic gelatin/hyaluronan/chondroitin sulfate) loaded with sericin and, contact co-culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)-keratinocytes on hMSCs' differentiation towards epithelial lineage. Cationic gelatin is prepared with one step novel synthesis process by grafting quaternary ammonium salts to the backbone of gelatin. Release kinetics studies showed that Fickian diffusion is the major release mechanism for both GAGs and sericin/gelatin. In vitro biocompatibility of the electrospun scaffold was evaluated in terms of LDH and DNA quantification assay on human foreskin fibroblast, human keratinocyte and hMSC. Significant proliferation (∼ 4-6 fold) was detected after culturing all three cell on the electrospun scaffold containing sericin. After 5 days of contact co-culture, results revealed that electrospun scaffold containing sericin promote epithelial differentiation of hMSC in terms of several protein markers (keratin 14, ΔNp63α and Pan-cytokeratin) and gene expression of some dermal proteins (keratin 14, ΔNp63α). Findings of this study will foster the progress of current skin tissue engineering scaffolds by understanding the skin regeneration and wound healing process. PMID:26946262

  9. Effects of Chitosan Alkali Pretreatment on the Preparation of Electrospun PCL/Chitosan Blend Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Roozbahani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanofibrous scaffolds have been used in the field of biomedical engineering as wound dressings, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug delivery applications. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds can be used as carriers for several types of drugs, genes, and growth factors. PCL is one of the most commonly applied synthetic polymers for medical use because of its biocompatibility and slow biodegradability. PCL is hydrophobic and has no cell recognition sites on its structure. Electrospinning of chitosan and PCL blend was investigated in formic acid/acetic acid as the solvent with different PCL/chitosan ratios. High viscosity of chitosan solutions makes difficulties in the electrospinning process. Strong hydrogen bonds in a 3D network in acidic condition prevent the movement of polymeric chains exposed to the electrical field. Consequently, the amount of chitosan in PCL/chitosan blend was limited and more challenging when the concentration of PCL increases. The treatment of chitosan in alkali condition under high temperature reduced its molecular weight. Longer treatment time further decreased the molecular weight of chitosan and hence its viscosity. Electrospinning of PCL/chitosan blend was possible at higher chitosan ratio, and SEM images showed a decrease in fiber diameter and narrower distribution with increase in the chitosan ratio.

  10. Fabrication, characterization and cellular compatibility of poly(hydroxy alkanoate composite nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Masaeli

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering techniques using a combination of polymeric scaffolds and cells represent a promising approach for nerve regeneration. We fabricated electrospun scaffolds by blending of Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and Poly (3-hydroxy butyrate-co-3- hydroxyvalerate (PHBV in different compositions in order to investigate their potential for the regeneration of the myelinic membrane. The thermal properties of the nanofibrous blends was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, which indicated that the melting and glass temperatures, and crystallization degree of the blends decreased as the PHBV weight ratio increased. Raman spectroscopy also revealed that the full width at half height of the band centered at 1725 cm(-1 can be used to estimate the crystalline degree of the electrospun meshes. Random and aligned nanofibrous scaffolds were also fabricated by electrospinning of PHB and PHBV with or without type I collagen. The influence of blend composition, fiber alignment and collagen incorporation on Schwann cell (SCs organization and function was investigated. SCs attached and proliferated over all scaffolds formulations up to 14 days. SCs grown on aligned PHB/PHBV/collagen fibers exhibited a bipolar morphology that oriented along the fiber direction, while SCs grown on the randomly oriented fibers had a multipolar morphology. Incorporation of collagen within nanofibers increased SCs proliferation on day 14, GDNF gene expression on day 7 and NGF secretion on day 6. The results of this study demonstrate that aligned PHB/PHBV electrospun nanofibers could find potential use as scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering applications and that the presence of type I collagen in the nanofibers improves cell differentiation.

  11. Fabrication, characterization and cellular compatibility of poly(hydroxy alkanoate) composite nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaeli, Elahe; Morshed, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Sadri, Saeid; Hilderink, Janneke; van Apeldoorn, Aart; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering techniques using a combination of polymeric scaffolds and cells represent a promising approach for nerve regeneration. We fabricated electrospun scaffolds by blending of Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and Poly (3-hydroxy butyrate-co-3- hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) in different compositions in order to investigate their potential for the regeneration of the myelinic membrane. The thermal properties of the nanofibrous blends was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which indicated that the melting and glass temperatures, and crystallization degree of the blends decreased as the PHBV weight ratio increased. Raman spectroscopy also revealed that the full width at half height of the band centered at 1725 cm(-1) can be used to estimate the crystalline degree of the electrospun meshes. Random and aligned nanofibrous scaffolds were also fabricated by electrospinning of PHB and PHBV with or without type I collagen. The influence of blend composition, fiber alignment and collagen incorporation on Schwann cell (SCs) organization and function was investigated. SCs attached and proliferated over all scaffolds formulations up to 14 days. SCs grown on aligned PHB/PHBV/collagen fibers exhibited a bipolar morphology that oriented along the fiber direction, while SCs grown on the randomly oriented fibers had a multipolar morphology. Incorporation of collagen within nanofibers increased SCs proliferation on day 14, GDNF gene expression on day 7 and NGF secretion on day 6. The results of this study demonstrate that aligned PHB/PHBV electrospun nanofibers could find potential use as scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering applications and that the presence of type I collagen in the nanofibers improves cell differentiation. PMID:23468923

  12. Genipin cross-linked electrospun chitosan-based nanofibrous mat as tissue engineering scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mirzaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To improve water stability of electrospun chitosan/ Polyethylene oxide (PEO nanofibers, genipin, a biocompatible and nontoxic agent, was used to crosslink chitosan based nanofibers.   Materials and Methods: Different amounts of genipin were added to the chitosan/PEO solutions, chitosan/PEO weight ratio 90/10 in 80 % acetic acid, and the solutions were then electrospun to form nanofibers. The spun nanofibers were exposed to water vapor to complete crosslinking. The nanofibrous membranes were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, swelling test, MTT cytotoxicity, and cell attachment. Results: SEM images of electrospun mats showed that genipin-crosslinked nanofibers retained their fibrous structure after immerging in PBS (pH=7.4 for 24 hours, while the uncrosslinked samples lost their fibrous structure, indicating the water stability of genipin-crosslinked nanofibers. The genipin-crosslinked mats also showed no significant change in swelling ratio in comparison with uncrosslinked ones. FTIR-ATR spectrum of uncrosslinked and genipin-crosslinked chitosan nanofibers revealed the reaction between genipin and amino groups of chitosan. Cytotoxicity of genipin-crosslinked nanofibers was examined by MTT assay on human fibroblast cells in the presence of nanofibers extraction media. The genipin-crosslinked nanofibers did not show any toxic effects on fibroblast cells at the lowest and moderate amount of genipin. The fibroblast cells also showed a good adhesion on genipin-crosslinked nanofibers. Conclusion: This electrospun matrix would be used for biomedical applications such as wound dressing and scaffold for tissue engineering without the concern of toxicity.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive silk fibroin/wollastonite composite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite scaffolds of silk fibroin (SF) with bioactive wollastonite were prepared by freeze-drying. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that random coil and β-sheet structure co-existed in the SF scaffold. The mechanical performance, surface hydrophilicity and water-uptake capacity of the composite scaffolds were improved compared with those of pure SF scaffold. The bioactivity of the composite scaffold was evaluated by soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF), and formation of a hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layer was determined by FT-IR and XRD. The results showed that the SF/wollastonite composite scaffold was bioactive as it induced the formation of HCA on the surface of the composite scaffold after soaking in SBF for 5 days. In vitro cell attachment and proliferation tests showed that the composite scaffold was a good matrix for the growth of L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Consequently, the incorporation of wollastonite into the SF scaffold can enhance both the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffold, which suggests that the SF/wollastonite composite scaffold may be a potential biomaterial for tissue engineering.

  14. Bioactive Glass and Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo R. Boccaccini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on the basis of melt-derived bioactive silicate glass compositions and relevant composite structures. Starting with an excerpt on the history of bioactive glasses, as well as on fundamental requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffolds, a detailed overview on recent developments of bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds will be given, including a summary of common fabrication methods and a discussion on the microstructural-mechanical properties of scaffolds in relation to human bone (structure-property and structure-function relationship. In addition, ion release effects of bioactive glasses concerning osteogenic and angiogenic responses are addressed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted in this review.

  15. Polycaprolactone-Chitin Nanofibrous Mats as Potential Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Min Sup Kim; Sang Jun Park; Bon Kang Gu; Chun-Ho Kim

    2012-01-01

    We describe here the preparation of poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-chitin nanofibrous mats by electrospinning from a blended solution of PCL and chitin dissolved in a cosolvent, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and trifluoroacetic acid. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the neutralized PCL-chitin nanofibrous mats were morphologically stable, with a mean diameter of 340.5±2.6 nm, compared with a diameter of 524.2±12.1 nm for PCL mats. The nanofibrous mats showed decreased water contact angle...

  16. Differential effect of Activin A and WNT3a on definitive endoderm differentiation on electrospun nanofibrous PCL scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoveizi, Elham; Massumi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi-barough, Somayeh; Tavakol, Shima; Ai, Jafar

    2015-05-01

    The first step in the formation of hepatocytes and beta cells is the generation of definitive endoderm (DE) which involves a central issue in developmental biology. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the pluripotency to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and have been considered potent candidates for regenerative medicine as an unlimited source of cells for therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the differentiating potential of hiPSCs on poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous scaffold into DE cells. Here, we demonstrate directed differentiation of hiPSCs by factors such as Activin A and Wnt3a. The differentiation was determined by immunofluoresence staining with Sox17, FoxA2 and Goosecoid (Gsc) and also by qRT-PCR analysis. The results of this study showed that hiPSCs, as a new cell source, have the ability to differentiate into DE cells with a high capacity and also demonstrate that three dimension (3D) culture provides a suitable nanoenviroment for growth, proliferation and differentiation of hiPSCs. PCL nanofibrous scaffold with essential supplements, stimulating factors and EB-derived cells is able to provide a novel method for enhancing functional differentiation of hiPSCs into DE cells. PMID:25640312

  17. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Behaviors on PCL/Gelatin Nanofibrous Scaffolds Modified with A Collagen IV-Derived RGD-Containing Peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mota; Abbas Sahebghadam Lotfi; Jalal Barzin; Mostafa Hatam; Behzad Adibi; Zahra Khalaj; Mohammad Massumi

    2014-01-01

    Objective We introduce an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-containing peptide of collagen IV origin that possesses potent cell adhesion and proliferation properties. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the peptide was immobilized on an electrospun nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin (PCL/Gel) hybrid scaffold by a chemical bonding approach to improve cell adhesion properties of the scaffold. An io- dine-modified phenylalanine was introduced in the peptide to track the immobilization process. N...

  18. Polycaprolactone-Chitin Nanofibrous Mats as Potential Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sup Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the preparation of poly(caprolactone (PCL-chitin nanofibrous mats by electrospinning from a blended solution of PCL and chitin dissolved in a cosolvent, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and trifluoroacetic acid. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the neutralized PCL-chitin nanofibrous mats were morphologically stable, with a mean diameter of 340.5±2.6 nm, compared with a diameter of 524.2±12.1 nm for PCL mats. The nanofibrous mats showed decreased water contact angles as the proportion of chitin increased. However, the tensile properties of nanofibrous mats containing 30~50% (wt/wt chitin were enhanced compared with PCL-only mats. In vitro studies showed that the viability of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs for up to 7 days in culture was higher on composite (OD value: 1.42±0.09 than on PCL-only (0.51±0.14 nanofibrous mats, with viability correlated with chitin concentration. Together, our results suggest that PCL-chitin nanofibrous mats can be used as an implantable substrate to modulate HDF viability in tissue engineering.

  19. Fabrication and in vitro characterization of bioactive glass composite scaffolds for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we fabricate and characterize bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. 45S5 Bioglass® (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) were incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) and fabricated into 3D bioactive composite scaffolds utilizing additive manufacturing technology. We show that composite scaffolds (PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG) can be reproducibly manufactured with a scaffold morphology highly resembling that of PCL scaffolds. Additionally, micro-CT analysis reveals BG particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the scaffolds. Mechanical data suggested that PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG composite scaffolds have higher compressive Young's modulus compared to PCL scaffolds at similar porosity (∼75%). After 1 day in accelerated degradation conditions using 5M NaOH, PCL/SrBG, PCL/45S5 and PCL lost 48.6 ± 3.8%, 12.1 ± 1% and 1.6 ± 1% of the original mass, respectively. In vitro studies were conducted using MC3T3 cells under normal and osteogenic conditions. All scaffolds were shown to be non-cytotoxic, and supported cell attachment and proliferation. Our results also indicate that the inclusion of bioactive glass (BG) promotes precipitation of calcium phosphate on the scaffold surfaces which leads to earlier cell differentiation and matrix mineralization when compared to PCL scaffolds. However, as indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity, no significant difference in osteoblast differentiation was found between PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG scaffolds. These results suggest that PCL/45S5 and PCL/SrBG composite scaffolds show potential as next generation bone scaffolds. (paper)

  20. Composite poly-L-lactic acid/poly-(α,β)-DL-aspartic acid/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds for dermal tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering scaffolds for skin tissue regeneration is an ever expounding area of research, as the products that meet the necessary requirements are far and elite. The nanofibrous poly-L-lactic acid/poly-(α,β)-DL-aspartic acid/Collagen (PLLA/PAA/Col I and III) scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized by SEM, contact angle and FTIR analysis for skin tissue regeneration. The cell-scaffold interactions were analyzed by cell proliferation and their morphology observed in SEM. The results showed that the cell proliferation was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) in PLLA/PAA/Col I and III scaffolds compared to PLLA and PLLA/PAA nanofibrous scaffolds. The abundance and accessibility of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) may prove to be novel cell therapeutics for dermal tissue regeneration. The differentiation of ADSCs was confirmed using collagen expression and their morphology by CMFDA dye extrusion technique. The current study focuses on the application of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibrous scaffolds for skin tissue engineering and their potential use as substrate for the culture and differentiation of ADSCs. The objective for inclusion of a novel cell binding moiety like PAA was to replace damaged extracellular matrix and to guide new cells directly into the wound bed with enhanced proliferation and overall organization. This combinatorial epitome of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibrous scaffold with stem cell therapy to induce the necessary paracrine signalling effect would favour faster regeneration of the damaged skin tissues. - Highlights: ► Differentiation of adipose derived stem cells in the presence of bFGF for wound healing ► Introduction of PAA as ECM mimetic cell binding moiety ► Combination of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibers and stem cell therapy for skin regeneration.

  1. Composite poly-L-lactic acid/poly-({alpha},{beta})-DL-aspartic acid/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds for dermal tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Sundarrajan, Subramanian [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Mukherjee, Shayanti [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Sridhar, Radhakrishnan [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram, E-mail: seeram@nus.edu.sg [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2012-08-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds for skin tissue regeneration is an ever expounding area of research, as the products that meet the necessary requirements are far and elite. The nanofibrous poly-L-lactic acid/poly-({alpha},{beta})-DL-aspartic acid/Collagen (PLLA/PAA/Col I and III) scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized by SEM, contact angle and FTIR analysis for skin tissue regeneration. The cell-scaffold interactions were analyzed by cell proliferation and their morphology observed in SEM. The results showed that the cell proliferation was significantly increased (p {<=} 0.05) in PLLA/PAA/Col I and III scaffolds compared to PLLA and PLLA/PAA nanofibrous scaffolds. The abundance and accessibility of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) may prove to be novel cell therapeutics for dermal tissue regeneration. The differentiation of ADSCs was confirmed using collagen expression and their morphology by CMFDA dye extrusion technique. The current study focuses on the application of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibrous scaffolds for skin tissue engineering and their potential use as substrate for the culture and differentiation of ADSCs. The objective for inclusion of a novel cell binding moiety like PAA was to replace damaged extracellular matrix and to guide new cells directly into the wound bed with enhanced proliferation and overall organization. This combinatorial epitome of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibrous scaffold with stem cell therapy to induce the necessary paracrine signalling effect would favour faster regeneration of the damaged skin tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation of adipose derived stem cells in the presence of bFGF for wound healing Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduction of PAA as ECM mimetic cell binding moiety Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibers and stem cell therapy for skin regeneration.

  2. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hua; Ye Xiaojian; Li Jiashun, E-mail: ljsspine@163.co [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  3. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Ye, Xiao-Jian; Li, Jia-Shun

    2009-08-01

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold. PMID:19605959

  4. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  5. The effect of 3D nanofibrous scaffolds on the chondrogenesis of induced pluripotent stem cells and their application in restoration of cartilage defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu

    Full Text Available The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs rendered the reprogramming of terminally differentiated cells to primary stem cells with pluripotency possible and provided potential for the regeneration and restoration of cartilage defect. Chondrogenic differentiation of iPSCs is crucial for their application in cartilage tissue engineering. In this study we investigated the effect of 3D nanofibrous scaffolds on the chondrogenesis of iPSCs and articular cartilage defect restoration. Super-hydrophilic and durable mechanic polycaprolactone (PCL/gelatin scaffolds were fabricated using two separate electrospinning processes. The morphological structure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were characterized. The chondrogenesis of the iPSCs in vitro and the restoration of the cartilage defect was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, histological observation, RT-qPCR, and western blot analysis. iPSCs on the scaffolds expressed higher levels of chondrogenic markers than the control group. In an animal model, cartilage defects implanted with the scaffold-cell complex exhibited an enhanced gross appearance and histological improvements, higher cartilage-specific gene expression and protein levels, as well as subchondral bone regeneration. Therefore, we showed scaffolds with a 3D nanofibrous structure enhanced the chondrogenesis of iPSCs and that iPSC-containing scaffolds improved the restoration of cartilage defects to a greater degree than did scaffolds alone in vivo.

  6. Bioactive glass-poly (ε-caprolactone) composite scaffolds with 3 dimensionally hierarchical pore networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierarchically mesoporous-macroporous-giant-porous bioactive glass/poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) composite scaffolds were prepared using a combination of the sol-gel method, evaporation-induced self-assembly process in the presence of nonionic triblock copolymer, EO100PO65EO100 (F127), as template, salt leaching method, and rapid prototyping techniques. F127 acts as a template, inducing the formation of mesopores, NaCl with sizes between 25 and 33 μm provides macro-pores after leaching, and rapid prototyping produces giant-pores. The structure and morphology of the scaffolds were characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Hg porosimetry. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were examined by the dynamic mechanical analysis. Their in vitro bioactivities were confirmed by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid. Their biocompatibilities were also evaluated by culturing human bone marrow stromal cells on the scaffolds. The scaffolds show good molding capabilities, mechanical properties, 3 dimensionally well-interconnected pore structures, bioactivities, and biocompatibilities in vitro. Depending on the amount of NaCl, the scaffolds also show unique sponge-like properties, but still retain better mechanical properties than general salt leaching derived PCL scaffolds. All of the data provide good evidence that the obtained scaffolds possess excellent potential for applications in the fields of tissue engineering and drug storage.

  7. Proliferation and skeletal myotube formation capability of C2C12 and H9c2 cells on isotropic and anisotropic electrospun nanofibrous PHB scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at investigating the behavior in terms of the proliferation and skeletal muscle differentiation capability of two myoblastic cell lines, C2C12 and H9c2, on both isotropic and anisotropic electrospun nanofibrous poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) scaffolds, as well as on PHB films and polystyrene controls. After a careful characterization of the matrices in terms of surface morphology, surface roughness and mechanical properties, the proliferation rate and the capability of the two cell lines to form skeletal myotubes were evaluated. Genetic analyses were also performed in order to assess the differentiation level of the cells on the different substrates. We demonstrated that the aligned nanofibrous mesh decreases the proliferation activity and provides a higher differentiative stimulus. We also clarified how the nanofibrous substrate influences myotube formation, and quantified a series of myotube-related parameters for both C2C12 and H9c2 cells. (paper)

  8. Surface modification of biodegradable porous Mg bone scaffold using polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-04-01

    A reduction in the degradation rate of magnesium (Mg) and its alloys is in high demand to enable these materials to be used in orthopedic applications. For this purpose, in this paper, a biocompatible polymeric layer reinforced with a bioactive ceramic made of polycaprolactone (PCL) and bioactive glass (BG) was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds using dip-coating technique under low vacuum. The results indicated that the PCL-BG coated Mg scaffolds exhibited noticeably enhanced bioactivity compared to the uncoated scaffold. Moreover, the mechanical integrity of the Mg scaffolds was improved using the PCL-BG coating on the surface. The stable barrier property of the coatings effectively delayed the degradation activity of Mg scaffold substrates. Moreover, the coatings induced the formation of apatite layer on their surface after immersion in the SBF, which can enhance the biological bone in-growth and block the microcracks and pore channels in the coatings, thus prolonging their protective effect. Furthermore, it was shown that a three times increase in the concentration of PCL-BG noticeably improved the characteristics of scaffolds including their degradation resistance and mechanical stability. Since bioactivity, degradation resistance and mechanical integrity of a bone substitute are the key factors for repairing and healing fractured bones, we suggest that PCL-BG is a suitable coating material for surface modification of Mg scaffolds. PMID:25686970

  9. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanolayer-functionalized 3D-printed scaffolds for accelerating osteogenesis and angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Xia, Lunguo; Zhai, Dong; Shi, Mengchao; Luo, Yongxiang; Feng, Chun; Fang, Bing; Yin, Jingbo; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2015-11-01

    The hierarchical microstructure, surface and interface of biomaterials are important factors influencing their bioactivity. Porous bioceramic scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering by optimizing their chemical composition and large-pore structure. However, the surface and interface of struts in bioceramic scaffolds are often ignored. The aim of this study is to incorporate hierarchical pores and bioactive components into the bioceramic scaffolds by constructing nanopores and bioactive elements on the struts of scaffolds and further improve their bone-forming activity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) modified β-tricalcium phosphate (MBG-β-TCP) scaffolds with a hierarchical pore structure and a functional strut surface (~100 nm of MBG nanolayer) were successfully prepared via 3D printing and spin coating. The compressive strength and apatite-mineralization ability of MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly enhanced as compared to β-TCP scaffolds without the MBG nanolayer. The attachment, viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, BMP2, OPN and Col I) and protein expression (OPN, Col I, VEGF, HIF-1α) of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) as well as the attachment, viability and angiogenic gene expression (VEGF and HIF-1α) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in MBG-β-TCP scaffolds were significantly upregulated compared with conventional bioactive glass (BG)-modified β-TCP (BG-β-TCP) and pure β-TCP scaffolds. Furthermore, MBG-β-TCP scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in vivo as compared to BG-β-TCP and β-TCP scaffolds. The results suggest that application of the MBG nanolayer to modify 3D-printed bioceramic scaffolds offers a new strategy to construct hierarchically porous scaffolds with significantly improved physicochemical and biological properties, such as mechanical properties, osteogenesis, angiogenesis and protein expression for bone tissue

  10. Gum tragacanth/poly(l-lactic acid) nanofibrous scaffolds for application in regeneration of peripheral nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Bahrami, S Hajir; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-04-20

    Nanofibrous nerve guides have gained huge interest in supporting the peripheral nerve regeneration due to their abilities to simulate the topography, mechanical, biological and extracellular matrix morphology of native tissue. Gum tragacanth (GT) is a biocompatible mixture of polysaccharides that has been used in biomedical applications. During this study, we fabricated aligned and random nanofibers from poly(l-lactic acid) and gum tragacanth (PLLA/GT) in various ratios (100:0, 75:25, and 50:50) by electrospinning. Scanning electron microscope demonstrated smooth and uniform nanofibers with diameters in the range of 733±65nm and 226±73nm for align PLLA and random PLLA/GT 50:50 nanofibers, respectively. FTIR analysis, contact angle, in vitro biodegradation and tensile measurements were carried out to evaluate the chemical and mechanical properties of the different scaffolds. PLLA/GT 75:25 exhibited the most balanced properties compared to other scaffolds and was used for in vitro culture of nerve cells (PC12) to assess the potential of using these scaffolds as a substrate for nerve regeneration. The cells were found to attach and proliferate on aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 scaffolds, expressing bi-polar neurite extensions and the orientation of nerve cells was along the direction of the fiber alignment. Results of 8 days of in vitro culture of PC12 cells on aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 nanofibers, showed 20% increase in cell proliferation compared to PLLA/GT 75:25 random nanofibers. PLLA/GT 75:25 aligned nanofibers acted as a favorable cue to support neurite outgrowth and nerve cell elongation compared with PLLA nanofibers. Our results showed that aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 nanofibers are promising substrates for application as bioengineered grafts for nerve tissue regeneration. PMID:26876833

  11. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Behaviors on PCL/Gelatin Nanofibrous Scaffolds Modified with A Collagen IV-Derived RGD-Containing Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We introduce an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide of collagen IV origin that possesses potent cell adhesion and proliferation properties. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the peptide was immobilized on an electrospun nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin (PCL/Gel hybrid scaffold by a chemical bonding approach to improve cell adhesion properties of the scaffold. An iodine-modified phenylalanine was introduced in the peptide to track the immobilization process. Native and modified scaffolds were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. We studied the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs. In addition, cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of hBMSCs on native and peptide modified scaffolds were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining, and the results compared with tissue culture plate, as the control. Results: FTIR results showed that the peptide successfully immobilized on the scaffold. MTT assay and DAPI staining results indicated that peptide immobilization had a dramatic effect on cell adhesion and proliferation. Conclusion: This peptide modified nanofibrous scaffold can be a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine with the use of hBMSCs.

  12. Laser sintering of nano 13-93 glass scaffolds: Microstructure, mechanical properties and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only bioactive material that can bond with both hard tissues and soft tissues, bioactive glass has become much important in the field of tissue engineering. 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds were fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS. It was focused on the effects of laser sintering on microstructure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The experimental results showed that the sintered layer gradually became dense with the laser power increasing and then some defects occurred, such as macroscopic caves. The optimum compressive strength and fracture toughness were 21.43±0.87 MPa and 1.14±0.09 MPa.m1/2, respectively. In vitro bioactivity showed that there was the bone-like apatite layer on the surface of the scaffolds after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF, which was further evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Moreover, cell culture study showed MG-63 cells adhered and spread well on the scaffolds, and proliferated with increasing time in cell culture. These indicated excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility of nano 13-93 glass scaffolds.

  13. Incorporation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles into random electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds enhances mechanical and cell proliferation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrasa, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salehi, Hossein; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2016-09-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin random nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with different amounts of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. To evaluate the effects of nanoparticles on the scaffolds, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as well as in vitro degradation behavior of scaffolds were investigated. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 974±68nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 832±70, 764±80, and 486±64 for the PLGA/gelatin, PLGA/10wt% MSNPs, and the PLGA/gelatin/10wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The results suggested that the incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds enhances the hydrophilicity of scaffolds due to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the surface of nanofibers. With porosity examination, it was concluded that the incorporation of MSNPs and gelatin decrease the porosity of scaffolds. Nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds. Using in vitro degradation analysis, it was shown that the addition of nanoparticles to the nanofibers matrix increases the weight loss percentage of PLGA-based samples, whereas it decreases the weight loss percentage in the PLGA/gelatin composites. Cultivation of rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12), as precursor cells of dopaminergic neural cells, on the scaffolds demonstrated that the introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrix leads to improved cell attachment and proliferation and enhances cellular processes. PMID:27207035

  14. Magnetic scaffolds enriched with bioactive nanoparticles for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaat, Hadas; Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Shahar, Abraham; Last, David; Mardor, Yael; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-03-01

    Novel magnetic fibrin hydrogel scaffolds for cell implantation and tissue engineering are reported. The magnetic scaffolds are produced by the interaction between thrombin-conjugated maghemite nanoparticles of narrow size distribution and fibrinogen. These scaffolds, enriched with growth factor conjugated fluorescent maghemite nanoparticles, provide a supporting 3D environment for massive proliferation of various cell types, and can be successfully visualized by MRI. PMID:23184719

  15. Electrospun poly(L-lactide/poly(ε-caprolactone blend nanofibrous scaffold: characterization and biocompatibility with human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available The essence of tissue engineering is the fabrication of autologous cells or induced stem cells in naturally derived or synthetic scaffolds to form specific tissues. Polymer is thought as an appealing source of cell-seeded scaffold owing to the diversity of its physicochemical property and can be electrospun into nano-size to mimic natural structure. Poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA and poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL are both excellent aliphatic polyester with almost "opposite" characteristics. The controlling combination of PLLA and PCL provides varying properties and makes diverse applications. Compared with the copolymers of the same components, PLLA/PCL blend demonstrates its potential in regenerative medicine as a simple, efficient and scalable alternative. In this study, we electrospun PLLA/PCL blends of different weight ratios into nanofibrous scaffolds (NFS and their properties were detected including morphology, porosity, degradation, ATR-FTIR analysis, stress-stain assay, and inflammatory reaction. To explore the biocompatibility of the NFS we synthesized, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs were used to evaluate proliferation, attachment, viability and multi-lineage differentiation. In conclusion, the electrospun PLLA/PCL blend nanofibrous scaffold with the indicated weight ratios all supported hASCs well. However, the NFS of 1/1 weight ratio showed better properties and cellular responses in all assessments, implying it a biocompatible scaffold for tissue engineering.

  16. Three-dimensional printing of strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Shichang; Zhu, Yufang; Huang, Yinjun; Zhu, Min; Tao, Cuilian; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we fabricated strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds with controlled architecture and enhanced mechanical strength using a three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique. The study showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds had uniform interconnected macropores and high porosity, and their compressive strength was ∼170 times that of polyurethane foam templated MBG scaffolds. The physicochemical and biological properties of Sr-MBG scaffolds were evaluated by ion dissolution, apatite-forming ability and proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteogenic expression and extracelluar matrix mineralization of osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1. The results showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds exhibited a slower ion dissolution rate and more significant potential to stabilize the pH environment with increasing Sr substitution. Importantly, Sr-MBG scaffolds possessed good apatite-forming ability, and stimulated osteoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation. Using dexamethasone as a model drug, Sr-MBG scaffolds also showed a sustained drug delivery property for use in local drug delivery therapy, due to their mesoporous structure. Therefore, the 3-D printed Sr-MBG scaffolds combined the advantages of Sr-MBG such as good bone-forming bioactivity, controlled ion release and drug delivery and enhanced mechanical strength, and had potential application in bone regeneration. PMID:24412143

  17. The Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/Rice Husk Derived Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to fabricate a 3D scaffold using polycaprolactone (PCL) and silicate based bioactive glass-ceramic (R-SBgC). Different concentrations of R-SBgC prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) were combined with PCL to fabricate a composite scaffold using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method. The products were then characterized using SEM and EDX. The results demonstrated that R-SBgC in PCL matrix produced a bioactive material which has highly porous structure wit...

  18. Fabrication of a Bioactive, PCL-based "Self-fitting" Shape Memory Polymer Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, Lindsay N; Zhang, Dawei; Reinhard, Jessica L; Grunlan, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been explored as an alternative strategy for the treatment of critical-sized cranio-maxillofacial (CMF) bone defects. Essential to the success of this approach is a scaffold that is able to conformally fit within an irregular defect while also having the requisite biodegradability, pore interconnectivity and bioactivity. By nature of their shape recovery and fixity properties, shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffolds could achieve defect "self-fitting." In this way, following exposure to warm saline (~60 ºC), the SMP scaffold would become malleable, permitting it to be hand-pressed into an irregular defect. Subsequent cooling (~37 ºC) would return the scaffold to its relatively rigid state within the defect. To meet these requirements, this protocol describes the preparation of SMP scaffolds prepared via the photochemical cure of biodegradable polycaprolactone diacrylate (PCL-DA) using a solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL) method. A fused salt template is utilized to achieve pore interconnectivity. To realize bioactivity, a polydopamine coating is applied to the surface of the scaffold pore walls. Characterization of self-fitting and shape memory behaviors, pore interconnectivity and in vitro bioactivity are also described. PMID:26556112

  19. Enhancement of bioactivity of pulsed magnetron sputtered TiCxNy with bioactive glass (BAG) incorporated polycaprolactone (PCL) composite scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium carbonitride (TiCxNy) thin films were fabricated on SS 316 L by pulsed reactive DC magnetron sputtering using titanium and graphite targets. The sputtered film was characterized microstructurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern revealed that the film was preferentially oriented along (200) axis with a grain size of 20 nm. A globular morphology was observed from electron micrograph while Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the compositional purity of the film. To improve the bioactivity, bioactive glass (BAG) nanopowders of size 60 nm, synthesized by sol–gel method, was incorporated into a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold (BAG-PCL), which was applied over TiCxNy/SS (BAG-PCL/TiCN/SS). In-vitro bioactivity studies of BAG-PCL showed the apatite formation, which was confirmed from fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and SEM. In-vitro corrosion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution showed that the coated specimen had a higher charge transfer resistance than stainless steel (SS) bare. The enhancement of bioactivity was monitored by hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility, where an improved cell attachment and lower thrombus formation was observed for the coatings with BAG-PCL. - Highlights: • Fabrication of TiCxNy thin films on SS 316 L (TiCN/SS) by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. • Synthesis of BAG nanopowders (45S5) by sol–gel method. • Incorporation of BAG nanopowders into PCL matrix to form polymer composite scaffold. • BAG-PCL scaffold was coated on TiCN/SS to enhance the bioactivity

  20. Data for accelerated degradation of calcium phosphate surface-coated polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Poh, Patrina S.P.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Holzapfel, Boris M; Solanki, Anu K.; Woodruff, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)-based composite scaffolds containing 50 wt% of 45S5 bioactive glass (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) particles were fabricated into scaffolds using melt-extrusion based additive manufacturing technique. Additionally, the PCL scaffolds were surface coated with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP). For a comparison of the scaffold degradation, the scaffolds were then subjected to in vitro accelerated degradation by immersion in 5 M sodium hydroxide (Na...

  1. Phosphate glass fibre scaffolds: Tailoring of the properties and enhancement of the bioactivity through mesoporous glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novajra, G; Boetti, N G; Lousteau, J; Fiorilli, S; Milanese, D; Vitale-Brovarone, C

    2016-10-01

    Novel bone glass fibre scaffolds were developed by thermally bonding phosphate glass fibres belonging to the P2O5-CaO-Na2O-SiO2-MgO-K2O-TiO2 system (TiPS2.5 glass). Scaffolds with fibres of 85 or 110μm diameter were fabricated, showing compressive strength in the range of 2-3.5MPa, comparable to that of the trabecular bone. The effect of different thermal treatments and fibre diameters and length on the final scaffold structure was investigated by means of micro-CT analysis. The change of the sintering time from 30 to 60min led to a decrease in the scaffold overall porosity from 58 to 21vol.% for the 85μm fibre scaffold and from 50 to 40vol.% when increasing the sintering temperature from 490 to 500°C for the 110μm fibre scaffold. The 85μm fibres resulted in an increase of the scaffold overall porosity, increased pore size and lower trabecular thickness; the use of different fibre diameters allowed the fabrication of a scaffold showing a porosity gradient. In order to impart bioactive properties to the scaffold, for the first time in the literature the introduction in these fibre scaffolds of a bioactive phase, a melt-derived bioactive glass (CEL2) powder or spray-dried mesoporous bioactive glass particles (SD-MBG) was investigated. The scaffold bioactivity was assessed through soaking in simulated body fluid. CEL2/glass fibre scaffold did not show promising results due to particle detachment from the fibres during soaking in simulated body fluid. Instead the use of mesoporous bioactive powders showed to be an effective way to impart bioactivity to the scaffold and could be further exploited in the future through the ability of mesoporous particles to act as systems for the controlled release of drugs. PMID:27287156

  2. Nanoscale Control of Silks for Nanofibrous Scaffold Formation with Improved Porous Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shasha; Lu, Guozhong; Liu, Shanshan; Bai, Shumeng; Liu, Xi; Lu, Qiang; Zuo, Baoqi; Kaplan, David L.; Zhu, Hesun

    2014-01-01

    Silk-based porous scaffolds have been used extensively in tissue engineering because of their excellent biocompatibility, tunable biodegradability and robust mechanical properties. Although many silk-based scaffolds have been prepared through freeze-drying, a challenge remains to effectively control porous structures during this process. In the present study silk fibroin with different nanostructures were self-assembled in aqueous solution by repeated drying-dissolving process and then used t...

  3. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovac, Dajana; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Marica; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200°C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24268280

  4. Data for accelerated degradation of calcium phosphate surface-coated polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Holzapfel, Boris M; Solanki, Anu K; Woodruff, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)-based composite scaffolds containing 50 wt% of 45S5 bioactive glass (45S5) or strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) particles were fabricated into scaffolds using melt-extrusion based additive manufacturing technique. Additionally, the PCL scaffolds were surface coated with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP). For a comparison of the scaffold degradation, the scaffolds were then subjected to in vitro accelerated degradation by immersion in 5 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for up to 7 days. The scaffold׳s morphology was observed by means of SEM imaging and scaffold mass loss was recorded over the experimental period. PMID:27081669

  5. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG coating was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. • Mg scaffold/PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG presented improved biodegradation resistance. • Mg scaffold coated with the PCL-BaG layer indicated better bioactivity. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability

  6. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Razavi, Mehdi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Vashaee, Daryoosh [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra [Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Rajadas, Jayakumar [Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG coating was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. • Mg scaffold/PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG presented improved biodegradation resistance. • Mg scaffold coated with the PCL-BaG layer indicated better bioactivity. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  7. Comparative study of bioactivity of collagen scaffolds coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanayama I

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Izumi Kanayama,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Hiroko Takita,2 Erika Nishida,1 Maiko Tsuji,3 Bunshi Fugetsu,4,5 Ling Sun,4,5 Kana Inoue,1 Asako Ibara,1 Tsukasa Akasaka,6 Tsutomu Sugaya,1 Masamitsu Kawanami1 1Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, 2Support Section for Education and Research, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 3Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc., Tokyo, Japan; 4Division of Frontier Research, Research Department, Creative Research Institution Sousei, 5Graduate School of Environmental Science, 6Department of Biomedical, Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Graphene oxide (GO is a single layer carbon sheet with a thickness of less than 1 nm. GO has good dispersibility due to surface modifications with numerous functional groups. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO is produced via the reduction of GO, and has lower dispersibility. We examined the bioactivity of GO and RGO films, and collagen scaffolds coated with GO and RGO. Methods: GO and RGO films were fabricated on a culture dish. Some GO films were chemically reduced using either ascorbic acid or sodium hydrosulfite solution, resulting in preparation of RGO films. The biological properties of each film were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy, calcium adsorption tests, and MC3T3-E1 cell seeding. Subsequently, GO- and RGO-coated collagen scaffolds were prepared and characterized by SEM and compression tests. Each scaffold was implanted into subcutaneous tissue on the backs of rats. Measurements of DNA content and cell ingrowth areas of implanted scaffolds were performed 10 days post-surgery.Results: The results show that GO and RGO possess different biological properties. Calcium adsorption and alkaline phosphatase activity were strongly enhanced by RGO, suggesting that RGO is effective for osteogenic differentiation. SEM showed that

  8. In vitro degradation of novel bioactive polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds for bone engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our group recently fabricated novel 3D polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) composite scaffolds for applications in bone engineering. The bioactivity of such synthetic biomaterials can be evaluated by examining its ability to initiate the formation of apatite on its surface when immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF). In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviors of these scaffolds were systematically monitored for varying time periods of 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-immersion in SBF at 37 oC. Weight loss and water absorption of the samples indicated that PCL-TCP scaffolds were only slowly degraded. Biochemical assays and pH measurements revealed that hydroxyapatite, the main inorganic constituent of bone, commenced to form on the surface of the scaffolds after 17 days of immersion in SBF. Von Kossa assays demonstrated that calcium deposits increased progressively on the surface of the scaffolds after soaking in SBF for 2 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy verified the surface crystallization of the apatite layer formed over the entire period of time. In conclusion, the synergy of PCL with TCP in a composite scaffold confers both bioresorbability as well as bioactivity that offer an exciting approach for bone regeneration purposes

  9. In vitro degradation of novel bioactive polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds for bone engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, MD 11, 03-02, 117597 (Singapore); Rai, B. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, MD 11, 03-02, 117597 (Singapore); Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, 119074 (Singapore); Ho, K.H. [Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, 119074 (Singapore); Teoh, S.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail: mpetsh@nus.edu.sg

    2007-03-15

    Our group recently fabricated novel 3D polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) composite scaffolds for applications in bone engineering. The bioactivity of such synthetic biomaterials can be evaluated by examining its ability to initiate the formation of apatite on its surface when immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF). In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviors of these scaffolds were systematically monitored for varying time periods of 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-immersion in SBF at 37 {sup o}C. Weight loss and water absorption of the samples indicated that PCL-TCP scaffolds were only slowly degraded. Biochemical assays and pH measurements revealed that hydroxyapatite, the main inorganic constituent of bone, commenced to form on the surface of the scaffolds after 17 days of immersion in SBF. Von Kossa assays demonstrated that calcium deposits increased progressively on the surface of the scaffolds after soaking in SBF for 2 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy verified the surface crystallization of the apatite layer formed over the entire period of time. In conclusion, the synergy of PCL with TCP in a composite scaffold confers both bioresorbability as well as bioactivity that offer an exciting approach for bone regeneration purposes.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGHLY POROUS 63S BIOACTIVE GLASS SCAFFOLDS FABRICATED BY TWO FOAMING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Mirhadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resorbable 3D macroporous nanostructure 63S bioactive glass scaffolds were fabricated using the two methods of direct foaming of bioactive glass sol and foaming glass slurry for tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds contained an interconnected pore network with macropore sizes in the range of 100 - 400 μm, which provided the potential for tissue ingrowth and vascularization in the human body. The mean values of compressive strength were in the ranges of 0.53 - 0.68 MPa and 0.8 - 0.92 MPa, respectively, for the scaffolds prepared by the first and second methods. The mean values of total and interconnected porosities were in the ranges of 88 - 93 % and 76 - 86 %, respectively. The highly porous and nanosized structure gave rise to a high specific surface area in the scaffolds which stimulated mineralization in the surrounding bones by enhancing bioreactions and leaching of ions from the surface, which facilitate bone repair and fixation. Finally, it was observed that the prepared scaffolds could satisfy the criteria of an ideal scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

  11. A combinatorial approach towards the design of nanofibrous scaffolds for chondrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Ramos, Tiago André Da Silva; Damanik, Febriyani; Quang Le, Bach; Wieringa, Paul; Bennink, Martin; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional (3D) structure composed of proteinaceous fibres that provide physical and biological cues to direct cell behaviour. Here, we build a library of hybrid collagen-polymer fibrous scaffolds with nanoscale dimensions and screen them for their ability to grow chondrocytes for cartilage repair. Poly(lactic acid) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) at two different monomer ratios (85:15 and 50:50) were incrementally blended with collagen. Physical properties (wettability and stiffness) of the scaffolds were characterized and related to biological performance (proliferation, ECM production, and gene expression) and structure-function relationships were developed. We found that soft scaffolds with an intermediate wettability composed of the highly biodegradable PLGA50:50 and collagen, in two ratios (40:60 and 60:40), were optimal for chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells as determined by increased ECM production and enhanced cartilage specific gene expression. Long-term cultures indicated a stable phenotype with minimal de-differentiation or hypertrophy. The combinatorial methodology applied herein is a promising approach for the design and development of scaffolds for regenerative medicine.

  12. Development of highly porous scaffolds based on bioactive silicates for dental tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudouri, O.M., E-mail: menti.goudouri@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute for Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Theodosoglou, E. [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, E. [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Will, J. [Institute for Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Chrissafis, K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, P. [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paraskevopoulos, K.M. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boccaccini, A.R. [Institute for Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of an Mg-based glass-ceramic via the sol–gel technique. • The heat treatment of the glass-ceramic promoted the crystallization of akermanite. • Akermanite scaffolds coated with gelatin were successfully fabricated. • An HCAp layer was developed on the surface of all scaffolds after 9 days in SBF. - Abstract: Various scaffolding materials, ceramics and especially Mg-based ceramic materials, including akermanite (Ca{sub 2}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), have attracted interest for dental tissue regeneration because of their improved mechanical properties and controllable biodegradation. The aim of the present work was the synthesis of an Mg-based glass-ceramic, which would be used for the construction of workable akermanite scaffolds. The characterization of the synthesized material was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Finally, the apatite forming ability of the scaffolds was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid. The scaffolds were fabricated by the foam replica technique and were subsequently coated with gelatin to provide a functional surface for increased cell attachment. Finally, SEM microphotographs and FTIR spectra of the scaffolds after immersion in SBF solution indicated the inorganic bioactive character of the scaffolds suitable for the intended applications in dental tissue engineering.

  13. Development of highly porous scaffolds based on bioactive silicates for dental tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of an Mg-based glass-ceramic via the sol–gel technique. • The heat treatment of the glass-ceramic promoted the crystallization of akermanite. • Akermanite scaffolds coated with gelatin were successfully fabricated. • An HCAp layer was developed on the surface of all scaffolds after 9 days in SBF. - Abstract: Various scaffolding materials, ceramics and especially Mg-based ceramic materials, including akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6), have attracted interest for dental tissue regeneration because of their improved mechanical properties and controllable biodegradation. The aim of the present work was the synthesis of an Mg-based glass-ceramic, which would be used for the construction of workable akermanite scaffolds. The characterization of the synthesized material was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Finally, the apatite forming ability of the scaffolds was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid. The scaffolds were fabricated by the foam replica technique and were subsequently coated with gelatin to provide a functional surface for increased cell attachment. Finally, SEM microphotographs and FTIR spectra of the scaffolds after immersion in SBF solution indicated the inorganic bioactive character of the scaffolds suitable for the intended applications in dental tissue engineering

  14. Developing bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) films were fabricated using the method of dissolving and evaporation. PLLA scaffold was prepared by solid-liquid phase separation of polymer solutions and subsequent sublimation of solvent. Bonelike apatite coating was formed on PLLA films, PLLA scaffolds and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) scaffolds in 24 hours through an accelerated biomimetic process. The ion concentrations in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were nearly 5 times of those in human blood plasma. The apatite formed was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apatite formed in 5SBF was similar in morphology and composition to that formed in the classical biomimetic process employing SBF or 1.5SBF, and similar to that of natural bone. This indicated that the biomimetic apatite coating process could be accelerated by using concentrated simulated body fluid at 37°C. Besides saving time, the accelerated biomimetic process is particularly significant to biodegradable polymers. Some polymers which degrade too fast to be coated with apatite by a classical biomimetic process, for example PGA, could be coated with bone-like apatite in an accelerated biomimetic process. Collagen and apatite were co-precipitated as a composite coating on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in an accelerated biomimetic process. The incubation solution contained collagen (1g/L) and simulated body fluid (SBF) with 5 times inorganic ionic concentrations as human blood plasma. The coating formed on PLLA films and scaffolds after 24 hours incubation was characterized using EDX, XRD, FTIR, and SEM. It was shown that the coating contained carbonated bone-like apatite and collagen, the primary constituents of natural bone. SEM showed a complex composite coating of submicron bone-like apatite particulates combined with collagen fibrils. This work provided an efficient process to obtain

  15. Development of novel electrospun nanofibrous scaffold from P. ricini and A. mylitta silk fibroin blend with improved surface and biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomaterials that stimulate cell attachment and proliferation without any surface modification (e.g. RGD coating) provide potent and cost effective scaffold for regenerative medicine. This study assessed the physico-chemical properties and cell supportive potential of a silk fibroin blend scaffold derived from eri (Philosamia ricini) and tasar (Antheraea mylitta) silk (ET) respectively by electrospinning process. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy study found that the fiber diameters are in 200 to 800 nm range with flat morphology. The porosity of ET scaffold is found to be 79 ± 5% with majority of pore diameter between 2.5 to 5 nm. Similarly, Bombyx mori (BM) silk fibroin and gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared and taken as control. The ultimate tensile strength of the ET and BM scaffold are found to be 1.83 ± 0.13 MPa and 1.47 ± 0.10 MPa respectively. The measured contact angle (a measure of hydrophilicity) for ET (54.7° ± 1.8°) is found to be lower than BM (62° ± 2.3°). The ability to deposit apatite over ET is comparable to that of BM nanofibers. All the scaffolds were seeded with cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and cultured for 14 days in vitro. The immunofluorescence study reveals enhanced cell attachment with higher metabolic activity for MSCs grown over ET than BM and gelatin. The ET scaffold also demonstrated expression of higher amount cell adhesion molecules (CD29/CD44) and higher proliferation rate than BM and gelatin as confirmed by MTT assay, DNA content estimation assay, flow cytometry study and SEM study. Overall, it may be concluded that ET scaffold may have potential in developing bone tissue grafts for clinical applications in the future. - Highlights: • We have fabricated eri–tasar blended electrospun silk fibroin nanofiber with superior surface property. • The hydrophilicity is higher than the silk fibroin nanofiber derived from Bombyx mori (BM). • The nanofibrous

  16. Development of novel electrospun nanofibrous scaffold from P. ricini and A. mylitta silk fibroin blend with improved surface and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, N.; Bissoyi, A.; Pramanik, K.; Biswas, A., E-mail: amitb79@gmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Biomaterials that stimulate cell attachment and proliferation without any surface modification (e.g. RGD coating) provide potent and cost effective scaffold for regenerative medicine. This study assessed the physico-chemical properties and cell supportive potential of a silk fibroin blend scaffold derived from eri (Philosamia ricini) and tasar (Antheraea mylitta) silk (ET) respectively by electrospinning process. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy study found that the fiber diameters are in 200 to 800 nm range with flat morphology. The porosity of ET scaffold is found to be 79 ± 5% with majority of pore diameter between 2.5 to 5 nm. Similarly, Bombyx mori (BM) silk fibroin and gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared and taken as control. The ultimate tensile strength of the ET and BM scaffold are found to be 1.83 ± 0.13 MPa and 1.47 ± 0.10 MPa respectively. The measured contact angle (a measure of hydrophilicity) for ET (54.7° ± 1.8°) is found to be lower than BM (62° ± 2.3°). The ability to deposit apatite over ET is comparable to that of BM nanofibers. All the scaffolds were seeded with cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and cultured for 14 days in vitro. The immunofluorescence study reveals enhanced cell attachment with higher metabolic activity for MSCs grown over ET than BM and gelatin. The ET scaffold also demonstrated expression of higher amount cell adhesion molecules (CD29/CD44) and higher proliferation rate than BM and gelatin as confirmed by MTT assay, DNA content estimation assay, flow cytometry study and SEM study. Overall, it may be concluded that ET scaffold may have potential in developing bone tissue grafts for clinical applications in the future. - Highlights: • We have fabricated eri–tasar blended electrospun silk fibroin nanofiber with superior surface property. • The hydrophilicity is higher than the silk fibroin nanofiber derived from Bombyx mori (BM). • The nanofibrous

  17. Current Progress in Bioactive Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengde Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive ceramics have received great attention in the past decades owing to their success in stimulating cell proliferation, differentiation and bone tissue regeneration. They can react and form chemical bonds with cells and tissues in human body. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the application of bioactive ceramics for bone repair and regeneration. The review systematically summarizes the types and characters of bioactive ceramics, the fabrication methods for nanostructure and hierarchically porous structure, typical toughness methods for ceramic scaffold and corresponding mechanisms such as fiber toughness, whisker toughness and particle toughness. Moreover, greater insights into the mechanisms of interaction between ceramics and cells are provided, as well as the development of ceramic-based composite materials. The development and challenges of bioactive ceramics are also discussed from the perspective of bone repair and regeneration.

  18. The Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/Rice Husk Derived Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Naghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to fabricate a 3D scaffold using polycaprolactone (PCL and silicate based bioactive glass-ceramic (R-SBgC. Different concentrations of R-SBgC prepared from rice husk ash (RHA were combined with PCL to fabricate a composite scaffold using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS method. The products were then characterized using SEM and EDX. The results demonstrated that R-SBgC in PCL matrix produced a bioactive material which has highly porous structure with interconnected porosities. There appears to be a relationship between the increase in R-SBgC concentration and increased material density and compressive modulus; however, increasing R-SBgC concentration result in reduced scaffold porosity. In conclusion, it is possible to fabricate a PCL/bioactive glass-ceramic composite from processed rice husk. Varying the R-SBgC concentrations can control the properties of this material, which is useful in the development of the ideal scaffold intended for use as a bone substitute in nonload bearing sites.

  19. A biocompatibility study of new nanofibrous scaffolds for nervous system regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, A; Marchini, A; Pugliese, R; Mauri, M; Maleki, M; Vasita, R; Gelain, F

    2016-01-01

    The development of therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury (SCI) is still a challenging goal to achieve. The pathophysiological features of chronic SCI are glial scar and cavity formation: an effective therapy will require contribution of different disciplines such as materials science, cell biology, drug delivery and nanotechnology. One of the biggest challenges in SCI regeneration is to create an artificial scaffold that could mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and support nervous system regeneration. Electrospun constructs and hydrogels based on self-assembling peptides (SAPs) have been recently preferred. In this work SAPs and polymers were assembled by using a coaxial electrospinning setup. We tested the biocompatibility of two types of coaxially electrospun microchannels: the first one made by a core of poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PCL-PLGA) and a shell of an emulsion of PCL-PLGA and a functionalized self-assembling peptide Ac-FAQ and the second one made by a core of Ac-FAQ and a shell of PCL-PLGA. Moreover, we tested an annealed scaffold by PCL-PLGA microchannel heat-treatment. The properties of coaxial scaffolds were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed via viability and differentiation assays with neural stem cells (NSCs); whereas in vivo inflammatory response was evaluated following scaffold implantation in rodent spinal cords. Emulsification of the outer shell turned out to be the best choice in terms of cell viability and tissue response: thus suggesting the potential of using functionalized SAPs in coaxial electrospinning for applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:26607419

  20. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: Morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovac, Dajana, E-mail: dmilovac@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Gallego Ferrer, Gloria [Center for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Ivankovic, Marica; Ivankovic, Hrvoje [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200 °C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88 MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5 MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with interconnected pores were prepared. • Hydrothermal transformation of cuttlefish bone and vacuum impregnation were used. • A material with improved mechanical properties was obtained. • The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate was observed.

  1. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: Morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200 °C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88 MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5 MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with interconnected pores were prepared. • Hydrothermal transformation of cuttlefish bone and vacuum impregnation were used. • A material with improved mechanical properties was obtained. • The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate was observed

  2. Quantitatively Controlled Fabrication of Uniaxially Aligned Nanofibrous Scaffold for Cell Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Hee Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of tissue engineering, development of a functional and controllable scaffold which can promote cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial. In this study, we introduce a controllable collection method of the electrospinning process for regularly-distributed and uniaxially oriented nanofiber scaffold and evaluate the effects of aligned nanofiber density on adhesion of dermal fibroblasts. The suggested spinning collector features an inclined void gap, which allows easy transfer of uniformly aligned fibers onto other surfaces. By undergoing multiple transfers, the density of the nanofibers can be quantitatively controlled. The resultant polycaprolactone (PCL nanofibers had well-defined nanotopography in a 400–600 nm range. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded on aligned nanofiber scaffolds of different densities achieved by varying the number of transfers. Cell morphology and actin stress fiber formation was accessed after seven days. The experimental results indicate that the contact guidance of the cells along the fiber alignment can be more activated with more than one guidance feature on a cell; that is, the high density of fiber is attained in so much that fiber spacing gets below the cell size.

  3. Bioceramic Nanofibres by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkamal Balu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale three-dimensional (3D scaffolds offer great promise for improved tissue integration and regeneration by their physical and chemical property enhancements. Electrospinning is a versatile bottom-up technique for producing porous 3D nanofibrous scaffolds that could closely mimic the structure of extracellular matrix. Much work has been committed to the development of this process through the years, and the resultant nanostructures have been subjugated to a wide range of applications in the field of bioengineering. In particular, the application of ceramic nanofibres in hard tissue engineering, such as dental and bone regeneration, is of increased research interest. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the bioceramic nanofibre scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning and highlights some of the significant process developments over recent years with their probable future trends and potential applications as biomedical implants.

  4. Neocellularization and neovascularization of nanosized bioactive glass-coated decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds

    KAUST Repository

    Gerhardt, Lutz Christian

    2012-09-11

    In this study, the in vivo recellularization and neovascularization of nanosized bioactive glass (n-BG)-coated decellu-larized trabecular bone scaffolds were studied in a rat model and quantified using stereological analyses. Based on the highest amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by human fibroblasts grown on n-BG coatings (0-1.245 mg/cm 2), decellularized trabecular bone samples (porosity: 43-81%) were coated with n-BG particles. Grown on n-BG particles at a coating density of 0.263 mg/cm2, human fibroblasts produced 4.3 times more VEGF than on uncoated controls. After 8 weeks of implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats, both uncoated and n-BG-coated samples were well infiltrated with newly formed tissue (47-48%) and blood vessels (3-4%). No significant differences were found in cellularization and vascularization between uncoated bone scaffolds and n-BG-coated scaffolds. This finding indicates that the decellularized bone itself may exhibit growth-promoting properties induced by the highly interconnected pore microarchitecture and/or proteins left behind on decellularized scaffolds. Even if we did not find proangiogenic effects in n-BG-coated bone scaffolds, a bioactive coating is considered to be beneficial to impart osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties to decellularized bone. n-BG-coated bone grafts have thus high clinical potential for the regeneration of complex tissue defects given their ability for recellularization and neovascularization. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Melt-electrospun polycaprolactone strontium-substituted bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiongyu; Blackwood, Keith A; Doustgani, Amir; Poh, Patrina P; Steck, Roland; Stevens, Molly M; Woodruff, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a resorbable polymer used extensively in bone tissue engineering owing to good structural properties and processability. Strontium-substituted bioactive glass (SrBG) has the ability to promote osteogenesis and may be incorporated into scaffolds intended for bone repair. Here, we describe for the first time, the development of a PCL-SrBG composite scaffold incorporating 10% (weight) of SrBG particles into PCL bulk, produced by the technique of melt electrospinning. We show that we are able to reproducibly manufacture composite scaffolds with an interconnected porous structure and, furthermore, these scaffolds were demonstrated to be noncytotoxic in vitro. Ions present in the SrBG component were shown to dissolve into cell culture media and promoted precipitation of a calcium phosphate layer on the scaffold surface which in turn led to noticeably enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 cells compared to PLC-only scaffolds. These results suggest that melt-electrospun PCL-SrBG composite scaffolds show potential to become effective bone graft substitutes. PMID:24133006

  6. Fabrication of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using indirect selective laser sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Hilmas, Gregory E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Brown, Roger F [Department of Biological Sciences, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Velez, Mariano, E-mail: kkd7b@mail.mst.edu, E-mail: mleu@mst.edu [Mo-Sci Corporation, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Bioactive glasses are promising materials for bone scaffolds due to their ability to assist in tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, bioactive glasses can convert into hydroxyapatite, the main mineral constituent of human bone, and form a strong bond with the surrounding tissues, thus providing an advantage over polymer scaffold materials. Bone scaffold fabrication using additive manufacturing techniques can provide control over pore interconnectivity during fabrication of the scaffold, which helps in mimicking human trabecular bone. 13-93 glass, a third-generation bioactive material designed to accelerate the body's natural ability to heal itself, was used in the research described herein to fabricate bone scaffolds using the selective laser sintering (SLS) process. 13-93 glass mixed with stearic acid (as the polymer binder) by ball milling was used as the powder feedstock for the SLS machine. The fabricated green scaffolds underwent binder burnout to remove the stearic acid binder and were then sintered at temperatures between 675 deg. C and 695 deg. C. The sintered scaffolds had pore sizes ranging from 300 to 800 {mu}m with 50% apparent porosity and an average compressive strength of 20.4 MPa, which is excellent for non-load bearing applications and among the highest reported for an interconnected porous scaffold fabricated with bioactive glasses using the SLS process. The MTT labeling experiment and measurements of MTT formazan formation are evidence that the rough surface of SLS scaffolds provides a cell-friendly surface capable of supporting robust cell growth.

  7. Fabrication of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using indirect selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioactive glasses are promising materials for bone scaffolds due to their ability to assist in tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, bioactive glasses can convert into hydroxyapatite, the main mineral constituent of human bone, and form a strong bond with the surrounding tissues, thus providing an advantage over polymer scaffold materials. Bone scaffold fabrication using additive manufacturing techniques can provide control over pore interconnectivity during fabrication of the scaffold, which helps in mimicking human trabecular bone. 13-93 glass, a third-generation bioactive material designed to accelerate the body's natural ability to heal itself, was used in the research described herein to fabricate bone scaffolds using the selective laser sintering (SLS) process. 13-93 glass mixed with stearic acid (as the polymer binder) by ball milling was used as the powder feedstock for the SLS machine. The fabricated green scaffolds underwent binder burnout to remove the stearic acid binder and were then sintered at temperatures between 675 deg. C and 695 deg. C. The sintered scaffolds had pore sizes ranging from 300 to 800 μm with 50% apparent porosity and an average compressive strength of 20.4 MPa, which is excellent for non-load bearing applications and among the highest reported for an interconnected porous scaffold fabricated with bioactive glasses using the SLS process. The MTT labeling experiment and measurements of MTT formazan formation are evidence that the rough surface of SLS scaffolds provides a cell-friendly surface capable of supporting robust cell growth.

  8. Periodontal Regeneration Using Strontium-Loaded Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Scaffolds in Osteoporotic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yufeng; Wei, Lingfei; Wu, Chengtie; Miron, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the rate of periodontal breakdown significantly increased in patients compromised from both periodontal disease and osteoporosis. One pharmacological agent used for their treatment is strontium renalate due to its simultaneous ability to increase bone formation and halt bone resorption. The aim of the present study was to achieve periodontal regeneration of strontium-incorporated mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds in an osteoporotic animal model carr...

  9. Comparative study of bioactivity of collagen scaffolds coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Izumi; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Takita, Hiroko; Nishida, Erika; Tsuji, Maiko; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Sun, Ling; Inoue, Kana; Ibara, Asako; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Background Graphene oxide (GO) is a single layer carbon sheet with a thickness of less than 1 nm. GO has good dispersibility due to surface modifications with numerous functional groups. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is produced via the reduction of GO, and has lower dispersibility. We examined the bioactivity of GO and RGO films, and collagen scaffolds coated with GO and RGO. Methods GO and RGO films were fabricated on a culture dish. Some GO films were chemically reduced using either ascorbi...

  10. Bioactivity and bone healing properties of biomimetic porous composite scaffold: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Francesca; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Guarino, Vincenzo; Raucci, Maria Grazia; Sandri, Monica; Tampieri, Anna; Ambrosio, Luigi; Fini, Milena

    2015-09-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) represents a valid alternative to traditional surgical therapies for the management of bone defects that do not regenerate spontaneously. Scaffolds, one of the most important component of TE strategy, should be biocompatible, bioactive, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological properties and bone regeneration ability of a porous poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold, incorporating MgCO3 -doped hydroxyapatite particles, uncoated (PCL_MgCHA) or coated by apatite-like crystals via biomimetic treatment (PCL_MgCHAB). It was observed that both scaffolds are not cytotoxic and, even if cell viability was similar on both scaffolds, PCL_MgCHAB showed higher alkaline phosphatase and collagen I (COLL I) production at day 7. PCL_MgCHA induced more tumor necrosis factor-α release than PCL_MgCHAB, while osteocalcin was produced less by both scaffolds up to 7 days and no significant differences were observed for transforming growth factor-β synthesis. The percentage of new bone trabeculae growth in wide defects carried out in rabbit femoral distal epiphyses was significantly higher in PCL_MgCHAB in comparison with PCL_MgCHA at 4 weeks and even more at 12 weeks after implantation. This study highlighted the role of a biomimetic composite scaffold in bone regeneration and lays the foundations for its future employment in the clinical practice. PMID:25689266

  11. Collapse analysis of nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous nanofibres fabricated by the electrospinning technique have found increasing applications (e.g. nanofibre composites, nanofibre devices, bioengineering tissue scaffolding, etc). For a nanofibre network subjected to a small external perturbation, the fibre segments within the network may deflect and stick to each other under the condition that their surface adhesion energy overcomes the elastic strain energy induced by fibre bending. Therefore, this paper aims to study adhesion-induced nanofibre collapse and relevant criteria. A simple fibre collapse model was proposed, which is based on the contact of two deflected elastic filaments under surface adhesion. Four fundamental fibre collapse modes (i.e. fibre-flat substrate, parallel fibres, orthogonal fibres and fibres at arbitrary angle) were considered, and corresponding collapse criteria were determined in explicit forms. Effects of fibre elasticity, surface adhesion and fibre geometries on the collapse criterion were explored in a numerical manner. Results show that for a fibre segment pair at a relatively large angle, the critical distance to induce the fibre collapse is independent of the fibre radius. This distance is a function of the fibre aspect ratio and the material intrinsic length (γ/E, where γ is the surface energy and E is Young's modulus). The fibre collapse model developed in this study can be used as the theoretical basis for design and failure analysis of nanofibre networks and nanofibre devices, among others

  12. Europium-Containing Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Stimulating in Vitro and in Vivo Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengtie; Xia, Lunguo; Han, Pingping; Mao, Lixia; Wang, Jiacheng; Zhai, Dong; Fang, Bing; Chang, Jiang; Xiao, Yin

    2016-05-11

    Bone tissue engineering offers a possible strategy for regenerating large bone defects, in which how to design beneficial scaffolds for accelerating bone formation remains significantly challenging. Europium, as an important rare earth element, has been used as a solid-state lighting material. However, there are few reports on whether Eu can be used for labeling bone tissue engineering scaffolds, and its biological effect on bone cells and bone tissue regeneration is unknown. In this study, we incorporated Eu into mesoporous bioactive glass (Eu-MBG) scaffolds by an in situ cotemplate method to achieve a bifunctional biomaterial with biolabeling and bone regeneration. The prepared Eu-MBG scaffolds have highly interconnective large pores (300-500 μm), a high specific surface area (140-290 m(2)/g), and well-ordered mesopores (5 nm) as well as uniformly distributed Eu. The incorporation of 2-5 mol % Eu into MBG scaffolds gives them a luminescent property. The in vitro degradation of Eu-MBG scaffolds has a functional effect on the change of the luminescence intensity. In addition, Eu-MBG can be used for labeling bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro and still presents a distinct luminescence signal in deep bone tissues in vivo to label new bone tissue via release of Eu ions. Furthermore, the incorporation of different contents of Eu (1, 2, and 5 mol %) into MBG scaffolds significantly enhances the osteogenic gene expression of BMSCs in the scaffolds. The Eu- and Si-containing ionic products released from Eu-MBG scaffolds distinctly promote the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Critically sized femur defects in ovariectomized (OVX) rats are created to simulate an osteoporotic phenotype. The results show that Eu-MBG scaffolds significantly stimulate new bone formation in osteoporotic bone defects when compared to MBG scaffolds alone and Eu may be involved in the acceleration of bone regeneration in OVX rats. Our study for the first time reports that the

  13. Hybrid fluorescent curcumin loaded zein electrospun nanofibrous scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanomedicine utilizes engineered nanodevices and nanostructures for monitoring, repair, construction and control of human biological systems at the molecular level. In this study, we investigated the feasibility and potential of zein nanofiber as a delivery vehicle for curcumin in biomedical applications. By optimizing the electrospinning parameters, ultrafine zein fluorescence nanofibers containing curcumin were developed with interconnected fibrous networks. We found that these nanofibers show an increase in fluorescence due to the incorporation of curcumin. The morphology and material properties of the resulting multifunctional nanofiber including the surface area were examined by a field emission-scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and confocal microscopy. The surface area and pore size were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm. SEM and fluorescence images showed that the uniform fibers with smooth surface had an average diameter of about 310 nm. An in vitro degradation study showed significant morphological changes. The in vitro evaluations suggested that the curcumin incorporated zein nanofibers showed sustained release of curcumin and maintained its free radical scavenging ability. It provides an attractive structure for the attachment and growth of fibroblast as cell culture surfaces. The results demonstrate that the curcumin loaded zein nanofiber could be a good candidate for soft tissue engineering scaffolds and has the potential for further applications in drug delivery system. (paper)

  14. Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds of poly (L-lactic acid)-dicalcium silicate composite via ultrasonic-aging technique for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shengjie [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Sun, Junying, E-mail: wodaoshi@sohu.com [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Li, Yadong [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Cui, Wenguo [Orthopedic Institute, Soochow University, 708 Renmin Rd, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215007 (China); Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@suda.edu.cn [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Polymeric nanofibrous composite scaffolds incorporating bioglass and bioceramics have been increasingly promising for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, electrospun poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds containing dicalcium silicate (C{sub 2}S) nanoparticles (approximately 300 nm) were fabricated. Using a novel ultrasonic dispersion and aging method, uniform C{sub 2}S nanoparticles were prepared and they were homogenously distributed in the PLLA nanofibers upon electrospinning. In vitro, the PLLA-C{sub 2}S fibers induced the formation of HAp on the surface when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). During culture, the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells adhered well on PLLA-C{sub 2}S scaffolds, as evidenced by the well-defined actin stress fibers and well-spreading morphology. Further, compared to pure PLLA scaffolds without C{sub 2}S, PLLA-C{sub 2}S scaffolds markedly promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells as well as their osteogenic differentiation, which was characterized by the enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Together, findings from this study clearly demonstrated that PLLA-C{sub 2}S composite scaffold may function as an ideal candidate for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Dicalcium silicate (C{sub 2}S) nanoparticles were prepared via a sol–gel process. • C{sub 2}S nanoparticles were stabilized using ultrasonic-aging technique. • PLLA-C{sub 2}S composite nanofibers were fabricated through electrospinning technique. • C{sub 2}S nanoparticles could be homogenously distributed in nanofibers. • The composite scaffolds enhanced proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.

  15. Degradation studies of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) - bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue repair applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Bio composite scaffolds prepared from polymer and bio glass provide necessary sites for bone tissue regeneration. In the presented work, bioactive glass scaffolds have been prepared from 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) with different amount of bioactive glass powder by solvent casting method. Prepared scaffolds have been characterized by XRD, FTIR and FESEM techniques. Effect of content of bioactive glass on biodegradability has been investigated in detail.

  16. The pro-angiogenic properties of multi-functional bioactive glass composite scaffolds

    KAUST Repository

    Gerhardt, Lutz Christian

    2011-06-01

    The angiogenic properties of micron-sized (m-BG) and nano-sized (n-BG) bioactive glass (BG) filled poly(D,L lactide) (PDLLA) composites were investigated. On the basis of cell culture work investigating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by human fibroblasts in contact with composite films (0, 5, 10, 20 wt %), porous 3D composite scaffolds, optimised with respect to the BG filler content capable of inducing angiogenic response, were produced. The in vivo vascularisation of the scaffolds was studied in a rat animal model and quantified using stereological analyses. The prepared scaffolds had high porosities (81-93%), permeability (k = 5.4-8.6 × 10-9 m2) and compressive strength values (0.4-1.6 MPa) all in the range of trabecular bone. On composite films containing 20 wt % m-BG or n-BG, human fibroblasts produced 5 times higher VEGF than on pure PDLLA films. After 8 weeks of implantation, m-BG and n-BG containing scaffolds were well-infiltrated with newly formed tissue and demonstrated higher vascularisation and percentage blood vessel to tissue (11.6-15.1%) than PDLLA scaffolds (8.5%). This work thus shows potential for the regeneration of hard-soft tissue defects and increased bone formation arising from enhanced vascularisation of the construct. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A 3D nanofibrous hydrogel and collagen sponge scaffold promotes locomotor functional recovery, spinal repair, and neuronal regeneration after complete transection of the spinal cord in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system neurons in adult mammals display limited regeneration after injury, and functional recovery is poor following complete transection (>4 mm gap) of a rat spinal cord. A novel combination scaffold composed of 3D nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix and a honeycomb collagen sponge was used to promote spinal repair and locomotor functional recovery following complete transection of the spinal cord in rats. We transplanted this scaffold into 5 mm spinal cord gaps and assessed spinal repair and functional recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. The BBB score of the scaffold-transplanted group was significantly higher than that of the PBS-injected control group from 24 d to 4 months after the operation (P < 0.001–0.01), reaching 6.0  ±  0.75 (mean ± SEM) in the transplant and 0.70  ±  0.46 in the control groups. Neuronal regeneration and spinal repair were examined histologically using Pan Neuronal Marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, growth-associated protein 43, and DAPI. The scaffolds were well integrated into the spinal cords, filling the 5 mm gaps with higher numbers of regenerated and migrated neurons, astrocytes, and other cells than in the control group. Mature and immature neurons and astrocytes in the scaffolds became colocalized and aligned longitudinally over >2 mm, suggesting their differentiation, maturation, and function. The spinal cord NF200 content of the transplant group, analyzed by western blot, was more than twice that of the control group, supporting the histological results. Transplantation of this novel scaffold promoted functional recovery, spinal repair, and neuronal regeneration. (paper)

  18. Mechanical and in vitro performance of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by a polymer foam replication technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Brown, Roger F; Day, Delbert E

    2008-11-01

    A polymer foam replication technique was used to prepare porous scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass with a microstructure similar to that of human trabecular bone. The scaffolds, with a porosity of 85+/-2% and pore size of 100-500 microm, had a compressive strength of 11+/-1 MPa, and an elastic modulus of 3.0+/-0.5 GPa, approximately equal to the highest values reported for human trabecular bone. The strength was also considerably higher than the values reported for polymeric, bioactive glass-ceramic and hydroxyapatite constructs prepared by the same technique and with the equivalent level of porosity. The in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds was observed by the conversion of the glass surface to a nanostructured hydroxyapatite layer within 7 days in simulated body fluid at 37 degrees C. Protein and MTT assays of in vitro cell cultures showed an excellent ability of the scaffolds to support the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells, both on the surface and in the interior of the porous constructs. Scanning electron microscopy showed cells with a closely adhering, well-spread morphology and a continuous increase in cell density on the scaffolds during 6 days of culture. The results indicate that the 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds could be applied to bone repair and regeneration. PMID:18519173

  19. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  20. In vitro evaluation of borate-based bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by a polymer foam replication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borate-based bioactive glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of human trabecular bone were prepared using a polymer foam replication method, and evaluated in vitro for potential bone repair applications. The scaffolds (porosity = 72 ± 3%; pore size = 250-500 μm) had a compressive strength of 6.4 ± 1.0 MPa. The bioactivity of the scaffolds was confirmed by the formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer on the surface of the glass within 7 days in 0.02 M K2HPO4 solution at 37 deg. C. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed from the response of cells to extracts of the dissolution products of the scaffolds, using assays of MTT hydrolysis, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase activity. For boron concentrations below a threshold value (0.65 mM), extracts of the glass dissolution products supported the proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells, as well as the proliferation and function of murine MLO-A5 cells, an osteogenic cell line. Scanning electron microscopy showed attachment and continuous increase in the density of MLO-A5 cells cultured on the surface of the glass scaffolds. The results indicate that borate-based bioactive glass could be a potential scaffold material for bone tissue engineering provided that the boron released from the glass could be controlled below a threshold value.

  1. In vitro evaluation of borate-based bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by a polymer foam replication method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Hailuo, E-mail: fuhailuo@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Institute of Bio-Engineering and IT Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Fu Qiang, E-mail: fuharry@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Zhou Nai [Institute of Bio-Engineering and IT Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Wenhai, E-mail: whhuang@mail.tongji.edu.cn [Institute of Bio-Engineering and IT Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Rahaman, Mohamed N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Wang Deping [Institute of Bio-Engineering and IT Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu Xin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Institute of Bio-Engineering and IT Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2009-08-31

    Borate-based bioactive glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of human trabecular bone were prepared using a polymer foam replication method, and evaluated in vitro for potential bone repair applications. The scaffolds (porosity = 72 {+-} 3%; pore size = 250-500 {mu}m) had a compressive strength of 6.4 {+-} 1.0 MPa. The bioactivity of the scaffolds was confirmed by the formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer on the surface of the glass within 7 days in 0.02 M K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution at 37 deg. C. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed from the response of cells to extracts of the dissolution products of the scaffolds, using assays of MTT hydrolysis, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase activity. For boron concentrations below a threshold value (0.65 mM), extracts of the glass dissolution products supported the proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells, as well as the proliferation and function of murine MLO-A5 cells, an osteogenic cell line. Scanning electron microscopy showed attachment and continuous increase in the density of MLO-A5 cells cultured on the surface of the glass scaffolds. The results indicate that borate-based bioactive glass could be a potential scaffold material for bone tissue engineering provided that the boron released from the glass could be controlled below a threshold value.

  2. Bioactive hydrogel-nanosilica hybrid materials: a potential injectable scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel bioactive organic–inorganic hybrid materials that can serve as injectable hydrogel systems for bone tissue regeneration were obtained. The silica nanoparticles (SiNP) prepared in situ by the Stöber method were dispersed in collagen, collagen-chitosan or chitosan sols, which were then subsequently crosslinked. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies, in which fluorescent SiNP were applied, and SEM images indicated that the nanosilica particles were distributed in the whole volume of the hydrogel matrix. In vitro studies on fibroblast cell viability indicated that the hybrid materials are biocompatible. The silica nanoparticles dispersed in the biopolymer matrix had a positive effect on cell viability. Studies on the mineralization process under simulated body fluid (SBF) conditions confirmed the bioactivity of prepared materials. SEM images revealed mineral phase formation in the majority of the hybrid materials developed. EDS analysis indicated that these mineral phases are mainly composed of calcium and phosphorus. The XRD studies confirmed that mineral phases formed during SBF incubation of hybrid materials based on collagen are bone-like apatite minerals. The silica nanoparticles added to the hydrogel at the stage of synthesis induced the occurrence of mineralization. This process occurs not only at the surface of the material but in its entire volume, which is important for the preparation of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The ability of these materials to undergo in situ gelation under physiological temperature and their bioactivity as well as biocompatibility make them interesting candidates for bioactive injectable systems. (paper)

  3. Synthesis of Bioactive Three-dimensional Silicon-oxide Nanofibrous Structures on the Silicon Substrate for Bionic Devices’ Fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Candace Colpitts; Amirkianoosh Kiani

    2016-01-01

    Bionic devices are implants that replace biological functions that have been lost due to damaged or lost tissue. The challenge of this area is to find the appropriate materials to match the biocompatible criteria with the same mechanical and electrical performance. In this research, a new method is introduced for the enhance‐ ment of silicon biocompatibility by fabrication of a 3D nanofibrous layer on the silicon surface, induced by nanosecond laser pulses at a high repetition rate and power....

  4. Preparation and characterization of bioactive composite scaffolds from polycaprolactone nanofibers-chitosan-oxidized starch for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Jhamak; Ghaee, Azadeh; Liavali, Samira Hosseini

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this study was to fabricate and investigate the characteristics of a suitable scaffold for bone regeneration. Therefore, chitosan was combined with various amounts of oxidized starch through reductive alkylation process. Afterwards, chopped CaP-coated PCL nanofibers were added into the chitosan-starch composite scaffolds in order to obtain bioactivity and mimic bone extracellular matrix structure. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that all scaffolds had well-interconnected porous structure. The mean pore size, porosity, and water uptake of the composite scaffolds increased by incorporation of higher amounts of starch, while this trend was opposite for compressive modulus and strength. Osteoblast-like cells (MG63) culturing on the scaffolds demonstrated that higher starch content could improve cell viability. Moreover, the cells spread and anchored well on the scaffolds, on which the surface was covered with a monolayer of cells. PMID:26794750

  5. Hybrid biomimetic scaffold composed of electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers and self-assembled peptide amphiphile nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Tambralli, Ajay; Blakeney, Bryan; Anderson, Joel; Kushwaha, Meenakshi; Andukuri, Adinarayana; Dean, Derrick; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2009-01-01

    Nanofibrous electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (ePCL) scaffolds have inherent structural advantages, but lack of bioactivity has limited their usefulness in biomedical applications. Thus, here we report the development of a hybrid, nanostructured, extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking scaffold by a combination of ePCL nanofibers and self-assembled peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers. The PAs have ECM mimicking characteristics including a cell adhesive ligand (RGDS) and matrix metalloproteinase-2...

  6. Low-temperature fabrication of macroporous scaffolds through foaming and hydration of tricalcium silicate paste and their bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Huan, Z.; Chang, J.; Zhou, J.

    2009-01-01

    A low-temperature fabrication method for highly porous bioactive scaffolds was developed. The two-step method involved the foaming of tricalcium silicate cement paste and hydration to form calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. Scaffolds with a combination of interconnected macro- and micro-sized pores were fabricated by making use of the decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution that acted as a foaming agent and through the hydration of tricalcium silicate cement. It was ...

  7. Mesoporous bioactive glass surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shijie; Jian, Zhiyuan; Huang, Linsheng; Xu, Wei; Liu, Shaohua; Song, Dajiang; Wan, Zongmiao; Vaughn, Amanda; Zhan, Ruisen; Zhang, Chaoyue; Wu, Song; Hu, Minghua; Li, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    A mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) surface modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration was prepared by dip-coating a PLGA electrospun fibrous scaffold into MBG precursor solution. Different surface structures and properties were acquired by different coating times. Surface morphology, chemical composition, microstructure, pore size distribution, and hydrophilicity of the PLGA-MBG scaffold were characterized. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that MBG surface coating made the scaffold rougher with the increase of MBG content. Scaffolds after MBG modification possessed mesoporous architecture on the surface. The measurements of the water contact angles suggested that the incorporation of MBG into the PLGA scaffold improved the surface hydrophilicity. An energy dispersive spectrometer evidenced that calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite formed on the PLGA-MBG scaffolds after a 7-day immersion in simulated body fluid. In vitro studies showed that the incorporation of MBG favored cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on the PLGA scaffolds. Moreover, the MBG surface-modified PLGA (PLGA-MBG) scaffolds were shown to be capable of providing the improved adsorption/release behaviors of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). It is very significant that PLGA-MBG scaffolds could be effective for BMP-2 delivery and bone regeneration. PMID:26082632

  8. Hierarchical mesoporous bioactive glass/alginate composite scaffolds fabricated by three-dimensional plotting for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constructing bioactive scaffolds with controllable architecture for bone tissue engineering and drug delivery still maintains a significant challenge. In this study, we have developed a composite material consisting of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) and concentrated alginate pastes for fabrication of hierarchical scaffolds by 3D plotting. The scaffold structure contains well-ordered nano-channels, micropores as well as controllable macropores beneficial for bone tissue engineering applications and drug delivery. The structural architecture of the scaffolds has been optimized by efficient designing of the plotting coordination. The effects of MBG on mechanical strength, apatite mineralization, cytocompatibility and drug delivery properties of the composite scaffolds have been systematically studied. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry were used to characterize composition and microstructure of the composite scaffolds. The MBG/alginate pastes showed good processability in the 3D plotting process, in which stable MBG/alginate composite scaffolds with controllable architecture can be prepared. The incorporation of MBG particles significantly improved the mechanical properties and apatite-mineralization ability of alginate scaffolds as well as enhanced the attachment and alkaline phosphatase activity of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultivated onto the scaffolds. Dexamethasone, used as a model drug, can be efficiently loaded in MBG particles and then incorporated into alginate scaffolds resulting in a more sustained release as a function of the MBG content. Our results have indicated that 3D-plotted MBG incorporated alginate scaffolds with well-ordered nano-pores, controllable large pores, and significantly improved physicochemical, biological and drug-delivery properties could be a platform for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  9. Preparation, characterization and cytocompatibility of bioactive coatings on porous calcium-silicate-hydrate scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of this research was to investigate and characterize the deposition of a biomimetic apatite-like coating onto the surface of 3D porous calcium-silicate-hydrate scaffolds with suitable bioactivity for potential application in bone tissue engineering. Basically, Portland cement, water, sand and lime were mixed for preparing the slurry which was poured into molds, and fine aluminum powder was added as foaming agent resulting on the formation of porous 3D structures. After aging for 28 days, these porous inorganic scaffolds were immersed in calcium chloride supersaturated solution in PBS for 7 days at 37 deg. C for the biomimetic layer deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques were used in order to characterize the porous scaffolds and the apatite-like biomimetic coating. The results have showed that 3D constructs were successfully produced with interconnected porosity, compressive strength and cytocompatibility appropriate for potential use as an alternative in trabecular bone repair.

  10. 组织工程用纳米纤维支架制备方法的进展%Research Progress of Preparation of Nano-fibrous Scaffolding for Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑琼; 许祯毅

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly evolving field. As the template for three dimensional tissue growth, the scaffold should emulate the native extracellular matrix, which is nano-fibrous. Nano-fibrous scaffolds have been found to play a positive role in cell attachment,proliferation,and differentiation function in tissue cultures,and such mimicking structure may lead to engineered tissue more closely resembling native tissue.Currently, there are several kinds of basic techniques for preparation nano-fibrous scaffold: electrospinning, molecular self-assembly, thermally induced phase separation and so on. This review focuses on these basic techniques for nano-fibrous scaffolding.%组织工程是一个迅速发展的领域。随着组织工程的发展,支架的构造已趋向于模拟天然细胞外基质的结构,即含有纳米纤维结构。相对传统类型的支架,纳米纤维支架更有利于细胞的粘附、增殖、生长及组织的构建。目前制备纳米纤维支架的技术方法主要有:静电纺丝、分子自组装和热致相分离等。本文主要综述了这几种纳米纤维支架的制备方法及其影响因素的研究进展。

  11. A new composite scaffold of bioactive glass nanoparticles/graphene: Synchronous improvements of cytocompatibility and mechanical property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zengjie; Wang, Jinqing; Liu, Fengzhen; Nie, Yingying; Ren, Liling; Liu, Bin

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a simple method of synthesizing bioactive glass nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets composite (BGs/GNS) scaffolds using the sol-gel and mold-compressing strategies. Characterizations of BGs/GNS scaffold revealed that BGs with an average diameter of 28.75nm were densely anchored onto both sides of GNS. When the mass ratio of BGs to graphene oxide was set as 10, this scaffold showed better cytocompatibility and higher osseointegration ability with surrounding tissues than the other scaffolds. The introduction of GNS also significantly enhanced the hardness and Young's modulus of BGs. Given the excellent performance of this scaffold, it has potential applications in bone regeneration and implantation. PMID:27232307

  12. Rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems for smart bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control the dose, sequence and profile of release of GFs so as to regulate cellular fates during tissue regeneration. This challenge would be addressed by rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems, where the release of GFs via polymeric nanoparticles is controlled by means of the methods of, such as externally-controlled and physicochemically/architecturally-modulated so as to mimic the profile of physiological GFs. Identifying and understanding such factors as the desired release profiles, mechanisms of release, physicochemical characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles, and externally-triggering stimuli are essential for designing and optimizing such delivery systems. This review surveys the recent studies on the desired release profiles of GFs in various tissue engineering applications, elucidates the major release mechanisms and critical factors affecting release profiles, and overviews the role played by the mathematical models for optimizing nano-particulate delivery systems. Potentials of stimuli responsive nanoparticles for spatiotemporal control of GF release are also presented, along with the recent advances in strategies for spatiotemporal control of GF delivery within tissue engineered scaffolds. The recommendation for the future studies to overcome challenges for developing sophisticated particulate delivery systems in tissue engineering is discussed prior to the presentation of conclusions drawn from this paper. (topical review)

  13. Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-(ɛ-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhihua; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Yiwang; Nie, Huarong; Wang, Yang; Li, Fan; Zheng, Yan

    2011-12-01

    Electrospun poly-(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0°, the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

  14. Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrospun poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0°, the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

  15. Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-({epsilon}-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Zhihua; Zhou Yang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Chen Yiwang, E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Nie Huarong, E-mail: niehr@iccas.ac.cn [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang Yang [First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 17 Yongwaizheng Road, Nanchang 330006 (China); Li Fan; Zheng Yan [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Electrospun poly-({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0 Degree-Sign , the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

  16. Micro PIXE-RBS for the study of Sr release at bioactive glass scaffolds/biological medium interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium is a very interesting element in bone regeneration as it can promote bone formation and limit bone resorption. Bone tissue engineering has a very high potential as a method for bone healing and it requires a 3D macroporous scaffold to serve as a support for cell growth. In that purpose, strontium containing bioactive glass foams made with the sol–gel foaming process are very promising scaffolds as they combine the high bioactivity of bioactive glasses, the beneficial effects of strontium on bone growth and a structure that would allow cell adhesion, cell invasion and vascularization. This paper reports the synthesis of such a material and its in vitro bioactivity study. The release of strontium ions from the material to the biological medium occurs quickly, as shown by ICP-AES results, with the delivery of quantities of Sr ions that should be adequate for bone regeneration. Ion microbeam techniques evidence a very specific behavior of strontium: it is rapidly removed from the inner part of the material but remains in the calcium phosphate layer that is deposited on the surface of the foam pores. It reveals the particular behavior of glass foams compared to other materials suitable for implantation like glass powders of same composition and highlights the interest of ion microbeam techniques in the study of strontium-containing bioactive glass scaffolds

  17. Synthesis and characterization of cerium- and gallium-containing borate bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliormanlı, Aylin M

    2015-02-01

    Bioactive glasses are widely used in biomedical applications due to their ability to bond to bone and even to soft tissues. In this study, borate based (13-93B3) bioactive glass powders containing up to 5 wt% Ce2O3 and Ga2O3 were prepared by the melt quench technique. Cerium (Ce+3) and gallium (Ga+3) were chosen because of their low toxicity associated with bacteriostatic properties. Bioactive glass scaffolds were fabricated using the polymer foam replication method. In vitro degradation and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated in SBF under static conditions. Results revealed that the cerium- and gallium-containing borate glasses have much lower degradation rates compared to the bare borate glass 13-93B3. In spite of the increased chemical durability, substituted glasses exhibited a good in vitro bioactive response except when the Ce2O3 content was 5 wt%. Taking into account the high in vitro hydroxyapatite forming ability, borate glass scaffolds containing Ce+3 and Ga+3 therapeutic ions are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25631259

  18. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, Danish [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom); Kiamehr, Mostafa [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); Yang, Xuebin [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS7 4SA (United Kingdom); Su, Bo, E-mail: b.su@bristol.ac.uk [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO{sub 2}, 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 m

  19. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO2, 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 mM genipin

  20. Synthesis of Bioactive Three-dimensional Silicon-oxide Nanofibrous Structures on the Silicon Substrate for Bionic Devices’ Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Colpitts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bionic devices are implants that replace biological functions that have been lost due to damaged or lost tissue. The challenge of this area is to find the appropriate materials to match the biocompatible criteria with the same mechanical and electrical performance. In this research, a new method is introduced for the enhance‐ ment of silicon biocompatibility by fabrication of a 3D nanofibrous layer on the silicon surface, induced by nanosecond laser pulses at a high repetition rate and power. It was found that the laser treatment with small‐ er line spacing and a higher overlap number enhanced the biocompatibility of silicon. The results display a promis‐ ing improvement in the biocompatibility of silicon for the production of biomedical devices such as sensors, bio- MEMS and nano-biomaterial fabrications.

  1. Enhancement of bioactivity of pulsed magnetron sputtered TiC{sub x}N{sub y} with bioactive glass (BAG) incorporated polycaprolactone (PCL) composite scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anusha Thampi, V.V.; Subramanian, B., E-mail: subramanianb3@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Titanium carbonitride (TiC{sub x}N{sub y}) thin films were fabricated on SS 316 L by pulsed reactive DC magnetron sputtering using titanium and graphite targets. The sputtered film was characterized microstructurally by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern revealed that the film was preferentially oriented along (200) axis with a grain size of 20 nm. A globular morphology was observed from electron micrograph while Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the compositional purity of the film. To improve the bioactivity, bioactive glass (BAG) nanopowders of size 60 nm, synthesized by sol–gel method, was incorporated into a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold (BAG-PCL), which was applied over TiC{sub x}N{sub y}/SS (BAG-PCL/TiCN/SS). In-vitro bioactivity studies of BAG-PCL showed the apatite formation, which was confirmed from fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and SEM. In-vitro corrosion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution showed that the coated specimen had a higher charge transfer resistance than stainless steel (SS) bare. The enhancement of bioactivity was monitored by hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility, where an improved cell attachment and lower thrombus formation was observed for the coatings with BAG-PCL. - Highlights: • Fabrication of TiC{sub x}N{sub y} thin films on SS 316 L (TiCN/SS) by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. • Synthesis of BAG nanopowders (45S5) by sol–gel method. • Incorporation of BAG nanopowders into PCL matrix to form polymer composite scaffold. • BAG-PCL scaffold was coated on TiCN/SS to enhance the bioactivity.

  2. In vitro performance of 13-93 bioactive glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds with MLO-A5 osteogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modglin, Vernon C; Brown, Roger F; Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Jung, Steven B; Day, Delbert E

    2012-10-01

    This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the ability of two types of porous bioactive glass scaffolds to support the growth and differentiation of an established osteogenic cell line. The two scaffold types tested included 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular-like scaffolds seeded with murine MLO-A5 cells and cultured for intervals of 2 to 12 days. Culture in MTT-containing medium showed metabolically active cells both on the surface and within the interior of the scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed well-attached cells on both types of scaffolds with a continual increase in cell density over a 6-day period. Protein measurements also showed a linear increase in cell density during the incubation. Activity of alkaline phosphatase, a key indicator of osteoblast differentiation, increased about 10-fold during the 6-day incubation with both scaffold types. The addition of mineralization media to MLO-A5 seeded scaffolds triggered extensive formation of alizarin red-positive mineralized extracellular material, additional evidence of cell differentiation and completion of the final step of bone formation on the constructs. Collectively, the results indicate that the 13-93 glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds promote the attachment, growth, and differentiation of MLO-A5 osteogenic cells and could potentially be used for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22528984

  3. Three-dimensional printed strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for repairing rat critical-sized calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Yadong; Liu, Zhongtang; Tao, Cuilian; Zhu, Yufang; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new generation of biomaterials with high osteogenic ability for fast osseointegration with host bone is being intensively investigated. In this study, we have fabricated three-dimensional (3-D) strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds by a 3-D printing technique. Sr-MBG scaffolds showed uniform interconnected macropores (∼400μm), high porosity (∼70%) and enhanced compressive strength (8.67±1.74MPa). Using MBG scaffolds as a control, the biological properties of Sr-MBG scaffolds were evaluated by apatite-forming ability, adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic gene expression of osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1. Furthermore, Sr-MBG scaffolds were used to repair critical-sized rat calvarial defects. The results showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds possessed good apatite-forming ability and stimulated MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation. Importantly, the in vivo results revealed that Sr-MBG scaffolds had good osteogenic capability and stimulated new blood vessel formation in critical-sized rat calvarial defects within 8 weeks. Therefore, 3-D printed Sr-MBG scaffolds with favorable pore structure and high osteogenic ability have more potential applications in bone regeneration. PMID:25449915

  4. 静电纺纳米纤维基组织工程大孔支架的研究进展%Progress in Electrospun 3D Macroporous Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵仕芳; 袁卉华; 张彦中

    2012-01-01

    Electrospinning technique has received increasing attention in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine community due to its capability of making biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for engineering a variety of tissues. However, one of the major problems with electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds is that the densely arranged nanofibers and small pores ( or interstices) in the scaffolds would inhibit proper infiltration of the cells and consequently limit tissue regeneration in vivo. To address this challenge, in recent years many concepts or strategies applicable at the electrospinning procedures have been devised to enlarge pore size of the electrospun scaffolds. This article addressed importance of porosity, pore size, and pore interconnectivity pertaining to tissue engineering scaffolds, and provided a detailed review on various approaches available for preparing 3 D macroporous nanofibrous scaffolds from electrospinning. Efficiencies, challenges, and prospects in the application of such electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering were also briefly discussed.%静电纺丝作为一种纳米纤维支架的仿生构建方法,已在组织工程和再生医学领域中得到越来越多的应用和关注.但是,静电纺支架的主要问题是密集排列的纳米纤维之间的空隙很小,阻碍细胞的长入和三维(3 D)组织的形成.为了解决这一问题,近年来已发展了许多用于扩大静电纺纳米纤维支架孔尺寸的制备方法.首先概述组织工程支架中大孔对细胞行为的影响,然后对静电纺纳米纤维3D大孔支架的制备方法和技术研究进展进行综述,讨论这些3D大孔支架促进细胞长入的效果,最后对静电纺3D大孔支架在组织工程中应用的主要挑战和前景,提出了看法.

  5. Response of human mesenchymal stem cells to intrafibrillar nanohydroxyapatite content and extrafibrillar nanohydroxyapatite in biomimetic chitosan/silk fibroin/nanohydroxyapatite nanofibrous membrane scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai GJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guo-Jyun Lai,1,* KT Shalumon,1,* Jyh-Ping Chen1,2 1Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, 2Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Incorporation of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAP within a chitosan (CS/silk fibroin (SF nanofibrous membrane scaffold (NMS may provide a favorable microenvironment that more closely mimics the natural bone tissue physiology and facilitates enhanced osteogensis of the implanted cell population. In this study, we prepared pristine CS/SF NMS, composite CS/SF/nHAP NMS containing intrafibrillar nHAP by in situ blending of 10% or 30% nHAP before the electrospinning step, and composite CS/SF/nHAP NMS containing extrafibrillar nHAP by depositing 30% nHAP through alternative soaking surface mineralization. We investigated the effect of the incorporation of HAP nanoparticles on the physicochemical properties of pristine and composite NMS. We confirmed the presence of ~30 nm nHAP in the composite nanofibrous membranes by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, either embedded in or exposed on the nanofiber. Nonetheless, the alternative soaking surface mineralization method drastically influenced the mechanical properties of the NMS with 88% and 94% drop in Young’s modulus and ultimate maximum stress. Using in vitro cell culture experiments, we investigated the effects of nHAP content and location on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs. The proliferation of hMSCs showed no significant difference among pristine and composite NMS. However, the extent of osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was found to be positively correlated with the content of nHAP in the NMS, while its location within the nanofiber played a less significant role. In vivo experiments were carried

  6. Strontium substituted bioactive glasses for tissue engineered scaffolds: the importance of octacalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriranganathan, Danujan; Kanwal, Nasima; Hing, Karin A; Hill, Robert G

    2016-02-01

    Porous bioactive glasses are attractive for use as bone scaffolds. There is increasing interest in strontium containing bone grafts, since strontium ions are known to up-regulate osteoblasts and down regulate osteoclasts. This paper investigates the influence of partial to full substitution of strontium for calcium on the dissolution and phase formation of a multicomponent high phosphate content bioactive glass. The glasses were synthesised by a high temperature melt quench route and ground to a powder of powder and its ability to form apatite like phases after immersion in Tris buffer (pH 7.4) and simulated body fluid (SBF) was followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and (31)P solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy up to 42 days of immersion. ICP indicated that all three glasses dissolved at approximately the same rate. The all calcium (SP-0Sr-35Ca) glass showed evidence of apatite like phase formation in both Tris buffer and SBF, as demonstrated after 3 days by FTIR and XRD analysis of the precipitate that formed during the acellular dissolution bioactivity studies. The strontium substituted SP-17Sr-17Ca glass showed no clear evidence of apatite like phase formation in Tris, but evidence of an apatite like phase was observed after 7 days incubation in SBF. The SP-35Sr-0Ca glass formed a new crystalline phase termed "X Phase" in Tris buffer which FTIR indicated was a form of crystalline orthophosphate. The SP-35Sr-0Ca glass appeared to support apatite like phase formation in SBF by 28 days incubation. The results indicate that strontium substitution for calcium in high phosphate content bioactive glasses can retard apatite like phase formation. It is proposed that apatite formation with high phosphate bioactive glasses occurs via an octacalcium phosphate (OCP) precursor phase that subsequently transforms to apatite. The equivalent octa

  7. Effect of a new bioactive fibrous glassy scaffold on bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbai-Armelin, P R; Souza, M T; Kido, H W; Tim, C R; Bossini, P S; Magri, A M P; Fernandes, K R; Pastor, F A C; Zanotto, E D; Parizotto, N A; Peitl, O; Renno, A C M

    2015-05-01

    Researchers have investigated several therapeutic approaches to treat non-union fractures. Among these, bioactive glasses and glass ceramics have been widely used as grafts. This class of biomaterial has the ability to integrate with living bone. Nevertheless, bioglass and bioactive materials have been used mainly as powder and blocks, compromising the filling of irregular bone defects. Considering this matter, our research group has developed a new bioactive glass composition that can originate malleable fibers, which can offer a more suitable material to be used as bone graft substitutes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the morphological structure (via scanning electron microscope) of these fibers upon incubation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after 1, 7 and 14 days and, also, evaluate the in vivo tissue response to the new biomaterial using implantation in rat tibial defects. The histopathological, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical analyzes after 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation were performed to investigate the effects of the material on bone repair. The PBS incubation indicated that the fibers of the glassy scaffold degraded over time. The histological analysis revealed a progressive degradation of the material with increasing implantation time and also its substitution by granulation tissue and woven bone. Histomorphometry showed a higher amount of newly formed bone area in the control group (CG) compared to the biomaterial group (BG) 15 days post-surgery. After 30 and 60 days, CG and BG showed a similar amount of newly formed bone. The novel biomaterial enhanced the expression of RUNX-2 and RANK-L, and also improved the mechanical properties of the tibial callus at day 15 after surgery. These results indicated a promising use of the new biomaterial for bone engineering. However, further long-term studies should be carried out to provide additional information concerning the material degradation in the later stages and the bone

  8. Hierarchically micro-patterned nanofibrous scaffolds with a nanosized bio-glass surface for accelerating wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Lv, Fang; Zhang, Yali; Yi, Zhengfang; Ke, Qinfei; Wu, Chengtie; Liu, Mingyao; Chang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing.A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04802h

  9. Incorporation of sol-gel bioactive glass into PLGA improves mechanical properties and bioactivity of composite scaffolds and results in their osteoinductive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipowska, J; Pawlik, J; Cholewa-Kowalska, K; Tylko, G; Pamula, E; Niedzwiedzki, L; Szuta, M; Laczka, M; Osyczka, A M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, 3D porous bioactive composite scaffolds were produced and evaluated for their physico-chemical and biological properties. Polymer poly-L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) matrix scaffolds were modified with sol-gel-derived bioactive glasses (SBGs) of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 systems. We hypothesized that SBG incorporation into PLGA matrix would improve the chemical and biological activity of composite materials as well as their mechanical properties. We applied two bioactive glasses, designated as S2 or A2, differing in the content of SiO2 and CaO (i.e. 80 mol% SiO2, 16 mol% CaO for S2 and 40 mol% SiO2, 52 mol% CaO for A2). The composites were characterized for their porosity, bioactivity, microstructure and mechanical properties. The osteoinductive properties of these composites were evaluated in human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) cultures grown in either standard growth medium or treated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or dexamethasone (Dex). After incubation in simulated body fluid, calcium phosphate precipitates formed inside the pores of both A2-PLGA and S2-PLGA scaffolds. The compressive strength of the latter was increased slightly compared to PLGA. Both composites promoted superior hBMSC attachment to the material surface and stimulated the expression of several osteogenic markers in hBMSC compared to cells grown on unmodified PLGA. There were also marked differences in the response of hBMSC to composite scaffolds, depending on chemical compositions of the scaffolds and culture treatments. Compared to silica-rich S2-PLGA, hBMSC grown on calcium-rich A2-PLGA were overall less responsive to rhBMP-2 or Dex and the osteoinductive properties of these A2-PLGA scaffolds seemed partially dependent on their ability to induce BMP signaling in untreated hBMSC. Thus, beyond the ability of currently studied composites to enhance hBMSC osteogenesis, it may become possible to modulate the osteogenic response of hBMSC, depending on the

  10. Incorporation of sol–gel bioactive glass into PLGA improves mechanical properties and bioactivity of composite scaffolds and results in their osteoinductive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 3D porous bioactive composite scaffolds were produced and evaluated for their physico-chemical and biological properties. Polymer poly-L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) matrix scaffolds were modified with sol–gel-derived bioactive glasses (SBGs) of CaO–SiO2–P2O5 systems. We hypothesized that SBG incorporation into PLGA matrix would improve the chemical and biological activity of composite materials as well as their mechanical properties. We applied two bioactive glasses, designated as S2 or A2, differing in the content of SiO2 and CaO (i.e. 80 mol% SiO2, 16 mol% CaO for S2 and 40 mol% SiO2, 52 mol% CaO for A2). The composites were characterized for their porosity, bioactivity, microstructure and mechanical properties. The osteoinductive properties of these composites were evaluated in human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) cultures grown in either standard growth medium or treated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or dexamethasone (Dex). After incubation in simulated body fluid, calcium phosphate precipitates formed inside the pores of both A2-PLGA and S2-PLGA scaffolds. The compressive strength of the latter was increased slightly compared to PLGA. Both composites promoted superior hBMSC attachment to the material surface and stimulated the expression of several osteogenic markers in hBMSC compared to cells grown on unmodified PLGA. There were also marked differences in the response of hBMSC to composite scaffolds, depending on chemical compositions of the scaffolds and culture treatments. Compared to silica-rich S2-PLGA, hBMSC grown on calcium-rich A2-PLGA were overall less responsive to rhBMP-2 or Dex and the osteoinductive properties of these A2-PLGA scaffolds seemed partially dependent on their ability to induce BMP signaling in untreated hBMSC. Thus, beyond the ability of currently studied composites to enhance hBMSC osteogenesis, it may become possible to modulate the osteogenic response of h

  11. Non-crystalline composite tissue engineering scaffolds using boron-containing bioactive glass and poly(d,l-lactic acid) coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsos, T; Chatzistavrou, X; Roether, J A; Boccaccini, A R [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hupa, L; Arstila, H, E-mail: a.boccaccini@imperial.ac.u [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was the fabrication of three-dimensional, highly porous, bioactive scaffolds using a recently developed bioactive glass powder, denominated '0106', with nominal composition (in wt%): 50 SiO{sub 2}, 22.6 CaO, 5.9 Na{sub 2}O, 4 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 12 K{sub 2}O, 5.3 MgO and 0.2 B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The optimum sintering conditions for the fabrication of scaffolds by the foam-replica method were identified (sintering temperature: 670 deg, C and dwell time: 5 h). Composite samples were also fabricated by applying a biopolymer coating of poly({sub D,L}-lactic acid) (PDLLA) using a dip coating process. The average compressive strength values were 0.4 MPa for uncoated and 0.6 MPa for coated scaffolds. In vitro bioactivity studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that a carbonate hydroxyapatite (HCAp) layer was deposited on uncoated and coated scaffolds after only 4 days of immersion in SBF, demonstrating the high in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds. It was also confirmed that the scaffold structure remained amorphous (no crystallization) after the specific heat treatment used, with scaffolds exhibiting mechanical properties and bioactivity suitable for use in bone tissue engineering applications.

  12. Non-crystalline composite tissue engineering scaffolds using boron-containing bioactive glass and poly(D,L-lactic acid) coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsos, T; Chatzistavrou, X; Roether, J A; Hupa, L; Arstila, H; Boccaccini, A R

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was the fabrication of three-dimensional, highly porous, bioactive scaffolds using a recently developed bioactive glass powder, denominated '0106', with nominal composition (in wt%): 50 SiO(2), 22.6 CaO, 5.9 Na(2)O, 4 P(2)O(5), 12 K(2)O, 5.3 MgO and 0.2 B(2)O(3). The optimum sintering conditions for the fabrication of scaffolds by the foam-replica method were identified (sintering temperature: 670 degrees C and dwell time: 5 h). Composite samples were also fabricated by applying a biopolymer coating of poly((D,L)-lactic acid) (PDLLA) using a dip coating process. The average compressive strength values were 0.4 MPa for uncoated and 0.6 MPa for coated scaffolds. In vitro bioactivity studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that a carbonate hydroxyapatite (HCAp) layer was deposited on uncoated and coated scaffolds after only 4 days of immersion in SBF, demonstrating the high in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds. It was also confirmed that the scaffold structure remained amorphous (no crystallization) after the specific heat treatment used, with scaffolds exhibiting mechanical properties and bioactivity suitable for use in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:19776493

  13. Non-crystalline composite tissue engineering scaffolds using boron-containing bioactive glass and poly(d,l-lactic acid) coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was the fabrication of three-dimensional, highly porous, bioactive scaffolds using a recently developed bioactive glass powder, denominated '0106', with nominal composition (in wt%): 50 SiO2, 22.6 CaO, 5.9 Na2O, 4 P2O5, 12 K2O, 5.3 MgO and 0.2 B2O3. The optimum sintering conditions for the fabrication of scaffolds by the foam-replica method were identified (sintering temperature: 670 deg, C and dwell time: 5 h). Composite samples were also fabricated by applying a biopolymer coating of poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) using a dip coating process. The average compressive strength values were 0.4 MPa for uncoated and 0.6 MPa for coated scaffolds. In vitro bioactivity studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that a carbonate hydroxyapatite (HCAp) layer was deposited on uncoated and coated scaffolds after only 4 days of immersion in SBF, demonstrating the high in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds. It was also confirmed that the scaffold structure remained amorphous (no crystallization) after the specific heat treatment used, with scaffolds exhibiting mechanical properties and bioactivity suitable for use in bone tissue engineering applications.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid Nanoparticles-Loaded Chitosan/Bioactive Glass Scaffolds as a Localized Delivery System in the Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nazemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The functionality of tissue engineering scaffolds can be enhanced by localized delivery of appropriate biological macromolecules incorporated within biodegradable nanoparticles. In this research, chitosan/58S-bioactive glass (58S-BG containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles has been prepared and then characterized. The effects of further addition of 58S-BG on the structure of scaffolds have been investigated to optimize the characteristics of the scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. The results showed that the scaffolds had high porosity with open pores. It was also shown that the porosity decreased with increasing 58S-BG content. Furthermore, the PLGA nanoparticles were homogenously distributed within the scaffolds. According to the obtained results, the nanocomposites could be considered as highly bioactive bone tissue engineering scaffolds with the potential of localized delivery of biological macromolecules.

  15. Electrospun chitosan-graft-poly (ε-caprolactone)/poly (ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds for retinal tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Honglin Chen; Xianqun Fan; Jing Xia; et al

    2011-01-01

    Honglin Chen1,2, Xianqun Fan1, Jing Xia1, Ping Chen1, Xiaojian Zhou1, Jin Huang2, Jiahui Yu2, Ping Gu11Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 2Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A promising therapy for retinal diseases is to employ biodegradable scaffolds to deliver retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) for repairing damaged or ...

  16. Mesoporous bioactive glass surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen SJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shijie Chen,1,* Zhiyuan Jian,2,* Linsheng Huang,2,* Wei Xu,3,* Shaohua Liu,4 Dajiang Song,3 Zongmiao Wan,3 Amanda Vaughn,5 Ruisen Zhan,1 Chaoyue Zhang,1 Song Wu,1 Minghua Hu,6 Jinsong Li1 1Department of Orthopaedics, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2The First General Surgery Department of Shiyan Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Changzheng Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Molecular Biosciences, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 6Department of Anthropotomy, Changsha Medical College, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG surface modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration was prepared by dip-coating a PLGA electrospun fibrous scaffold into MBG precursor solution. Different surface structures and properties were acquired by different coating times. Surface morphology, chemical composition, microstructure, pore size distribution, and hydrophilicity of the PLGA-MBG scaffold were characterized. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that MBG surface coating made the scaffold rougher with the increase of MBG content. Scaffolds after MBG modification possessed mesoporous architecture on the surface. The measurements of the water contact angles suggested that the incorporation of MBG into the PLGA scaffold improved the surface hydrophilicity. An energy dispersive spectrometer evidenced that calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite formed on the PLGA-MBG scaffolds

  17. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Nana [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhou, Zheng, E-mail: zhouzheng@hnu.edu.cn [College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xia, Leilei; Dai, Yao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Hairong, E-mail: liuhairong@hnu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-05-01

    A key challenge in tissue engineering is the construction of a scaffold with adequate properties which would mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) to induce the cells' efficient adhesion, proliferation and proper differentiation. Novel β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV composite scaffolds were fabricated by integrating β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanoparticles with PHBV backbone via a modified solvent casting-particulates leaching method, which generates interconnected porous structure and the high porosity, about 87%, of these scaffolds. Compared with PHBV scaffolds, β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV composite scaffolds facilitate the adhesion of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells due to their increased hydrophilicity. The β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV composite scaffolds containing 2.5 or 5% β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanoparticles significantly enhance the proliferation of MG-63 cells by stimulating the transcription of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) genes. These scaffolds also induce early differentiation via promoting the transcription of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results suggest the potential application of β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV composites in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: The β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV composite scaffolds with multiple bioactivity. Panel a shows the ESEM micrographs of the synthesized β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanoparticles; panels b and c are ESEM micrographs of MG-63 cell adhesion on β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV scaffolds for 4 h: (b) pure PHBV scaffold; (c) composite scaffold with 2.5 wt.% β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanoparticles; panel d presents the influence of β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV scaffolds to the proliferation of MG-63 cells; panel e shows the β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV composite scaffolds that influence the transcription of genes listed. Highlights: ► β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/PHBV composite scaffold was fabricated by integrating β-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanoparticles. ►

  18. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400-500 μm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair. PMID:22679367

  19. Bioactive nanoparticles stimulate bone tissue formation in bioprinted three-dimensional scaffold and human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guifang; Schilling, Arndt F; Yonezawa, Tomo; Wang, Jiang; Dai, Guohao; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    Bioprinting based on thermal inkjet printing is a promising but unexplored approach in bone tissue engineering. Appropriate cell types and suitable biomaterial scaffolds are two critical factors to generate successful bioprinted tissue. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate bioactive ceramic nanoparticles in stimulating osteogenesis of printed bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in poly(ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) scaffold. hMSCs suspended in PEGDMA were co-printed with nanoparticles of bioactive glass (BG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) under simultaneous polymerization so the printed substrates were delivered with highly accurate placement in three-dimensional (3D) locations. hMSCs interacted with HA showed the highest cell viability (86.62 ± 6.02%) and increased compressive modulus (358.91 ± 48.05 kPa) after 21 days in culture among all groups. Biochemical analysis showed the most collagen production and highest alkaline phosphatase activity in PEG-HA group, which is consistent with gene expression determined by quantitative PCR. Masson's trichrome staining also showed the most collagen deposition in PEG-HA scaffold. Therefore, HA is more effective comparing to BG for hMSCs osteogenesis in bioprinted bone constructs. Combining with our previous experience in vasculature, cartilage, and muscle bioprinting, this technology demonstrates the capacity for both soft and hard tissue engineering with biomimetic structures. PMID:25130390

  20. Optimized Solid Phase-Assisted Synthesis of Dendrons Applicable as Scaffolds for Radiolabeled Bioactive Multivalent Compounds Intended for Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fischer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic structures, being highly homogeneous and symmetric, represent ideal scaffolds for the multimerization of bioactive molecules and thus enable the synthesis of compounds of high valency which are e.g., applicable in radiolabeled form as multivalent radiotracers for in vivo imaging. As the commonly applied solution phase synthesis of dendritic scaffolds is cumbersome and time-consuming, a synthesis strategy was developed that allows for the efficient assembly of acid amide bond-based highly modular dendrons on solid support via standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis protocols. The obtained dendritic structures comprised up to 16 maleimide functionalities and were derivatized on solid support with the chelating agent DOTA. The functionalized dendrons furthermore could be efficiently reacted with structurally variable model thiol-bearing bioactive molecules via click chemistry and finally radiolabeled with 68Ga. Thus, this solid phase-assisted dendron synthesis approach enables the fast and straightforward assembly of bioactive multivalent constructs for example applicable as radiotracers for in vivo imaging with Positron Emission Tomography (PET.

  1. Enhancement of a magnetic nanofibrous composite scaffold for bone regeneration%磁性纳米纤维复合材料原位诱导体内成骨的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许振; 孟洁; 张宇; 常晓; 边焱焱; 孔桦; 顾宁; 许海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究一种新型顺磁性的纳米纤维复合支架γ-Fe2O3/nHAP/PDLLA在弱磁场下体内诱导新骨形成的功效.方法:纳米纤维复合材料支架通过电纺丝方法制成,支架内部的微观结构用扫描电镜(SEM)进行表征.将支架植入兔横突根部骨缺损处并在12周后处死动物,应用组织学方法研究支架在动物体内原位诱导新骨形成和胶原蛋白沉积的情况.结果:与对照的nHAP/PDLLA纳米纤维支架相比,磁性纳米纤维复合支架上有更多的Ⅰ型胶原沉积,新骨的生成量也明显增加.结论:磁性纳米纤维复合支架能够促进骨缺损部位的新骨生成,在引导骨组织再生与修复方面具有应用潜能.%Objective: To investigate the function of inducing bone regeneration of a novel paramagnetic nanofibrous composite scaffold of γ-Fe2O3/nHAP/PDLLA in vivo under a weak applied magnetic field.Methods: The scaffold was fabricated with the composite by electrospinning technique.The microstructure of the scaffold was characterized by scanning electron microscopy.The scaffold was implanted in defects at the root segment of the lumbar transverse process on a rabbit model.Bone tissue samples were collected after 12 weeks of implant surgery.New bone formation in the defects was assessed using histological analysis in reference to a control nanofibrous composite of nHAP/PDLLA.Deposition of type Ⅰ collagen fibers were examined by Sirius red staining.Results: There was new bone formation observed in the scaffold.Type Ⅰ collagen was deposited abundantly on the scaffold.Together all, the bone regeneration was enhanced obviously in comparison with that induced by control scaffold of nHAP/PDLLA.Conclusion: The scaffold of γ-Fe2O3/nHAP/PDLLA enhanced osteogenesis under a weak static magnetic field, and exhibited promising potential for use in bone repair.

  2. Controlled release of antibiotics encapsulated in the electrospinning polylactide nanofibrous scaffold and their antibacterial and biocompatible properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, the drug loaded polylactide nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning. Morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties are characterized. Properties and mechanism of the controlled release of the nanofibers are investigated. The results show that the drug loaded polylactide nanofibers do not show dispersed phase, and there is a good compatibility between polylactide and drugs. FTIR spectra show that drugs are encapsulated inside the polylactide nanofibers, and drugs do not break the structure of polylcatide. Flexibility of drug loaded polylactide scaffolds is higher than that of the pure polylactide nanofibers. Release rate of the drug loaded nanofibers is significantly slower than that of the drug powder. Release rate increases with the increase of the drugs’ concentration. The research mechanism suggests a typical diffusion-controlled release of the three loaded drugs. Antibacterial and cell culture show that drug loaded nanofibers possess effective antibacterial activity and biocompatible properties. (papers)

  3. Microsphere-integrated gelatin-siloxane hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering :in vitro bioactivity & antibacterial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Microsphere integrated gelatin-siloxane hybrid scaffolds were successfully synthesized by using a combined sol-gel processing,post-gelation soaking and freeze-drying process.A bone-like apatite layer was able to form in the Ca2+-containing porous hybrids upon soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 day.The rate of gentamicin sulfate (GS) release from the GS-loaded gelatin-siloxane hybrid microsphere became constant after a 4 h burst.The antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion test (ADT) and the bactericidal effect test.It is evident that the as-synthesized porous scaffolds have excellent bioactivity and antibacterial activity,and may be favorable in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Nanosized Mesoporous Bioactive Glass/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid Composite-Coated CaSiO3 Scaffolds with Multifunctional Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to prepare multifunctional scaffolds combining good mechanical strength, bioactivity, and drug delivery ability for bone tissue engineering. In this study, nanosized mesoporous bioglass/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid composite-coated calcium silicate scaffolds, named NMBG-PLGA/CS, were successfully prepared. The morphology and structure of the prepared scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of NMBG on the apatite mineralization activity and mechanical strength of the scaffolds and the attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3 cells as well as drug ibuprofen delivery properties were systematically studied. Compared to pure CS scaffolds and PLGA/CS scaffolds, the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds had greatly improved apatite mineralization activity in simulated body fluids, much higher mechanical property, and supported the attachment of MC3T3 cells and enhanced the cell proliferation and ALP activity. Furthermore, the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds could be used for delivering ibuprofen with a sustained release profile. Our study suggests that the prepared NMBG-PLGA/CS scaffolds have improved physicochemical, biological, and drug-delivery property as compared to conventional CS scaffolds, indicating that the multifunctional property of the prepared scaffolds for the potential application of bone tissue engineering.

  5. Silicate, borosilicate, and borate bioactive glass scaffolds with controllable degradation rate for bone tissue engineering applications. I. Preparation and in vitro degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Hailuo; Liu, Xin

    2010-10-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of dry human trabecular bone but with three different compositions were evaluated for potential applications in bone repair. The preparation of the scaffolds and the effect of the glass composition on the degradation and conversion of the scaffolds to a hydroxyapatite (HA)-type material in a simulated body fluid (SBF) are reported here (Part I). The in vitro response of osteogenic cells to the scaffolds and the in vivo evaluation of the scaffolds in a rat subcutaneous implantation model are described in Part II. Scaffolds (porosity = 78-82%; pore size = 100-500 microm) were prepared using a polymer foam replication technique. The glasses consisted of a silicate (13-93) composition, a borosilicate composition (designated 13-93B1), and a borate composition (13-93B3), in which one-third or all of the SiO2 content of 13-93 was replaced by B2O3, respectively. The conversion rate of the scaffolds to HA in the SBF increased markedly with the B2O3 content of the glass. Concurrently, the pH of the SBF also increased with the B2O3 content of the scaffolds. The compressive strengths of the as-prepared scaffolds (5-11 MPa) were in the upper range of values reported for trabecular bone, but they decreased markedly with immersion time in the SBF and with increasing B2O3 content of the glass. The results show that scaffolds with a wide range of bioactivity and degradation rate can be achieved by replacing varying amounts of SiO(2) in silicate bioactive glass with B2O3. PMID:20544804

  6. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jiacan Su, Liehu Cao, Baoqing Yu, Shaojun Song, Xinwei Liu, Zhiwei Wang, Ming LiDepartment of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 µm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair.Keywords: mesoporous bioglass, polyamide, composite scaffolds, biocompatibility, bone repair

  7. 3D nanocomposite chitosan/bioactive glass scaffolds obtained using two different routes: an evaluation of the porous structure and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke M. F. Lemos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous synthetic substrates are developed through tissue engineering technologies to grow new tissue, restoring the function of tissue or an organ. For bone regeneration, these scaffolds must support the dynamic load exerted on this tissue, achieved primarily by increasing their compression strength, as established in the literature. The aim of this paper was to incorporate an inorganic composite bioactive glass (60%SiO2 - 36%CaO - 4%P2O5 as a reinforcing agent in mechanical 3D scaffolds that must remain porous. Two strategies were adopted: a co-precipitation method to obtain a nanoparticulate dispersion of bioactive glass (BGNP and a sol-gel method to combine a bioactive glass solution (BG with a previously prepared chitosan polymer solution. Moreover, a lyophilization process was also used, generating highly porous scaffolds. Various aspects of the scaffold were evaluated, including the morphology, orientation and size of the pores, and mechanical strength, as obtained using the two synthetic methods. The data for compressive strength revealed increased strength after the incorporation of bioactive glass, which was more pronounced when utilizing the nanoscale bioactive glass.

  8. Bone Tissue Engineering with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Bioactive Composites of Laser-Sintered Porous Polycaprolactone Scaffolds and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Tsung Liao; Jyh-Ping Chen; Ming-Yih Lee

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with consistent inter-pore channels, 83% porosity and 300–400 μm pore size were fabricated via selective laser sintering. The PCL scaffold was combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to form a bioactive composite and studied for potential application in bone tissue engineering using porcine adipose-derived stem cells (PASCs). The PCL/PRP/PASCs construct showed enhanced cell seeding efficiency and synergistically increased the differen...

  9. Nanofibrous electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di Jia; Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen

    2016-05-24

    A nanofibrous catalyst and method of manufacture. A precursor solution of a transition metal based material is formed into a plurality of interconnected nanofibers by electro-spinning the precursor solution with the nanofibers converted to a catalytically active material by a heat treatment. Selected subsequent treatments can enhance catalytic activity.

  10. Bioactive polymeric–ceramic hybrid 3D scaffold for application in bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regeneration of large bone defects remains a challenging scenario from a therapeutic point of view. In fact, the currently available bone substitutes are often limited by poor tissue integration and severe host inflammatory responses, which eventually lead to surgical removal. In an attempt to address these issues, herein we evaluated the importance of alginate incorporation in the production of improved and tunable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds to be used as temporary templates for bone regeneration. Different bioceramic combinations were tested in order to investigate optimal scaffold architectures. Additionally, 3D β-TCP/HA vacuum-coated with alginate, presented improved compressive strength, fracture toughness and Young's modulus, to values similar to those of native bone. The hybrid 3D polymeric–bioceramic scaffolds also supported osteoblast adhesion, maturation and proliferation, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that a 3D scaffold produced with this combination of biomaterials is described. Altogether, our results emphasize that this hybrid scaffold presents promising characteristics for its future application in bone regeneration. - Graphical abstract: B-TCP:HA–alginate hybrid 3D porous scaffolds for application in bone regeneration. - Highlights: • The produced hybrid 3D scaffolds are prone to be applied in bone tissue engineering. • Alginate coated 3D scaffolds present high mechanical and biological properties. • In vitro assays for evaluation of human osteoblast cell attachment in the presence of the scaffolds • The hybrid 3D scaffolds present suitable mechanical and biological properties for use in bone regenerative medicine

  11. Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Anandkumar; Barradas, Ana; de Boer, Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), electrospinning (ESP) and a biomimetic coating method in order to provide mechanical support and a physico-chemical environment mimicking both the organic and inorganic phases of bone extracellular matrix (ECM). Poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(buthylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) block copolymer was used to produce three dimensional scaffolds by combining 3D fiber (3DF) deposition, and ESP, and these constructs were then coated with a Ca-P layer in a simulated physiological solution. Scaffold morphology and composition were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) and Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on coated and uncoated 3DF and 3DF + ESP scaffolds for up to 21 d in basic and mineralization medium and cell attachment, proliferation, and expression of genes related to osteogenesis were assessed. Cells attached, proliferated and secreted ECM on all the scaffolds. There were no significant differences in metabolic activity among the different groups on days 7 and 21. Coated 3DF scaffolds showed a significantly higher DNA amount in basic medium at 21 d compared with the coated 3DF + ESP scaffolds, whereas in mineralization medium, the presence of coating in 3DF+ESP scaffolds led to a significant decrease in the amount of DNA. An effect of combining different scaffolding technologies and material types on expression of a number of osteogenic markers (cbfa1, BMP-2, OP, OC and ON) was observed, suggesting the potential use of this approach in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23507924

  12. Degradability, bioactivity, and osteogenesis of biocomposite scaffolds of lithium-containing mesoporous bioglass and mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yanrong Cai,1 Lieping Guo,2 Hongxing Shen,2 Xiaofei An,2 Hong Jiang,3 Fang Ji,2 Yunfei Niu21The College of Basic Science of Medicine, Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Biocomposite scaffolds of lithium (Li-containing mesoporous bioglass and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide-poly(L-lysine (mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer were fabricated in this study. The results showed that the water absorption and degradability of Li-containing mesoporous bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-MBPC scaffolds were obviously higher than Li-containing bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-BPC scaffolds. Moreover, the apatite-formation ability of l-MBPC scaffolds was markedly enhanced as compared with l-BPC scaffolds, indicating that l-MBPC scaffolds containing mesoporous bioglass exhibited good bioactivity. The cell experimental results showed that cell attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on l-MBPC scaffolds were remarkably improved as compared to l-BPC scaffolds. In animal experiments, the histological elevation results revealed that l-MBPC scaffolds significantly promoted new bone formation, indicating good osteogenesis. l-MBPC scaffolds with improved properties would be an excellent candidate for bone tissue repair.Keywords: MBG, copolymer, degradability, bioactivity, osteogenesis, cell proliferation, bone repair

  13. Self-assembled peptide-based hydrogels as scaffolds for anchorage-dependent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Smith, Andrew M; Das, Apurba K; Hodson, Nigel W; Collins, Richard F; Ulijn, Rein V; Gough, Julie E

    2009-05-01

    We report here the design of a biomimetic nanofibrous hydrogel as a 3D-scaffold for anchorage-dependent cells. The peptide-based bioactive hydrogel is formed through molecular self-assembly and the building blocks are a mixture of two aromatic short peptide derivatives: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine) and Fmoc-RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) as the simplest self-assembling moieties reported so far for the construction of small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels. This hydrogel provides a highly hydrated, stiff and nanofibrous hydrogel network that uniquely presents bioactive ligands at the fibre surface; therefore it mimics certain essential features of the extracellular matrix. The RGD sequence as part of the Fmoc-RGD building block plays a dual role of a structural component and a biological ligand. Spectroscopic and imaging analysis using CD, FTIR, fluorescence, TEM and AFM confirmed that FF and RGD peptide sequences self-assemble into beta-sheets interlocked by pi-pi stacking of the Fmoc groups. This generates the cylindrical nanofibres interwoven within the hydrogel with the presence of RGDs in tunable densities on the fibre surfaces. This rapid gelling material was observed to promote adhesion of encapsulated dermal fibroblasts through specific RGD-integrin binding, with subsequent cell spreading and proliferation; therefore it may offer an economical model scaffold to 3D-culture other anchorage-dependent cells for in-vitro tissue regeneration. PMID:19201459

  14. Bioactive composite scaffolds for bone regeneration:from the process to the biological validation

    OpenAIRE

    Ronca, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have discussed the preparation and characterization of composite scaffolds for bone regeneration. The scaffolds were made with different techniques: salt leaching / phase inversion,filament winding and stereolithography. The phase of preparation is followed by a characterization from a morphological, mechanical and biological point of view. Results were very promising especially regarding the biological response of the substrates that appear to be promising for future in v...

  15. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Su J; Cao L; Yu B; Song S; Liu X; Wang Z; Li M

    2012-01-01

    Jiacan Su, Liehu Cao, Baoqing Yu, Shaojun Song, Xinwei Liu, Zhiwei Wang, Ming LiDepartment of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 µm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%...

  16. Effects of annealing on the structural and mechanical properties of electrospun polymeric nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eunice P S [Division of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Lim, C T [Division of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576, Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-05-28

    Biodegradable polymeric nanofibres produced by electrospinning have been used as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Before these nanofibrous scaffolds can be implanted into the human body, it is important to know if the individual nanofibres are strong enough to withstand the forces exerted by the cells as they grow and migrate on the scaffold. However, due to the small size of the nanofibres, it is a challenge to characterize the mechanical properties of individual nanofibres. Therefore, we aim to mechanically characterize a single nanofibre using both a tensile test and a nanoscale three-point bend test. As some scaffolds may be heat-treated by annealing to enhance the stiffness and strength of the nanofibres, we also investigate the effects of annealing on the structural and mechanical properties of single nanofibres. The material properties of as-spun and annealed nanofibres were studied using differential scanning calorimetry and atomic force microscopy. Annealing was found to increase the Young's modulus of the nanofibre mainly due to the increase in crystallinity and the change in morphology from a purely fibrillar structure to a mixture of fibrillar and nano-granular structure with enhanced interfibrillar bonding.

  17. Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffolds by laser sintering: Mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fwu-Hsing, E-mail: fhliu@mail.lhu.edu.tw

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffold obtained by selective laser sintering. - Highlights: • A layer additive manufacturing technique for fabricating the bio-composites scaffolds is developed. • The slurry state biomaterials are solidified via a laser beam in a self-developed apparatus. • The osteoblast-like cells can be cultured on the scaffold. • This technology has potential for fabricating the bone scaffolds in tissue engineering. - Abstract: In this study, biomedical composite materials were employed to fabricate bone scaffolds using a self-developed rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus. The slurry formed by combining hydroxyapatite (HA), silica sol, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was heated by a CO{sub 2} laser. Under appropriate processing parameters, a biocomposite green body was subsequently fabricated. Its mechanical properties, including surface roughness, bending and compression strengths, volume shrinkage rate, and surface microstructure, were analyzed after heat treatment to 1200 °C, 1300 °C, and 1400 °C. The results showed that after heating the specimen to 1200 °C, its compression and bending strengths increased significantly to 43.26 MPa and 1.28 MPa, respectively; the surface roughness was 12 μm; and surface pores were of size 5–25 μm. Furthermore, the results of WST-1 and LDH assay indicate that the biocomposites showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3 fibroblast. An optical density (OD) of 1.1 was also achieved, and the specimen was suitable for the adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells (MG63). Therefore, the biocomposite bone scaffolds fabricated in this study have potential to be bone implants for developing hard tissue.

  18. Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffolds by laser sintering: Mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffold obtained by selective laser sintering. - Highlights: • A layer additive manufacturing technique for fabricating the bio-composites scaffolds is developed. • The slurry state biomaterials are solidified via a laser beam in a self-developed apparatus. • The osteoblast-like cells can be cultured on the scaffold. • This technology has potential for fabricating the bone scaffolds in tissue engineering. - Abstract: In this study, biomedical composite materials were employed to fabricate bone scaffolds using a self-developed rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus. The slurry formed by combining hydroxyapatite (HA), silica sol, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was heated by a CO2 laser. Under appropriate processing parameters, a biocomposite green body was subsequently fabricated. Its mechanical properties, including surface roughness, bending and compression strengths, volume shrinkage rate, and surface microstructure, were analyzed after heat treatment to 1200 °C, 1300 °C, and 1400 °C. The results showed that after heating the specimen to 1200 °C, its compression and bending strengths increased significantly to 43.26 MPa and 1.28 MPa, respectively; the surface roughness was 12 μm; and surface pores were of size 5–25 μm. Furthermore, the results of WST-1 and LDH assay indicate that the biocomposites showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3 fibroblast. An optical density (OD) of 1.1 was also achieved, and the specimen was suitable for the adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells (MG63). Therefore, the biocomposite bone scaffolds fabricated in this study have potential to be bone implants for developing hard tissue

  19. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3 h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. - Highlights: • Isosorbide-based resin was used as a component of biodegradable scaffolds. • CAC/carboxylic acid system was proven as facile method to obtain porous scaffolds. • Porous scaffolds displayed the formation of hydroxyapatite at their surfaces

  20. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śmiga-Matuszowicz, Monika, E-mail: monika.smiga-matuszowicz@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; Łukaszczyk, Jan [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kaczmarek, Marcin [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering, de Gaulle' a Street 66, 41-800 Zabrze (Poland); Lesiak, Marta; Sieroń, Aleksander L. [Medical University of Silesia, Department of General and Molecular Biology and Genetics, Medyków Street 18, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Simka, Wojciech [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Technology and Fuels, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Mierzwiński, Maciej; Kusz, Damian [Medical University of Silesia, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ziołowa Street 45, 40-635 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3 h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. - Highlights: • Isosorbide-based resin was used as a component of biodegradable scaffolds. • CAC/carboxylic acid system was proven as facile method to obtain porous scaffolds. • Porous scaffolds displayed the formation of hydroxyapatite at their surfaces.

  1. Experimental study of affinity of endothelial outgrowth cells cultured on aligned plla nanofibrous scaffolds%纳米化左旋聚乳酸有序膜的细胞亲和性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢辉俊; 冯章启; 顾忠泽; 刘长建

    2009-01-01

    on the growth EOCs, both aligned and super-aligned PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds significantly enhanced their growth (P < 0.05). These results indicate that not only the PLLA scaffolds are bio-logically compatible with the EOCs, the aligned nanofibers actually promote growth of EOCs. This conclusion was further corroborated by the observation with EOCs grown on and attached to PLLA scaffolds. Adherency of EOCs was completed during 12 hours incuba-tion. Both aligned and super-aligned PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds was significantly higher than the rate of adherency and proliferation of random PLLA scaffolds after 12 hours incubation (P <0.01). The rate of proliferation after 24 hours incubation between aligned and super-aligned PLLA nanofibrous scaffolds was also significant (P<0.05). When grown in composite cultures, we found that EOCs maintained the spindle-shaped morphology in the presence of all types of PLLA scaffolds. Importantly, cell orientations correlated with the structures of the scaffolds-they were randomly oriented in the presence of random scaffolds and aligned reasonably well along the aligned and super-aligned scaffolds EOCs. We also observed intimate intercellular contacts among adjacent cells, suggesting the forma-tion of tight endothelial cell layers surrounding the fibers of the scaffolding material. Conclusion EOCs can be adhere well to aligned and super-aligned scaffolds of PLLA and proliferate, keep well on cell morphology. EOCs are ideal seeding ceils for vascular tissue en-gineering. We found that PLLA nanofibers are not only biocompatible with EOCs, the aligned PLLA fibers actually promoted and guid-ed their sustained proliferation. These results suggest that aligned PLLA could be excellent both as the scaffolds and as a promoter of cell growth during vascular tissue engineering.

  2. Sol-gel derived bioactive glasses with low tendency to crystallize: synthesis, post-sintering bioactivity and possible application for the production of porous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Salvatori, Roberta; Anesi, Alexandre; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2014-10-01

    A new sol-gel (SG) method is proposed to produce special bioactive glasses (BG_Ca family) characterized by a low tendency to devitrify. These formulations, derived from 45S5 Bioglass®, are characterized by a high content of CaO (45.6 mol%) and by a partial or complete substitution of sodium oxide with potassium oxide (total amount of alkaline oxides: 4.6 mol%), which increases the crystallization temperature up to 900°C. In this way, it is possible to produce them by SG preserving their amorphous nature, in spite of the calcination at 850°C. The sintering behavior of the obtained SG powders is thoroughly investigated and the properties of the sintered bodies are compared to those of the melt-derived (M) counterparts. Furthermore, the SG glass powders are successfully used to produce scaffolds by means of a modified replication technique based on the combined use of polyurethane sponges and polyethylene particles. Finally, in the view of a potential application for bone tissue engineering, the cytotoxicity of the produced materials is evaluated in vitro. PMID:25175252

  3. Study of the mechanical stability and bioactivity of Bioglass(®) based glass-ceramic scaffolds produced via powder metallurgy-inspired technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Elena; Melli, Virginia; Catignoli, Gabriele; Altomare, Lina; Jahromi, Maryam Tavafoghi; Cerruti, Marta; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; De Nardo, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Large bone defects are challenging to heal, and often require an osteoconductive and stable support to help the repair of damaged tissue. Bioglass-based scaffolds are particularly promising for this purpose due to their ability to stimulate bone regeneration. However, processing technologies adopted so far do not allow for the synthesis of scaffolds with suitable mechanical properties. Also, conventional sintering processes result in glass de-vitrification, which generates concerns about bioactivity. In this work, we studied the bioactivity and the mechanical properties of Bioglass(®) based scaffolds, produced via a powder technology inspired process. The scaffolds showed compressive strengths in the range of 5-40 MPa, i.e. in the upper range of values reported so far for these materials, had tunable porosity, in the range between 55 and 77%, and pore sizes that are optimal for bone tissue regeneration (100-500 μm). We immersed the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 28 d and analyzed the evolution of the scaffold mechanical properties and microstructure. Even if, after sintering, partial de-vitrification occurred, immersion in SBF caused ion release and the formation of a Ca-P coating within 2 d, which reached a thickness of 10-15 μm after 28 d. This coating contained both hydroxyapatite and an amorphous background, indicating microstructural amorphization of the base material. Scaffolds retained a good compressive strength and structural integrity also after 28 d of immersion (6 MPa compressive strength). The decrease in mechanical properties was mainly related to the increase in porosity, caused by its dissolution, rather than to the amorphization process and the formation of a Ca-P coating. These results suggest that Bioglass(®) based scaffolds produced via powder metallurgy-inspired technique are excellent candidates for bone regeneration applications. PMID:26836444

  4. Characterization of Hybrid Bioactive Glass-polyvinyl Alcohol Scaffolds Containing a PTHrP-derived Pentapeptide as Implants for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, D.J.; Lozano, D.; Rocha-Oliveira, A.A.; Mortarino, P.; Bumaguin, G.E.; Vitelli, E.; Vena, R.; Missana, L.; Jammal, M. V.; Portal-Núñez, S.; Pereira, M.; Esbrit, P.; Feldman, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid foam (BG-PVA) with 50 % Bioactive glass (BG) and 50 % polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared by sol-gel process to produce scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The pore structure of hydrated foams was evaluated by 3-D confocal microscopy, confirming 70% porosity and interconnected macroporous network. In this study, we assessed the putative advantage of coating with osteostatin pentapeptide into BG-PVA hybrid scaffolds to improve their bioactivity. In vitro cell culture experiments were performed using mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The exposure to osteostatin loaded-BG-PVA scaffolds increase cell proliferation in contrast with the unloaded scaffolds. An in vivo study was selected to implant BG-PVA scaffolds, non-coated (Group A) or coated (Group B) with osteostatin into non critical bone defect at rabbit femur. Both groups showed new compact bone formation on implant surface, with lamellae disposed around a haversian canal forming osteons-like structure. We observed signs of inflammation around the implanted unloaded scaffold at one month, but resolved at 3 months. This early inflammation did not occur in Group B; supporting the notion that osteostatin may act as anti-inflammatory inhibitor. On the other hand, Group B showed increased bone formation, as depicted by many new trabeculae partly mineralized in the implant regenerating area, incipient at 1 month and more evident at 3 months after implantation. PVA/BG hybrid scaffolds present a porous structure suitable to support osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Our in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that osteostatin coating improves the osteogenic features of these scaffolds PMID:24772196

  5. Enhancing the bioactivity of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold with a nano-hydroxyapatite coating for the treatment of segmental bone defect in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang DX

    2013-05-01

    the group of virgin PLGA scaffolds, as shown by X-ray, Micro-computerized tomography and histological examinations.Conclusion: nHA coating on the interior pore surfaces can significantly improve the bioactivity of PLGA porous scaffolds.Keywords: PLGA, nano-hydroxyapatite, bone tissue engineering, BMSCs, bone defect

  6. Multilayered Scaffolds for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering Based on Bioactive Glass and Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Nooeaid, Patcharakamon

    2014-01-01

    Injuries of the articular cartilage may penetrate to the underlying subchondral bone, forming osteochondral defects which have a limited capacity of self-regeneration. Accompanied with limited surgical treatments and the fact that the causes are not understood well, an approach based in tissue engineering becomes a promising strategy for osteochondral repair. Such tissue engineering approaches are based on the combination of synthetic scaffolds, suitable cell sources and active molecules or g...

  7. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiga-Matuszowicz, Monika; Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; Łukaszczyk, Jan; Kaczmarek, Marcin; Lesiak, Marta; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Simka, Wojciech; Mierzwiński, Maciej; Kusz, Damian

    2014-12-01

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. PMID:25491802

  8. On the mechanical properties of PLC-bioactive glass scaffolds fabricated via BioExtrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, T; Videira, A C; Bártolo, P; Strauch, M; Murch, G E; Ferreira, J M F

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical characterization of polycaprolactone (PCL)-bioglass (FastOs®BG) composites and scaffolds intended for use in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering scaffolds support the self-healing mechanism of the human body and promote the regrowth of damaged tissue. These implants can dissolve after successful tissue regeneration minimising the immune reaction and the need for revision surgery. However, their mechanical properties should match surrounding tissue in order to avoid strain concentration and possible separation at the interface. Therefore, an extensive experimental testing programme of this advanced material using uni-axial compressive testing was conducted. Tests were performed at low strain rates corresponding to quasi-static loading conditions. The initial elastic gradient, plateau stress and densification strain were obtained. Tested specimens varied according to their average density and material composition. In total, four groups of solid and robocast porous PCL samples containing 0, 20, 30, and 35% bioglass, respectively were tested. The addition of bioglass was found to slightly decrease the initial elastic gradient and the plateau stress of the biomaterial scaffolds. PMID:26354266

  9. A layered electrospun and woven surgical scaffold to enhance endogenous tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, O; Mouthuy, P A; Zargar, N; Lostis, E; Morrey, M; Carr, A

    2015-10-01

    Surgical reattachments of tendon to bone in the rotator cuff are reported to fail in around 40% of cases. There are no adequate solutions to improve tendon healing currently available. Electrospun, sub-micron materials, have been extensively studied as scaffolds for tendon repair with promising results, but are too weak to be surgically implanted or to mechanically support the healing tendon. To address this, we developed a bonding technique that enables the processing of electrospun sheets into multi-layered, robust, implantable fabrics. Here, we show a first prototype scaffold created with this method, where an electrospun sheet was reinforced with a woven layer. The resulting scaffold presents a maximum suture pull out strength of 167N, closely matched with human rotator cuff tendons, and the desired nanofibre-mediated bioactivity in vitro and in vivo. This type of scaffold has potential for broader application for augmenting other soft tissues. PMID:26275911

  10. The effects of 3D bioactive glass scaffolds and BMP-2 on bone formation in rat femoral critical size defects and adjacent bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstruction of critical size defects in the load-bearing area has long been a challenge in orthopaedics. In the past, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using a biodegradable load-sharing scaffold fabricated from poly(propylene fumarate)/tricalcium phosphate (PPF/TCP) loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to successfully induce healing in those defects. However, there is limited osteoconduction observed with the PPF/TCP scaffold itself. For this reason, 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds with local BMP-2 delivery were investigated in this study for inducing segmental defect repairs in a load-bearing region. Furthermore, a recent review on BMP-2 revealed greater risks in radiculitis, ectopic bone formation, osteolysis and poor global outcome in association with the use of BMP-2 for spinal fusion. We also evaluated the potential side effects of locally delivered BMP-2 on the structures of adjacent bones. Therefore, cylindrical 13-93 glass scaffolds were fabricated by indirect selective laser sintering with side holes on the cylinder filled with dicalcium phosphate dehydrate as a BMP-2 carrier. The scaffolds were implanted into critical size defects created in rat femurs with and without 10 μg of BMP-2. The x-ray and micro-CT results showed that a bridging callus was found as soon as three weeks and progressed gradually in the BMP group while minimal bone formation was observed in the control group. Degradation of the scaffolds was noted in both groups. Stiffness, peak load and energy to break of the BMP group were all higher than the control group. There was no statistical difference in bone mineral density, bone area and bone mineral content in the tibiae and contralateral femurs of the control and BMP groups. In conclusion, a 13-93 bioactive glass scaffold with local BMP-2 delivery has been demonstrated for its potential application in treating large bone defects. (paper)

  11. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mabrouk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new composite poly(caprolactone (PCL and poly(acrylic acid (PAA (PCL:PAA 1:5 scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si (2–12 μm were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Attenuated Total Refelctance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, SEM, surface area analysis and liquid displacement, respectively. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were measured by textural analysis and in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations were evaluated by XRD, FTIR and SEM after immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF. The in vitro and in vivo studies of the prepared scaffold were considered as future aspects for this study. CFX release was determined in phosphate buffer saline (PBS (pH 7.4; 37 °C. The incorporation of the Si microspheres and CFX into the scaffold was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, DSC and SEM, and the scaffold microstructure was dependent on the concentration of Si microspheres and the presence of CFX. The system displayed enhanced mechanical properties (4.5–14.73 MPa, in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and controlled CFX release. Therefore, the PCL/PAA scaffolds loaded with Si microspheres and CFX with a porosity of up to 87% may be promising for bone tissue engineering.

  12. Processing and characterization of poly(lactic acid) based bioactive composites for biomedical scaffold application

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, J.; Ghosh, A. K.; Bhatnagar, N; Mohanty, S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study focuses on three-components material systems (poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and wollastonite (W)) in view of possible application a biomedical scaffold constructs. Melt extruded PLA/PCL/W composites (PLCL15, PLCLW1, PLCLW4, PLCLW8 containing 0, 1, 4, 8 phr filler respectively) are batch foamed using compressed CO2 and the porous foams are studied for in vitro biocompatibility by seeding osteoblast cells. SEM images of the unfoamed polymers show imm...

  13. UFSRAT: Ultra-Fast Shape Recognition with Atom Types –The Discovery of Novel Bioactive Small Molecular Scaffolds for FKBP12 and 11βHSD1

    OpenAIRE

    Shave, Steven; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Adie, Jillian; Houston, Douglas R.; Auer, Manfred; Webster, Scott P.; Taylor, Paul; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Using molecular similarity to discover bioactive small molecules with novel chemical scaffolds can be computationally demanding. We describe Ultra-fast Shape Recognition with Atom Types (UFSRAT), an efficient algorithm that considers both the 3D distribution (shape) and electrostatics of atoms to score and retrieve molecules capable of making similar interactions to those of the supplied query. Results Computational optimization and pre-calculation of molecular descriptors enables ...

  14. Processing and characterization of poly(lactic acid based bioactive composites for biomedical scaffold application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Goswami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on three-components material systems (poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and wollastonite (W in view of possible application a biomedical scaffold constructs. Melt extruded PLA/PCL/W composites (PLCL15, PLCLW1, PLCLW4, PLCLW8 containing 0, 1, 4, 8 phr filler respectively are batch foamed using compressed CO2 and the porous foams are studied for in vitro biocompatibility by seeding osteoblast cells. SEM images of the unfoamed polymers show immiscibility in all compositions. Materials have been tested under compressive load using dry and wet conditions (using phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.4 for in vitro study. Contact angle measurement shows enhanced hydrophilicity in the composites changing from 80° in PLCL15 to 72° in PLCLW8. The foams are found to be microcellular (5–8 µm in morphology showing quite uniform pore distribution in the composites. The prepared foams, when studied as scaffold constructs, show osteoblast cell attachment and proliferation over the incubation period of 7 days. As expected, PLCLW8 containing highest amount of CaSiO3 supported maximum cell growth on its surface as visible from MTT assay data and SEM scans.

  15. Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffolds by laser sintering: Mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fwu-Hsing

    2014-04-01

    In this study, biomedical composite materials were employed to fabricate bone scaffolds using a self-developed rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus. The slurry formed by combining hydroxyapatite (HA), silica sol, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was heated by a CO2 laser. Under appropriate processing parameters, a biocomposite green body was subsequently fabricated. Its mechanical properties, including surface roughness, bending and compression strengths, volume shrinkage rate, and surface microstructure, were analyzed after heat treatment to 1200 °C, 1300 °C, and 1400 °C. The results showed that after heating the specimen to 1200 °C, its compression and bending strengths increased significantly to 43.26 MPa and 1.28 MPa, respectively; the surface roughness was 12 μm; and surface pores were of size 5-25 μm. Furthermore, the results of WST-1 and LDH assay indicate that the biocomposites showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3 fibroblast. An optical density (OD) of 1.1 was also achieved, and the specimen was suitable for the adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells (MG63). Therefore, the biocomposite bone scaffolds fabricated in this study have potential to be bone implants for developing hard tissue.

  16. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering

  17. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Allister Yingwei [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh, E-mail: dineshkumar@ntu.edu.sg [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-04-01

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering.

  18. Electrospun Poly(L-lactide)/Poly(ε-caprolactone) Blend Nanofibrous Scaffold: Characterization and Biocompatibility with Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Bai,Yi; Liao, Guiying; Peng, Ejun; Wu, Bolin; Wang, Yuxi; Zeng, Xiaoyong; Xie, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    The essence of tissue engineering is the fabrication of autologous cells or induced stem cells in naturally derived or synthetic scaffolds to form specific tissues. Polymer is thought as an appealing source of cell-seeded scaffold owing to the diversity of its physicochemical property and can be electrospun into nano-size to mimic natural structure. Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are both excellent aliphatic polyester with almost “opposite” characteristics. The co...

  19. Functional polyaniline nanofibre mats for human adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductive polymer poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) (P(ANI-co-m-ABA)) and polyaniline (PANI) were blended with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) and were electrospun into nanofibres to investigate their potential application as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). These polymers, in both conductive and non-conductive form, were electrospun with average fibre diameters of less than 400 nm. Novel nanoindentation results obtained on the individual nanofibres revealed that the elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface (4–10 GPa, hmax max >75 nm). The composite nanofibres showed great promise as a scaffold for hASCs as they supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. After 1 week of cell culture hASCs were well spread on the substrates with abundant focal adhesions. The electrospun mats provide the cells with comparably stiff, sub-micron sized fibres as anchoring points on a substrate of high porosity. The conductive nature of these composite nanofibres offers exciting opportunities for electrical stimulation of the cells. - Highlights: ► Polyaniline and its copolymer's nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning. ► The elastic modulus of a single polyaniline composite nanofibres were determined. ► Elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface than the inner core. ► The electrospun mats supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The nanofibres show great promise as a scaffold for adipose derived stem cells

  20. Review of bioactive glass: from Hench to hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julian R

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glasses are reported to be able to stimulate more bone regeneration than other bioactive ceramics but they lag behind other bioactive ceramics in terms of commercial success. Bioactive glass has not yet reached its potential but research activity is growing. This paper reviews the current state of the art, starting with current products and moving onto recent developments. Larry Hench's 45S5 Bioglass® was the first artificial material that was found to form a chemical bond with bone, launching the field of bioactive ceramics. In vivo studies have shown that bioactive glasses bond with bone more rapidly than other bioceramics, and in vitro studies indicate that their osteogenic properties are due to their dissolution products stimulating osteoprogenitor cells at the genetic level. However, calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate and synthetic hydroxyapatite are more widely used in the clinic. Some of the reasons are commercial, but others are due to the scientific limitations of the original Bioglass 45S5. An example is that it is difficult to produce porous bioactive glass templates (scaffolds) for bone regeneration from Bioglass 45S5 because it crystallizes during sintering. Recently, this has been overcome by understanding how the glass composition can be tailored to prevent crystallization. The sintering problems can also be avoided by synthesizing sol-gel glass, where the silica network is assembled at room temperature. Process developments in foaming, solid freeform fabrication and nanofibre spinning have now allowed the production of porous bioactive glass scaffolds from both melt- and sol-gel-derived glasses. An ideal scaffold for bone regeneration would share load with bone. Bioceramics cannot do this when the bone defect is subjected to cyclic loads, as they are brittle. To overcome this, bioactive glass polymer hybrids are being synthesized that have the potential to be tough, with congruent degradation of the bioactive inorganic and

  1. Reprint of: Review of bioactive glass: From Hench to hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julian R

    2015-09-01

    Bioactive glasses are reported to be able to stimulate more bone regeneration than other bioactive ceramics but they lag behind other bioactive ceramics in terms of commercial success. Bioactive glass has not yet reached its potential but research activity is growing. This paper reviews the current state of the art, starting with current products and moving onto recent developments. Larry Hench's 45S5 Bioglass® was the first artificial material that was found to form a chemical bond with bone, launching the field of bioactive ceramics. In vivo studies have shown that bioactive glasses bond with bone more rapidly than other bioceramics, and in vitro studies indicate that their osteogenic properties are due to their dissolution products stimulating osteoprogenitor cells at the genetic level. However, calcium phosphates such as tricalcium phosphate and synthetic hydroxyapatite are more widely used in the clinic. Some of the reasons are commercial, but others are due to the scientific limitations of the original Bioglass 45S5. An example is that it is difficult to produce porous bioactive glass templates (scaffolds) for bone regeneration from Bioglass 45S5 because it crystallizes during sintering. Recently, this has been overcome by understanding how the glass composition can be tailored to prevent crystallization. The sintering problems can also be avoided by synthesizing sol-gel glass, where the silica network is assembled at room temperature. Process developments in foaming, solid freeform fabrication and nanofibre spinning have now allowed the production of porous bioactive glass scaffolds from both melt- and sol-gel-derived glasses. An ideal scaffold for bone regeneration would share load with bone. Bioceramics cannot do this when the bone defect is subjected to cyclic loads, as they are brittle. To overcome this, bioactive glass polymer hybrids are being synthesized that have the potential to be tough, with congruent degradation of the bioactive inorganic and

  2. Poly (L-lactide-co-e caprolactone) microspheres laden with bioactive glass-ceramic and alendronate sodium as bone regenerative scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microspheric scaffolds of poly-(lactide-co-caprolactone) loaded with alendronate sodium, a family precursor of bisphosphonate drug and bioactive glass-ceramic (BGS) were prepared for the treatment of osteoporosis like bone defects with the rationale of getting a combined effect/concurrent advantage of osteoclast apoptosis as well as the augmentation of bone regeneration. The porous microspheres were generated by oil in water/solvent evaporation technique. The distribution of bioactive glass-ceramic was evidenced by the microcomputed tomography (μ-CT) and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The microspheres were evaluated for their in vitro cytocompatibility using L929 cell line and were found to be noncytotoxic. The osteoinductivity of the scaffold was assessed by its response in simulated body fluid and observed an excellent hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer formation on the surface which revealed the bone bonding and bone regeneration capability of the scaffold. The cell adhesion studies was performed with L-929 cell line and a marking cell growth on the surface as well as in the pores of the bioactive glass-ceramic as well as bioactive glass-ceramic cum drug incorporated microspheres was evidenced by the Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) investigation. No cell adhesion was observed onto the surface of the bare microspheres prepared by the copolymer alone where as the bioactive glass-ceramic and drug cum bioactive glass-ceramic loaded microspheres were found to promote the cell adhesion. The viability of the adhered cells on the microspheres was checked by flourescein diacetate (FDA) staining and it was observed that the adhered cells were viable and metabolically active. The release of the drug, alendronate sodium, directly into the problem site makes the presently prepared microsphere superior to the oral variety of drug available which is associated with oral discomfort and low bioavailability. - Highlights: ► Predicted model for osteoclast

  3. Poly (L-lactide-co-e caprolactone) microspheres laden with bioactive glass-ceramic and alendronate sodium as bone regenerative scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Titash [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Thiruvananthpuram-695012 (India); Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India); Sunny, M.C. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Thiruvananthpuram-695012 (India); Khastgir, D. [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India); Varma, H.K. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Thiruvananthpuram-695012 (India); Ramesh, P., E-mail: rameshsct@gmail.com [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Thiruvananthpuram-695012 (India)

    2012-05-01

    Microspheric scaffolds of poly-(lactide-co-caprolactone) loaded with alendronate sodium, a family precursor of bisphosphonate drug and bioactive glass-ceramic (BGS) were prepared for the treatment of osteoporosis like bone defects with the rationale of getting a combined effect/concurrent advantage of osteoclast apoptosis as well as the augmentation of bone regeneration. The porous microspheres were generated by oil in water/solvent evaporation technique. The distribution of bioactive glass-ceramic was evidenced by the microcomputed tomography ({mu}-CT) and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The microspheres were evaluated for their in vitro cytocompatibility using L929 cell line and were found to be noncytotoxic. The osteoinductivity of the scaffold was assessed by its response in simulated body fluid and observed an excellent hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer formation on the surface which revealed the bone bonding and bone regeneration capability of the scaffold. The cell adhesion studies was performed with L-929 cell line and a marking cell growth on the surface as well as in the pores of the bioactive glass-ceramic as well as bioactive glass-ceramic cum drug incorporated microspheres was evidenced by the Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) investigation. No cell adhesion was observed onto the surface of the bare microspheres prepared by the copolymer alone where as the bioactive glass-ceramic and drug cum bioactive glass-ceramic loaded microspheres were found to promote the cell adhesion. The viability of the adhered cells on the microspheres was checked by flourescein diacetate (FDA) staining and it was observed that the adhered cells were viable and metabolically active. The release of the drug, alendronate sodium, directly into the problem site makes the presently prepared microsphere superior to the oral variety of drug available which is associated with oral discomfort and low bioavailability. - Highlights: Black

  4. Engineered Hybrid Scaffolds of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Bioactive Glass for Potential Bone Engineering Applications: Synthesis, Characterization, Cytocompatibility, and Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Hermes S; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Marivalda M. Pereira; Mansur, Herman S

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, preliminary cytocompatibility, and degradation behavior of the hybrids based on 70% Poly(vinyl alcohol) and 30% bioactive glass (58SiO2–33CaO–9P2O5, BaG) with macroporous tridimensional structure is reported for the first time. The effect of glutaraldehyde covalent crosslinker in the organic-inorganic nanostructures produced and, as a consequence, tailoring the hybrids properties was investigated. The PVA/BaG hybrids scaffolds are characterized by Fourier tran...

  5. Biocomposite nanofibres and osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanofibres and nanocomposites are highly promising recent additions to materials in relation to tissue engineering. Mimicking the architecture of an extracellular matrix is one of the major challenges for tissue engineering. An operationally simple electrospinning technique was used to fabricate polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHA/Col) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds to provide mechanical support and to direct the growth of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) for tissue engineering of bone. Biocomposite nanofibres constructed with PCL, nHA and collagen type I combinations gave fibre diameters around 189 ± 0.026 to 579 ± 272 nm and pore sizes 2-35 μm. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds were highly porous (>80%) structures and provided a sufficient open pore structure for cell occupancy whilst allowing free transport of nutrients and metabolic waste products; moreover, vascular in-growth was facilitated. The pore organization was determined by the deposition process, including interconnections of the fibre network. The mineralization was significantly increased (55%) in PCL/nHA/Col biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds after 10 days of culture and appeared as minerals synthesized by osteoblast cells. The unique nanoscale biocomposite system had inherent surface functionalization for hFOB adhesion, migration, proliferation and mineralization to form a bone tissue for the regeneration of bone defects

  6. Biocomposite nanofibres and osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, J.; Vadgama, P.; Sampath Kumar, T. S.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2007-02-01

    Nanofibres and nanocomposites are highly promising recent additions to materials in relation to tissue engineering. Mimicking the architecture of an extracellular matrix is one of the major challenges for tissue engineering. An operationally simple electrospinning technique was used to fabricate polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHA/Col) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds to provide mechanical support and to direct the growth of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) for tissue engineering of bone. Biocomposite nanofibres constructed with PCL, nHA and collagen type I combinations gave fibre diameters around 189 ± 0.026 to 579 ± 272 nm and pore sizes 2-35 µm. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds were highly porous (>80%) structures and provided a sufficient open pore structure for cell occupancy whilst allowing free transport of nutrients and metabolic waste products; moreover, vascular in-growth was facilitated. The pore organization was determined by the deposition process, including interconnections of the fibre network. The mineralization was significantly increased (55%) in PCL/nHA/Col biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds after 10 days of culture and appeared as minerals synthesized by osteoblast cells. The unique nanoscale biocomposite system had inherent surface functionalization for hFOB adhesion, migration, proliferation and mineralization to form a bone tissue for the regeneration of bone defects.

  7. Biocomposite nanofibres and osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, J [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Vadgama, P [IRC in Biomedical Materials, Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Kumar, T S Sampath [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India); Ramakrishna, S [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-02-07

    Nanofibres and nanocomposites are highly promising recent additions to materials in relation to tissue engineering. Mimicking the architecture of an extracellular matrix is one of the major challenges for tissue engineering. An operationally simple electrospinning technique was used to fabricate polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHA/Col) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds to provide mechanical support and to direct the growth of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) for tissue engineering of bone. Biocomposite nanofibres constructed with PCL, nHA and collagen type I combinations gave fibre diameters around 189 {+-} 0.026 to 579 {+-} 272 nm and pore sizes 2-35 {mu}m. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds were highly porous (>80%) structures and provided a sufficient open pore structure for cell occupancy whilst allowing free transport of nutrients and metabolic waste products; moreover, vascular in-growth was facilitated. The pore organization was determined by the deposition process, including interconnections of the fibre network. The mineralization was significantly increased (55%) in PCL/nHA/Col biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds after 10 days of culture and appeared as minerals synthesized by osteoblast cells. The unique nanoscale biocomposite system had inherent surface functionalization for hFOB adhesion, migration, proliferation and mineralization to form a bone tissue for the regeneration of bone defects.

  8. Bioactive Gyroid Scaffolds Formed by Sacrificial Templating of Nanocellulose and Nanochitin Hydrogels as Instructive Platforms for Biomimetic Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Rendon, Jose Guillermo; Femmer, Tim; De Laporte, Laura; Tigges, Thomas; Rahimi, Khoshrow; Gremse, Felix; Zafarnia, Sara; Lederle, Wiltrud; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Wessling, Matthias; Hardy, John G.; Walther, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A sacrificial templating process using lithographically printed minimal surface structures allows complex de novo geometries of delicate hydrogel materials. The hydrogel scaffolds based on cellulose and chitin nanofibrils show differences in terms of attachment of human mesenchymal stem cells, and allow their differentiation into osteogenic outcomes. The approach here serves as a first example toward designer hydrogel scaffolds viable for biomimetic tissue engineering.

  9. Fabrication of porous electrospun nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Feng, Y.; Huang, Z.-M.; Ramakrishna, S.; Lim, C. T.

    2006-02-01

    Immiscible biopolymers of gelatin (Gt) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were first electrospun into a biomimicking composite fibre of Gt/PCL. Based on a phase separation study of the electrospun fibres, a leaching method was employed to generate 3D porous nanofibres by selectively removing the water soluble component of gelatin in a 37 °C aqueous solution of phosphate buffered saline. It was found that leaching treatment gave rise to a unique nanotopography containing grooves, ridges and elliptical pores on the surface as well as inside of the resultant individual nanofibres. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) area measurement indicated that the formed 3D porous fibres also brought in a pronounced increase of the surface area of fibres. The BET surface area of the porous fibres was observed to be about 2.4 times that of the precursor fibres, up to 15.84 m2 g-1 at its relatively large size of 800 nm diameter. The 3D porous fibres herein prepared could have considerable value for uses in developing highly integrated cell-scaffold tissue complexes and other industrial applications.

  10. Trehalose maintains bioactivity and promotes sustained release of BMP-2 from lyophilized CDHA scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate (Ca-P scaffolds have been widely employed as a supportive matrix and delivery system for bone tissue engineering. Previous studies using osteoinductive growth factors loaded Ca-P scaffolds via passive adsorption often experience issues associated with easy inactivation and uncontrolled release. In present study, a new delivery system was fabricated using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 loaded calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA scaffold by lyophilization with addition of trehalose. The in vitro osteogenesis effects of this formulation were compared with lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct without trehalose and absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose. The release characteristics and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity analyses showed that addition of trehalose could sufficiently protect BMP-2 bioactivity during lyophilization and achieve sustained BMP-2 release from lyophilized CDHA construct in vitro and in vivo. However, absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose showed similar BMP-2 bioactivity and presented a burst release. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA demonstrated that lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct with trehalose (lyo-tre-BMP-2 promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs significantly and this formulation could preserve over 70% protein bioactivity after 5 weeks storage at 25°C. Micro-computed tomography, histological and fluorescent labeling analyses further demonstrated that lyo-tre-BMP-2 formulation combined with bMSCs led to the most percentage of new bone volume (38.79% ± 5.32% and area (40.71% ± 7.14% as well as the most percentage of fluorochrome stained bone area (alizarin red S: 2.64% ± 0.44%, calcein: 6.08% ± 1.37% and mineral apposition rate (4.13 ± 0.62 µm/day in critical-sized rat cranial defects healing. Biomechanical tests also indicated the maximum stiffness (118.17 ± 15.02 Mpa and

  11. Polycaprolactone nanofiber interspersed collagen type-I scaffold for bone regeneration: a unique injectable osteogenic scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing demand for an injectable cell coupled three-dimensional (3D) scaffold to be used as bone fracture augmentation material. To address this demand, a novel injectable osteogenic scaffold called PN-COL was developed using cells, a natural polymer (collagen type-I), and a synthetic polymer (polycaprolactone (PCL)). The injectable nanofibrous PN-COL is created by interspersing PCL nanofibers within pre-osteoblast cell embedded collagen type-I. This simple yet novel and powerful approach provides a great benefit as an injectable bone scaffold over other non-living bone fracture stabilization polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate and calcium content resin-based materials. The advantages of injectability and the biomimicry of collagen was coupled with the structural support of PCL nanofibers, to create cell encapsulated injectable 3D bone scaffolds with intricate porous internal architecture and high osteoconductivity. The effects of PCL nanofiber inclusion within the cell encapsulated collagen matrix has been evaluated for scaffold size retention and osteocompatibility, as well as for MC3T3-E1 cells osteogenic activity. The structural analysis of novel bioactive material proved that the material is chemically stable enough in an aqueous solution for an extended period of time without using crosslinking reagents, but it is also viscous enough to be injected through a syringe needle. Data from long-term in vitro proliferation and differentiation data suggests that novel PN-COL scaffolds promote the osteoblast proliferation, phenotype expression, and formation of mineralized matrix. This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of creating a structurally competent, injectable, cell embedded bone tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the advantages of mimicking the hierarchical architecture of native bone with nano- and micro-size formation through introducing PCL nanofibers within macron-size collagen fibers and in

  12. Polycaprolactone nanofiber interspersed collagen type-I scaffold for bone regeneration: a unique injectable osteogenic scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylan, Nuray; Bhat, Samerna; Ditto, Maggie; Lawrence, Joseph G; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2013-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for an injectable cell coupled three-dimensional (3D) scaffold to be used as bone fracture augmentation material. To address this demand, a novel injectable osteogenic scaffold called PN-COL was developed using cells, a natural polymer (collagen type-I), and a synthetic polymer (polycaprolactone (PCL)). The injectable nanofibrous PN-COL is created by interspersing PCL nanofibers within pre-osteoblast cell embedded collagen type-I. This simple yet novel and powerful approach provides a great benefit as an injectable bone scaffold over other non-living bone fracture stabilization polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate and calcium content resin-based materials. The advantages of injectability and the biomimicry of collagen was coupled with the structural support of PCL nanofibers, to create cell encapsulated injectable 3D bone scaffolds with intricate porous internal architecture and high osteoconductivity. The effects of PCL nanofiber inclusion within the cell encapsulated collagen matrix has been evaluated for scaffold size retention and osteocompatibility, as well as for MC3T3-E1 cells osteogenic activity. The structural analysis of novel bioactive material proved that the material is chemically stable enough in an aqueous solution for an extended period of time without using crosslinking reagents, but it is also viscous enough to be injected through a syringe needle. Data from long-term in vitro proliferation and differentiation data suggests that novel PN-COL scaffolds promote the osteoblast proliferation, phenotype expression, and formation of mineralized matrix. This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of creating a structurally competent, injectable, cell embedded bone tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the advantages of mimicking the hierarchical architecture of native bone with nano- and micro-size formation through introducing PCL nanofibers within macron-size collagen fibers and in

  13. Bone Tissue Engineering with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Bioactive Composites of Laser-Sintered Porous Polycaprolactone Scaffolds and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Tsung Liao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional porous polycaprolactone (PCL scaffolds with consistent inter-pore channels, 83% porosity and 300–400 μm pore size were fabricated via selective laser sintering. The PCL scaffold was combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP to form a bioactive composite and studied for potential application in bone tissue engineering using porcine adipose-derived stem cells (PASCs. The PCL/PRP/PASCs construct showed enhanced cell seeding efficiency and synergistically increased the differentiation capability of PASCs in osteogenic medium toward the osteoblast lineage, judging from elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and up-regulated osteogenic genes expression. For in vivo study, a 3 cm × 3 cm mandible defect was created in pigs and reconstructed by implanting acellular PCL scaffolds or PCL/PRP/PASCs constructs. Both groups showed new bone formation, however, the new bone volume was 5.1 times higher for PCL/PRP/PASCs 6 months post-operation. The bone density was less and loose in the acellular PCL group and the Young’s modulus was only 29% of normal bone. In contrast, continued and compact bone formation was found in PCL/PRP/PASCs and the Young’s modulus was 81% that of normal bone. Masson’s trichrome stain, immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin and collagen type I also confirmed new bone formation.

  14. A hybrid biomimetic scaffold composed of electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers and self-assembled peptide amphiphile nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambralli, Ajay; Blakeney, Bryan; Anderson, Joel; Kushwaha, Meenakshi; Andukuri, Adinarayana; Jun, Ho-Wook [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 801 Shelby Building, 1825 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Dean, Derrick [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BEC 254, 1150 10th Ave South, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)], E-mail: hwjun@uab.edu

    2009-06-01

    Nanofibrous electrospun poly ({epsilon}-caprolactone) (ePCL) scaffolds have inherent structural advantages, but lack of bioactivity has limited their usefulness in biomedical applications. Thus, here we report the development of a hybrid, nanostructured, extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking scaffold by a combination of ePCL nanofibers and self-assembled peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers. The PAs have ECM mimicking characteristics including a cell adhesive ligand (RGDS) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mediated degradable sites. Transmission electron microscope imaging verified successful PA self-assembly into nanofibers (diameters of 8-10 nm) using a solvent evaporation method. This evaporation method was then used to successfully coat PAs onto ePCL nanofibers (diameters of 300-400 nm), to develop hybrid, bioactive scaffolds. Scanning electron microscope characterization showed that the PA coatings did not interfere with the porous ePCL nanofiber network. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were seeded onto the hybrid scaffolds to evaluate their bioactivity. Significantly greater attachment and spreading of hMSCs were observed on ePCL nanofibers coated with PA-RGDS as compared to ePCL nanofibers coated with PA-S (no cell adhesive ligand) and uncoated ePCL nanofibers. Overall, this novel strategy presents a new solution to overcome the current bioactivity challenges of electrospun scaffolds and combines the unique characteristics of ePCL nanofibers and self-assembled PA nanofibers to provide an ECM mimicking environment. This has great potential to be applied to many different electrospun scaffolds for various biomedical applications.

  15. A hybrid biomimetic scaffold composed of electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers and self-assembled peptide amphiphile nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanofibrous electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (ePCL) scaffolds have inherent structural advantages, but lack of bioactivity has limited their usefulness in biomedical applications. Thus, here we report the development of a hybrid, nanostructured, extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking scaffold by a combination of ePCL nanofibers and self-assembled peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers. The PAs have ECM mimicking characteristics including a cell adhesive ligand (RGDS) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mediated degradable sites. Transmission electron microscope imaging verified successful PA self-assembly into nanofibers (diameters of 8-10 nm) using a solvent evaporation method. This evaporation method was then used to successfully coat PAs onto ePCL nanofibers (diameters of 300-400 nm), to develop hybrid, bioactive scaffolds. Scanning electron microscope characterization showed that the PA coatings did not interfere with the porous ePCL nanofiber network. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were seeded onto the hybrid scaffolds to evaluate their bioactivity. Significantly greater attachment and spreading of hMSCs were observed on ePCL nanofibers coated with PA-RGDS as compared to ePCL nanofibers coated with PA-S (no cell adhesive ligand) and uncoated ePCL nanofibers. Overall, this novel strategy presents a new solution to overcome the current bioactivity challenges of electrospun scaffolds and combines the unique characteristics of ePCL nanofibers and self-assembled PA nanofibers to provide an ECM mimicking environment. This has great potential to be applied to many different electrospun scaffolds for various biomedical applications

  16. FGL-functionalized self-assembling nanofiber hydrogel as a scaffold for spinal cord-derived neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of designed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be a good biomimetic material in tissue engineering. Here, we specifically made a new peptide hydrogel scaffold FGLmx by mixing the pure RADA16 and designer functional peptide RADA16-FGL solution, and we analyzed the physiochemical properties of each peptide with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). In addition, we examined the biocompatibility and bioactivity of FGLmx as well as RADA16 scaffold on spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (SC-NSCs) isolated from neonatal rats. Our results showed that RADA16-FGL displayed a weaker β-sheet structure and FGLmx could self-assemble into nanofibrous morphology. Moreover, we found that FGLmx was not only noncytotoxic to SC-NSCs but also promoted SC-NSC proliferation and migration into the three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold, meanwhile, the adhesion and lineage differentiation of SC-NSCs on FGLmx were similar to that on RADA16. Our results indicated that the FGL-functionalized peptide scaffold might be very beneficial for tissue engineering and suggested its further application for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. - Highlights: • RADA16 and RADA16-FGL peptides were synthesized and characterized. • Rat spinal cord neural stem cells were successfully isolated and characterized. • We provided an induction method for mixed differentiation of neural stem cells. • FGL scaffold had good biocompatibility and bioactivity with neural stem cells

  17. 45S5 Bioactive Glass-Based Composite Scaffolds with Polymer Coatings for Bone Tissue Engineering Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. An effective approach to bone tissue engineering aims to restore the function of damaged bone tissue or to regenerate bone tissue with the aid of scaffolds made from engineered biomaterials. The scaffolds should act as temporary matrices for cell attachment, proliferation, migration, differentiation and extracellular matrix deposition, with consequent bone ingrowth until the new bone tissue is totally restored or regener...

  18. Development of bioactive glass based scaffolds for controlled antibiotic release in bone tissue engineering via biodegradable polymer layered coating

    OpenAIRE

    Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Li, Wei; Roether, Judith A.; Mourino, Viviana; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Schubert, Dirk W.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2014-01-01

    Highly porous 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds coated with two polymer layers were fabricated to serve as a multifunctional device with controlled drug release capability for bone regeneration applications. An interior poly(D,L-lactide)/poly(ethylene glycol)-(polypropylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123) coating improved the mechanical stability of Bioglass-based scaffolds, while an exterior natural polymer (alginate or gelatin) coating served as an antibiotic d...

  19. Cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fabrication, characterization, drug loading and antibacterial properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NAZNIN SULTANA; ANISAH ZAINAL

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose-based materials are one of the most commonly used materials for biomedical applications, which normally applied as carriers for pharmaceuticals and drug-releasing scaffolds. In this study, cellulose acetate (CA) was used to fabricate the nanofibrous membrane using the electrospinning technique. CA solutions at different concentrations were prepared by dissolving the polymer in a mixture of acetic acid/acetone solvents with the ratio of 3:1. The field emission scanning electron microscope results showed that electrospinning of 10% (w/v) CA produced nanofibres with many beads. When the CA concentration was increased to 14% (w/v), bead-free nanofibres were produced. The contact angle measurement results confirmed the hydrophilic properties of nanofibres. In order to prevent common bacterial infections, a model drug, Tetracycline · HCL was incorporated into the CA nanofibres. The drug-loaded CA nanofibres showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.CA nanofibres had high water uptake properties. The CA nanofibrous membrane was non-toxic to human skin fibroblast cells. Thus the CA nanofibres with 14% (w/v) concentration exerted suitable properties for wound healingapplication.

  20. Mechanical properties of single electrospun drug-encapsulated nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yian Chew, Sing; Hufnagel, Todd C.; Teck Lim, Chwee; Leong, Kam W.

    2006-08-01

    The mechanical and structural properties of a surface play an important role in determining the morphology of attached cells, and ultimately their cellular functions. As such, mechanical and structural integrity are important design parameters for a tissue scaffold. Electrospun fibrous meshes are widely used in tissue engineering. When in contact with electrospun scaffolds, cells see the individual micro- or nanofibres as their immediate microenvironment. In this study, tensile testing of single electrospun nanofibres composed of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and its copolymer, poly(caprolactone-co-ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PCLEEP), revealed a size effect in the Young's modulus, E, and tensile strength, σT. Both strength and stiffness increase as the fibre diameter decreases from bulk (~5 µm) into the nanometre region (200 300 nm). In particular, E and σT of individual PCL nanofibres were at least two-fold and an order of magnitude higher than that of PCL film, respectively. PCL films were observed to have more pronounced crystallographic texture than the nanofibres; however no difference in crystalline fraction, perfection, or texture was detected among the various fibres. When drugs were encapsulated into single PCLEEP fibres, mechanical properties were enhanced with 1 20 wt% of loaded retinoic acid, but weakened by 10 20 wt% of encapsulated bovine serum albumin. This understanding of the effect of size and drug and protein encapsulation on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibres may help in the optimization of tissue scaffold design that combines biochemical and biomechanical cues for tissue regeneration.

  1. Bioactive macro/micro porous silk fibroin/Nano-sized calcium phosphate scaffolds with potential for bone tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Leping; Correia, Joana Silva; Correia, C; Caridade, S. G.; Fernandes, E. M.; Sousa, R.A.; Mano, J.F.; Oliveira, Joaquim M.; de Oliveira, A. L.; Reis, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The development of novel silk/nano-sized calcium phosphate (silk/nano-CaP) scaffolds with highly dispersed CaP nanoparticles in the silk fibroin (SF) matrix for bone tissue engineering. Materials & methods: Nano-CaP was incorporated in a concentrated aqueous SF solution (16 wt.%) by using an in situ synthesis method. The silk/nano-CaP scaffolds were then prepared through a combination of salt-leaching/ lyophilization approaches. Results: The CaP particles presented good affin...

  2. In vivo experimental study on bone regeneration in critical bone defects using PIB nanogels/boron-containing mesoporous bioactive glass composite scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen XH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaohui Chen,1,2,* Yanbing Zhao,3,* Shinan Geng,3 Richard J Miron,1 Qiao Zhang,1 Chengtie Wu,4 Yufeng Zhang1,2 1State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Dental Implantology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, People’s Republic of China; 3National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: In the present study, the fabrication of novel p(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butyl methylacrylate (PIB nanogels was combined with boron-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (B-MBG scaffolds in order to improve the mechanical properties of PIB nanogels alone. Scaffolds were tested for mechanical strength and the ability to promote new bone formation in vivo.Patients and methods: To evaluate the potential of each scaffold in bone regeneration, ovariectomized rats were chosen as a study model to determine the ability of PIB nanogels to stimulate bone formation in a complicated anatomical bone defect. PIB nanogels and PIB nanogels/B-MBG composites were respectively implanted into ovariectomized rats with critical-sized femur defects following treatment periods of 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-implantation.Results: Results from the present study demonstrate that PIB nanogels/B-MBG composites showed greater improvement in mechanical strength when compared to PIB nanogels alone. In vivo, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed significantly more newly formed bone in defects containing PIB

  3. Functional polyaniline nanofibre mats for human adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahman, Norizah, E-mail: norizah@science.putra.edu.my [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Chemistry, University of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Feisst, Vaughan [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle E. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Malmström, Jenny [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dunbar, P. Rod [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka, E-mail: j.travas-sejdic@auckland.ac.nz [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2013-02-15

    Conductive polymer poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) (P(ANI-co-m-ABA)) and polyaniline (PANI) were blended with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) and were electrospun into nanofibres to investigate their potential application as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). These polymers, in both conductive and non-conductive form, were electrospun with average fibre diameters of less than 400 nm. Novel nanoindentation results obtained on the individual nanofibres revealed that the elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface (4–10 GPa, h{sub max} <75 nm) than in the inner fibre core (2–4 GPa, h{sub max} >75 nm). The composite nanofibres showed great promise as a scaffold for hASCs as they supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. After 1 week of cell culture hASCs were well spread on the substrates with abundant focal adhesions. The electrospun mats provide the cells with comparably stiff, sub-micron sized fibres as anchoring points on a substrate of high porosity. The conductive nature of these composite nanofibres offers exciting opportunities for electrical stimulation of the cells. - Highlights: ► Polyaniline and its copolymer's nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning. ► The elastic modulus of a single polyaniline composite nanofibres were determined. ► Elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface than the inner core. ► The electrospun mats supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The nanofibres show great promise as a scaffold for adipose derived stem cells.

  4. Impact of electrospun nanofibres orientation on mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrospun nanofibrous materials mimicking the architecture of native extracellular matrix (ECM) hold great promise as scaffolds in tissue engineering. In order to optimize the properties of nanofibrous scaffolds it is important to understand the impact of fibres’ organization on cell behaviour. Herein, we investigated the effect of nanofibres (NFs) alignment on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) adhesion and morphology. Electrospun composite fibrinogen/poly-lactic acid (FNG/PLA) NF scaffolds with same composition and comparable fibre size were fabricated into randomly oriented and aligned configuration and stem cells adhesion was characterized by the meaning of overall cell morphology, actin cytoskeleton organization and expression of molecules, involved in the development of focal adhesion complexes. We found that hAD-MSCs altered their morphology, actin cytoskeleton and cell attachment in accordance with nanofibre orientation while cell spreading, focal adhesions and expression of β1 and αN integrin receptors were not influenced significantly by fibre orientation. These results confirmed that fibre alignment of scaffold guide cellular arrangement and could be beneficial for stem differentiation and therefore for the successful scaffolds development if its contact guidance coincided with the cell shape and cytoskeletal tension. Key words: electrospinning, human adipose-derived stem cells, fibrinogen/polylactic acid hybrid nanofibres

  5. Linkage of chondroitin-sulfate to type I collagen scaffolds stimulates the bioactivity of seeded chondrocytes in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susante, J.L.C. van; Pieper, J.S.; Buma, P.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Beuningen, H.M. van; Kraan, P.M. van der; Veerkamp, J.H.; Berg, W.B. van den; Veth, R.P.H.

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of interest is focused on the potential use of tissue-engineered articular cartilage implants, for repair of defects in the joint surface. In this perspective, various biodegradable scaffolds have been evaluated as a vehicle to deliver chondrocytes into a cartilage defect. This

  6. Preparation of different ratio of PLGA / β-tricalcium phosphate electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds and test%不同比例PLGA/β-TCP电纺纤维支架的制备与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢江徽; 贾骏; 刘一涵; 延卫; 张少锋

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过静电纺丝法制备不同比例PLGA/β-TCP纳米纤维支架,筛选出最合适比例,以便为进一步的体内植入提供依据.方法:利用静电纺丝法制备比例为10:0、9:1、8:2、7:3、6:4、5:5的PLGA/β-TCP纳米纤维支架,扫描电镜观察纤维支架的多孔结构,液体置换法测量支架的孔隙率:分别于1%胰酶PBS溶液中进行体外降解,测定材料的降解性;接触角仪测量材料的接触角,评价其亲水性能.结果:电镜观察显示制备的不同比例的PLGA/β-TCP纤维中(除6:4、5:5组),直径均一,呈相互联通的三维多孔结构,各组支架材料的孔隙率均>80%,其中6:4、5:5组的孔隙率>85%,电镜下观察纤维成分有限,大部分为颗粒状,不具有多孔支架的三维结构;体外降解实验中7:3、6:4、5:5组均在第7周时完全降解.结论:通过静电纺丝法制备不同比例的PLGA/TCP支架材料,9:1、8:2、7:3组均符合骨组织工程要求,体外降解实验中,7:3组的降解率较另两组材料为优,具有用作体内骨修复材料的潜力.%Objective:To prepare the different ratio of PLGA / β-tricalcium phosphate electrospun nanofibrous scaf-folds and select the more suitable ratio so as to procide a basis for further research of implant. Method: The nanofiber scaf-folds of PLGA / β-TCP with different component ratio(10:0,9:1,8:2,7:3,6:4,5:5) were prefabricated by electrospinning technology. The porous structure of nanofiber was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the porosity was assayed with stereometry .The materials were placed into 1 % pancreatin PBS, then degraded in vitro, measured the biodegradability of the materials. The hydrophilic of the materials was evaluated by the contact angle which measured by contact angle mater. Result: The SEM images showed that the different ratio of PLGA / p-TCP nanofibers (except 6:4 and 5:5) are smooth and uniform with the interwoven and porous morphology.The average porosity

  7. Aligning 3D nanofibrous networks from self-assembled phenylalanine nanofibers†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembled synthetic materials are typically disordered, and controlling the alignment of such materials at the nanometer scale may be important for a variety of biological applications. In this study, we have applied directional freeze-drying, for the first time, to develop well aligned three dimensional (3D) nanofibrous materials using amino acid like L-phenylalanine (Phe). 3D free-standing Phe nanofibrous monoliths have been successfully prepared using directional freeze-drying, and have presented a unique hierarchical structure with well-aligned nanofibers at the nanometer scale and an ordered compartmental architecture at the micrometer scale. We have found that the physical properties (e.g. nanofiber density and alignment) of the nanofibrous materials could be tuned by controlling the concentration and pH of the Phe solution and the freezing temperature. Moreover, the same strategy (i.e. directional freeze-drying) has been successfully applied to assemble peptide nanofibrous materials using a dipeptide (i.e. diphenylalanine), and to assemble Phe-based nanofibrous composites using polyethylenimine and poly(vinyl alcohol). The tunability of the nanofibrous structures together with the biocompatibility of Phe may make these 3D nanofibrous materials suitable for a variety of applications, including biosensor templates, tissue scaffolds, filtration membranes, and absorbents. The strategy reported here is likely applicable to create aligned nanofibrous structures using other amino acids, peptides, and polymers. PMID:25621167

  8. Fabrication, bioactivity, in vitro cytotoxicity and cell viability of cryo-treated nanohydroxyapatite–gelatin–polyvinyl alcohol macroporous scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Kumar Swain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Freeze casting and cryogenic treatment both low temperature process have been employed to fabricate nanobiocomposite hydroxyapatite (HA–gelatin–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA macroporous scaffolds from synthesized three different spherical, rod and fibrous HA nanoparticles and composition optimized vis-á-vis porosity architecture, content and compressive strength. A critical HA morphology, solid loading and liquid nitrogen interaction time have a significant effect to enhance the mechanical response of developed scaffolds. Cryo-treated 40 wt.% nanorod HA–gelatin–PVA scaffold posses interconnected pore structure with 80 vol.% porosity, average pore diameter 50–200 μm and highest 5.8 MPa compressive strength. Different degree of the apatite deposition phenomenon in simulated body fluid solution at 37 °C and pH ∼ 7.4 varies with respect to time. In vitro cytotoxicity and L929 mouse fibroblast cell culture in the presence of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium and 10% Fetal Bovine Serum at 37 °C and 5% CO2 atmosphere exhibit excellent cytocompatibility and cell viability at low extract concentration up to 25%.

  9. Shape-Related Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Allegri

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanofibres are a novel fibrous nanomaterial with increasing applications in a variety of fields. While the biological effects of TiO2 nanoparticles have been extensively studied, the toxicological characterization of TiO2 nanofibres is far from being complete. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of commercially available anatase TiO2 nanofibres using TiO2 nanoparticles (NP and crocidolite asbestos as non-fibrous or fibrous benchmark materials. The evaluated endpoints were cell viability, haemolysis, macrophage activation, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (an indicator of the epithelial barrier competence, ROS production and oxidative stress as well as the morphology of exposed cells. The results showed that TiO2 nanofibres caused a cell-specific, dose-dependent decrease of cell viability, with larger effects on alveolar epithelial cells than on macrophages. The observed effects were comparable to those of crocidolite, while TiO2 NP did not decrease cell viability. TiO2 nanofibres were also found endowed with a marked haemolytic activity, at levels significantly higher than those observed with TiO2 nanoparticles or crocidolite. Moreover, TiO2 nanofibres and crocidolite, but not TiO2 nanoparticles, caused a significant decrease of the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of airway cell monolayers. SEM images demonstrated that the interaction with nanofibres and crocidolite caused cell shape perturbation with the longest fibres incompletely or not phagocytosed. The expression of several pro-inflammatory markers, such as NO production and the induction of Nos2 and Ptgs2, was significantly increased by TiO2 nanofibres, as well as by TiO2 nanoparticles and crocidolite. This study indicates that TiO2 nanofibres had significant toxic effects and, for most endpoints with the exception of pro-inflammatory changes, are more bio-active than TiO2 nanoparticles, showing the relevance of shape in determining the toxicity of

  10. Superelastic, superabsorbent and 3D nanofiber-assembled scaffold for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiming; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Lei; Morsi, Yosry; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-06-01

    Fabrication of 3D scaffold to mimic the nanofibrous structure of the nature extracellular matrix (ECM) with appropriate mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, remain an important technical challenge in tissue engineering. The present study reports the strategy to fabricate a 3D nanofibrous scaffold with similar structure to collagen in ECM by combining electrospinning and freeze-drying technique. With the technique reported here, a nanofibrous structure scaffold with hydrophilic and superabsorbent properties can be readily prepared by Gelatin and Polylactic acid (PLA). In wet state the scaffold also shows a super-elastic property, which could bear a compressive strain as high as 80% and recovers its original shape afterwards. Moreover, after 6 days of culture, L-929 cells grow, proliferate and infiltrated into the scaffold. The results suggest that this 3D nanofibrous scaffold would be promising for varied field of tissue engineering application. PMID:26954082

  11. Fabrication of Aligned Nanofiber Polymer Yarn Networks for Anisotropic Soft Tissue Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohua; Duan, Bin; Liu, Penghong; Zhang, Caidan; Qin, Xiaohong; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2016-07-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds with defined architectures and anisotropic mechanical properties are attractive for many tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Here, a novel electrospinning system is developed and implemented to fabricate continuous processable uniaxially aligned nanofiber yarns (UANY). UANY were processed into fibrous tissue scaffolds with defined anisotropic material properties using various textile-forming technologies, i.e., braiding, weaving, and knitting techniques. UANY braiding dramatically increased overall stiffness and strength compared to the same number of UANY unbraided. Human adipose derived stem cells (HADSC) cultured on UANY or woven and knitted 3D scaffolds aligned along local fiber direction and were >90% viable throughout 21 days. Importantly, UANY supported biochemical induction of HADSC differentiation toward smooth muscle and osteogenic lineages. Moreover, we integrated an anisotropic woven fiber mesh within a bioactive hydrogel to mimic the complex microstructure and mechanical behavior of valve tissues. Human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVIC) and human aortic root smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were separately encapsulated within hydrogel/woven fabric composite scaffolds for generating scaffolds with anisotropic biomechanics and valve ECM like microenvironment for heart valve tissue engineering. UANY have great potential as building blocks for generating fiber-shaped tissues or tissue microstructures with complex architectures. PMID:27304080

  12. Biocomposite nanofibrous strategies for the controlled release of biomolecules for skin tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhimathi C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinnasamy Gandhimathi,1 Jayarama Reddy Venugopal,2 Velmurugan Bhaarathy,2 Seeram Ramakrishna,2 Srinivasan Dinesh Kumar1 1Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Laboratory, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 2Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Nanotechnology and tissue engineering have enabled engineering of nanostructured strategies to meet the current challenges in skin tissue regeneration. Electrospinning technology creates porous nanofibrous scaffolds to mimic extracellular matrix of the native tissues. The present study was performed to gain some insights into the applications of poly(L-lactic acid-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone (PLACL/silk fibroin (SF/vitamin E (VE/curcumin (Cur nanofibrous scaffolds and to assess their potential for being used as substrates for the culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. PLACL/SF/VE/Cur nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized by fiber morphology, membrane porosity, wettability, mechanical strength, and chemical properties by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on these scaffolds, and the cell scaffold interactions were analyzed by cell proliferation, cell morphology, secretion of collagen, expression of F-actin, and 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA dye. The electrospun nanofiber diameter was obtained between 198±4 nm and 332±13 nm for PLACL, PLACL/SF, PLACL/SF/VE, and PLACL/SF/VE/Cur nanofibrous scaffolds. FTIR analysis showed the presence of the amide groups I, II, and III, and a porosity of up to 92% obtained on these nanofibrous scaffolds. The results showed that the fibroblast proliferation, cell morphology, F-actin, CMFDA dye expression, and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in PLACL/SF/VE/Cur when compared

  13. Engineered Hybrid Scaffolds of Poly(vinyl alcohol/Bioactive Glass for Potential Bone Engineering Applications: Synthesis, Characterization, Cytocompatibility, and Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes S. Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, preliminary cytocompatibility, and degradation behavior of the hybrids based on 70% Poly(vinyl alcohol and 30% bioactive glass (58SiO2–33CaO–9P2O5, BaG with macroporous tridimensional structure is reported for the first time. The effect of glutaraldehyde covalent crosslinker in the organic-inorganic nanostructures produced and, as a consequence, tailoring the hybrids properties was investigated. The PVA/BaG hybrids scaffolds are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray Microcomputed tomography analysis (μCT. Cytotoxicity assessment is performed by the MTT method with VERO cell culture. Additionally, the hybrid in vitro degradation assay is conducted by measuring the mass loss by soaking in deionized water at 37°C for up to 21 days. The results have clearly shown that it is possible to modify the PVA/BaG hybrids properties and degradation behavior by engineering the structure using different concentrations of the chemical crosslinker. Moreover, these hybrid crosslinked nanostructures have presented 3D hierarchical pore size architecture varying within 10–450 μm and a suitable cytocompatibility for potential use in bone tissue engineering applications.

  14. 3D Macroporous Nanofibrous Scaffolds of Gelatin Made by One-step Crosslink in Ethanol Bath%乙醇浴“一步交联”法制备明胶三维大孔纳米纤维支架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧芬; 滕方君; 韩雨亭; 尹苗; 余淼; 王家伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To prepare electrospinning nanofibrous scaffolds of water-soluble polymers with one-step crosslink technique in ethanol bath.Methods:The fibers received by the ethanol bath were prepared by the technique of one-step crosslink or two-step crosslink.The effect of different crosslink methods on the morphology,structure,crosslink degree,and stability of the fibers was analyzed.Results:Compared with the fibers prepared by the two-step crosslink,the gelatin fibers of one-step crosslink had thinner fiber diameters,larger pores,and higher water up-take,which could sustain the structure of the fibers and scaffolds.The degree of the crosslink could be changed by adjusting the concentration of the crosslinker and the time of crosslinking.The fibers of one-step crosslink were stable enough that additional crosslink treatment was not needed.Conclusion:The technique of one-step crosslink using ethanol bath could sustain the morphology and structure of the fibers,improve the efficiency of crosslink,and prepare the 3D macroporous nanofibrous scaffolds.%目的:探讨采用乙醇浴“一步交联”法制备静电纺丝水溶性大分子纤维支架.方法:分别采用乙醇浴“一步交联”法和“二步交联”法制备明胶静电纺丝纤维,分析两种方法对纤维形貌、结构、交联度及稳定性的影响.结果:与“二步交联”纤维相比,“一步交联”法收集的明胶纤维直径更细,孔隙更大,吸水率更高,能维持纤维及支架的结构.通过对交联剂浓度及交联时间进行调整,可以改变纤维的交联度.“一步交联”纤维已具有良好的稳定性,无需再进行交联处理.结论:乙醇浴“一步交联”技术能有效维持明胶纤维的形貌及结构,提高交联效率,制备出较理想的三维大孔纳米支架.

  15. Effect of copper-doped silicate 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds on the response of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro and on bone regeneration and angiogenesis in rat calvarial defects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yinan; Xiao, Wei; Bal, B Sonny; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2016-10-01

    The release of inorganic ions from biomaterials could provide an alternative approach to the use of growth factors for improving tissue healing. In the present study, the release of copper (Cu) ions from bioactive silicate (13-93) glass scaffolds on the response of cells in vitro and on bone regeneration and angiogenesis in vivo was studied. Scaffolds doped with varying concentrations of Cu (0-2.0wt.% CuO) were created with a grid-like microstructure by robotic deposition. When immersed in simulated body fluid in vitro, the Cu-doped scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium in a dose-dependent manner and converted partially to hydroxyapatite. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the scaffolds were not affected by 0.4 and 0.8wt.% CuO in the glass but they were significantly reduced by 2.0wt.% CuO. The percent new bone that infiltrated the scaffolds implanted for 6weeks in rat calvarial defects (46±8%) was not significantly affected by 0.4 or 0.8wt.% CuO in the glass whereas it was significantly inhibited (0.8±0.7%) in the scaffolds doped with 2.0wt.% CuO. The area of new blood vessels in the fibrous tissue that infiltrated the scaffolds increased with CuO content of the glass and was significantly higher for the scaffolds doped with 2.0wt.% CuO. Loading the scaffolds with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (1μg/defect) significantly enhanced bone infiltration and reduced fibrous tissue in the scaffolds. These results showed that doping the 13-93 glass scaffolds with up to 0.8wt.% CuO did not affect their biocompatibility whereas 2.0wt.% CuO was toxic to cells and detrimental to bone regeneration. PMID:27287141

  16. Mechanical properties of single electrospun drug-encapsulated nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Sing Yian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hufnagel, Todd C [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lim, Chwee Teck [Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Leong, Kam W [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2006-08-14

    The mechanical and structural properties of a surface play an important role in determining the morphology of attached cells, and ultimately their cellular functions. As such, mechanical and structural integrity are important design parameters for a tissue scaffold. Electrospun fibrous meshes are widely used in tissue engineering. When in contact with electrospun scaffolds, cells see the individual micro- or nanofibres as their immediate microenvironment. In this study, tensile testing of single electrospun nanofibres composed of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL), and its copolymer, poly(caprolactone-co-ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PCLEEP), revealed a size effect in the Young's modulus, E, and tensile strength, {sigma}{sub T}. Both strength and stiffness increase as the fibre diameter decreases from bulk ({approx}5 {mu}m) into the nanometre region (200-300 nm). In particular, E and {sigma}{sub T} of individual PCL nanofibres were at least two-fold and an order of magnitude higher than that of PCL film, respectively. PCL films were observed to have more pronounced crystallographic texture than the nanofibres; however no difference in crystalline fraction, perfection, or texture was detected among the various fibres. When drugs were encapsulated into single PCLEEP fibres, mechanical properties were enhanced with 1-20 wt% of loaded retinoic acid, but weakened by 10-20 wt% of encapsulated bovine serum albumin. This understanding of the effect of size and drug and protein encapsulation on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibres may help in the optimization of tissue scaffold design that combines biochemical and biomechanical cues for tissue regeneration.

  17. Mechanical properties of single electrospun drug-encapsulated nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical and structural properties of a surface play an important role in determining the morphology of attached cells, and ultimately their cellular functions. As such, mechanical and structural integrity are important design parameters for a tissue scaffold. Electrospun fibrous meshes are widely used in tissue engineering. When in contact with electrospun scaffolds, cells see the individual micro- or nanofibres as their immediate microenvironment. In this study, tensile testing of single electrospun nanofibres composed of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and its copolymer, poly(caprolactone-co-ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PCLEEP), revealed a size effect in the Young's modulus, E, and tensile strength, σT. Both strength and stiffness increase as the fibre diameter decreases from bulk (∼5 μm) into the nanometre region (200-300 nm). In particular, E and σT of individual PCL nanofibres were at least two-fold and an order of magnitude higher than that of PCL film, respectively. PCL films were observed to have more pronounced crystallographic texture than the nanofibres; however no difference in crystalline fraction, perfection, or texture was detected among the various fibres. When drugs were encapsulated into single PCLEEP fibres, mechanical properties were enhanced with 1-20 wt% of loaded retinoic acid, but weakened by 10-20 wt% of encapsulated bovine serum albumin. This understanding of the effect of size and drug and protein encapsulation on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibres may help in the optimization of tissue scaffold design that combines biochemical and biomechanical cues for tissue regeneration

  18. A novel approach for the fabrication of carbon nanofibre/ceramic porous structures

    KAUST Repository

    Walter, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of hybrid ceramic/carbon scaffolds in which carbon nanofibres and multi-walled carbon nanotubes fully cover the internal walls of a microporous ceramic structure that provides mechanical stability. Freeze casting is used to fabricate a porous, lamellar ceramic (Al2O3) structure with aligned pores whose width can be controlled between 10 and 90μm. Subsequently, a two step chemical vapour deposition process that uses iron as a catalyst is used to grow the carbon nanostructures inside the scaffold. This catalyst remains in the scaffold after the growth process. The formation of the alumina scaffold and the influence of its structure on the growth of nanofibres and tubes are investigated. A set of growth conditions is determined to produce a dense covering of the internal walls of the porous ceramic with the carbon nanostructures. The limiting pore size for this process is located around 25μm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. FGL-functionalized self-assembling nanofiber hydrogel as a scaffold for spinal cord-derived neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Jin [Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qixin, E-mail: zheng-qx@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Wu, Yongchao; Wu, Bin; Huang, Shuai; Fang, Weizhi; Guo, Xiaodong [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-01-01

    A class of designed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be a good biomimetic material in tissue engineering. Here, we specifically made a new peptide hydrogel scaffold FGLmx by mixing the pure RADA{sub 16} and designer functional peptide RADA{sub 16}-FGL solution, and we analyzed the physiochemical properties of each peptide with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). In addition, we examined the biocompatibility and bioactivity of FGLmx as well as RADA{sub 16} scaffold on spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (SC-NSCs) isolated from neonatal rats. Our results showed that RADA{sub 16}-FGL displayed a weaker β-sheet structure and FGLmx could self-assemble into nanofibrous morphology. Moreover, we found that FGLmx was not only noncytotoxic to SC-NSCs but also promoted SC-NSC proliferation and migration into the three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold, meanwhile, the adhesion and lineage differentiation of SC-NSCs on FGLmx were similar to that on RADA{sub 16}. Our results indicated that the FGL-functionalized peptide scaffold might be very beneficial for tissue engineering and suggested its further application for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. - Highlights: • RADA{sub 16} and RADA{sub 16}-FGL peptides were synthesized and characterized. • Rat spinal cord neural stem cells were successfully isolated and characterized. • We provided an induction method for mixed differentiation of neural stem cells. • FGL scaffold had good biocompatibility and bioactivity with neural stem cells.

  20. Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fuyuan; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Wang, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. Various methods, such as electrospinning, self-assembly, phase separation, mechanical treatment, printing, ultrasonication and chemical treatment were employed to prepare chitin and chitosan nanofibers. These nanofibrous materials have tremendous potential to be used as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressing materials, antimicrobial agents, and biosensors. This review article discusses the most recent progress in the preparation and application of chitin and chitosan based nanofibrous materials in biomedical fields.

  1. Xylan polysaccharides fabricated into nanofibrous substrate for myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial infarction, a main cause of heart failure, leads to loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for myocardial infarction. We attempted to solve these problems by in vitro study by selecting a plant based polysaccharides beech wood Xylan for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. The present study fabricated Xylan based nanofibrous scaffolds cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (Glu) vapors for 24 h, 48 h and 1% Glu blended fibers for the culture of neonatal rat cardiac cells for myocardial infarction. These nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies for the normal expression of cardiac proteins. The observed results showed that the Xylan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 24 h Glu vapor cross-linked nanofibers (427 nm) having mechanical strength of 2.43 MPa and Young modulus of 3.74 MPa are suitable for the culture of cardiac cells. Cardiac cells proliferation increased only by 11% in Xylan/PVA 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to control tissue culture plate (TCP). The normal cardiac cell morphology was observed in 24 h cross-linked Xylan/PVA nanofibers but 48 h cross-linked fibers cell morphology was changed to flattened and elongated on the fibrous surfaces. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins actinin, connexin 43 was observed normally in 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffold may have good potential for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. - Highlights: ► Fabrication of polysaccharides Xylan/PVA nanofibers for cardiac tissue engineering ► Nanofibers characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies ► Isolation of cardiac cells and cultured on Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffolds ► Cultured cells on 24 h Glu cross

  2. Xylan polysaccharides fabricated into nanofibrous substrate for myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, J., E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg; Rajeswari, R.; Shayanti, M.; Sridhar, R.; Sundarrajan, S.; Balamurugan, R.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2013-04-01

    Myocardial infarction, a main cause of heart failure, leads to loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for myocardial infarction. We attempted to solve these problems by in vitro study by selecting a plant based polysaccharides beech wood Xylan for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. The present study fabricated Xylan based nanofibrous scaffolds cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (Glu) vapors for 24 h, 48 h and 1% Glu blended fibers for the culture of neonatal rat cardiac cells for myocardial infarction. These nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies for the normal expression of cardiac proteins. The observed results showed that the Xylan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 24 h Glu vapor cross-linked nanofibers (427 nm) having mechanical strength of 2.43 MPa and Young modulus of 3.74 MPa are suitable for the culture of cardiac cells. Cardiac cells proliferation increased only by 11% in Xylan/PVA 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to control tissue culture plate (TCP). The normal cardiac cell morphology was observed in 24 h cross-linked Xylan/PVA nanofibers but 48 h cross-linked fibers cell morphology was changed to flattened and elongated on the fibrous surfaces. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins actinin, connexin 43 was observed normally in 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffold may have good potential for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. - Highlights: ► Fabrication of polysaccharides Xylan/PVA nanofibers for cardiac tissue engineering ► Nanofibers characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies ► Isolation of cardiac cells and cultured on Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffolds ► Cultured cells on 24 h Glu cross

  3. Neuroregenerative effects of olfactory ensheathing cells transplanted in a multi-layered conductive nanofibrous conduit in peripheral nerve repair in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Oraee-Yazdani, Saeed; Shafiee, Abbas; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana; Dodel, Masumeh; Vaseei, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multi-layered conductive nanofibrous hollow conduit in combination with olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. We aimed to harness both the topographical and electrical cues of the aligned conductive nanofibrous single-walled carbon nanotube/ poly (L-lactic acid) (SWCNT/PLLA) scaffolds along with the neurotrophic features of OEC in a nerve tissue engineered approach. Results We demonstr...

  4. Bioactivity of degradable polymer sutures coated with bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretcanu, Oana; Verné, Enrica; Borello, Luisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2004-08-01

    Novel bioactive materials have been prepared by coating violet resorbable Vicryl sutures with a bioactive glass powder derived from a co-precipitation method. Two techniques have been chosen for the composite preparation: pressing the sutures in a bed of glass powder and slurry-dipping of sutures in liquid suspensions of bioactive glass powders. The uniformity and thickness of the coatings obtained by the two methods were compared. The bioactivity of the sutures with and without bioactive glass coating was tested by soaking in an inorganic acellular simulated body fluid (SBF). The composite sutures were characterised by XRD, SEM and FTIR analyses before and after soaking in SBF solution to assess the formation of hydroxyapatite on their surfaces, which is a qualitative measure of their bioactivity. The possible use of bioactive sutures to produce tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcement of resorbable calcium phosphates is discussed. PMID:15477741

  5. 静电纺丝纳米纤维膜作为骨骼肌组织工程支架材料的细胞相容性%Cytocompatibility of electro-spinning nano-fibrous scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爽; 李权; 唐休发; 冯扬; 何等旗

    2011-01-01

    背景:有报道以生物可降解的胶原盘或聚L-乳酸、聚羟基乙酸、聚L-乳酸/聚羟基乙酸共聚物等作为骨骼肌组织工程的支架材料,各有优缺点,不能完全满足骨骼肌组织工程的需要.目的:探讨静电纺丝纳米纤维膜作为骨骼肌组织工程支架材料的可行性.方法:制备7种不同组分的静电纺丝纳米纤维膜,以其浸提液为培养基培养第3代SD乳鼠成肌细胞,以含体积分数20%新生小牛血清的F12培养基培养的为对照.采用MTT法和扫描电镜检测成肌细胞在各组材料的黏附及生长情况.结果与结论:各组分静电纺丝纳米纤维膜吸光度值与对照组间差异无显著性意义(P > 0.05).各组分静电纺丝纳米纤维膜组成肌细胞黏附率差异有显著性意义(P < 0.05).扫描电镜与上述结果一致.含70%聚乳酸+20%蚕丝蛋白+10%胶原组成电纺丝纳米纤维膜组可见大量成肌细胞黏附,呈梭形,两极伸展,排列规律,效果最好.其他各组细胞少,形态不规则,似衰退期成肌细胞.提示静电纺丝纳米纤维膜无细胞毒性,对成肌细胞的增殖无影响,成肌细胞能良好地黏附;以70%聚乳酸+ 20%蚕丝蛋白+10%胶原组分效果最佳.%BACKGROUND:Some scholars reported that biodegradable collagen plate or poly L-lactic acid (PLLA), poly glycolic acid (PGA),PLLA/PGA copolymer, serve as scaffold materials of skeletal muscle tissue engineering. But these materials have their own advantages and disadvantages, and still can not fulfill the needs of skeletal muscle tissue engineering.OBJECTIVE:To study the feasibility of the electro-spinning nano-fibrous membrane as scaffolds for skeletal muscle tissue engineering.METHODS:The rat myoblasts at the third passage were cultured with extracts obtaining from different kinds of electro-spinning nano-fibrous membranes (7 groups), with an extractant of F12 media containing 20% bovine calf serum. The adhesion and growth of myoblasts on the nano-fibrous

  6. MCR synthesis of a tetracyclic tetrazole scaffold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Pravin; Khoury, Kareem; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Dömling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold diversity is key in the ongoing exercise of discovery of novel bioactive compounds using high throughput screening (HTS). Based on the Ugi tetrazole synthesis we have designed novel bi- and tri-cyclic scaffolds featuring interesting pharmacophore properties. The compounds of the scaffold (B

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Blended with Chitosan-Gelatin Complex Nanofibrous Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds should mimic the native extracellular matrix. This study is aimed at investigating electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL blended with chitosan-gelatin complex. The morphologies were observed from scanning electron microscope. As-spun blended mats had thinner fibers than pure PCL. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the degree of crystallinity. The intensity at two peaks at 2θ of 21° and 23.5° gradually decreased with the percentage of chitosan-gelatin complex increasing. Moreover, incorporation of the complex could obviously improve the hydrophilicity of as-spun blended mats. Mechanical properties of as-spun nanofibrous mats were also tested. The elongation at break of fibrous mats increased with the PCL content increasing and the ultimate tensile strength varied with different weight ratios. The as-spun mats had higher tensile strength when the weight ratio of PCL to CS-Gel was 75/25 compared to pure PCL. Both as-spun PCL scaffolds and PCL/CS-Gel scaffolds supported the proliferation of porcine iliac endothelial cells, and PCL/CS-Gel had better cell viability than pure PCL. Therefore, electrospun PCL/Chitosan-gelatin nanofibrous mats with weight ratio of 75/25 have better hydrophilicity mechanical properties, and cell proliferation and thus would be a promising candidate for tissue engineering scaffolds.

  8. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Nieddu, Thomas; Chormaic, Sile Nic

    2015-01-01

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed ...

  9. Pcl/Chitosan Blended Nanofibrous Tubes Made by Dual Syringe Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hild Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D tubular scaffolds made from Poly-(Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL/chitosan (CS nanofibres are very promising candidate as vascular grafts in the field of tissue engineering. In this work, the fabrication of PCL/CS-blended nanofibrous tubes with small diameters by electrospinning from separate PCL and CS solutions is studied. The influence of different CS solutions (CS/polyethylene glycol (PEO/glacial acetic acid (AcOH, CS/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, CS/ AcOH on fibre formation and producibility of nanofibrous tubes is investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR is used to verify the presence of CS in the blended samples. Tensile testing and pore size measurements are done to underline the good prerequisites of the fabricated blended PCL/ CS nanofibrous tubes as potential scaffolds for vascular grafts. Tubes fabricated from the combination of PCL and CS dissolved in AcOH possesses properties, which are favourable for future cell culture studies.

  10. Biocompatibility of electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/polyethylene glycol nanofibrous scaffold with mouse neural stem cells%静电纺丝聚乳酸复合物纳米纤维材料与小鼠神经干细胞的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 戎利民; 李尚福; 庞卯; 杨阳; 刘斌

    2014-01-01

    neural stem cels. In conclusion, PLGA-PEG nanofibrous scaffolds prepared by electrospinning are safe, non-toxic and suitable for neural stem cels growth with wel biocompatibility, appropriate aperture and porosity.

  11. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Mabrouk; Yahya Essop Choonara; Pradeep Kumar; Lisa Claire du Toit; Viness Pillay

    2016-01-01

    A new composite poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (PCL:PAA 1:5) scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si) (2–12 μm) were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel) system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX) was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffr...

  12. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom–photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed and, recently, several schemes to implement optical memories have been proposed. We also discuss some possible directions where this research field may head, in particular, in relation to the use of optical nanofibres that can support higher-order modes with an associated orbital angular momentum. (topical review)

  13. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieddu, Thomas; Gokhroo, Vandna; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2016-05-01

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed and, recently, several schemes to implement optical memories have been proposed. We also discuss some possible directions where this research field may head, in particular, in relation to the use of optical nanofibres that can support higher-order modes with an associated orbital angular momentum.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Blended with Chitosan-Gelatin Complex Nanofibrous Mats

    OpenAIRE

    Yongfang Qian; Zhen Zhang; Laijiu Zheng; Ruoyuan Song; Yuping Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Design and fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds should mimic the native extracellular matrix. This study is aimed at investigating electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL) blended with chitosan-gelatin complex. The morphologies were observed from scanning electron microscope. As-spun blended mats had thinner fibers than pure PCL. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the degree of crystallinity. The intensity at two peaks at 2θ of 21° and 23.5° gradually decreased with the percentage of chit...

  15. Advances in skin regeneration: application of electrospun scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Mohammad; Boroujeni, Samaneh Moghadasi; Omidvarkordshouli, Noushin; Soleimani, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    The paucity of cellular and molecular signals essential for normal wound healing makes severe dermatological ulcers stubborn to heal. The novel strategies of skin regenerative treatments are focused on the development of biologically responsive scaffolds accompanied by cells and multiple biomolecules resembling structural and biochemical cues of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds provide similar architecture to the ECM leading to enhancement of cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and neo tissue formation. This Review surveys the application of biocompatible natural, synthetic and composite polymers to fabricate electrospun scaffolds as skin substitutes and wound dressings. Furthermore, the application of biomolecules and therapeutic agents in the nanofibrous scaffolds viz growth factors, genes, antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and natural medicines with the aim of ameliorating cellular behavior, wound healing, and skin regeneration are discussed. PMID:25721694

  16. The Tissue Response and Degradation of Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Poly(trimethylene-carbonate) Scaffold in Subcutaneous Space of Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Due to the advantage of controllability on the mechanical property and the degradation rates, electrospun PCL/PTMC nanofibrous scaffold could be appropriate for vascular tissue engineering. However, the tissue response and degradation of electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffold in vivo have never been evaluated in detail. So, electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffolds with different blend ratios were prepared in this study. Mice subcutaneous implantation showed that the continuous degradation of PCL/PTMC scaffolds ...

  17. Electrospun Cartilage-Derived Matrix Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigues, N. William; Little, Dianne; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; David S Ruch; Guilak, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Macroscale scaffolds created from cartilage-derived matrix (CDM) demonstrate chondroinductive properties, but many fabrication methods do not allow for control of nanoscale architecture. In this regard, electrospun scaffolds have shown significant promise for cartilage tissue engineering. However, nanofibrous materials generally exhibit a relatively small pore size and require techniques such as multi-layering or the inclusion of sacrificial fibers to enhance cellular infiltration. The object...

  18. A novel Bruch's membrane-mimetic electrospun substrate scaffold for human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, P.; Wu, KC; Zhu, Y.; Xiang, L.; Li, C.; Chen, DL; Chen, F; Xu, G.; Wang, A.; Li, M; Jin, ZB

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Various artificial membranes have been used as scaffolds for retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE) for monolayer reconstruction, however, long-term cell viability and functionality are still largely unknown. This study aimed to construct an ultrathin porous nanofibrous film to mimic Bruch's membrane, and in particular to investigate human RPE cell responses to the resultant substrates. An ultrathin porous nanofibrous membrane was fabricated by using regenerated wild Anth...

  19. Structured Nanofibre-Textile Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoxi

    2012-01-01

    The study was to develop innovative textile structures combining high-performance biopolymer polylactic acid (PLA) filaments with functional electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibres for potential applications in the medical field. Both PLA and PCL are known for their superb biocompatibility and biodegradability, thus in biological and medical related fields they have been widely explored as biomaterials. The structured nano-composite was designed to be shoe-string shaped. It was transfor...

  20. Stimulated nucleation on polymer nanofibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demo, Pavel; Kožíšek, Zdeněk; Sveshnikov, Alexey; Tichá, Petra; Krňanský, J.

    Bratislava: N, 2009 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 20-21 ISBN 978-80-89088-81-2. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2009 /19./. Závažná Poruba (SK), 31.08.2009-04.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanofibres * heterogeneous nucleation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterial and scaffold development underpins the advancement of tissue engineering. Traditional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid are weak and non-osteoconductive. For bone tissue engineering, polymer-based composite scaffolds containing bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite can be produced and used. The bioceramics can be either incorporated in the scaffolds as a dispersed secondary phase or form a thin coating on the pore surface of polymer scaffolds. This bioceramic phase renders the scaffolds bioactive and also strengthens the scaffolds. There are a number of methods that can be used to produce bioceramic-polymer composite scaffolds. This paper gives an overview of our efforts in developing composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  2. Modification of PLGA Nanofibrous Mats by Electron Beam Irradiation for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Baek Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA has found widespread use in modern medical practice. However, the degradation rate of PLGA should be adjusted for specific biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and surgical implantation. This study focused on the effect of electron beam radiation on nanofibrous PLGA mats in terms of physical properties and degradation behavior with cell proliferation. PLGA nanofiber mats were prepared by electrospinning, and electron beam was irradiated at doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 kGy. PLGA mats showed dimensional integrity after electron beam irradiation without change of fiber diameter. The degradation behavior of a control PLGA nanofiber (0 kGy and electron beam-irradiated PLGA nanofibers was analyzed by measuring the molecular weight, weight loss, change of chemical structure, and fibrous morphology. The molecular weight of the PLGA nanofibers decreased with increasing electron beam radiation dose. The mechanical properties of the PLGA nanofibrous mats were decreased with increasing electron beam irradiation dose. Cell proliferation behavior on all electron beam irradiated PLGA mats was similar to the control PLGA mats. Electron beam irradiation of PLGA nanofibrous mats is a potentially useful approach for modulating the biodegradation rate of tissue-specific nonwoven nanofibrous scaffolds, specifically for soft tissue engineering applications.

  3. Non-destructive imaging of optical nanofibres

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Lars S; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P

    2016-01-01

    Single-mode optical nanofibres are a central component of a broad range of applications and emerging technologies. Their fabrication has been extensively studied over the past decade, but imaging of the final sub-micrometre products has been restricted to destructive or low-precision techniques. Here we demonstrate an optical scattering-based scanning method that uses a probe nanofibre to locally scatter the evanescent field of a sample nanofibre. The method does not damage the sample nanofibre and is easily implemented only using the same equipment as in a standard fibre puller setup. We demonstrate sub-nanometre radial resolution at video rates (0.7 nm in 10 ms) on single mode nanofibres, allowing for a complete high-precision profile to be obtained within minutes of fabrication. The method thus enables non-destructive, fast and precise characterisation of optical nanofibers, with applications ranging from optical sensors and cold atom traps to non-linear optics.

  4. Preparation of Antibacterial Nanofibre/Nanoparticle Covered Composite Yarns

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Yalcinkaya; Michal Komarek; Daniela Lubasova; Filip Sanetrnik; Jiri Maryska

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial efficiency of nanofibre composite yarns with an immobilized antibacterial agent was tested. This novel type of nanofibrous composite material combines the good mechanical properties of the core yarn with the high specific surface of the nanofibre shell to gain specific targeted qualities. The main advantages of nanofibre covered composite yarns over the standard planar nanofibre membranes include high tensile strength, a high production rate, and their ability to be processe...

  5. A comparative evaluation of mechanical properties of nanofibrous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubun, German P.; Bessudnova, Nadezda O.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration or replacement of lost or damaged hard tooth tissues remain a reconstructive clinical dentistry challenge. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of novel concepts and methodologies of tissue engineering for the synthesis of three-dimensional graft constructs that are equivalent to original organs and tissues. This structural and functional compatibility can be reached by producing ultra-thin polymer filament scaffolds. This research aims through a series of studies to examine different methods of polymer filament material special preparation and test mechanical properties of the produced materials subjected to a tensile strain. Nanofibrous material preparation using chemically pure acetone and mixtures of ethanol/water has shown no significant changes in sample surface morphology. The high temperature impact on material morphology has resulted in the modification of fiber structure. In the course of mechanical tests it has been revealed the dependence of the material strength on the spinning solution compositions. The results achieved point to the possibility to develop nanofibrous materials with required parameters changing the methodology of spinning solution production.

  6. Fabrication of ultra thin and aligned carbon nanofibres from electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javed Rafique; Jie Yu; Xiaoxiong Zha; Khalid Rafique

    2010-10-01

    Ultra thin and aligned carbon nanofibres (CNFs) have been fabricated by heat treatment from aligned polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibre precursors prepared by electrospinning. The alignment of the precursor nanofibres was achieved by using a modified electrospinning set up developed recently, where a tip collector was used to collect and align the nanofibres. The average diameter of the aligned CNFs is about 80 nm. The stabilization and carbonization behaviour were studied mainly based on the randomly oriented PAN nanofibres. The effects of stabilization and carbonization temperatures, temperature-increasing rates, and with and without substrates on the morphology and structure of the CNFs were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of the CNFs and thermogravimetric/differential temperature analysis was used to evaluate the thermal behaviour of PAN nanofibres.

  7. Hydrogen storage in graphitic nanofibres

    OpenAIRE

    McCaldin, Simon Roger

    2007-01-01

    There is huge need to develop an alternative to hydrocarbons fuel, which does not produce CO2 or contribute to global warming - 'the hydrogen economy' is such an alternative, however the storage of hydrogen is the key technical barrier that must be overcome. The potential of graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) to be used as materials to allow the solid-state storage of hydrogen has thus been investigated. This has been conducted with a view to further developing the understanding of the mechanism(s) ...

  8. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  9. Methods of Manufacturing Bioactive Gels from Extracellular Matrix Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, Kimberly A. (Inventor); Stuart, Katherine A. (Inventor); Janis, Abram D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of manufacturing bioactive gels from ECM material, i.e., gels which retain bioactivity, and can serve as scaffolds for preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. The manufacturing methods take advantage of a new recognition that bioactive gels from ECM material can be created by digesting particularized ECM material in an alkaline environment and neutralizing to provide bioactive gels.

  10. Nanofibrous scaffolds prepared by electrospinning: preparation and morphology characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fenclová, Taťána; Širc, Jakub; Munzarová, M.; Lhotka, M.; Šálek, Petr; Přádný, Martin; Hobzová, Radka; Michálek, Jiří

    Réduit : University of Mauritius, 2010. s. 112. [International Conference on Pure and Applied Chemistry: Chemistry for Sustainable Development . 26.07.2010-30.07.2010, Mauritius] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanofibers * morphology * electrospinning Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  11. Perspectives of Chitin and Chitosan Nanofibrous Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, R.; Nair, S. V.; Furuike, T.; Tamura, H.

    2010-01-01

    This review summarized the preparation and tissue engineering applications of chitin and chitosan based nanofibers. Additional studies are necessary before clinical applications and for commercialization of the chitin and chitosan based nanofibers. We hope that this review article will bring new innovative types of chitin and chitosan nanofibers for tissue engineering applications in the future.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of nanofibrous scaffold developed by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahatheeswaran Dhandayuthapani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning has been recognized as an efficient technique for the forming of polymer nanofibers. Silk fibroin (SF nanofibers were electrospun from SF solution using trifluoroacetic acid solution as a solvent. In the present work, we have systematically evaluated the effects of instrument parameters, including applied voltage, tip-target distance, solution flow rate, solution parameters; such as polymer concentration and solution viscosity on the morphology of electrospun SF fibers. The applied voltage and flow rate was monitored at fixed tip target distance during the electrospinning process and it was correlated with the characteristics of the fibers obtained. The number of deposited fibers also increases with the applied voltage. Also, viscosity, flow rate and applied voltage strongly affect the shape and morphology of the fibers. A particular interest, we demonstrated that by monitoring the applied voltage and flow rate it is possible to control the fibers morphology and bead concentration. Rheological study showed a strong dependence of spinnability and fiber morphology on solution viscosity. Solution concentrations has been found to most strongly affect fiber size, with fiber diameter increasing with increasing solution concentration and the morphology of the deposition on the collector changed from spherical beads to interconnected fibrous networks. FTIR analysis clearly shows that there are no spectral differences between fibers and which suggests that there was no chemical modification developed during the process. Under optimized conditions, homogenous (not interconnected SF fibers with a mean diameter of 234 nm were prepared.

  13. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Electrospun Chitosan/Collagen Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiwei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/collagen composite nanofibrous scaffold has been greatly concerned in recent years for its favorable physicochemical properties which mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM both morphologically and chemically. In a previous study, we had successfully fabricated nanofibrous chitosan/collagen composite by electrospinning. In the present study, we further investigate the biocompatibility of such chitosan/collagen composite nanofiber to be used as scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering. The porcine iliac artery endothelial cells (PIECs were employed for morphogenesis, attachment, proliferation, and phenotypic studies. Four characteristic EC markers, including two types of cell adhesion molecules, one proliferation molecule (PCNA, and one function molecule (p53, were studied by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that the chitosan/collagen composite nanofibrous scaffold could enhance the attachment, spreading, and proliferation of PIECs and preserve the EC phenotype. Our work provides profound proofs for the applicable potency of scaffolds made from chitosan/collagen composite nanofiber to be used in vascular tissue engineering.

  14. Porous poly(vinyl alcohol)/sepiolite bone scaffolds: Preparation, structure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sepiolite nanocomposite scaffolds containing 0–10 wt.% sepiolite were prepared by freeze-drying and thermally crosslinked with poly(arylic acid). The microstructure of the obtained scaffolds was characterised by scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography, which showed a ribbon and ladder like interconnected structure. The incorporation of sepiolite increased the mean pore size and porosity of the PVA scaffold as well as the degree of anisotropy due to its fibrous structure. The tensile strength, modulus and energy at break of the PVA solid material that constructed the scaffold were found to improve with additions of sepiolite by up to 104%, 331% and 22% for 6 wt.% clay. Such enhancements were attributed to the strong interactions between the PVA and sepiolite, the good dispersion of sepiolite nanofibres in the matrix and the intrinsic properties of the nanofibres. However, the tensile properties of the PVA scaffold deteriorated in the presence of sepiolite because of the higher porosity, pore size and degree of anisotropy. The PVA/sepiolite nanocomposite scaffold containing 6 wt.% sepiolite was characterised by an interconnected structure, a porosity of 89.5% and a mean pore size of 79 μm and exhibited a tensile strength of 0.44 MPa and modulus of 14.9 MPa, which demonstrates potential for this type of materials to be further developed as bone scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Novel PAA-crosslinked PVA/sepiolite nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared. ► They were highly porous with interconnected structures and exhibited good mechanical properties. ► The effects of sepiolite nanofibres on structure and properties of the scaffolds were investigated. ► Sepiolite nanofibres improved the mechanical properties of the solid material significantly.

  15. Computational Exploration of Molecular Scaffolds in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-12

    The scaffold concept is widely applied in medicinal chemistry. Scaffolds are mostly used to represent core structures of bioactive compounds. Although the scaffold concept has limitations and is often viewed differently from a chemical and computational perspective, it has provided a basis for systematic investigations of molecular cores and building blocks, going far beyond the consideration of individual compound series. Over the past 2 decades, alternative scaffold definitions and organization schemes have been introduced and scaffolds have been studied in a variety of ways and increasingly on a large scale. Major applications of the scaffold concept include the generation of molecular hierarchies, structural classification, association of scaffolds with biological activities, and activity prediction. This contribution discusses computational approaches for scaffold generation and analysis, with emphasis on recent developments impacting medicinal chemistry. A variety of scaffold-based studies are discussed, and a perspective on scaffold methods is provided. PMID:26840095

  16. PLLA-PEG-TCH-labeled bioactive molecule nanofibers for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Jun Chen1,2, Beth Zhou1–3, Qi Li1,2, Jun Ouyang4, Jiming Kong2,4,5, Wen Zhong3,6, Malcolm MQ Xing1,2,4,71Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3Department of Textile Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 4School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhoug, China; 5Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Sciences, 6Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, 7Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: By mimicking the native extracellular matrix, electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds (ENSs can provide both chemical and physical cues to modulate cell adherence and differentiation and to promote tissue regeneration while retaining bioresorbable and biocompatible properties. In this study, ENSs were developed to deliver multiple biomolecules by loading them into the core-sheath structure and/or by conjugating them to the nanofiber surfaces. In this work, poly(L-lactide-poly(ethylene glycol-NH2 and poly(L-lactide were emulsion electrospun into nanofibers with a core-sheath structure. A model drug, tetracycline hydrochloride, was loaded within the nanofibers. Amino and carboxyl reactive groups were then activated on the fiber surfaces using saturated water vapor exposure and base hydrolysis, respectively. These reactive groups allowed the surface of the ENS to be functionalized with two other bioactive molecules, fluorescein isothiocyanate- and rhodamine-labeled bovine serum albumins, which were used as model proteins. The ENSs were shown to retain their antimicrobial capacity after two functionalization reactions, indicating that multifunctional nanofibers can potentially be developed into functional wound dressings or periodontal membranes or used in more complicated

  17. Potential of inherent RGD containing silk fibroin-poly (Є-caprolactone) nanofibrous matrix for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Promita; Kundu, Banani; Naskar, Deboki; Kim, Hae-Won; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Maiti, T K; Kundu, S C

    2016-02-01

    The current study deals with the fabrication and characterization of blended nanofibrous scaffolds of tropical tasar silk fibroin of Antheraea mylitta and poly (Є-caprolactone) to act as an ideal scaffold for bone regeneration. The use of poly (Є-caprolactone) in osteogenesis is well-recognized. At the same time, the osteoconductive nature of the non-mulberry tasar fibroin is also established due to its internal integrin binding peptide RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequences, which enhance cellular interaction and proliferation. Considering that the materials have the required and favorable properties, the blends are formed using an equal volume ratio of fibroin (2 and 4 wt%) and poly (Є-caprolactone) solution (10 wt%) to fabricate nanofibers. The nanofibers possess an average diameter of 152 ± 18 nm (2 % fibroin/PCL) and 175 ± 15 nm (4% fibroin/PCL). The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy substantiates the preservation of the secondary structure of the fibroin in the blends indicating the structural stability of the neo-matrix. With an increase in the fibroin percentage, the hydrophobicity and thermal stability of the matrices as measured from melting temperature Tm (using DSC) decrease, while the mechanical strength is improved. The blended nanofibrous scaffolds are biodegradable, and support the viability and proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells as observed through scanning electron and confocal microscopes. Alkaline phosphatase assay indicates the cell proliferation and the generation of the neo-bone matrix. Taken together, these findings illustrate that the silk-poly (Є-caprolactone) blended nanofibrous scaffolds have an excellent prospect as scaffolding material in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26174955

  18. Mechanical Properties Of Traditional And Nanofibre Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursíny Petr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a comparison of mechanical properties of a conventional yarn and a textile from nanofibres. The conventional yarn represents the textile objects with high degree of orientation of fibres and the textile from nanofibres represents the textile objects with low degree of orientation of fibres. The theoretical section is concerned with the issue of internal structure of plied yarn and resulting differences in the orientation and straightening of fibres and in utilisation of deformation properties of fibres in comparison to the referred nano textile. The experimental section describes the manner of realisation of both static and dynamic tests of conventional yarn and strips of nanofibres. The results show differences in the mechanical properties of conventional yarn and textile strip from nanofibres under static and dynamic loading conditions. The processing technology of conventional yarn has been verified in the long term. But textiles from nanofibres are a relatively new material and mechanical properties of the detected differences point out possible problems with their behaviour during standard technological processes.

  19. Design and manufacture of neural tissue engineering scaffolds using hyaluronic acid and polycaprolactone nanofibers with controlled porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, Elahe; Haghbin Nazarpak, Masoumeh; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Sadeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Given the large differences in nervous tissue and other tissues of the human body and its unique features, such as poor and/or lack of repair, there are many challenges in the repair process of this tissue. Tissue engineering is one of the most effective approaches to repair neural damages. Scaffolds made from electrospun fibers have special potential in cell adhesion, function and cell proliferation. This research attempted to design a high porous nanofibrous scaffold using hyaluronic acid and polycaprolactone to provide ideal conditions for nerve regeneration by applying proper physicochemical and mechanical signals. Chemical and mechanical properties of pure PCL and PCL/HA nanofibrous scaffolds were measured by FTIR and tensile test. Morphology, swelling behavior, and biodegradability of the scaffolds were evaluated too. Porosity of various layers of scaffolds was measured by image analysis method. To assess the cell-scaffold interaction, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line were cultured on the electrospun scaffolds. Taken together, these results suggest that the blended nanofibrous scaffolds PCL/HA 95:5 exhibit the most balanced properties to meet all of the required specifications for neural cells and have potential application in neural tissue engineering. PMID:27612726

  20. Collagen scaffold remodeling by human mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, SJ; Chan, BP

    2011-01-01

    Type I collagen has been widely used as scaffold for tissue engineering because of its excellent biocompatibility and negligible immunogenicity. We previously have developed a collagen microencapsulation technology entrapping many cells including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in microspheres made of nanofibrous collagen meshwork. Nevertheless, little is understood about how stem cells interact with and remodel the collagen meshwork. This study aims to investigate collagen remodeling by...

  1. PLLA/HA Nano composite scaffolds for stem cell proliferation and differentiation in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mansourizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their mulitpotency, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, have the ability to proliferate and differentiate into multiple mesodermal tissues. The aim of this study was to isolate MSCs from human Umbilical Cord (hUCMSCs to determine their osteogenic potential on nanofibrous scaffolds. To this end, Poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA/Nano hydroxyapatite (HA composite nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning. The structure and morphology of the scaffolds were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cords and cultured in the PLLA/HA scaffold. The viability and proliferation of the cells was then determined by an MTT assay. Cellular adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were assessed in these constructs using a range of histological and microscopic techniques. The osteogenesis assays indicated the superiority of nanofibrous scaffolds in supporting MSCs undergoing bone differentiation. Collectively, the bone construct prepared with PLLA/HA scaffold and proliferated MSCs would be a suitable candidate for use in bone regenerative medicine.

  2. PLLA/HA Nano composite scaffolds for stem cell proliferation and differentiation in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mansourizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their mulitpotency, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, have the ability to proliferate and differentiate into multiple mesodermal tissues. The aim of this study was to isolate MSCs from human Umbilical Cord (hUCMSCs to determine their osteogenic potential on nanofibrous scaffolds. To this end, Poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA/Nano hydroxyapatite (HA composite nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning. The structure and morphology of the scaffolds were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cords and cultured in the PLLA/HA scaffold. The viability and proliferation of the cells was then determined by an MTT assay. Cellular adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were assessed in these constructs using a range of histological and microscopic techniques. The osteogenesis assays indicated the superiority of nanofibrous scaffolds in supporting MSCs undergoing bone differentiation. Collectively, the bone construct prepared with PLLA/HA scaffold and proliferated MSCs would be a suitable candidate for use in bone regenerative medicine.

  3. Delivery of VEGF using Collagen-coated Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Stimulate Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shivani; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing sufficient vascularization in scaffold remains a challenge for tissue-engineering. To improve angiogenesis, we incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in collagen-coating over the porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. The release kinetics of loaded VEGF from collagen-coated PCL (col-PCL) scaffolds was same as from scaffolds without the collagen. The bioactivity of VEGF delivered by the col-PCL scaffolds was confirmed by human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUV...

  4. Effect of different sintering methods on bioactivity and release of proteins from PLGA microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Dormer, Nathan H.; Gupta, Vineet; Scurto, Aaron M.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Macromolecule release from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres has been well-characterized, and is a popular approach for delivering bioactive signals from tissue-engineered scaffolds. However, the effect of some processing solvents, sterilization, and mineral incorporation (when used in concert) on long-term release and bioactivity has seldom been addressed. Understanding these effects is of significant importance for microsphere-based scaffolds, given that these scaffolds are...

  5. Composite Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Moutos, Franklin T.; Guilak, Farshid

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering remains a promising therapeutic strategy for the repair or regeneration of diseased or damaged tissues. Previous approaches have typically focused on combining cells and bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines, and DNA fragments) with a biomaterial scaffold that function as a template to control the geometry of the newly formed tissue, while facilitating the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of embedded cells. Biomaterial scaffolds also play a cruc...

  6. Macroporous nanowire nanoelectronic scaffolds for synthetic tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jia; Dvir, Tal; Jin, Lihua; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Qing, Quan; Suo, Zhigang; Langer, Robert S.; Kohane, Daniel Solomon; Lieber, Charles M.; Tian, Bozhi

    2012-01-01

    The development of three-dimensional (3D) synthetic biomaterials as structural and bioactive scaffolds is central to fields ranging from cellular biophysics to regenerative medicine. As of yet, these scaffolds cannot electrically probe the physicochemical and biological micro-environments throughout their 3D and macroporous interior, although this capability could have a marked impact in both electronics and biomaterials. Here, we address this challenge using macroporous, flexible and free-st...

  7. Metal–polyaniline nanofibre composite for supercapacitor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S H Kazemi; M A Kiani; R Mohamadi; L Eskandarian

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present work is to increase the electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of the polyaniline (PANi) nanofibres by introducing the metallic nanostructures. Herein, metal nanoparticleincorporated PANi nanofibres were prepared from interfacially synthesized PANi nanofibres as seeds. In the main step of aniline polymerization, the seeds were employed to produce a large amount of PANi nanofibres in the next steps. Also, metal–PANi nanofibres were chemically prepared by adding inorganic salts (nickel and copper salts) which incorporated PANi nanofibres via the self-assembly process. Increased conductivity and good electrochemical behaviour were observed for these metal–PANi nanofibres at room temperature compared with the single PANi nanofibres, which was previously reported. SEM, FT–IR and UV–Vis techniques were applied for characterization of the products. Finally, the potential application of the composites to use as electrode materials for supercapacitor was examined. Elevated specific capacitance in addition to good cycle stability was observed for the metal–PANi nanofibres. Also, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and charge/discharge experiments show that these metal–PANi nanofibres possess the high conductivity and low charge transfer resistance, which make them suitable candidates for high-performance supercapacitors.

  8. Structure of poly(lactic-acid) PLA nanofibers scaffolds prepared by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pachón, E. Y.; Vera-Graziano, R.; Montiel Campos, R.

    2014-06-01

    The structural properties of poly(lactic-acid) PLA nanofiber scaffolds prepared by electrospinning have been correlated with their process condition. The influence of the electrospinning processing parameters on structure including fiber orientation, take-up velocity and post-thermal treatment was analyzed. The structure and the properties of the scaffolds were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The existence of crystallinity into the nanofibres of PLA was found. The careful observation by HRTEM shows an amorphous core and a semicrystalline shell structure (supramolecular), and the surface of nanofiber observed by AFM shows a laminate periodic along the main axis of the fiber. These observations will be useful in understanding the structure-property relationships of oriented nanofibre scaffolds for medical or biological applications.

  9. Structure of poly(lactic-acid) PLA nanofibers scaffolds prepared by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural properties of poly(lactic-acid) PLA nanofiber scaffolds prepared by electrospinning have been correlated with their process condition. The influence of the electrospinning processing parameters on structure including fiber orientation, take-up velocity and post-thermal treatment was analyzed. The structure and the properties of the scaffolds were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The existence of crystallinity into the nanofibres of PLA was found. The careful observation by HRTEM shows an amorphous core and a semicrystalline shell structure (supramolecular), and the surface of nanofiber observed by AFM shows a laminate periodic along the main axis of the fiber. These observations will be useful in understanding the structure-property relationships of oriented nanofibre scaffolds for medical or biological applications

  10. The Tissue Response and Degradation of Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone/Poly(trimethylene-carbonate Scaffold in Subcutaneous Space of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantage of controllability on the mechanical property and the degradation rates, electrospun PCL/PTMC nanofibrous scaffold could be appropriate for vascular tissue engineering. However, the tissue response and degradation of electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffold in vivo have never been evaluated in detail. So, electrospun PCL/PTMC scaffolds with different blend ratios were prepared in this study. Mice subcutaneous implantation showed that the continuous degradation of PCL/PTMC scaffolds induced a lasted macrophage-mediated foreign body reaction, which could be in favor of the tissue regeneration in graft.

  11. Magnetically Guided Fabrication of Multilayered Iron Oxide/Polycaprolactone/Gelatin Nanofibrous Structures for Tissue Engineering and Theranostic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingtao; Ge, Liangpeng; Wan, Wenbing; Jiang, Junzi; Zhong, Wen; Ouyang, Jun; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-10-01

    A persistent challenge in tissue engineering is the fabrication of manipulatable scaffolds for implantation in clinical treatments and use in disease models for drug screening. Electrospinning of nanofibrous membranes is an emerging technology in artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) design that can offer precisely tunable microenvironments upon assembly into three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that mimic the in vivo ECM structure. In this study, we report a facile and versatile strategy for preparing 3D multilayered constructs from Fe3O4/polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin nanofibrous membranes. This method combines membrane assembly with noncontact magnetic force to preserve the mechanical integrity and interconnectivity of the 3D scaffolds. An ordered layer structure can be achieved using a magnetic control technique through the addition of magnetic nanoparticles into the PCL/gelatin nanofibers. We first verified the magnetic properties and structures of magnetic nanofibers according to X-ray diffraction, hysteresis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We tested the potential toxicity and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells seeded on the layered scaffolds. To add further functionality to the scaffolds, the membranes were coated with silver nanoparticles and shown to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are responsible for most cases of infection-related implant failure. Finally, we tested the utility of magnetic membranes implanted in an animal model as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Scaffolds formed using the presented magnetically guided fabrication strategy have the potential to mimic the structure and function of human tissues and also may be applied in disease models to study cell-cell interactions. PMID:25951851

  12. Review: current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, S. J.; Dufresne, A; Aranguren, M.; Marcovich, N. E.; Capadona, J R; Rowan, S. J.; Weder, Christoph; Thielemans, W.; Roman, M.; Renneckar, S.; Gindl, W.; Veigel, S.; Keckes, J.; Yano, H.; Abe, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent progress made in the area of cellulose nanofibre-based nanocomposites. An introduction into the methods used to isolate cellulose nanofibres (nanowhiskers, nanofibrils) is given, with details of their structure. Following this, the article is split into sections dealing with processing and characterisation of cellulose nanocomposites and new developments in the area, with particular emphasis on applications. The types of cellulose nanofibres covered a...

  13. Preparation of Aligned Polymer Micro/Nanofibres by Electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jin-Shan; LONG Yun-Ze; LI Meng-Meng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Polymer micro/nanofibres are prepared by typical and modified methods of electrospinning. The morphologies and microstructures of the electrospun micro/nanofibres are characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The micro/nanofibres prepared by the typical electrospinning are usually collected in the form of non-woven mats lacking of structural orientation. However, by modifying collector(s) of the electrospinning setup, the resulting polymer fibres show aligned structures to some extent. We analyse all the forces that the fibres experienced during electrospinning and find that the electrostatic force originating from the splitting electric field plays a key role in the alignment of the micro/nanofibres.

  14. Electrospun nanofibrous SF/P(LLA-CL membrane: a potential substratum for endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Junzhao Chen,1,* Chenxi Yan,1,* Mengyu Zhu,1,* Qinke Yao,1 Chunyi Shao,1 Wenjuan Lu,1 Jing Wang,2 Xiumei Mo,2 Ping Gu,1 Yao Fu,1 Xianqun Fan1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cornea transplant technology has progressed markedly in recent decades, allowing surgeons to replace diseased corneal endothelium by a thin lamellar structure. A thin, transparent, biocompatible, tissue-engineered substratum with corneal endothelial cells for endothelial keratoplasty is currently of interest. Electrospinning a nanofibrous structure can simulate the extracellular matrix and have beneficial effects for cell culture. Silk fibroin (SF has good biocompatibility but poor mechanical properties, while poly(L-lactic acid-co-Ɛ-caprolactone (P(LLA-CL has good mechanical properties but poor biocompatibility. Blending SF with P(LLA-CL can maintain the advantages of both these materials and overcome their disadvantages. Blended electrospun nanofibrous membranes may be suitable for regeneration of the corneal endothelium. The aim of this study was to produce a tissue-engineered construct suitable for endothelial keratoplasty.Methods: Five scaffolds containing different SF:P(LLA-CL blended ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 were manufactured. A human corneal endothelial (B4G12 cell line was cultured on the membranes. Light transmission, speed of cell adherence, cell viability (live-dead test, cell proliferation (Ki-67, BrdU staining, and cell monolayer formation were detected on membranes with the different blended ratios, and expression of some functional genes was also detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Different blended ratios of scaffolds

  15. Electrospun Scaffolds for Corneal Tissue Engineering: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Kong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases constitute the second leading cause of vision loss and affect more than 10 million people globally. As there is a severe shortage of fresh donated corneas and an unknown risk of immune rejection with traditional heterografts, it is very important and urgent to construct a corneal equivalent to replace pathologic corneal tissue. Corneal tissue engineering has emerged as a practical strategy to develop corneal tissue substitutes, and the design of a scaffold with mechanical properties and transparency similar to that of natural cornea is paramount for the regeneration of corneal tissues. Nanofibrous scaffolds produced by electrospinning have high surface area–to-volume ratios and porosity that simulate the structure of protein fibers in native extra cellular matrix (ECM. The versatilities of electrospinning of polymer components, fiber structures, and functionalization have made the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds with suitable mechanical strength, transparency and biological properties for corneal tissue engineering feasible. In this paper, we review the recent developments of electrospun scaffolds for engineering corneal tissues, mainly including electrospun materials (single and blended polymers, fiber structures (isotropic or anisotropic, functionalization (improved mechanical properties and transparency, applications (corneal cell survival, maintenance of phenotype and formation of corneal tissue and future development perspectives.

  16. Electrospun poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/hydroxyapatite scaffold with unrestricted somatic stem cells for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Heidari Keshel, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The combination of scaffolds and cells can be useful in tissue reconstruction. In this study, nanofibrous poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) scaffolds, filled with unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs), were used for healing calvarial bone in rat model. The healing effects of these scaffolds, with and without stem cells, in bone regeneration were investigated by computed tomography (CT) analysis and pathology assays after 28 days of grafting. The results of CT analysis showed that bone regeneration on the scaffolds, and the amounts of regenerated new bone for polymer/nano-HAp scaffold with USSC, was significantly greater than the scaffold without cell and untreated control samples. Therefore, the combination of scaffold especially with USSC could be considered as a useful method for bone regeneration. PMID:25710767

  17. The Effect of Aligned and Random Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zonoubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The development of combining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with surface modified three-dimensional (3D biomaterial scaffold provides a desirable alternative for replacement of damaged and diseased tissue. Nanofibrous scaffolds serve as suitable environment for cell attachment and proliferation due to their similarity to the physical dimension of the natural extracellular matrix. In this study the properties of plasma treated poly-C-caprolactone nanofiber scaffolds (p-PCL and unaltered PCL scaffolds were compared,and then p-PCL scaffolds were evaluated for MSC culture.Materials and Methods: Aligned and random PCL nanofibrus scaffolds were fabricatedby electrospining and their surface modified with O2 plasma treatment to enhanceMSC proliferation, adhesion and interaction. Chemical and mechanical characterizationswere carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, water contact angle and tensile testing. Cell adhesion and morphology were evaluated using SEM 1 day after culture. Statistical analysis was carried out using one way analysis of variance(ANOVA.Results: The proliferation of MSCs were evaluated using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-DiphenyltetrazoliumBromide(MTT assay on day 1, 3, and 5 after cell culture. Results showed that the numbers of cells that had grown on PCL nanofibrous scaffolds were significantly higher than those of control surfaces without nanofibers. Furthermore, the proliferation of MSCs on random nanofiber was significantly higher compared to that on aligned nanofiber.Conclusion: This study showed that while both aligned and random plasma treated PCL nanofibrous scaffold are more suitable substrates for MSC growth than tissue culture plates, random nanofiber best supported the proliferation of MSCs.

  18. Carbon nanofibre reinforcement of soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In elastomeric matrices carbon nanofibres are found to be twenty times more effective than carbon black as a reinforcing filler. In hard matrices, by contrast, reinforcement is minimal. Tensile and dynamic mechanical tests were performed to elucidate the mechanism of reinforcement in order to explain the superior performance in soft matrices. Small-angle neutron scattering and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering were used to quantify filler morphology, which turns out to be the key factor that limits reinforcement potential. The presence of fractal cluster formed by agglomeration of the nanofibres reduces the effective aspect ratio of the nanotubes. Clustering, however, introduces a new reinforcement mechanism based on elastic deformation of the fibre clusters. This mechanism is operative in soft matrices but not in hard matrices, thus explaining the enhanced performance in soft matrices.

  19. Nanostructured optical nanofibres for atom trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Mark; Phelan, Ciarán; Deasy, Kieran; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    We propose an optical dipole trap for cold neutral atoms based on the electric field produced from the evanescent fields in a hollow rectangular slot cut through an optical nanofibre. In particular, we discuss the trap performance in relation to laser-cooled rubidium atoms and show that a far off-resonance, blue-detuned field combined with the attractive surface-atom interaction potential from the dielectric material forms a stable trapping configuration. With the addition of a red-detuned field, we demonstrate how three dimensional confinement of the atoms at a distance of 140 - 200 nm from the fibre surface within the slot can be accomplished. This scheme facilitates optical coupling between the atoms and the nanofibre that could be exploited for quantum communication schemes using ensembles of laser-cooled atoms.

  20. Improved cell activity on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds using titanate nanotube coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of bioactive materials is in the premise of tissue engineering. For several years, surface functionalization of scaffolds has been one of the most promising approaches to stimulate cellular activity and finally improve implant success. Herein, we describe the development of a bioactive composite scaffold composed of a biodegradable photopolymer scaffold and titanate nanotubes (TNTs). The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were fabricated by applying mask-projection excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. TNTs were synthesized and then spin-coated on the porous scaffolds. Upon culturing fibroblast cells on scaffolds, we found that nanotubes coating affects cell viability and proliferation demonstrating that TNT coatings enhance cell growth on the scaffolds by further improving their surface topography. - Highlights: • Biodegradable scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted UV laser photocuring. • Titanate nanotube deposition was carried out without binding compounds or additives. • Titanate nanotube coatings enhanced cell viability and proliferation

  1. Improved cell activity on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds using titanate nanotube coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, S., E-mail: szabolcs.beke@iit.it [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Barenghi, R. [IEIIT, National Research Council (CNR), Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Farkas, B.; Romano, I. [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Kőrösi, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Scaglione, S. [IEIIT, National Research Council (CNR), Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Brandi, F. [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124-Pisa (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    The development of bioactive materials is in the premise of tissue engineering. For several years, surface functionalization of scaffolds has been one of the most promising approaches to stimulate cellular activity and finally improve implant success. Herein, we describe the development of a bioactive composite scaffold composed of a biodegradable photopolymer scaffold and titanate nanotubes (TNTs). The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were fabricated by applying mask-projection excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. TNTs were synthesized and then spin-coated on the porous scaffolds. Upon culturing fibroblast cells on scaffolds, we found that nanotubes coating affects cell viability and proliferation demonstrating that TNT coatings enhance cell growth on the scaffolds by further improving their surface topography. - Highlights: • Biodegradable scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted UV laser photocuring. • Titanate nanotube deposition was carried out without binding compounds or additives. • Titanate nanotube coatings enhanced cell viability and proliferation.

  2. Characterising electrospun nanofibre adsorbents for bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Dods, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical manufacturing is one of largest sectors in the world and purification steps are expensive. Packed-bed resins are widely used, but are limited by diffusion mass transfer. Convective mass transfer media offer improved productivities using high flowrates. Electrospun nanofibres are a non-woven with an open structure and high surface area. Cellulose acetate was electrospun into reproducible adsorbents and activation methodologies were evaluated. Aldehyde activation caused degrad...

  3. Specific cell cultivation on nanofibrous layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálek, Jiří; Mareková, Dana; Martinová, L.; Hobzová, Radka; Kostecká, Petra; Lubasová, D.; Lesný, Petr; Přádný, Martin; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    Montecatini Terme: Techna Group, 2010. s. 140. [International Conferences on Modern Materials & Technologies, Forum on New Materials /5./. 13.06.2010-18.06.2010, Montecatini Terme] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/07/1129; GA AV ČR KJB400500902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : nanofibre * hepatocytes * bioreactor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  4. Preparation and bioactivity of sol-gel macroporous bioactive glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Zhou; Jianming Ruan; Jianpeng Zou; Zhongcheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive glass is well known for its ability of bone regeneration, and sol-gel bioactive glass has many advantages com-pared with melt-derived bioactive glass. 3-D scaffold prepared by the sol-gel method is a promising substrate material for bone tissue engineering and large-scale bone repair. Porous sol-gel glass in the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system with macropores larger than 100 μm was prepared by the addition of stearic acid as a pore former. The diameter of the pore created by the pore former varied from 100 to 300μm. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the glass was analyzed by studying the surface of the porous glass by scanning elec-tron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectra after they had been immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for some time, and the porous glass shows good bioactivity.

  5. Surface modification of polymer nanofibres by plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer nanofibres have great potential for technical applications in biomaterials, filtration, composites and electronics. The surface properties of nanofibres are of importance in these applications. In this study, cold gas plasma treatment was used to modify the surface of polyamide 6 nanofibres prepared by electrospinning. The chemical nature of the nanofibre surfaces was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the surface characteristics of the fibres. The AFM results indicate a significant change in the morphology of the fibre surface before and after plasma treatment. A Philips Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) was also used to study the wetting behaviour of the fibres. In the ESEM, relative humidity was raised to 100% to facilitate the water condensation onto fibre surfaces for wetting observation. The ESEM observation revealed that the plasma treatment significantly altered the surface wettability of the polyamide 6 nanofibres

  6. Surface modification of polymer nanofibres by plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q. F.; Gao, W. D.; Hou, D. Y.; Wang, X. Q.

    2005-05-01

    Polymer nanofibres have great potential for technical applications in biomaterials, filtration, composites and electronics. The surface properties of nanofibres are of importance in these applications. In this study, cold gas plasma treatment was used to modify the surface of polyamide 6 nanofibres prepared by electrospinning. The chemical nature of the nanofibre surfaces was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the surface characteristics of the fibres. The AFM results indicate a significant change in the morphology of the fibre surface before and after plasma treatment. A Philips Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) was also used to study the wetting behaviour of the fibres. In the ESEM, relative humidity was raised to 100% to facilitate the water condensation onto fibre surfaces for wetting observation. The ESEM observation revealed that the plasma treatment significantly altered the surface wettability of the polyamide 6 nanofibres

  7. Surface modification of polymer nanofibres by plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Q.F. [Southern Yangtze University, Wuxi 214063 (China) and Anhui University of Technology and Science, Wuhu 241000 (China)]. E-mail: qufu_wei@sina.com; Gao, W.D. [Southern Yangtze University, Wuxi 214063 (China); Anhui University of Technology and Science, Wuhu 241000 (China); Hou, D.Y. [Anhui University of Technology and Science, Wuhu 241000 (China); Wang, X.Q. [Anhui University of Technology and Science, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2005-05-30

    Polymer nanofibres have great potential for technical applications in biomaterials, filtration, composites and electronics. The surface properties of nanofibres are of importance in these applications. In this study, cold gas plasma treatment was used to modify the surface of polyamide 6 nanofibres prepared by electrospinning. The chemical nature of the nanofibre surfaces was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the surface characteristics of the fibres. The AFM results indicate a significant change in the morphology of the fibre surface before and after plasma treatment. A Philips Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) was also used to study the wetting behaviour of the fibres. In the ESEM, relative humidity was raised to 100% to facilitate the water condensation onto fibre surfaces for wetting observation. The ESEM observation revealed that the plasma treatment significantly altered the surface wettability of the polyamide 6 nanofibres.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated forsterite scaffold for tissue regeneration applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roya Saidi; Mohammad Hossein Fathi; Hamidreza Salimijazi

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a novel hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated forsterite scaffold with a desired porous structure, high mechanical properties and good bioactivity was successfully fabricated via gel-casting and sol–gel in low pressure methods. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray map techniques were utilized in order to evaluate the phase composition, dimension, morphology, interconnectivity of the pores and state of the coating on the porosities of the synthesized scaffold. The porosity and compressive strength of the scaffolds were measured and the bioactivity was investigated by soaking the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the prepared scaffolds had highly interconnected spherical pores with size in the range of 65–245 μm. Additionally, compressive strength and elastic modulus were 7.5 ± 0.2 and 291 ± 10 MPa, respectively. The crystallite size of the scaffolds was less than 60 nm. True (total) and apparent (interconnected) porosity of the scaffolds were in the range of 75–80 and 65–70%, respectively. In vitro tests in the SBF also confirmed good bioactivity of the prepared scaffolds. While bone-like apatite formation started from the first day of soaking and apatite covered the entire surface and inner wall of the scaffolds pores at long immersion time. Conclusion suggested that HA coating on forsterite scaffolds could significantly improve the mechanical properties and bioactivity, which might be promising for tissue engineering applications.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of biomimetic scaffolds by using collagen-alginate fibrillar gels for potential tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pore architecture and its stable functionality under cell culturing of three dimensional (3D) scaffolds are of great importance for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, alginate was incorporated with collagen to fabricate collagen-alginate composite scaffolds with different collagen/alginate ratios by lyophilizing the respective composite gels formed via collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro and then chemically crosslinking. The effects of alginate amount and crosslinking treatment on pore architecture, swelling behavior, enzymatic degradation and tensile property of composite scaffolds were systematically investigated. The relevant results indicated that the present strategy was simple but efficient to fabricate highly interconnected strong biomimetic 3D scaffolds with nanofibrous surface. NIH3T3 cells were used as a model cell to evaluate the cytocompatibility, attachment to the nanofibrous surface and porous architectural stability in terms of cell proliferation and infiltration within the crosslinked scaffolds. Compared with the mechanically weakest crosslinked collagen sponges, the cell-cultured composite scaffolds presented a good porous architecture, thus permitting cell proliferation on the top surface as well as infiltration into the inner part of 3D composite scaffolds. These composite scaffolds with pore size ranging from 150 to 300 μm, over 90% porosity, tuned biodegradability and water-uptake capability are promising for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Fabrication and evaluation of biomimetic scaffolds by using collagen-alginate fibrillar gels for potential tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang Lin; Luo Dongmei; Xu Songmei; Wang Xiaoliang; Li Xudong, E-mail: xli20004@yahoo.com

    2011-03-12

    Pore architecture and its stable functionality under cell culturing of three dimensional (3D) scaffolds are of great importance for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, alginate was incorporated with collagen to fabricate collagen-alginate composite scaffolds with different collagen/alginate ratios by lyophilizing the respective composite gels formed via collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro and then chemically crosslinking. The effects of alginate amount and crosslinking treatment on pore architecture, swelling behavior, enzymatic degradation and tensile property of composite scaffolds were systematically investigated. The relevant results indicated that the present strategy was simple but efficient to fabricate highly interconnected strong biomimetic 3D scaffolds with nanofibrous surface. NIH3T3 cells were used as a model cell to evaluate the cytocompatibility, attachment to the nanofibrous surface and porous architectural stability in terms of cell proliferation and infiltration within the crosslinked scaffolds. Compared with the mechanically weakest crosslinked collagen sponges, the cell-cultured composite scaffolds presented a good porous architecture, thus permitting cell proliferation on the top surface as well as infiltration into the inner part of 3D composite scaffolds. These composite scaffolds with pore size ranging from 150 to 300 {mu}m, over 90% porosity, tuned biodegradability and water-uptake capability are promising for tissue engineering applications.

  11. High-sensitivity acoustic sensors from nanofibre webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Chenhong; Fang, Jian; Shao, Hao; Ding, Xin; Lin, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Considerable interest has been devoted to converting mechanical energy into electricity using polymer nanofibres. In particular, piezoelectric nanofibres produced by electrospinning have shown remarkable mechanical energy-to-electricity conversion ability. However, there is little data for the acoustic-to-electric conversion of electrospun nanofibres. Here we show that electrospun piezoelectric nanofibre webs have a strong acoustic-to-electric conversion ability. Using poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a model polymer and a sensor device that transfers sound directly to the nanofibre layer, we show that the sensor devices can detect low-frequency sound with a sensitivity as high as 266 mV Pa(-1). They can precisely distinguish sound waves in low to middle frequency region. These features make them especially suitable for noise detection. Our nanofibre device has more than five times higher sensitivity than a commercial piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) film device. Electrospun piezoelectric nanofibres may be useful for developing high-performance acoustic sensors. PMID:27005010

  12. Semiotic scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    implies that genes do not control the life of organisms, they merely scaffold it. The nature-nurture dynamics is thus far more complex and open than is often claimed. Contrary to physically based interactions, semiotic interactions do not depend on any direct causal connection between the sign vehicle...

  13. Nanostructured Tendon-Derived Scaffolds for Enhanced Bone Regeneration by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunkyung; Alberti, Kyle; Lee, Jong Seung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Shin, Jisoo; Yang, Hee Seok; Xu, Qiaobing; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Decellularized matrix-based scaffolds can induce enhanced tissue regeneration due to their biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical similarity to native tissues. In this study, we report a nanostructured decellularized tendon scaffold with aligned, nanofibrous structures to enhance osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Using a bioskiving method, we prepared decellularized tendon scaffolds from tissue slices of bovine Achilles and neck tendons with or without fixation, and investigated the effects on physical and mechanical properties of decellularized tendon scaffolds, based on the types and concentrations of cross-linking agents. In general, we found that decellularized tendon scaffolds without fixative treatments were more effective in inducing osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hADSCs in vitro. When non-cross-linked decellularized tendon scaffolds were applied together with hydroxyapatite for hADSC transplantation in critical-sized bone defects, they promoted bone-specific collagen deposition and mineralized bone formation 4 and 8 weeks after hADSC transplantation, compared to conventional collagen type I scaffolds. Interestingly, stacking of decellularized tendon scaffolds cultured with osteogenically committed hADSCs and those containing human cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) induced vascularized bone regeneration in the defects 8 weeks after transplantation. Our study suggests that biomimetic nanostructured scaffolds made of decellularized tissue matrices can serve as functional tissue-engineering scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis of stem cells. PMID:27502160

  14. Chitosan microspheres with an extracellular matrix-mimicking nanofibrous structure as cell-carrier building blocks for bottom-up cartilage tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Gao, Huai-Ling; Shen, Li-Li; Pan, Zhao; Mao, Li-Bo; Wu, Tao; He, Jia-Cai; Zou, Duo-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-12-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) which closely mimic the physicochemical properties of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) have been proven to advantageously favor cell attachment, proliferation, migration and new tissue formation. Recently, as a valuable alternative, a bottom-up TE approach utilizing cell-loaded micrometer-scale modular components as building blocks to reconstruct a new tissue in vitro or in vivo has been proved to demonstrate a number of desirable advantages compared with the traditional bulk scaffold based top-down TE approach. Nevertheless, micro-components with an ECM-mimicking nanofibrous structure are still very scarce and highly desirable. Chitosan (CS), an accessible natural polymer, has demonstrated appealing intrinsic properties and promising application potential for TE, especially the cartilage tissue regeneration. According to this background, we report here the fabrication of chitosan microspheres with an ECM-mimicking nanofibrous structure for the first time based on a physical gelation process. By combining this physical fabrication procedure with microfluidic technology, uniform CS microspheres (CMS) with controlled nanofibrous microstructure and tunable sizes can be facilely obtained. Especially, no potentially toxic or denaturizing chemical crosslinking agent was introduced into the products. Notably, in vitro chondrocyte culture tests revealed that enhanced cell attachment and proliferation were realized, and a macroscopic 3D geometrically shaped cartilage-like composite can be easily constructed with the nanofibrous CMS (NCMS) and chondrocytes, which demonstrate significant application potential of NCMS as the bottom-up cell-carrier components for cartilage tissue engineering.Scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) which closely mimic the physicochemical properties of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) have been proven to advantageously favor cell attachment, proliferation, migration and new tissue formation

  15. Impact of scaffold micro and macro architecture on Schwann cell proliferation under dynamic conditions in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Hoffman, John [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, 07030 (United States); Yu, Xiaojun, E-mail: xyu@stevens.edu [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, 07030 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a powerful alternative to regenerate lost tissues owing to trauma or tumor. Evidence shows that Schwann cell containing scaffolds have improved performance in vivo as compared to scaffolds that depend on cellularization post implantation. However, owing to limited supply of cells from the patients themselves, several approaches have been taken to enhance cell proliferation rates to produce complete and uniform cellularization of scaffolds. The most common approach is the application of a bioreactor to enhance cell proliferation rate and therefore reduce the time needed to obtain sufficiently significant number of glial cells, prior to implantation. In this study, we show the application of a rotating wall bioreactor system for studying Schwann cell proliferation on nanofibrous spiral shaped scaffolds, prepared by solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. The scaffolds were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), which has ideal mechanical properties and upon degradation does not produce acidic byproducts. The spiral scaffolds were coated with aligned or random nanofibers, produced by electrospinning, to provide a substrate that mimics the native extracellular matrix and the essential contact guidance cues. At the 4 day time point, an enhanced rate of cell proliferation was observed on the open structured nanofibrous spiral scaffolds in a rotating wall bioreactor, as compared to static culture conditions. However, the cell proliferation rate on the other contemporary scaffolds architectures such as the tubular and cylindrical scaffolds show reduced cell proliferation in the bioreactor as compared to static conditions, at the same time point. Moreover, the rotating wall bioreactor does not alter the orientation or the phenotype of the Schwann cells on the aligned nanofiber containing scaffolds, wherein, the cells remain aligned along the length of the scaffolds. Therefore, these open structured spiral

  16. Impact of scaffold micro and macro architecture on Schwann cell proliferation under dynamic conditions in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a powerful alternative to regenerate lost tissues owing to trauma or tumor. Evidence shows that Schwann cell containing scaffolds have improved performance in vivo as compared to scaffolds that depend on cellularization post implantation. However, owing to limited supply of cells from the patients themselves, several approaches have been taken to enhance cell proliferation rates to produce complete and uniform cellularization of scaffolds. The most common approach is the application of a bioreactor to enhance cell proliferation rate and therefore reduce the time needed to obtain sufficiently significant number of glial cells, prior to implantation. In this study, we show the application of a rotating wall bioreactor system for studying Schwann cell proliferation on nanofibrous spiral shaped scaffolds, prepared by solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. The scaffolds were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), which has ideal mechanical properties and upon degradation does not produce acidic byproducts. The spiral scaffolds were coated with aligned or random nanofibers, produced by electrospinning, to provide a substrate that mimics the native extracellular matrix and the essential contact guidance cues. At the 4 day time point, an enhanced rate of cell proliferation was observed on the open structured nanofibrous spiral scaffolds in a rotating wall bioreactor, as compared to static culture conditions. However, the cell proliferation rate on the other contemporary scaffolds architectures such as the tubular and cylindrical scaffolds show reduced cell proliferation in the bioreactor as compared to static conditions, at the same time point. Moreover, the rotating wall bioreactor does not alter the orientation or the phenotype of the Schwann cells on the aligned nanofiber containing scaffolds, wherein, the cells remain aligned along the length of the scaffolds. Therefore, these open structured spiral

  17. Scaffolds of polycaprolactone with hydroxyapatite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffolds of poly (ε-caprolactone) has been studied in many researches in tissue engineering. The used of hydroxyapatite fibers, allowed increase its resistance mechanical, beside the character bioactive and osteoconductive. Improving, its role in tissue engineering. The aim in this study was developed polycaprolactone matrix with dispersed hydroxyapatite fibers. The characterizations were by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X- Ray Diffractometer (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy dispersive X-Ray Detector (EDX). Was able reviewed its composition, morphology and possible contaminations. The results were scaffolds with porosity and distribution of the fibers in all its area. (author)

  18. Single layer nano graphene platelets derived from graphite nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Delport, Géraud; Orcin-Chaix, Lucile; Drummond, Carlos; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien; Penicaud, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Solutions of calibrated nanographenides (negatively charged nanographenes) are obtained by dissolution of graphite nanofibre intercalation compounds (GNFICs). Deposits show homogeneous unfolded nanographene platelets of 1 to 2 layers thickness and 10 nm lateral size, evidenced by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Upon oxidation, nanographenide solutions exhibit strong photoluminescence.Solutions of calibrated nanographenides (negatively charged nanographenes) are obtained by dissolution of graphite nanofibre intercalation compounds (GNFICs). Deposits show homogeneous unfolded nanographene platelets of 1 to 2 layers thickness and 10 nm lateral size, evidenced by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Upon oxidation, nanographenide solutions exhibit strong photoluminescence. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Raman, SEM, TEM and XPS characterization of the raw nanofibres, detailed XPS spectra analysis of deposits from GNFIC/THF and GNFIC/NMP solutions, Raman and AFM characterization of fresh and aged solutions of nanofibres obtained from 3 different suppliers. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01512c

  19. Preparation and in vitro degradation of bioactive composite fiber scaffolds using electrospinning techniques%电纺丝技术制备生物活性复合纤维支架及其体外降解性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜岩; 李晓龙; 于利

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The common method of preparing poly(I-lactic acid) (PLLA)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite scaffold includes cold-press method, granule filter method, heat partition method. But there are many respects that can not meet requirements in the interfacial combination, degradation rate, intensity of the materials.OBJECTIVE: To prepare a PLLA/HA composite nanofiber scaffold .METHODS: PLLA/HA composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning method. The structure and morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The degradation in PBS was observed in vitro.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was chemical bonding between HA nanoparticles and PLLA/base, the nanoparticles increased the fiber diameter and the surface roughness, this structure will be conducive to cell extension and reproduction in fiber membrane. HA inhibits the selfcatalys during the PLLA degradation, and slows down the degradation rates of PLLA. The PLLA/HA composite scaffold prepared by electrospinning technique may be potentially applied in tissue engineering scaffolds.%背景:聚乳酸/羟基磷灰石类复合材料支架常用的制备方法主要有冷压法、粒子沥滤法、热致相分离法等,但是在增强材料界面的结合、调节材料的降解速率、改善材料的强度等方面仍不能满足要求.目的:制备左旋聚乳酸/羟基磷灰石复合纳米纤维支架.方法:采用静电纺丝法制备聚乳酸/羟基磷灰石复合纳米纤维支架.以扫面电镜对纤维的结构形态进行分析,并观察其在PBS中浸泡不同时间的体外降解过程.结果与结论:羟基磷灰石纳米粒子与聚乳酸/基体间存在化学键合,纳米粒子使纤维直径增大且表面粗糙程度增加,这种结构将有利于细胞在纤维膜上的伸展和和繁殖.羟基磷灰石的引入,抑制了聚乳酸降解过程中的自催化作用,减缓了聚乳酸的降解速度.说明电纺丝技术制备的聚乳酸/羟基磷灰石复合支架在组织工程

  20. Mechanical Reinforcement of Bioglass®-Based Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolla, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses exhibit unique characteristics as a material for bone tissue engineering. Unfortunately, their extensive application for the repair of load-bearing bone defects is still limited by low mechanical strength and fracture toughness. The main aim of this work was two-fold: the reinforcement of brittle Bioglass®-based porous scaffolds and the production of bulk Bioglass® samples exhibiting enhanced mechanical properties. For the first task, scaffolds were coated by composite coati...

  1. Cellulose Nanofibre Mesh for Use in Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Ireland

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce a 3D mesh of defect free electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibres and to use this to produce a prototype composite resin containing nanofibre fillers. This might find use as an aesthetic orthodontic bracket material or composite veneer for restorative dentistry. In this laboratory based study cellulose acetate was dissolved in an acetone and dimethylacetamide solvent solution and electrospun. The spinning parameters were optimised and lithium chloride added to the solution to produce a self supporting nanofibre mesh. This mesh was then silane coated and infiltrated with either epoxy resin or an unfilled Bis-GMA resin. The flexural strength of the produced samples was measured and compared to that of unfilled resin samples. Using this method cellulose acetate nanofibres were successfully electrospun in the 286 nm range. However, resin infiltration of this mesh resulted in samples with a flexural strength less than that of the unfilled control samples. Air inclusion during preparation and incomplete wetting of the nanofibre mesh was thought to cause this reduction in flexural strength. Further work is required to reduce the air inclusions before the true effect of resin reinforcement with a 3D mesh of cellulose acetate nanofibres can be determined.

  2. Microscale Diffusion Measurements and Simulation of a Scaffold with a Permeable Strut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songwan Jin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanofibrous structures provide good performance to scaffolds in tissue engineering. We measured the local diffusion coefficients of 3-kDa FITC-dextran in line patterns of electrospun nanofibrous structures fabricated by the direct-write electrospinning (DWES technique using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP method. No significant differences were detected between DWES line patterns fabricated with polymer supplied at flow rates of 0.1 and 0.5 mL/h. The oxygen diffusion coefficients of samples were estimated to be ~92%–94% of the oxygen diffusion coefficient in water based on the measured diffusion coefficient of 3-kDa FITC-dextran. We also simulated cell growth and distribution within spatially patterned scaffolds with struts consisting of either oxygen-permeable or non-permeable material. The permeable strut scaffolds exhibited enhanced cell growth. Saturated depths at which cells could grow to confluence were 15% deeper for the permeable strut scaffolds than for the non-permeable strut scaffold.

  3. Preparation of thin film nanofibrous composite NF membrane based on EDC/NHS modified PAN-AA nanofibrous substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, X.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes consisting of a polyamide (PA) barrier layer were successfully fabricated by interfacial polymerization (IFP) based on electrospun double-layer nanofibrous substrates, which have an ultrathin poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PAN-AA) nanofibrous layer as top layer and a thicker polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber layer as bottom porous support layer. Immersing PAN/PAN-AA nanofibrous substrates into 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) aqueous solution and piperazine (PIP) aqueous solution (0.20 wt%) sequentially for a period of time, the carboxyl groups on PAN-AA nanofibers were activated by carbodiimide and then reacted with the amide groups. The as prepared composite membrane has an integrated structure with high rejection rate (98.0%); high permeate flux (40.4 L/m2h) for MgSO4 aqueous solution (2 g/L).

  4. Photochromism in sound-induced alignment of a diarylethene supramolecular nanofibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yasuhisa; Fukushima, Satomi; Motoyanagi, Jin; Tsuda, Akihiko

    2015-02-18

    A photochromic supramolecular nanofibre, composed of a diarylethene derivative, exhibits hydrodynamic alignment upon exposure to the audible sound. The aligned nanofibre outputs linear dichroism (LD), whose wavelength region can be switched reversibly with UV and visible light. PMID:25582095

  5. Dynamic Mechanical and Nanofibrous Topological Combinatory Cues Designed for Periodontal Ligament Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kang, Min Sil; Eltohamy, Mohamed; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Complete reconstruction of damaged periodontal pockets, particularly regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) has been a significant challenge in dentistry. Tissue engineering approach utilizing PDL stem cells and scaffolding matrices offers great opportunity to this, and applying physical and mechanical cues mimicking native tissue conditions are of special importance. Here we approach to regenerate periodontal tissues by engineering PDL cells supported on a nanofibrous scaffold under a mechanical-stressed condition. PDL stem cells isolated from rats were seeded on an electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin directionally-oriented nanofiber membrane and dynamic mechanical stress was applied to the cell/nanofiber construct, providing nanotopological and mechanical combined cues. Cells recognized the nanofiber orientation, aligning in parallel, and the mechanical stress increased the cell alignment. Importantly, the cells cultured on the oriented nanofiber combined with the mechanical stress produced significantly stimulated PDL specific markers, including periostin and tenascin with simultaneous down-regulation of osteogenesis, demonstrating the roles of topological and mechanical cues in altering phenotypic change in PDL cells. Tissue compatibility of the tissue-engineered constructs was confirmed in rat subcutaneous sites. Furthermore, in vivo regeneration of PDL and alveolar bone tissues was examined under the rat premaxillary periodontal defect models. The cell/nanofiber constructs engineered under mechanical stress showed sound integration into tissue defects and the regenerated bone volume and area were significantly improved. This study provides an effective tissue engineering approach for periodontal regeneration—culturing PDL stem cells with combinatory cues of oriented nanotopology and dynamic mechanical stretch. PMID:26989897

  6. Parameters optimization for the fabrication of phosphate glass/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, R.; Girija, E. K.

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional, highly porous, bioactive and biodegradable phosphate glass and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) composite scaffolds was fabricated by the polymer foam replication technique. Polyurethane foam (PU) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as template and binder, respectively. Optimization of composition and sintering temperature is carried out for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication.

  7. Case studies of the synthesis of bioactive cyclodepsipeptide natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Kaiser; Stolze, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclodepsipeptide natural products often display intriguing biological activities that along with their complex molecular scaffolds, makes them interesting targets for chemical synthesis. Although cyclodepsipeptides feature highly diverse chemical structures, their synthesis is often associated with similar synthetic challenges such as the establishment of a suitable macrocyclization methodology. This review therefore compiles case studies of synthetic approaches to different bioactive cyclod...

  8. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Bonvallet

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344 rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14% over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold. Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration

  9. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding has wide resonance in several scientific fields. Here we attempt to adopt it for the study of development. In this perspective, the embryo is conceived as an integral whole, comprised of several hierarchical modules as in a recurrent circularity of emerging patterns...... molecular signalling to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships...

  10. Semiotic scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    While organic life is the product of myriads of biochemical processes it usually escapes notice that the chemistry of life cannot be understood exclusively in terms of chemistry. What must be added is an understanding of the particular organized dynamics, which makes the integration of all these ...... brain and back again. One of the main structuring and enabling principles in the semiotic dynamics across levels has been called semiotic scaffolding a concept that relates to psychological catalyses in interesting ways to be furthe explored....

  11. Bioglass®/chitosan-polycaprolactone bilayered composite scaffolds intended for osteochondral tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qingqing; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Detsch, Rainer; Roether, Judith A; Dong, Yanming; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Schubert, Dirk W; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-12-01

    Polymer-coated 45S5 Bioglass(®) (BG)/chitosan-polycaprolactone (BG/CS-PCL) bilayered composite scaffolds were prepared via foam replication and freeze-drying techniques for application in osteochondral tissue engineering. The CS-PCL coated and uncoated BG scaffolds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the coated scaffolds were significantly improved in comparison to uncoated scaffolds. The bioactivity and biodegradation behavior of scaffolds were studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 28 days. The interface between the BG scaffold and the polymer coating layer was observed by SEM and a suitable interpenetration of the polymer into the scaffold struts was found. The effects of coated and uncoated BG scaffolds on MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were evaluated by cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. PMID:24677705

  12. 新型活性修饰对聚乳酸组织工程骨支架上种子细胞生物学行为的影响%Effects of bioactive modification of poly-D,L-lactide acid scaffolds on the biological behaviors of the seed cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许子星; 陈建庭; 李涛; 查丁胜; 张鑫鑫; 姜晓锐; 肖文德; 朱青安

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes in the biological behavior of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with red fluorescent protein by lentivirus (RFP-BMSCs) seeded on in poly-D, L-lactide acid (PDLLA) scaffolds with bioactive modification by ammonia plasma and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) in vitro. Methods Circular sheets of PDLLA scaffolds (8 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness) were prepared and aminated with PDLLA (group A) or modified with the peptide conjugate A/PDLLA (group PA), with untreated PDLLA as the control (group P). The RFP-BMSCs were seeded on the scaffold materials and their proliferation and metabolic activity were detected using CyQuant NF and Alamar blue staining. The mineralization on the scaffolds was observed using calcein fluorescent dye under a fluorescent microscope. The adhesion and proliferation of RFP-BMSCs were observed by fluorescent microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to confirm the observed adhesion of the seed cells. Results The RFP-BMSCs seeded on the 3 scaffolds all showed proliferative activity at different time points after cell seeding, and the cell numbers decreased significantly in the order of PA>A>P (P0.001). The cell number was significantly greater in group PA than in group A at all the time points except for days 10 (P=0.077) and 12 (P=0.491), and gradually became similar with the passage of time. The metabolic changes of the cells follow a similar pattern of cell proliferation. RFP-BMSCs showed more active proliferation in group A and group PA than in group P. On days 14 and 21, the intensity of green fluorescence decreased in the order of group PA, A and P. The RFP-BMSCs showed better adhesion in group PA than in group A, and the cells in group P appeared more scattered under scanning electron microscope. Conclusion Bioactive modification of PDLLA by ammonia treatment and conjugation withGRGDS peptides may promotes the adhesion, proliferation, metabolism and mineralization of RFP

  13. Electrospun chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol nanofibre mats for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) aqueous salt blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibre mats was prepared by electrospinning. CS was dissolved with hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in distilled water without the use of toxic or hazardous solvents. The CS aqueous salts were blended with PVA at different weight ratios, and the effect of the solution ratios was investigated. The morphologies and mechanical and swelling properties of the generated fibres were analysed. Indirect cytotoxicity studies indicated that the CS/PVA nanofibre mats were non-toxic to normal human fibroblast cells. The CS-HOBt/PVA and CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats demonstrated satisfactory antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and an in vivo wound healing test showed that the CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats performed better than gauze in decreasing acute wound size during the first week after tissue damage. In conclusion, the biodegradable, biocompatible and antibacterial CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats have potential for use as wound dressing materials. PMID:22925275

  14. Investigation of fabrication and environmental effects on bioceramic bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco Morales, Juan Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Bioactive ceramic materials like tricalcium phosphates (TCP) have been emerging as viable material alternatives to the current therapies of bone scaffolding to target fracture healing and osteoporosis. Once scaffolds are implanted at the defect site they should provide mechanical and biological functions, ultimately serving to facilitate with surrounding native tissue. Optimal osteogenic signal expression and subsequent differentiation of cells seeded on the scaffold in both in vivo and in vitro conditions is known to be influenced by scaffold properties and biomechanical environmental conditions. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of fabrication and environmental variables on the properties of bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Specifically, the effect of sintering temperature in the range of 950°C -1150°C of a cost-effective on a large scale manufacturing process, on the physical and mechanical properties of bioceramic bone scaffolds, was investigated. In addition, the effect of a controlled environment was investigated by implementing a bioreactor and bone loading system to study the response of ex vivo trabecular bone to compressive load while perfused with culture medium. Collectively, this thesis demonstrates that: (1) the sintering temperature to fabricate bioceramic scaffolds can be tuned to structural properties, and (2) the use of a controlled mechanical and biochemical environment can enhance bone tissue development. These findings support the development of clinically successful bioceramic scaffolds that may stimulate bone regeneration and scaffold integration while providing structural integrity.

  15. Electrospun PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte;

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering for craniofacial region is considered challenging owing to its physiologic and anatomical complexities. A porous bioactive scaffold promoting osteogenesis and angio- genesis is required for clinical applications. We have developed an electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) poly-caprolactone...

  16. Electrospinning of silver nanoparticles loaded highly porous cellulose acetate nanofibrous membrane for treatment of dye wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Ma, Qian; Wang, Shu-Dong; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Sheng-Zhong; Bao, Wei; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Ling, Liang-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles (NPs) were reduced form silver nitrate. Morphology and distribution of the synthesized silver NPs were characterized. In order to obtain cellulose acetate (CA), nanofibrous membrane with high effective adsorption performance to carry silver NPs for treatment of dye wastewater, different solvent systems were used to fabricate CA nanofibrous membranes with different morphologies and porous structures via electrospinning. Morphologies and structures of the obtained CA nanofibrous membranes were compared by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that CA nanofibrous membrane obtained from acetone/dichloromethane (1/2, v/v) was with the highly porous structure. SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that the silver NPs were effectively incorporated in the CA nanofibrous membrane and the addition of silver NPs did not damage the porous structure of the CA nanofibrous membrane. Adsorption of dye solution (rhodamine B aqueous solution) revealed that the highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane exhibited effective adsorption performance and the addition of silver NPs did not affect the adsorption of the dye. Antibacterial property of the CA nanofibrous membrane showed that the silver-loaded highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane had remarkable antibacterial property when compared to the CA nanofibrous membrane without silver NPs. The silver-loaded highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane could be considered as an ideal candidate for treatment of the dye wastewater.

  17. Stem cell differentiation on electrospun nanofibrous substrates for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Lin [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, No. 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, E3-05-14, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: nnimpp@nus.edu.sg [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, E3-05-14, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Qin, Xiaohong, E-mail: xhqin@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, No. 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, E3-05-14, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology has enabled the engineering of a variety of materials to meet the current challenges and requirements in vascular tissue regeneration. In our study, poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and hybrid PLLA/collagen (PLLA/Coll) nanofibers (3:1 and 1:1) with fiber diameters of 210 to 430 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. Their morphological, chemical and mechanical characterizations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and tensile instrument, respectively. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on electrospun nanofibers that are capable of differentiating into vascular cells have great potential for repair of the vascular system. We investigated the potential of MSCs for vascular cell differentiation in vitro on electrospun PLLA/Coll nanofibrous scaffolds using endothelial differentiation media. After 20 days of culture, MSC proliferation on PLLA/Coll(1:1) scaffolds was found 256% higher than the cell proliferation on PLLA scaffolds. SEM images showed that the MSC differentiated endothelial cells on PLLA/Coll scaffolds showed cobblestone morphology in comparison to the fibroblastic type of undifferentiated MSCs. The functionality of the cells in the presence of ‘endothelial induction media’, was further demonstrated from the immunocytochemical analysis, where the MSCs on PLLA/Coll (1:1) scaffolds differentiated to endothelial cells and expressed the endothelial cell specific proteins such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or CD31) and Von Willebrand factor (vWF). From the results of the SEM analysis and protein expression studies, we concluded that the electrospun PLLA/Coll nanofibers could mimic the native vascular ECM environment and might be promising substrates for potential application towards vascular regeneration. - Highlights: • PLLA and PLLA/Coll nanofibers were electrospun. • Incorporation of collagen reduced fiber

  18. Stem cell differentiation on electrospun nanofibrous substrates for vascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology has enabled the engineering of a variety of materials to meet the current challenges and requirements in vascular tissue regeneration. In our study, poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and hybrid PLLA/collagen (PLLA/Coll) nanofibers (3:1 and 1:1) with fiber diameters of 210 to 430 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. Their morphological, chemical and mechanical characterizations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and tensile instrument, respectively. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on electrospun nanofibers that are capable of differentiating into vascular cells have great potential for repair of the vascular system. We investigated the potential of MSCs for vascular cell differentiation in vitro on electrospun PLLA/Coll nanofibrous scaffolds using endothelial differentiation media. After 20 days of culture, MSC proliferation on PLLA/Coll(1:1) scaffolds was found 256% higher than the cell proliferation on PLLA scaffolds. SEM images showed that the MSC differentiated endothelial cells on PLLA/Coll scaffolds showed cobblestone morphology in comparison to the fibroblastic type of undifferentiated MSCs. The functionality of the cells in the presence of ‘endothelial induction media’, was further demonstrated from the immunocytochemical analysis, where the MSCs on PLLA/Coll (1:1) scaffolds differentiated to endothelial cells and expressed the endothelial cell specific proteins such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or CD31) and Von Willebrand factor (vWF). From the results of the SEM analysis and protein expression studies, we concluded that the electrospun PLLA/Coll nanofibers could mimic the native vascular ECM environment and might be promising substrates for potential application towards vascular regeneration. - Highlights: • PLLA and PLLA/Coll nanofibers were electrospun. • Incorporation of collagen reduced fiber

  19. Room and low temperature synthesis of carbon nanofibres

    CERN Document Server

    Boskovic, B O

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibres have attracted attention in recent years as new materials with a number of very promising potential applications. Carbon nanotubes are potential candidates for field emitters in flat panel displays. Carbon nanofibres could also be used as a hydrogen storage material and as a filling material in polymer composites. Carbon nanotubes are already used as tips in scanning probe microscopy due to their remarkable mechanical and electrical properties, and could be soon used as nanotweezers. Use of carbon nanotubes in nanoelectronics will open further miniaturisation prospects. Temperatures ranging from 450 to 1000 deg C have been a required for catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres. Researchers have been trying to reduce the growth temperatures for decades. Low temperature growth conditions will allow the growth of carbon nanotubes on different substrates, such glass (below 650 deg C) and as plastics (below 150 deg C) over relatively large areas, which is especially suit...

  20. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Sundarrajan, Subramanian [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Yingjun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Barhate, R S [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Lala, Neeta L [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore); Ramakrishna, S [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-06-28

    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with {beta}-CD, IBA, a blend of {beta}-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane.

  1. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with β-CD, IBA, a blend of β-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane

  2. Modal coupling of single photons to a nanofibre

    CERN Document Server

    Gaio, Michele; Castro-Lopez, Marta; Pisignano, Dario; Camposeo, Andrea; Sapienza, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale quantum optics of individual light emitters placed in confined geometries is developing as an exciting new research field aiming at efficient manipulation of single-photons . This requires selective channelling of light into specific optical modes of nanophotonic structures. Hybrid photonic systems combining emitters with nanostructured media can yield this functionality albeit limited by the required nanometre-scale spatial and spectral coupling. Furthermore, assessing the coupling strength presents significant challenges and disentangling the different modal contribution is often impossible. Here, we show that momentum spectroscopy of individually addressed emitters, embedded in a nanofibre, can be used to quantify the modal coupling efficiency to the nanofibre modes. For free-standing polymer nanofibres doped with colloidal quantum dots, we report broadband coupling to the fundamental mode of up $\\beta_{01}=31\\pm2\\%$, in robust agreement with theoretical calculations. Electrospun soft-matter nano...

  3. Unravelling the enigmatic origin of calcitic nanofibres in soils and caves: purely physicochemical or biogenic processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bindschedler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcitic nanofibres are ubiquitous habits of secondary calcium carbonate (CaCO3 accumulations observed in calcareous vadose environments. Despite their widespread occurrence, the origin of these nanofeatures remains enigmatic. Three possible mechanisms fuel the debate: (i purely physicochemical processes, (ii mineralization of rod-shaped bacteria, and (iii crystal precipitation on organic templates. Nanofibres can be either mineral (calcitic or organic in nature. They are very often observed in association with Needle Fibre Calcite (NFC, another typical secondary CaCO3 habit in terrestrial environments. This association has contributed to some confusion between both habits, however they are truly two distinct calcitic features and their recurrent association is likely to be an important fact to help understanding the origin of nanofibres. In this manuscript the different hypotheses that currently exist to explain the origin of calcitic nanofibres are critically reviewed. In addition to this, a new hypothesis for the origin of nanofibres is proposed based on the fact that current knowledge attributes a fungal origin to NFC. As this feature and nanofibres are recurrently observed together, a possible fungal origin for nanofibres which are associated with NFC is investigated. Sequential enzymatic digestion of the fungal cell wall of selected fungal species demonstrates that the fungal cell wall can be a source of organic nanofibres. The obtained organic nanofibres show a striking morphological resemblance when compared to their natural counterparts, emphasizing a fungal origin for part of the organic nanofibres observed in association with NFC. It is further hypothesized that these organic nanofibres may act as templates for calcite nucleation in a biologically-influenced mineralization process, generating calcitic nanofibres. This highlights the possible involvement of Fungi in CaCO3 biomineralization processes, a role still poorly documented at

  4. Magnetic biodegradable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CS/PVA nanofibrous membranes for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Yan; Zhang Xuehui; Hu Xiaoyang; Deng Xuliang [Department of Geriatric Dentistry, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, 100081 (China); Song Yu; Lin Yuanhua [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Han Bing [Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, 100081 (China); Wang Xinzhi, E-mail: kqdengxuliang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Prosthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2011-10-15

    In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. The aim of this study is to develop magnetic biodegradable fibrous materials with potential use in bone regeneration. Magnetic biodegradable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/chitosan (CS)/poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous membranes were achieved by electrospinning with average fiber diameters ranging from 230 to 380 nm and porosity of 83.9-85.1%. The influences of polymer concentration, applied voltage and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles loading on the fabrication of nanofibers were investigated. The polymer concentration of 4.5 wt%, applied voltage of 20 kV and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles loading of lower than 5 wt% could produce homogeneous, smooth and continuous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CS/PVA nanofibrous membranes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirmed that the crystalline structure of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CS and PVA were maintained during electrospinning process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) demonstrated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} loading up to 5 wt% did not change the functional groups of CS/PVA greatly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed islets of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles evenly distributed in the fibers. Weak ferrimagnetic behaviors of membranes were revealed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) test. Tensile test exhibited Young's modulus of membranes that were gradually enhanced with the increase of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles loading, while ultimate tensile stress and ultimate strain were slightly reduced by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles loading of 5%. Additionally, MG63 human osteoblast-like cells were seeded on the magnetic nanofibrous membranes to evaluate their bone biocompatibility. Cell growth dynamics according to MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation exhibited good cell adhesion and proliferation, suggesting that this magnetic biodegradable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CS/PVA nanofibrous

  5. Biosilicate®–gelatine bone scaffolds by the foam replica technique: development and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of bioactive glass-ceramic materials has been a topic of great interest aiming at enhancing the mechanical strength of traditional bioactive scaffolds. In the present study, we test and demonstrate the use of Biosilicate® glass-ceramic powder to fabricate bone scaffolds by the foam replica method. Scaffolds possessing the main requirements for use in bone tissue engineering (95% porosity, 200–500 μm pore size) were successfully produced. Gelatine coating was investigated as a simple approach to increase the mechanical competence of the scaffolds. The gelatine coating did not affect the interconnectivity of the pores and did not significantly affect the bioactivity of the Biosilicate® scaffold. The gelatine coating significantly improved the compressive strength (i.e. 0.80 ± 0.05 MPa of coated versus 0.06 ± 0.01 MPa of uncoated scaffolds) of the Biosilicate® scaffold. The combination of Biosilicate® glass-ceramic and gelatine is attractive for producing novel scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  6. Electrospun gelatin/PCL and collagen/PLCL scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wei Fu,1,2,* Zhenling Liu,1,* Bei Feng,1,2 Renjie Hu,1 Xiaomin He,1 Hao Wang,1 Meng Yin,1 Huimin Huang,1 Haibo Zhang,1 Wei Wang11Department of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery, 2Institute of Pediatric Translational Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Electrospun hybrid nanofibers prepared using combinations of natural and synthetic polymers have been widely investigated in cardiovascular tissue engineering. In this study, electrospun gelatin/polycaprolactone (PCL and collagen/poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL scaffolds were successfully produced. Scanning electron micrographs showed that fibers of both membranes were smooth and homogeneous. Water contact angle measurements further demonstrated that both scaffolds were hydrophilic. To determine cell attachment and migration on the scaffolds, both hybrid scaffolds were seeded with human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cells. Scanning electron micrographs and MTT assays showed that the cells grew and proliferated well on both hybrid scaffolds. Gross observation of the transplanted scaffolds revealed that the engineered collagen/PLCL scaffolds were smoother and brighter than the gelatin/PCL scaffolds. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the engineered blood vessels constructed by collagen/PLCL electrospun membranes formed relatively homogenous vessel-like tissues. Interestingly, Young's modulus for the engineered collagen/PLCL scaffolds was greater than for the gelatin/PCL scaffolds. Together, these results indicate that nanofibrous collagen/PLCL membranes with favorable mechanical and biological properties may be a desirable scaffold for vascular tissue engineering.Keywords: electrospinning, gelatin, collagen, polycaprolactone, poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone

  7. Ca3(PO4)2 precipitated layering of an in situ hybridized PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofibrous antibacterial wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Marimuthu, Thashree; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; van Vuuren, Sandy; Pillay, Viness

    2016-06-30

    The aim of this study was to develop an in situ hybridized poly(vinyl alcohol)/calcium silicate (PVA/Ca2OSi) nanofibrous antibacterial wound dressing with calcium phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2] surface precipitation for enhanced bioactivity. This was achieved by hybridizing the antibacterial ions Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) in a Ca2O4Si composite. The hybridization effect on the thermal behavior, physicochemical, morphological, and physicomechanical properties of the nanofibers was studied using Differential Scanning calorimetric (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Textural Analysis, respectively. In vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations of the nanofiber composite were evaluated in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hybridization of Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) into the PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofiber composite was confirmed by DSC, XRD and FTIR. The thickness of the nanofibers was dependent on the presence of Zn(2+) and Ag(+) as confirmed by SEM. The nanofibers displayed enhanced tensile strength (19-115.73MPa) compared to native PVA. Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) hybridized nanofibers showed relatively enhanced in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation (90%) and antibacterial activity compared with the native PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofiber composite. Results of this study has shown that the PVA/Ca2O4Si composite hybridized with both Zn(2+) and Ag(+) may be promising as an antibacterial wound dressing with a nanofibrous archetype with enhanced bioactivity. PMID:27154257

  8. Scaffolder - software for manual genome scaffolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Michael D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly of next-generation short-read sequencing data can result in a fragmented non-contiguous set of genomic sequences. Therefore a common step in a genome project is to join neighbouring sequence regions together and fill gaps. This scaffolding step is non-trivial and requires manually editing large blocks of nucleotide sequence. Joining these sequences together also hides the source of each region in the final genome sequence. Taken together these considerations may make reproducing or editing an existing genome scaffold difficult. Methods The software outlined here, “Scaffolder,” is implemented in the Ruby programming language and can be installed via the RubyGems software management system. Genome scaffolds are defined using YAML - a data format which is both human and machine-readable. Command line binaries and extensive documentation are available. Results This software allows a genome build to be defined in terms of the constituent sequences using a relatively simple syntax. This syntax further allows unknown regions to be specified and additional sequence to be used to fill known gaps in the scaffold. Defining the genome construction in a file makes the scaffolding process reproducible and easier to edit compared with large FASTA nucleotide sequences. Conclusions Scaffolder is easy-to-use genome scaffolding software which promotes reproducibility and continuous development in a genome project. Scaffolder can be found at http://next.gs.

  9. Fabrication and biocompatibility of poly(l-lactic acid) and chitosan composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tao; Wang, Xuejun; Yan, Xu; Miao, Yu; Long, Yun-Ze; Yin, Hai-Lei; Sun, Bin; Song, Guojun

    2016-07-01

    The scaffold microstructure is crucial to reconstruct tissue normal functions. In this article, poly(l-lactic acid) and chitosan fiber (PLLA/CTSF) composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures both in fiber and pore sizes were successfully fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques. The composite scaffolds consisted of a nanofibrous PLLA matrix with diameter of 50-500nm, and chitosan fibers with diameter of about 20μm were homogenously distributed in the PLLA matrix as a microsized reinforcer. The composite scaffolds also had high porosity (>94%) and hierarchical pore size, which were consisted of both micropores (50nm-10μm) and macropores (50-300μm). By tailoring the microstructure and chemical composition, the mechanical property, pH buffer and protein adsorption capacity of the composite scaffold were improved significantly compared with those of PLLA scaffold. Cell culture results also revealed that the PLLA/CTSF composite scaffolds supported MG-63 osteoblast proliferation and penetration. PMID:27127062

  10. Soy Protein Scaffold Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Karen B.

    Developing functional biomaterials using highly processable materials with tailorable physical and bioactive properties is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Soy protein is an abundant, natural resource with potential use for regenerative medicine applications. Preliminary studies show that soy protein can be physically modified and fabricated into various biocompatible constructs. However, optimized soy protein structures for tissue regeneration (i.e. 3D porous scaffolds) have not yet been designed. Furthermore, little work has established the in vivo biocompatibility of implanted soy protein and the benefit of using soy over other proteins including FDA-approved bovine collagen. In this work, freeze-drying and 3D printing fabrication processes were developed using commercially available soy protein to create porous scaffolds that improve cell growth and infiltration compared to other soy biomaterials previously reported. Characterization of scaffold structure, porosity, and mechanical/degradation properties was performed. In addition, the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on various designed soy scaffolds was analyzed. Biological characterization of the cell-seeded scaffolds was performed to assess feasibility for use in liver tissue regeneration. The acute and humoral response of soy scaffolds implanted in an in vivo mouse subcutaneous model was also investigated. All fabricated soy scaffolds were modified using thermal, chemical, and enzymatic crosslinking to change properties and cell growth behavior. 3D printing allowed for control of scaffold pore size and geometry. Scaffold structure, porosity, and degradation rate significantly altered the in vivo response. Freeze-dried soy scaffolds had similar biocompatibility as freeze-dried collagen scaffolds of the same protein content. However, the soy scaffolds degraded at a much faster rate, minimizing immunogenicity. Interestingly, subcutaneously implanted soy scaffolds affected blood

  11. Mechanical and cytotoxicity evaluation of nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilbagi, Marjan; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Raeissi, Keyvan; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Valiani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Despite the attractive characteristics of three-dimensional pure hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, due to their weak mechanical properties, researches have focused on the development of composite scaffolds via introducing suitable secondary components. The aim of this study was to develop, for the first time, three-dimensional HA-bredigite (Ca7MgSi4O16) scaffolds containing various amounts of bredigite nanopowder (0, 5, 10 and 15wt.%) using space holder technique. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy were applied in order to study the morphology, fracture surface and phase compositions of nanopowders and scaffolds. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on the mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. Results showed that the composite scaffolds with average pore size in the range of 220-310μm, appearance porosity of 63.1-75.9% and appearance density of 1.1±0.04g/cm(3) were successfully developed, depending on bredigite content. Indeed, the micropore size of the scaffolds reduced with increasing bredigite content confirming that the sinterability of the scaffolds was improved. Furthermore, the compression strength and modulus of the scaffolds significantly enhanced via incorporation of bredigite content from 0 to 15wt.%. The composite scaffolds revealed superior bioactivity and biodegradability with increasing bredigite content. Moreover, MTT assay confirmed that HA-15wt.% bredigite scaffold significantly promoted cell proliferation compared to tissue culture plate (control) and HA scaffold. Based on these results, three-dimensional HA-bredigite scaffolds could be promising replacements for HA scaffolds in bone regeneration. PMID:27524060

  12. Mechanically Stiff, Zinc Cross-Linked Nanocomposite Scaffolds with Improved Osteostimulation and Antibacterial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Rekha R; Carvalho, Edmund; Banerjee, Rinti

    2016-06-01

    Nanocomposite scaffolds are studied widely due to their resemblance with the natural extracellular matrix of bone; but their use as a bone tissue engineered scaffold is clinically hampered due to low mechanical stiffness, inadequate osteoconduction, and graft associated infections. The purpose of the current study was the development of a mechanically stiff nanocomposite scaffold using biodegradable gellan and xanthan polymers reinforced with bioglass nanoparticles (nB) (Size: 20-120 nm). These nanocomposite scaffolds were cross-linked with zinc sulfate ions to improve their osteoconduction and antibacterial properties for the regeneration of a functional bone. The compressive strength and modulus of the optimized nanocomposite scaffold (1% w/v polymer reinforced with 4%w/v nB nanoparticles, cross-linked with 1.5 mM zinc sulfate) was 1.91 ± 0.31 MPa and 20.36 ± 1.08 MPa, respectively, which was comparable to the trabecular bone and very high compared to nanocomposite scaffolds reported in earlier studies. Further, in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) study suggested deposition of biomimetic apatite on the surface of zinc cross-linked nanocomposite scaffolds confirming their bioactivity. MG 63 osteoblast-like cells cultured with the nanocomposite scaffolds responded to matrix stiffness with better adhesion, spreading and cellular interconnections compared to the polymeric gellan and xanthan scaffolds. Incorporation of bioglass nanoparticles and zinc cross-linker in nanocomposite scaffolds demonstrated 62% increment in expression of alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and 150% increment in calcium deposition of MG 63 osteoblast-like cells compared to just gellan and xanthan polymeric scaffolds. Furthermore, zinc cross-linked nanocomposite scaffolds significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (70% reduction) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (81% reduction) bacteria. This study demonstrated a facile approach to tune the mechanical stiffness

  13. Surface-modified bacterial nanofibrillar PHB scaffolds for bladder tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Demirbilek, Murat; Şam, Mesut; Sağlam, Necdet; Mızrak, Alpay Koray; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is in vitro investigation of the feasibility of surface-modified bacterial nanofibrous poly [(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) graft for bladder reconstruction. In this study, the surface of electrospun bacterial PHB was modified with PEG- or EDA via radio frequency glow discharge method. After plasma modification, contact angle of EDA-modified PHB scaffolds decreased from 110 ± 1.50 to 23 ± 0.5 degree. Interestingly, less calcium oxalate stone deposition was observed on modified PHB scaffolds compared to that of non-modified group. Results of this study show that surface-modified scaffolds not only inhibited calcium oxalate growth but also enhanced the uroepithelial cell viability and proliferation. PMID:24863802

  14. Mineralization and drug release of hydroxyapatite/poly(l-lactic acid) nanocomposite scaffolds prepared by Pickering emulsion templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zou, Shengwen; Chen, Weike; Tong, Zhen; Wang, Chaoyang

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable and bioactive nanocomposite (NC) biomaterials with controlled microstructures and able to deliver special drugs have gained increasing attention in bone tissue engineering. In this study, the hydroxyapatite (HAp)/poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) NC scaffolds were facilely prepared using solvent evaporation from templating Pickering emulsions stabilized with PLLA-modified HAp (g-HAp) nanoparticles. Then, in vitro mineralization experiments were performed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) to evaluate the bioactivity of the NC scaffolds. Moreover, in vitro drug release of the NC scaffolds using anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen, IBU) as the model drug was also investigated. The results showed that the NC scaffolds possessed interconnected pore structures, which could be modulated by varying the g-HAp nanoparticle concentration. The NC scaffolds exhibited excellent bioactivity, since they induced the formation of calcium-sufficient, carbonated apatite nanoparticles on the scaffolds after mineralization in SBF for 3 days. The IBU loaded in the NC scaffolds showed a sustained release profile, and the release kinetic followed the Higuchi model with diffusion process. Thus, solvent evaporation based on Pickering emulsion droplets is a simple and effective method to prepare biodegradable and bioactive porous NC scaffolds for bone repair and replacement applications. PMID:25127362

  15. Fabrication of three-dimensional nanofibrous macrostructures by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning has been widely used in fabricating nanofibers and nanofibrous membranes. Recently, the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D nanofibrous macrostructures has become a hot subject in the development of electrospinning technology. In this paper, the 3D nanofibrous macrostructure was constructed by using electrospinning apparatus with both dynamic and static 3D collecting templates. The effect of the governing parameters on the formation process of 3D macrostructure is studied, such as the applied voltage, the flow rate, the needle-tip-to-collector distance, and the rotating speed. It was found that laying the collecting device either in parallel or perpendicularly with some gap in between, would lead to orderly deposition of nanofibers. In this study, a “dumbbell” dynamic collector was used to fabricate special 3D macrostructures consisting of multilayers of fibrous membranes. By adjusting the rotating speed of the collector, the formation process of multilayer 3D macrostructure can be controlled. An umbrella-shaped static structure collector was used to fabricate 3D framework structures. It is feasible to fabricate various 3D nanofibrous structures via electrospinning with 3D collecting templates, which has great potential in tissue engineering.

  16. Metal Catalysts Supported on Nanofibrous Polymeric Membranes for Environmental Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Topka, Pavel; Petráš, D.; Šolcová, Olga

    - : -, 2013, s. 111. ISBN N. [International Conference on Catalysis in Membrane Reactors /11./. Porto (PT), 07.07.2013-11.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP106/11/P459; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1206 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : nanofibrous catalyst support * electrospinning * catalytic oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  17. Mechanical performance of laminated composites incorporated with nanofibrous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L. [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China); Huang, Z.-M. [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: huangzm@mail.tongji.edu.cn; He, C.L. [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China); Han, X.J. [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China)

    2006-11-05

    The effect of non-woven nanofibrous membranes as interlaminar interfaces on the mechanical performance of laminated composites was investigated experimentally. The nanofibrous membranes are porous, thin and lightweight, and exhibit toughness and strength to some extent. They give little increase in weight and thickness when incorporated into a laminate. More important, they can be used as a functional agent carrier for the laminate. The nanofiber membranes used in this paper were prepared by electrospinning of Nylon-6 (PA6), Epoxy 609 (EPO 1691-410) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), with a thickness ranging from 20 to 150 {mu}m. The non-woven fabrics were attached to one side of a glass/epoxy fabric lamina prior to lamination and each fabric was arranged in between two adjacent plies of the laminate. The nanofibrous membranes were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing, whereas the mechanical properties of the laminate were understood in terms of three-point bending and short-beam shear tests. Results have shown that the nanofibrous membranes in the ply interfaces with a proper thickness did not affect the mechanical performance of the composite laminates significantly.

  18. Fabrication of three-dimensional nanofibrous macrostructures by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Lin, Aimin; Tang, Xuchong; Lu, Xizhao; Zheng, Jianyi; Zheng, Gaofeng; Lei, Tingping

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning has been widely used in fabricating nanofibers and nanofibrous membranes. Recently, the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous macrostructures has become a hot subject in the development of electrospinning technology. In this paper, the 3D nanofibrous macrostructure was constructed by using electrospinning apparatus with both dynamic and static 3D collecting templates. The effect of the governing parameters on the formation process of 3D macrostructure is studied, such as the applied voltage, the flow rate, the needle-tip-to-collector distance, and the rotating speed. It was found that laying the collecting device either in parallel or perpendicularly with some gap in between, would lead to orderly deposition of nanofibers. In this study, a "dumbbell" dynamic collector was used to fabricate special 3D macrostructures consisting of multilayers of fibrous membranes. By adjusting the rotating speed of the collector, the formation process of multilayer 3D macrostructure can be controlled. An umbrella-shaped static structure collector was used to fabricate 3D framework structures. It is feasible to fabricate various 3D nanofibrous structures via electrospinning with 3D collecting templates, which has great potential in tissue engineering.

  19. Biocomposite scaffolds based on electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) nanofibers and electrosprayed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramier, Julien [Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, UMR 7182 CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Bouderlique, Thibault [Laboratoire “Croissance, Réparation et Régénération Tissulaires”, EAC 7149 CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61, avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France); Stoilova, Olya; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Langlois, Valérie; Renard, Estelle [Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, UMR 7182 CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Albanese, Patricia [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grande, Daniel, E-mail: grande@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, UMR 7182 CNRS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 2, rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2014-05-01

    The electrospinning technique combined with the electrospraying process provides a straightforward and versatile approach for the fabrication of novel nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds with structural, mechanical, and biological properties potentially suitable for bone tissue regeneration. In this comparative investigation, three types of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based scaffolds were engineered: (i) PHB mats by electrospinning of a PHB solution, (ii) mats of PHB/hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA) blends by electrospinning of a mixed solution containing PHB and nHAs, and (iii) mats constituted of PHB nanofibers and nHAs by simultaneous electrospinning of a PHB solution and electrospraying of a nHA dispersion. Scaffolds based on PHB/nHA blends displayed improved mechanical properties compared to those of neat PHB mats, due to the incorporation of nHAs within the fibers. The electrospinning/electrospraying approach afforded biocomposite scaffolds with lower mechanical properties, due to their higher porosity, but they displayed slightly better biological properties. In the latter case, the bioceramic, i.e. nHAs, largely covered the fiber surface, thus allowing for a direct exposure to cells. The 21 day-monitoring through the use of MTS assays and SEM analyses demonstrated that human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) remained viable on PHB/nHA biocomposite scaffolds and proliferated continuously until reaching confluence. - Highlights: • Three different types of PHB-based scaffolds are engineered and thoroughly investigated. • The combination of electrospinning and electrospraying affords original nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds. • PHB-based scaffolds show a strong capability of supporting viable cell development for 21 days.

  20. Biocomposite scaffolds based on electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) nanofibers and electrosprayed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrospinning technique combined with the electrospraying process provides a straightforward and versatile approach for the fabrication of novel nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds with structural, mechanical, and biological properties potentially suitable for bone tissue regeneration. In this comparative investigation, three types of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based scaffolds were engineered: (i) PHB mats by electrospinning of a PHB solution, (ii) mats of PHB/hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA) blends by electrospinning of a mixed solution containing PHB and nHAs, and (iii) mats constituted of PHB nanofibers and nHAs by simultaneous electrospinning of a PHB solution and electrospraying of a nHA dispersion. Scaffolds based on PHB/nHA blends displayed improved mechanical properties compared to those of neat PHB mats, due to the incorporation of nHAs within the fibers. The electrospinning/electrospraying approach afforded biocomposite scaffolds with lower mechanical properties, due to their higher porosity, but they displayed slightly better biological properties. In the latter case, the bioceramic, i.e. nHAs, largely covered the fiber surface, thus allowing for a direct exposure to cells. The 21 day-monitoring through the use of MTS assays and SEM analyses demonstrated that human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) remained viable on PHB/nHA biocomposite scaffolds and proliferated continuously until reaching confluence. - Highlights: • Three different types of PHB-based scaffolds are engineered and thoroughly investigated. • The combination of electrospinning and electrospraying affords original nanofibrous biocomposite scaffolds. • PHB-based scaffolds show a strong capability of supporting viable cell development for 21 days

  1. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Modified Electrospun Scaffolds with Embedded Microspheres for Improved Cartilage Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is prone to degeneration and possesses extremely poor self-healing capacity due to inherent low cell density and the absence of a vasculature network. Tissue engineered cartilage scaffolds show promise for cartilage repair. However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a novel biomimetic and bioactive electrospun cartilage substitute by integrating cold atmospheric plasma (CAP treatment with sustained growth factor delivery microspheres. Specifically, CAP was applied to a poly(ε-caprolactone electrospun scaffold with homogeneously distributed bioactive factors (transforming growth factor-β1 and bovine serum albumin loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres. We have shown that CAP treatment renders electrospun scaffolds more hydrophilic thus facilitating vitronectin adsorption. More importantly, our results demonstrate, for the first time, CAP and microspheres can synergistically enhance stem cell growth as well as improve chondrogenic differentiation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (such as increased glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and total collagen production. Furthermore, CAP can substantially enhance 3D cell infiltration (over two-fold increase in infiltration depth after 1 day of culture in the scaffolds. By integrating CAP, sustained bioactive factor loaded microspheres, and electrospinning, we have fabricated a promising bioactive scaffold for cartilage regeneration.

  2. Bioactivation of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Fabien; King, David; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-08-16

    Particles are bioactivated by attaching bioactivation peptides to the particle surface. The bioactivation peptides are peptide-based compounds that impart one or more biologically important functions to the particles. Each bioactivation peptide includes a molecular or surface recognition part that binds with the surface of the particle and one or more functional parts. The surface recognition part includes an amino-end and a carboxy-end and is composed of one or more hydrophobic spacers and one or more binding clusters. The functional part(s) is attached to the surface recognition part at the amino-end and/or said carboxy-end.

  3. Crosslinked gelatin nanofibres: Preparation, characterisation and in vitro studies using glial-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatin (GL) nanofibrous matrices mimicking the complex biological structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) were prepared from aqueous solutions by electrospinning technique. GL nanofibres with a diameter size of around 300 nm were obtained optimising the process and solution parameters. To increase the GL stability in aqueous environment γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) was used as GL crosslinker. GPTMS crosslinking did not modify the nanofibrous matrix morphology: fibre diameter and membrane pores size were 327 ± 45 nm and 1.64 ± 0.37 μm, respectively. The produced GPTMS crosslinked GL nanofibres (GL/GPTMSNF) were found to support the in vitro adhesion, proliferation and survival of neonatal olfactory bulb ensheating cells (NOBECs). - Highlights: • Gelatin nanofibres were prepared from aqueous solution. • A silane-coupling agent was used as gelatin crosslinker. • Glial-like cells adhered and proliferated on the developed nanofibres. • Elongated morphology of glial-like cells was observed

  4. Fabrication of Nerve Growth Factor Encapsulated Aligned Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Nanofibers and Their Assessment as a Potential Neural Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Jue Hu; Lingling Tian; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Xin Ding; Seeram Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a serious clinical problem to be solved. There has been no breakthrough so far and neural tissue engineering offers a promising approach to promote the regeneration of peripheral neural injuries. In this study, emulsion electrospinning technique was introduced as a flexible and promising technique for the fabrication of random (R) and aligned (A) Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)&Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanofibrous scaffolds [(R/A)-PCL-NGF&...

  5. Structural and Photoluminescence Properties of β-Ga2O3 Nanofibres Fabricated by Electrospinning Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian-Guo; ZHANG Zhen-Xing; MA Zi-Wei; DUAN Hui-Gao; GUO Xiao-Song; XIE Er-Qing

    2008-01-01

    We have prepared the β-Ga2Oa nanofibres by electrospinning method followed by calcining in air at 900℃. The morphology and structure of the nanofibres are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman technique. These nanofibres have diameters ranging from 60 to 13Onm and lengths up to several millimetres. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum under excitation at 325nm shows that these β-Ga2Oa nanofibres have a blue emission peaking at 466nm, which may be attributed to defects such as the oxygen vacancies, gallium vacancies and gallium-oxygen vacancy pairs.

  6. Co-electrospun blends of PU and PEG as potential biocompatible scaffolds for small-diameter vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Heyun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Beisi Road, Shihezi 830002 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: fengyakai@yahoo.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-GKSS Research Centre, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Weijin Road 92, 300072 Tianjin (China); Fang, Zichen; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-12-01

    A small-diameter vascular graft (inner diameter 4 mm) was fabricated from polyurethane (PU) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solutions by blend electrospinning technology. The fiber diameter decreased from 1023 {+-} 185 nm to 394 {+-} 106 nm with the increasing content of PEG in electrospinning solutions. The hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds showed randomly nanofibrous morphology, high porosity and well-interconnected porous structure. The hydrophilicity of these scaffolds had been improved significantly with the increasing contents of PEG. The mechanical properties of electrospun hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds were obviously different from that of PU scaffold, which was caused by plasticizing or hardening effect imparted by PEG composition. Under hydrated state, the hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds demonstrated low mechanical performance due to the hydrophilic property of materials. Compared with dry PU/PEG scaffolds with the same content of PEG, the tensile strength and elastic modulus of hydrated PU/PEG scaffolds decreased significantly, while the elongation at break increased. The hybrid PU/PEG scaffolds demonstrated a lower possibility of thrombi formation than blank PU scaffold in platelet adhesion test. The hemolysis assay illustrated that all scaffolds could act as blood contacting materials. To investigate further in vitro cytocompatibility, HUVECs were seeded on the scaffolds and cultured over 14 days. The cells could attach and proliferate well on the hybrid scaffolds than blank PU scaffold, and form a cell monolayer fully covering on the PU/PEG (80/20) hybrid scaffold surface. The results demonstrated that the electrospun hybrid PU/PEG tubular scaffolds possessed the special capacity with excellent hemocompatibility while simultaneously supporting extensive endothelialization with the 20 and 30% content of PEG in hybrid scaffolds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop small-diameter vascular grafts made of PU and PEG by electrospinning. Black

  7. Extracellular matrix formation in self-assembled minimalistic bioactive hydrogels based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, MI; Ulijn, Rein V.; Gough, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The hitherto inconsistency in clinical performance for engineered skin drives the current development of novel cell-scaffolding materials; one challenge is to only extract essential characteristics from the complex native ECM (extracellular matrix) and incorporate them into a scaffold with minimal complexity to support normal cell functions. This study involved small-molecule-based bioactive hydrogels produced by the co-assembly of two aromatic peptide amphiphiles: Fmoc-FF (Fluorenylmethoxyca...

  8. Diopside-fluorapatite-wollastonite based bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Kansal, Ishu

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive glasses and glass–ceramics are a class of biomaterials which elicit special response on their surface when in contact with biological fluids, leading to strong bonding to living tissue. This particular trait along with good sintering ability and high mechanical strength make them ideal materials for scaffold fabrication. The work presented in this thesis is directed towards understanding the composition-structure-property relationships in potentially bioactive glasses...

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo investigations on fibronectin coated and hydroxyapatite incorporated scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadyar-Toupkanlou, F; Vasheghani-Farahani, E; Bakhshandeh, B; Soleimani, M; Ardeshirylajimi, A

    2015-01-01

    Topological and biochemical aspects of the matrices are essential factors to be extensively studied for more successful tissue engineering. Other characteristics including biodegradability and biocompatibility should be also considered. Nanofibrous structure mimics topography of the natural matrix. Previous in vitro studies reported the favorable effects of nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) and fibronectin (Fn) on biodegradability and biocompatibility of scaffold. Herein, the synergistic outcome of co-application of Fn and nHA incorporation into aligned electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) seeded by mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurement and tensile test were applied for scaffold characterization. In vitro evaluation of the seeded cells was performed by MTT, SEM and cell-cycle analyses. In congruence with in vitro findings, in vivo assessment of four weeks fibronectin coated PCL/ nHA scaffold transplanted mice illustrated the suitable compact surrounding tissue with the most penetrated cells generation. Furthermore, Fn coating resulted in cell infiltration enhancement while nHA addition led to more scaffold biodegradation. In conclusion, fabrication of nanofiberous scaffold with this combination of biochemical composition and surface stimulation caused improved biodegradability and biocompatibility of the scaffold which are desirable in more effective tissue regeneration. PMID:26255261

  10. Electrospun Nanofibrous Materials for Neural Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Shuan Lee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomaterials processed by the electrospinning technique has gained considerable interest for neural tissue engineering applications. The tissue engineering strategy is to facilitate the regrowth of nerves by combining an appropriate cell type with the electrospun scaffold. Electrospinning can generate fibrous meshes having fiber diameter dimensions at the nanoscale and these fibers can be nonwoven or oriented to facilitate neurite extension via contact guidance. This article reviews studies evaluating the effect of the scaffold’s architectural features such as fiber diameter and orientation on neural cell function and neurite extension. Electrospun meshes made of natural polymers, proteins and compositions having electrical activity in order to enhance neural cell function are also discussed.

  11. Functionally graded electrospun scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for vascular tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Vinoy [Center for Nanoscale Materials and Biointegration (CNMB), Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), AL 35294 (United States); Zhang Xing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), AL 35294 (United States); Catledge, Shane A [Center for Nanoscale Materials and Biointegration (CNMB), Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), AL 35294 (United States); Vohra, Yogesh K [Center for Nanoscale Materials and Biointegration (CNMB), Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), AL 35294 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Electrospun tubular scaffolds (4 mm inner diameter) based on bio-artificial blends of polyglyconate (Maxon (registered) ) and proteins such as gelatin and elastin having a spatially designed multilayer structure were prepared for use as vascular tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of scaffolds showed a random nanofibrous morphology with fiber diameter in the range of 200-400 nm for protein-blended Maxon, which mimics the nanoscale dimensions of collagen (50-500 nm). The scaffolds have a well interconnected pore structure and porosity up to 82%, with protein blending and multi-layering in contrast to electrospun Maxon (registered) scaffolds (67%). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry results confirmed the blended composition and crystallinity of fibers. Uniaxial tensile testing revealed a strength of 14.46 {+-} 0.42 MPa and a modulus of 15.44 {+-} 2.53 MPa with a failure strain of 322.5 {+-} 10% for a pure Maxon (registered) scaffold. The blending of polyglyconate with biopolymers decreased the tensile properties in general, with an exception of the tensile modulus (48.38 {+-} 2 MPa) of gelatin/Maxon mesh, which was higher than that of the pure Maxon (registered) scaffold. Trilayered tubular scaffolds of gelatin/elastin, gelatin/elastin/Maxon and gelatin/Maxon (GE-GEM-GM) that mimic the complex trilayer matrix structure of natural artery have been prepared by sequential electrospinning. Tensile testing under dry conditions revealed a tensile strength of 2.71 {+-} 0.2 MPa and a modulus of 20.4 {+-} 3 MPa with a failure strain of 140 {+-} 10%. However, GE-GEM-GM scaffolds tested under wet conditions after soaking in a phosphate buffered saline medium at 37 {sup 0}C for 24 h exhibited mechanical properties (2.5 MPa tensile strength and 9 MPa tensile modulus) comparable to those of native femoral artery.

  12. A novel three-dimensional scaffold for regenerative endodontics: materials and biological characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Marco C; Yassen, Ghaeth H; Platt, Jeffrey A; Labban, Nawaf; Windsor, L Jack; Spolnik, Kenneth J; Bressiani, Ana H A

    2015-11-01

    An electrospun nanocomposite fibrous material holds promise as a scaffold, as well as a drug-delivery device to aid in root maturogenesis and the regeneration of the pulp-dentine complex. A novel three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite scaffold composed of polydioxanone (PDS II®) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was designed and fabricated by electrospinning. Morphology, structure, mechanical properties and cell compatibility studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of HNTs incorporation (0.5-10 wt% relative to PDS w/w). Overall, a 3D porous network was seen in the different fabricated electrospun scaffolds, regardless of the HNT content. The incorporation of HNTs at 10 wt% led to a significant (p biocompatibility, rendering them good candidates for the potential encapsulation of distinct bioactive molecules. Collectively, the reported data support the conclusion that PDS-HNTs nanocomposite fibrous structures hold potential in the development of a bioactive scaffold for regenerative endodontics. PMID:23475586

  13. Scaffolds of polycaprolactone with hydroxyapatite fibers;Scaffolds de poli(epsilon-caprolactona) com fibras de hidroxiapatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Guinea B.C.; Zavaglia, Cecilia A.C., E-mail: guicardoso@fem.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais; Ramos, Sergio L.F. [Universidade Federal Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Arruda, Antonio Celso F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. do Petroleo

    2009-07-01

    Scaffolds of poly (epsilon-caprolactone) has been studied in many researches in tissue engineering. The used of hydroxyapatite fibers, allowed increase its resistance mechanical, beside the character bioactive and osteoconductive. Improving, its role in tissue engineering. The aim in this study was developed polycaprolactone matrix with dispersed hydroxyapatite fibers. The characterizations were by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X- Ray Diffractometer (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy dispersive X-Ray Detector (EDX). Was able reviewed its composition, morphology and possible contaminations. The results were scaffolds with porosity and distribution of the fibers in all its area. (author)

  14. Release of lysozyme from electrospun PVA/lysozyme-gelatin scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-zhi YANG; Yu-hua LONG; Jun NIE

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an electrospinning process in fabricating ultra fine fibers with core-shell structure. A biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used as the shell; lysozyme was a kind of antioxidant; and gelatin were used as the core. Morphology and microstruc-ture of the ultra fine fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron micro-scopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. As a comparison, composite nanofiber PVA/lysozyme-gelatin blend was prepared by a normal electrospinning process. In vitro drug release behaviors of the nanofibrous membranes were determined in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. It was found that core-shell nanofibers PVA/lysozyme-gelatin obviously exhibit higher initial release rates compared to that of PVA/lysozyme-gelatin blend nanofibers. The current method may find wide application in controlled release of bioactive proteins and tissue engineering.

  15. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  16. A carbon nanofibre scanning probe assembled using an electrothermal microgripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional devices can be directly assembled using microgrippers with an in situ electron microscope. Two simple and compact silicon microgripper designs are investigated here. These are operated by electrothermal actuation, and are used to transfer a catalytically grown multi-walled carbon nanofibre from a fixed position on a substrate to the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever, inside a scanning electron microscope. Scanning of high aspect ratio trenches using the nanofibre supertip shows a significantly better performance than that with standard pyramidal silicon tips. Based on manipulation experiments as well as a simple analysis, we show that shear pulling (lateral movement of the gripper) is far more effective than tensile pulling (vertical movement of gripper) for the mechanical removal of carbon nanotubes from a substrate

  17. AFM-based mechanical characterization of single nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugirg, Benedikt R.; Koebley, Sean R.; Schniepp, Hannes C.; Fery, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Nanofibres are found in a broad variety of hierarchical biological systems as fundamental structural units, and nanofibrillar components are playing an increasing role in the development of advanced functional materials. Accurate determination of the mechanical properties of single nanofibres is thus of great interest, yet measurement of these properties is challenging due to the intricate specimen handling and the exceptional force and deformation resolution that is required. The atomic force microscope (AFM) has emerged as an effective, reliable tool in the investigation of nanofibrillar mechanics, with the three most popular approaches--AFM-based tensile testing, three-point deformation testing, and nanoindentation--proving preferable to conventional tensile testing in many (but not all) cases. Here, we review the capabilities and limitations of each of these methods and give a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in this field.

  18. NANOFIBROUS MATS WITH BIRD'S NEST PATTERNS BY ELECTROSPINNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu Ye; Xiao-jun Huang; Zhi-kang Xu

    2012-01-01

    Electrospun material with bio-inspired ordered architectures and patterns is very interesting,yet remains a challenge.We report here that nanofibrous mats with bird's nest patterned structures can be directly electrospun from chlorinated polypropylene solutions doped with an ionic liquid.The solution viscosity and the ionic liquid content are two dominant factors to influence the lopological morphology of the nanofibrous mats.The patterned structures can be further modulated by the collection time of electrospinning,the humidity of environment and the design of collector.We suggest the electrostatic repulsion between the residual charges of the mat surface and the upcoming nanofibers plays a key role in the formation of the bird's nest patterns.

  19. A carbon nanofibre scanning probe assembled using an electrothermal microgripper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kenneth; Dyvelkov, Karin Nordström; Eicchorn, V.;

    2007-01-01

    Functional devices can be directly assembled using microgrippers with an in situ electron microscope. Two simple and compact silicon microgripper designs are investigated here. These are operated by electrothermal actuation, and are used to transfer a catalytically grown multi-walled carbon...... nanofibre from a fixed position on a substrate to the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever, inside a scanning electron microscope. Scanning of high aspect ratio trenches using the nanofibre supertip shows a significantly better performance than that with standard pyramidal silicon tips. Based on...... manipulation experiments as well as a simple analysis, we show that shear pulling (lateral movement of the gripper) is far more effective than tensile pulling (vertical movement of gripper) for the mechanical removal of carbon nanotubes from a substrate....

  20. Cross-linking methods of electrospun fibrinogen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the mechanical properties and slow the degradation of an electrospun fibrinogen scaffold, while maintaining the scaffold's high level of bioactivity. Three different cross-linkers were used to achieve this goal: glutaraldehyde vapour, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in ethanol and genipin in ethanol. Scaffolds with a fibrinogen concentration of 120 mg ml-1 were electrospun and cross-linked with one of the aforementioned cross-linkers. Mechanical properties were determined through uniaxial tensile testing performed on scaffolds incubated under standard culture conditions for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days. Cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-GFP-hTERT) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days, with histology and scanning electron microscopy performed upon completion of the time course. Mechanical testing revealed significantly increased peak stress and modulus values for the EDC and genipin cross-linked scaffolds, with significantly slowed degradation. However, cross-linking with EDC and genipin was shown to have some negative effect on the bioactivity of the scaffolds as cell migration throughout the thickness of the scaffold was slowed.

  1. Cross-linking methods of electrospun fibrinogen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, Scott A; Garg, Koyal; McClure, Michael J; Bowlin, Gary L [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284-3067 (United States); Francis, Michael P [Department of Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0709 (United States); Simpson, David G [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0709 (United States)], E-mail: glbowlin@vcu.edu

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the mechanical properties and slow the degradation of an electrospun fibrinogen scaffold, while maintaining the scaffold's high level of bioactivity. Three different cross-linkers were used to achieve this goal: glutaraldehyde vapour, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in ethanol and genipin in ethanol. Scaffolds with a fibrinogen concentration of 120 mg ml{sup -1} were electrospun and cross-linked with one of the aforementioned cross-linkers. Mechanical properties were determined through uniaxial tensile testing performed on scaffolds incubated under standard culture conditions for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days. Cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-GFP-hTERT) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days, with histology and scanning electron microscopy performed upon completion of the time course. Mechanical testing revealed significantly increased peak stress and modulus values for the EDC and genipin cross-linked scaffolds, with significantly slowed degradation. However, cross-linking with EDC and genipin was shown to have some negative effect on the bioactivity of the scaffolds as cell migration throughout the thickness of the scaffold was slowed.

  2. Poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin composite electrospun scaffolds with porous crater-like structures for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Patrick T J; Murdock, Kyle; Alexander, Grant C; Salaam, Amanee D; Ng, Joshua I; Lim, Dong-Jin; Dean, Derrick; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2016-04-01

    Electrospinning has been widely used to fabricate scaffolds imitating the structure of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, conventional electrospinning produces tightly compacted nanofiber layers with only small superficial pores and a lack of bioactivity, which limit the usefulness of electrospinning in biomedical applications. Thus, a porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin composite electrospun scaffold with crater-like structures was developed. Porous crater-like structures were created on the scaffold by a gas foaming/salt leaching process; this unique fiber structure had more large pore areas and higher porosity than the conventional electrospun fiber network. Various ratios of PCL/gelatin (concentration ratios: 100/0, 75/25, and 50/50) composite electrospun scaffolds with and without crater-like structures were characterized by their microstructures, surface chemistry, degradation, mechanical properties, and ability to facilitate cell growth and infiltration. The combination of PCL and gelatin endowed the scaffold with both structural stability of PCL and bioactivity of gelatin. All ratios of scaffolds with crater-like structures showed fairly similar surface chemistry, degradation rates, and mechanical properties to equivalent scaffolds without crater-like structures; however, craterized scaffolds displayed higher human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) proliferation and infiltration throughout the scaffolds after 7-day culture. Therefore, these results demonstrated that PCL/gelatin composite electrospun scaffolds with crater-like structures can provide a structurally and biochemically improved three-dimensional ECM-mimicking microenvironment. PMID:26567028

  3. Chitosan-based nanofibrous membranes for antibacterial filter applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Ashleigh; Oldinski, Rachael; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D.; Zhang, Miqin

    2012-01-01

    Nanofibrous membranes have drawn considerable interest for filtration applications due to their ability to withstand high fluid flux while removing micro- and nano-sized particulates from solution. The desire to introduce an antibacterial function into water filter applications presents a challenge to widespread application of fibrous membranes because the addition of chemicals or biocides may produce harmful byproducts downstream. Here, we report the development of chitosan-polycaprolactone ...

  4. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Rajarao; Badekai Ramachandra Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs) on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe) as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental ef...

  5. Diamond growth on copper rods from polymer composite nanofibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, Marián; Potocký, Štěpán; Tesárek, P.; Babchenko, Oleg; Davydova, Marina; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 312, SEP (2014), s. 220-225. ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : linear antenna MWCVD * diamond * copper * polymer nanofibres Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433214011003

  6. Electrospun silk-based nanofibrous scaffolds: fiber diameter and oxygen transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Chomachayi, Masoud Dadras; Solouk, Atefeh; Mirzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, silk fibroin was extracted from cocoons of silkworms and fabricated into nonwoven mats by electrospinning method. A new model based on the group method of data handling (GMDH) and artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for estimation of the average diameter of electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers. In this regard, concentration, flow rate, voltage, distance, and speed of collector were used as input parameters and average diameter of the fibers was considered as output par...

  7. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Modified Electrospun Scaffolds with Embedded Microspheres for Improved Cartilage Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhu; Castro, Nathan J.; Xiaoqian Cheng; Michael Keidar; Lijie Grace Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage is prone to degeneration and possesses extremely poor self-healing capacity due to inherent low cell density and the absence of a vasculature network. Tissue engineered cartilage scaffolds show promise for cartilage repair. However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a novel biomimetic and bioactive ele...

  8. The enhancement of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis by polycaprolactone scaffolds with surface cross-linked heparin

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shivani; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of surface cross-linked heparin on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis in porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF delivered by scaffolds coated with a sub-micron thick layer of immobilized heparin would accelerate angiogenesis. The bioactivity of retained VEGF was confirmed by its phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2. After 7 and 14 days of subcutaneous implantation in mice, the heparin-PC...

  9. Scaffold- and Cell System-Based Bone Grafts in Tissue Engineering (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova D.S.; Timashev P.S.; Bagratashvili V.N.; Zagaynova Е.V.

    2014-01-01

    The review considers the current trends in tissue engineering including maxillofacial surgery based on the use of scaffolds, autologous stem cells and bioactive substances. The authors have shown the advantages and disadvantages of basic materials used for scaffold synthesis — three-dimensional porous or fiber matrices serving as a mechanical frame for cells; among such materials there are natural polymers (collagen, cellulose, fibronectin, chitosan, alginate and agarose, fibroin), synthetic ...

  10. Chitosan-based nanofibrous membranes for antibacterial filter applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ashleigh; Oldinski, Rachael; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D; Zhang, Miqin

    2013-01-30

    Nanofibrous membranes have drawn considerable interest for filtration applications due to their ability to withstand high fluid flux while removing micro- and nano-sized particulates from solution. The desire to introduce an antibacterial function into water filter applications presents a challenge to widespread application of fibrous membranes because the addition of chemicals or biocides may produce harmful byproducts downstream. Here, we report the development of chitosan-polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous membranes to utilize the natural antibacterial property of chitosan for antibacterial water filtration. Chitosan-PCL fibers with diameters of 200-400 nm and chitosan contents of 25, 50 and 75 wt% were prepared by electrospinning. In a series of bacterial challenge tests, chitosan-PCL fibrous membranes significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus adhesion compared to PCL fibrous membranes. In water permeability and particulate size removal tests, fibrous membranes with 25% chitosan supported the greatest water flux (∼7000 L/h/m(2)) with 100% removal of 300-nm particulates, while maintaining the membrane integrity. This study demonstrates the potential of chitosan-PCL nanofibrous membranes as pre-filters for water filtration systems that demonstrate combinatorial filtration and intrinsic antibacterial advantages. PMID:23218292

  11. A novel electrospun biphasic scaffold provides optimal three-dimensional topography for in vitro co-culture of airway epithelial and fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional airway in vitro models focus upon the function of individual structural cells cultured in a two-dimensional monolayer, with limited three-dimensional (3D) models of the bronchial mucosa. Electrospinning offers an attractive method to produce defined, porous 3D matrices for cell culture. To investigate the effects of fibre diameter on airway epithelial and fibroblast cell growth and functionality, we manipulated the concentration and deposition rate of the non-degradable polymer polyethylene terephthalate to create fibres with diameters ranging from nanometre to micrometre. The nanofibre scaffold closely resembles the basement membrane of the bronchiole mucosal layer, and epithelial cells cultured at the air–liquid interface on this scaffold showed polarized differentiation. The microfibre scaffold mimics the porous sub-mucosal layer of the airway into which lung fibroblast cells showed good penetration. Using these defined electrospinning parameters we created a biphasic scaffold with 3D topography tailored for optimal growth of both cell types. Epithelial and fibroblast cells were co-cultured onto the apical nanofibre phase and the basal microfibre phase respectively, with enhanced epithelial barrier formation observed upon co-culture. This biphasic scaffold provides a novel 3D in vitro platform optimized to mimic the different microenvironments the cells encounter in vivo on which to investigate key airway structural cell interactions in airway diseases such as asthma. (paper)

  12. In vitro hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of a three-layered vascular scaffold fabricated by sequential electrospinning of PCL, collagen, and PLLA nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghjooy Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Anari, Jamal; Zargar Kharazi, Anousheh; Vatankhah, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to mimic a blood vessel structurally, morphologically, and mechanically, a sequential electrospinning technique using a small diameter mandrel collector was performed and a three-layered tubular scaffold composed of nanofibers of polycaprolactone, collagen, and poly(l-lactic acid) as inner, intermediate, and outer layers, respectively, was developed. Biological performances of the scaffold in terms of compatibility with blood and endothelial cells were assessed to get some insights into its potential use as a tissue engineered small-diameter vascular replacement compared to an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft. Due to direct contact of the blood and endothelial cells with inner surface of the scaffold, polycaprolactone fibers were characterized using SEM, water contact angle measurement, and ATR-FTIR. Despite similar surface wettability of the electrospun scaffold and the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft, the three-layered scaffold significantly reduced platelet adhesion and hemolysis ratio compared to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft while comparable blood clotting profiles were observed for both electrospun scaffold and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. However, inflammatory response to nanofibrous surface of the scaffold was reduced compared to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. The electrospun scaffold also presented a significantly more supportive substrate for endothelialization than the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. The results described herein suggested that the three-layered scaffold has superior biological properties compared to an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft for vascular tissue engineering. PMID:27247131

  13. In vitro evaluation of human endometrial stem cell-derived osteoblast-like cells' behavior on gelatin/collagen/bioglass nanofibers' scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Panahi, Maryam; Azami, Mahmoud; Ai, Arman; Barabadi, Zahra; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ai, Jafar

    2016-09-01

    New biomimetic nanocomposite scaffold was prepared by the combination of nanofibrilar bioglass containing copper ion as the inorganic phase and gelatin/collagen as the organic phase of bone tissue. In this study for fabrication of the scaffold, freeze drying and electrospinning methods were used, and genipin was used as the cross-linking agent for increasing the mechanical properties of the scaffold. The growth and viability of human endometrial stem cell-derived osteoblast-like cells were investigated on this biomimetic scaffold. Cellular biocompatibility assays illustrated that this scaffold has more viabilities and osteoblast growths in comparison with two-dimensional culture. Copper ion increased growth of the osteoblasts on nanocomposite scaffold containing nanofibrous bioglass. Thus, the results obtained from this study indicate that the prepared scaffold is suitable for osteoblast growth and attachment; thus, potentially, this nanocomposite scaffold is an appropriate scaffold for bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2210-2219, 2016. PMID:27087544

  14. Customized biomimetic scaffolds created by indirect three-dimensional printing for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is a rapid prototyping technique that can create complex 3D structures by inkjet printing of a liquid binder onto powder biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Direct fabrication of scaffolds from 3DP, however, imposes a limitation on material choices by manufacturing processes. In this study, we report an indirect 3DP approach wherein a positive replica of desired shapes was printed using gelatin particles, and the final scaffold was directly produced from the printed mold. To create patient-specific scaffolds that match precisely to a patient's external contours, we integrated our indirect 3DP technique with imaging technologies and successfully created custom scaffolds mimicking human mandibular condyle using polycaprolactone and chitosan for potential osteochondral tissue engineering. To test the ability of the technique to precisely control the internal morphology of the scaffolds, we created orthogonal interconnected channels within the scaffolds using computer-aided-design models. Because very few biomaterials are truly osteoinductive, we modified inert 3D printed materials with bioactive apatite coating. The feasibility of these scaffolds to support cell growth was investigated using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). The BMSCs showed good viability in the scaffolds, and the apatite coating further enhanced cellular spreading and proliferation. This technique may be valuable for complex scaffold fabrication. (paper)

  15. Functionality in Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes Based on Fiber’s Size, Surface Area, and Molecular Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Tanioka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a versatile method for forming continuous thin fibers based on an electrohydrodynamic process. This method has the following advantages: (i the ability to produce thin fibers with diameters in the micrometer and nanometer ranges; (ii one-step forming of the two- or three-dimensional nanofiber network assemblies (nanofibrous membranes; and (iii applicability for a broad spectrum of molecules, such as synthetic and biological polymers and polymerless sol-gel systems. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes have received significant attention in terms of their practical applications. The major advantages of nanofibers or nanofibrous membranes are the functionalities based on their nanoscaled-size, highly specific surface area, and highly molecular orientation. These functionalities of the nanofibrous membranes can be controlled by their fiber diameter, surface chemistry and topology, and internal structure of the nanofibers. This report focuses on our studies and describes fundamental aspects and applications of electrospun nanofibrous membranes.

  16. A novel porcine acellular dermal matrix scaffold used in periodontal regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Guo; Hui Chen; Ying Wang; Cheng-Bo Cao; Guo-Qiang Guan

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration of periodontal tissue is the most promising method for restoring periodontal structures. To find a suitable bioactive three- dimensional scaffold promoting cell proliferation and differentiation is critical in periodontal tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel porcine acellular dermal matrix as periodontal tissue scaffolds both in vitroand in vivo. The scaffolds in this study were purified porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) and hydroxyapatite-treated PADM (HA-PADM). The biodegradation patterns of the scaffolds were evaluated in vitro. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds in vivo was assessed by implanting them into the sacrospinal muscle of 20 New Zealand white rabbits. The hPDL cells were cultured with PADM or HA-PADM scaffolds for 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Cell viability assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. In vitro, both PADM and HA-PADM scaffolds displayed appropriate biodegradation pattern, and also, demonstrated favorable tissue compatibility without tissue necrosis, fibrosis and other abnormal response. The absorbance readings of the WST-1 assay were increased with the time course, suggesting the cell proliferation in the scaffolds. The hPDL cells attaching, spreading and morphology on the surface of the scaffold were visualized by SEM, H&E staining, immnuohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, demonstrated that hPDL cells were able to grow into the HA-PADM scaffolds and the amount of cells were growing up in the course of time. This study proved that HA-PADM scaffold had good biocompatibility in animals in vivoand appropriate biodegrading characteristics in vitro. The hPDL cells were able to proliferate and migrate into the scaffold. These observations may suggest that HA-PADM scaffold is a potential cell carrier

  17. Engineered polycaprolactone–magnesium hybrid biodegradable porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Man Wong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the fabrication of a new biodegradable porous scaffold composed of polycaprolactone (PCL and magnesium (Mg micro-particles. The compressive modulus of PCL porous scaffold was increased to at least 150% by incorporating 29% Mg particles with the porosity of 74% using Micro-CT analysis. Surprisingly, the compressive modulus of this scaffold was further increased to at least 236% when the silane-coupled Mg particles were added. In terms of cell viability, the scaffold modified with Mg particles significantly convinced the attachment and growth of osteoblasts as compared with the pure PCL scaffold. In addition, the hybrid scaffold was able to attract the formation of apatite layer over its surface after 7 days of immersion in normal culture medium, whereas it was not observed on the pure PCL scaffold. This in vitro result indicated the enhanced bioactivity of the modified scaffold. Moreover, enhanced bone forming ability was also observed in the rat model after 3 months of implantation. Though bony in-growth was found in all the implanted scaffolds. High volume of new bone formation could be found in the Mg/PCL hybrid scaffolds when compared to the pure PCL scaffold. Both pure PCL and Mg/PCL hybrid scaffolds were degraded after 3 months. However, no tissue inflammation was observed. In conclusion, these promising results suggested that the incorporation of Mg micro-particles into PCL porous scaffold could significantly enhance its mechanical and biological properties. This modified porous bio-scaffold may potentially apply in the surgical management of large bone defect fixation.

  18. Growth factor-rich plasma increases tendon cell proliferation and matrix synthesis on a synthetic scaffold: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Lance C; Arnoczky, Steven P; Caballero, Oscar; Kern, Andreas; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Gardner, Keri L

    2010-03-01

    Numerous scaffolds have been proposed for use in connective tissue engineering. Although these scaffolds direct cell migration and attachment, many are biologically inert and thus lack the physiological stimulus to attract cells and induce mitogenesis and matrix synthesis. In the current study, a bioactive scaffold was created by combining a synthetic scaffold with growth factor-rich plasma (GFRP), an autologous concentration of growth factors derived from a platelet-rich plasma preparation. In vitro tendon cell proliferation and matrix synthesis on autologous GFRP-enriched scaffolds, autologous serum-enriched scaffolds, and scaffolds alone were compared. The GFRP preparation was found to have a 4.7-fold greater concentration of a sentinel growth factor (transforming growth factor-beta1) compared with serum. When combined with media containing calcium, the GFRP produced a thin fibrin matrix over and within the GFRP-enriched scaffolds. Cell proliferation assays demonstrated that GFRP-enriched scaffolds significantly enhanced cell proliferation over autologous serum and control groups at both 48 and 72 h. Analysis of the scaffolds at 14, 21, and 28 days revealed that GFRP-enriched scaffolds significantly increased the deposition of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix when compared with the other groups. These results indicate that GFRP can be used to enhance in vitro cellular population and matrix deposition of tissue-engineered scaffolds. PMID:19839921

  19. Comparative Studies of Electrospinning and Solution Blow Spinning Processes for the Production of Nanofibrous Poly(L-Lactic Acid Materials for Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojasiński Michal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative statistical analysis of the infiuence of processing parameters, for electrospinning (ES and solution blow spinning (SBS processes, on nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA material morphology and average fiber diameter was conducted in order to identify the key processing parameter for tailoring the product properties. Further, a comparative preliminary biocompatibility evaluation was performed. Based on Design of Experiment (DOE principles, analysis of standard effects of voltage, air pressure, solution feed rate and concentration, on nanofibers average diameter was performed with the Pareto’s charts and the best fitted surface charts. Nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The preliminary biocompatibility comparative tests were performed based on SEM microphotographs of CP5 cells cultured on materials derived from ES and SBS. Polymer solution concentration was identified as the key parameter infiuencing morphology and dimensions of nanofibrous mat produced from both techniques. In both cases, when polymer concentration increases the average fiber diameter increase. The preliminary biocompatibility test suggests that nanofibers produced by ES as well as SBS are suitable as the biomedical engineering scaffold material.

  20. RGD-bearing peptide-amphiphile-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite bone scaffold: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a fibrous nanocomposite scaffold was developed by combining hydroxyapatite (HA) fibers produced by electrospinning method and arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD)-bearing peptide-amphiphile (PA) gel (PA-RGD) produced by self-assembly and gelation induced by calcium ions. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscopy imaging confirmed the successful production of inorganic and organic components of this nanocomposite material. Within the HA, the presence of a CaCO3 phase, improving biodegradation, was shown by x-ray diffraction analysis. The in vitro effectiveness of the PA-RGD/HA scaffold was