WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioacoustics

  1. EOP Bioacoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard bioacoustics data collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using Simrad EK60 splitbeam...

  2. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  3. Using bioacoustics to examine shifts in songbird phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel T; Brown, Emma; Sharman, Lewis; Gabriele, Christine M; McKenna, Megan F

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring patterns in biodiversity and phenology have become increasingly important given accelerating levels of anthropogenic change. Long-term monitoring programs have reported earlier occurrence of spring activity, reflecting species response to climate change. Although tracking shifts in spring migration represents a valuable approach to monitoring community-level consequences of climate change, robust long-term observations are challenging and costly. Audio recordings and metrics of bioacoustic activity could provide an effective method for monitoring changes in songbird activity and broader biotic interactions. We used 3 years of spring and fall recordings at six sites in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, an area experiencing rapid warming and glacial retreat, to examine the utility of bioacoustics to detect changes in songbird phenology. We calculated the Acoustic Complexity Index (ACI), an algorithm representing an index of bird community complexity. Abrupt changes in ACI values from winter to spring corresponded to spring transition, suggesting that ACI may be an effective, albeit coarse metric to detect the arrival of migrating songbirds. The first peak in ACI shifted from April 16 to April 11 from 2012 to 2014. Changes in ACI were less abrupt in the fall due to weather events, suggesting spring recordings are better suited to indicate phenology. To ensure changes in ACI values were detecting real changes in songbird activity, we explored the relationship between ACI and song of three species: varied thrush (Ixoreus naevius), Pacific wren (Troglodytes pacificus), and ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula). ACI was positively related to counts of all species, but most markedly with song of the varied thrush, the most common species in our recordings and a known indicator of forest ecosystem health. We conclude that acoustic recordings paired with bioacoustic indices may be a useful method of monitoring shifts in songbird communities due to climate

  4. Automated categorization of bioacoustic signals: Avoiding perceptual pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deecke, Volker B.; Janik, Vincent M.

    2005-04-01

    Dividing a species acoustic repertoire into biologically relevant categories presents a widespread problem in the study of animal sound communication. Such categorization is fundamental to any attempt to compare repertoires between contexts, individuals, populations or species. Automated procedures allow rapid, repeatable and objective categorization, however, in the past they have often performed poorly at detecting biologically meaningful sound classes. Arguably this is because automated methods have often failed to address the nonlinearities of animal sound perception and a method that incorporates dynamic time warping and an adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network to avoid some of the problems is presented here. The method was tested on 104 randomly chosen whistles recorded from four captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). This data set includes known biologically meaningful categories in the form of 42 distinctive stereotyped whistles produced when each individual was kept in isolation. The automated procedure correctly grouped all but two of the stereotyped whistles into their respective categories, and thus performed as good as human observers. However, compared to humans, the automated system provided finer categorization of the remaining non-stereotyped whistles. These results suggest that this methodology provides a repeatable and objective means of splitting bioacoustic signals into biologically meaningful categories.

  5. A Framework for Bioacoustic Vocalization Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Out-Nyarko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs as a recognition framework for automatic classification of animal vocalizations has a number of benefits, including the ability to handle duration variability through nonlinear time alignment, the ability to incorporate complex language or recognition constraints, and easy extendibility to continuous recognition and detection domains. In this work, we apply HMMs to several different species and bioacoustic tasks using generalized spectral features that can be easily adjusted across species and HMM network topologies suited to each task. This experimental work includes a simple call type classification task using one HMM per vocalization for repertoire analysis of Asian elephants, a language-constrained song recognition task using syllable models as base units for ortolan bunting vocalizations, and a stress stimulus differentiation task in poultry vocalizations using a non-sequential model via a one-state HMM with Gaussian mixtures. Results show strong performance across all tasks and illustrate the flexibility of the HMM framework for a variety of species, vocalization types, and analysis tasks.

  6. Using Bioacoustical Methodologies to Evaluate Equine Hearing Capabilities and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, Shawn

    The field of Bioacoustics is an emerging field of science that investigates various aspects of animal audiology and communication. More recently, audiological means have been used to evaluate the cognitive abilities of animals using event related brain potentials (ERP's). The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) component of the ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon since it is generated in the area of the cortex that is responsible for evaluating sound stimuli including the ability to discriminate. Such discrimination produces a negative-going waveform with a relative latency of about 150-250 msec when elicited with auditory stimuli in human adults. The MMN response is elicited by use of the oddball paradigm in which two different tones are presented in pseudo-random order. The purpose of this study was to determine if elicitation of the MMN is achievable in the horse by use of current equipment in a non-clinical setting such as a barn. During the course of this experiment, it became obvious that the major challenge was the excessive amount of noise that inundated the waveforms thereby making any specific waves even remotely discernible. Attempts were made to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by modifications to the testing unit and the addition of several in-line and digital filters. However, even with these modifications, the MMN response still could not be identifiable within the noise of the waveforms. Therefore, the matter of whether or not the horse elicits a MMN response should be revised to if it is even feasible to elicit a MMN response in these animals.

  7. The use of automated bioacoustic recorders to replace human wildlife surveys: an example using nightjars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke C Zwart

    Full Text Available To be able to monitor and protect endangered species, we need accurate information on their numbers and where they live. Survey methods using automated bioacoustic recorders offer significant promise, especially for species whose behaviour or ecology reduces their detectability during traditional surveys, such as the European nightjar. In this study we examined the utility of automated bioacoustic recorders and the associated classification software as a way to survey for wildlife, using the nightjar as an example. We compared traditional human surveys with results obtained from bioacoustic recorders. When we compared these two methods using the recordings made at the same time as the human surveys, we found that recorders were better at detecting nightjars. However, in practice fieldworkers are likely to deploy recorders for extended periods to make best use of them. Our comparison of this practical approach with human surveys revealed that recorders were significantly better at detecting nightjars than human surveyors: recorders detected nightjars during 19 of 22 survey periods, while surveyors detected nightjars on only six of these occasions. In addition, there was no correlation between the amount of vocalisation captured by the acoustic recorders and the abundance of nightjars as recorded by human surveyors. The data obtained from the recorders revealed that nightjars were most active just before dawn and just after dusk, and least active during the middle of the night. As a result, we found that recording at both dusk and dawn or only at dawn would give reasonably high levels of detection while significantly reducing recording time, preserving battery life. Our analyses suggest that automated bioacoustic recorders could increase the detection of other species, particularly those that are known to be difficult to detect using traditional survey methods. The accuracy of detection is especially important when the data are used to inform

  8. The use of automated bioacoustic recorders to replace human wildlife surveys: an example using nightjars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Mieke C; Baker, Andrew; McGowan, Philip J K; Whittingham, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    To be able to monitor and protect endangered species, we need accurate information on their numbers and where they live. Survey methods using automated bioacoustic recorders offer significant promise, especially for species whose behaviour or ecology reduces their detectability during traditional surveys, such as the European nightjar. In this study we examined the utility of automated bioacoustic recorders and the associated classification software as a way to survey for wildlife, using the nightjar as an example. We compared traditional human surveys with results obtained from bioacoustic recorders. When we compared these two methods using the recordings made at the same time as the human surveys, we found that recorders were better at detecting nightjars. However, in practice fieldworkers are likely to deploy recorders for extended periods to make best use of them. Our comparison of this practical approach with human surveys revealed that recorders were significantly better at detecting nightjars than human surveyors: recorders detected nightjars during 19 of 22 survey periods, while surveyors detected nightjars on only six of these occasions. In addition, there was no correlation between the amount of vocalisation captured by the acoustic recorders and the abundance of nightjars as recorded by human surveyors. The data obtained from the recorders revealed that nightjars were most active just before dawn and just after dusk, and least active during the middle of the night. As a result, we found that recording at both dusk and dawn or only at dawn would give reasonably high levels of detection while significantly reducing recording time, preserving battery life. Our analyses suggest that automated bioacoustic recorders could increase the detection of other species, particularly those that are known to be difficult to detect using traditional survey methods. The accuracy of detection is especially important when the data are used to inform conservation. PMID

  9. Overviews of Emerging Research Techniques in Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics: Proceedings of the 1981 Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    These proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting of the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics cover topics of emerging research in several areas of interest to the Committee. Topics covered include: hair cell function; transduction process of hair cells; speech synthesis; machine recognition of words; neuromagnetic analysis of sensory systems; tinnitus; tactile communication of speech; and biodynamic research at the Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.

  10. Review of Low-Level Bioacoustic Behavior in Wild Cetaceans: Conservation Implications of Possible Sleeping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard; Sveegaard, Signe; Dietz, Rune; Teilmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Shallow, low-activity, low-biosonar parabolic-shaped dives were observed in biologging data from tagged harbor porpoises in Danish waters and identified as potential sleeping behavior. This behavioral state merits consideration in assessing the context for noise exposure and passive acoustic monitoring studies. Similar dives have also been reported for other cetacean species. The existence of low-level bioacoustic dives that may represent that sleeping has implications for the mitigation of not only noise exposure but also of bycatch as well as legal repercussions given the protected status of sleeping, as a part of resting, under many legislative regimes. PMID:26611094

  11. Marine bioacoustics and technology: The new world of marine acoustic ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mardi C.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2012-11-01

    Marine animals use sound for communication, navigation, predator avoidance, and prey detection. Thus the rise in acoustic energy associated with increasing human activity in the ocean has potential to impact the lives of marine animals. Thirty years ago marine bioacoustics primarily focused on evaluating effects of human-generated sound on hearing and behavior by testing captive animals and visually observing wild animals. Since that time rapidly changing electronic and computing technologies have yielded three tools that revolutionized how bioacousticians study marine animals. These tools are (1) portable systems for measuring electrophysiological auditory evoked potentials, (2) miniaturized tags equipped with positioning sensors and acoustic recording devices for continuous short-term acoustical observation rather than intermittent visual observation, and (3) passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems for remote long-term acoustic observations at specific locations. The beauty of these breakthroughs is their direct applicability to wild animals in natural habitats rather than only to animals held in captivity. Hearing capabilities of many wild species including polar bears, beaked whales, and reef fishes have now been assessed by measuring their auditory evoked potentials. Miniaturized acoustic tags temporarily attached to an animal to record its movements and acoustic environment have revealed the acoustic foraging behavior of sperm and beaked whales. Now tags are being adapted to fishes in effort to understand their behavior in the presence of noise. Moving and static PAM systems automatically detect and characterize biological and physical features of an ocean area without adding any acoustic energy to the environment. PAM is becoming a powerful technique for understanding and managing marine habitats. This paper will review the influence of these transformative tools on the knowledge base of marine bioacoustics and elucidation of relationships between marine

  12. VoxNet : An End-to-End System to Support On-line, Real-time Bioacoustics Research

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Michael P.; Girod, Lewis; Newton, Ryan; Collier, Travis Colby; D. Estrin

    2007-01-01

    In bioacoustics research, field biologists study the dynamics of acoustic communication by recording audio streams of animal or bird vocalizations in-situ. Being able to identify an individual's vocalizations is important for classification and census, and relating this to a caller's geographic position can help give insight into behavior. Previous work using distributed acoustic sensing platforms has shown on-line automated event detectors can be used to detect and record only event...

  13. A Bio-Acoustic Levitational (BAL) Assembly Method for Engineering of Multilayered, 3D Brain-Like Constructs, Using Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neuro-Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Charlène; Chen, Pu; Güven, Sinan; Demirtaş, Tuğrul Tolga; Nieland, Thomas J F; Padilla, Frédéric; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    A bio-acoustic levitational assembly method for engineering of multilayered, 3D brainlike constructs is presented. Acoustic radiation forces are used to levitate neuroprogenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells in 3D multilayered fibrin tissue constructs. The neuro-progenitor cells are subsequently differentiated in neural cells, resulting in a 3D neuronal construct with inter and intralayer neurite elongations.

  14. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    most biologically and physically distinct from the ocean habitat also differed greatly from the other sites acoustically, with the most common and high amplitude sound being pump noise versus biological sounds at the other sites. Overall the dolphin facilities were neither clearly noisier nor more sterile than the wild site, but rather differed in particular characteristics. The findings are encouraging for dolphin welfare for several reasons. Sound levels measured were unlikely to cause threshold shifts in hearing. At three of four facilities, prominent biological sounds in the wild site -- snapping shrimp and fish sounds -- were present, meaning that the dolphins at these facilities are experiencing biotic features of the soundscape they would experience in the wild. Additionally, the main anthropogenic sounds experienced at the facilities (construction and cleaning sounds) did not reach the levels of the anthropogenic sounds experienced at the wild site (boat motor sounds), and the highest noise levels for anthropogenic sounds fall outside the dolphins' most sensitive range of hearing. However, there are anthropogenic contributors to the soundscape that are of particular interest and possible concern that should be investigated further, particularly pump noise and periodic or intermittent construction noise. These factors need to be considered on a facility-by-facility basis and appropriate mitigation procedures incorporated in animal handling to mitigate potential responses to planned or anticipated sound producing events, e.g. animal relocation or buffering sound producing activities. The central role of bioacoustics for dolphins means that PAM is a basic life support requirement along with water and food testing. Periodic noise is of highest concern, and PAM is needed to inform mitigation of noise from periodic sources. Priority actions are more widespread and long-term standardized monitoring, further research on habituation, preference, coupling and pool

  15. A phylogeographic break and bioacoustic intraspecific differentiation in the Buff-barred Warbler (Phylloscopus pulcher)(Aves:Passeriformes,Phylloscopidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin; P?ckert; Yue-Hua; Sun; Balduin; S; Fischer; Dieter; Thomas; Tietze; Jochen; Martens

    2014-01-01

    structure among regions: Himalayan songs consisted of repeated syllables while Chinese songs comprised repetitions of single, long and strongly modulated elements.Subtle morphological differences among specimens from the two study regions could only be confirmed for plumage coloration but not for metric characters.Conclusions: Based on the genetic and bioacoustic distinctiveness of Chinese Buff-barred Warbler populations,we recommend that the name Phylloscopus pulcher vegetus Bangs, 1913 should be re-validated for this taxon.

  16. INSECT FLIGHT - BIOACOUSTICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Gopala Krishna, G.; Krishna Shankar, B.; Ahmad, A.

    1990-01-01

    Insect aerodynamics is drawing the attention of a number of researchers belonging to different disciplines with a view to understand its aerodynamic capabilities so as to revolutionise the aircraft technology. It is possible to understand, to some extent, the insect aerodynamics by experimentally determining the frequency of wing beat in its fethered state of flight by using flight sound technique and computing rate of mass flow, velocity, acceleration and mass of air induced in downward dire...

  17. Pile driving and bioacoustic impacts on fish

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Deborah C.

    2005-01-01

    How did those of us in the transportation industry suddenly find ourselves in need of knowing about underwater pressure waves and fish barotrauma? On October 17, 1989, a portion of the East Span of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge collapsed. That event was the catalyst for the State of California to institute a comprehensive seismic retrofit program for its bridge structures. The bridge is considered a “vital lifeline structure” to San Francisco. Therefore, the bridge was to be designed t...

  18. Humpback whale bioacoustics: From form to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo, III

    This thesis investigates how humpback whales produce, perceive, and use sounds from a comparative and computational perspective. Biomimetic models are developed within a systems-theoretic framework and then used to analyze the properties of humpback whale sounds. First, sound transmission is considered in terms of possible production mechanisms and the propagation characteristics of shallow water environments frequented by humpback whales. A standard source-filter model (used to describe human sound production) is shown to be well suited for characterizing sound production by humpback whales. Simulations of sound propagation based on normal mode theory reveal that optimal frequencies for long range propagation are higher than the frequencies used most often by humpbacks, and that sounds may contain spectral information indicating how far they have propagated. Next, sound reception is discussed. A model of human auditory processing is modified to emulate humpback whale auditory processing as suggested by cochlear anatomical dimensions. This auditory model is used to generate visual representations of humpback whale sounds that more clearly reveal what features are likely to be salient to listening whales. Additionally, the possibility that an unusual sensory organ (the tubercle) plays a role in acoustic processing is assessed. Spatial distributions of tubercles are described that suggest tubercles may be useful for localizing sound sources. Finally, these models are integrated with self-organizing feature maps to create a biomimetic sound classification system, and a detailed analysis of individual sounds and sound patterns in humpback whale 'songs' is performed. This analysis provides evidence that song sounds and sound patterns vary substantially in terms of detectability and propagation potential, suggesting that they do not all serve the same function. New quantitative techniques are also presented that allow for more objective characterizations of the long term acoustic features of songs. The quantitative framework developed in this thesis provides a basis for theoretical consideration of how humpback whales (and other cetaceans) might use sound. Evidence is presented suggesting that vocalizing humpbacks could use sounds not only to convey information to other whales, but also to collect information about other whales. In particular, it is suggested that some sounds currently believed to be primarily used as communicative signals, might be primarily used as sonar signals. This theoretical framework is shown to be generalizable to other baleen whales and to toothed whales.

  19. Public policy issues in animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.; Hastings, Mardi C.

    2002-05-01

    Control of anthropogenic noise in many terrestrial and underwater environments is crucial for maintaining communication, health, and normal behavior of animals. Noise can be an issue for any species; usually, however, endangered and threatened species and marine mammals are the ones provided legal protection under the Endangered Species Act and/or the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Recent substantiated noise effects in the ocean have received much publicity and generated a more global approach to noise control. However, there are also cases where publicity was not accompanied by scientific data substantiating effects (e.g., an incident involving a $1 million noise barrier installed to protect passerine birds). The public and environmental managers have had difficulty developing adequate guidelines not only because necessary data are often lacking, but also because the manner in which funding is allocated-noise-producing agencies or private organizations are often pressured to fund studies-gives rise to inevitable conflicts of interest (or the perception thereof). Examples of recent noise-related controversies will be presented to examine the role of scientists, engineers, and professional organizations such as ASA in dealing with conflicts of interest and formulating public policy.

  20. Smartphone-powered citizen science for bioacoustic monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Zilli, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is the involvement of amateur scientists in research for the purpose of data collection and analysis. This practice, well known to different research domains, has recently received renewed attention through the introduction of new and easy means of communication, namely the internet and the advent of powerful “smart” mobile phones, which facilitate the interaction between scientists and citizens. This is appealing to the field of biodiversity monitoring, where traditional manu...

  1. Pinniped bioacoustics: Atmospheric and hydrospheric signal production, reception, and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Reichmuth Kastak, Colleen; Holt, Marla; Southall, Brandon L.

    2001-05-01

    There is no convincing evidence that any of the 33 pinniped species evolved acoustic specializations for echolocation. However, all species produce and localize signals amphibiously in different communicative contexts. In the setting of sexual selection, aquatic mating male phocids and walruses tend to emit underwater calls, while male otariids and phocids that breed terrestrially emit airborne calls. Signature vocalizations are widespread among pinnipeds. There is evidence that males use signature threat calls, and it is possible that vocal recognition may be used by territorial males to form categories consisting of neighbors and strangers. In terms of mother-offspring recognition, both otariid females and their pups use acoustical cues for mutual recognition. In contrast, reunions between phocid females and their dependent pups depend mostly on pup vocalizations. In terms of signal reception, audiometric studies show that otariids are highly sensitive to aerial sounds but slightly less sensitive to underwater sounds. Conversely, except for deep-diving elephant seals, phocids are quite sensitive to acoustic signals both in air and under water. Finally, despite differences in absolute hearing sensitivity, pinnipeds have similar masked hearing capabilities in both media, supporting the notion that cochlear mechanics determine the effects of noise on hearing.

  2. Comparative bioacoustical studies on flight and buzzing of neotropical bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Burkart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bees is typically accompanied by the humming sound of their flight. Bees of several tribes are also capable of pollen collecting by vibration, known as buzzing behaviour, which produces a buzzing sound, different from the flight sound. An open question is whether bee species have species-specific buzzing patterns or frequencies dependent of the bees' morphology or are capable to adjust their indivudual buzzing sound to optimize pollen return. The investigations to approach this issue were performed in northeastern Brazil near Recife in the state of Pernambuco. We present a new field method using a commercially available portable system able to record the sound of bees during flight and buzzing at flowers. Further, we describe computer linguistical algorithms to analyse the frequency of the recorded sound sequences. With this method, we recorded the flight and buzzing sequences of 59 individual bees out of 12 species visiting the flowers of Solanum stramoniifolium and S. paniculatum. Our findings demonstrate a typical frequency range for the sounds produced by the bees of a species. Our statistical analysis shows a strong correlation of bee size and flight frequency and demonstrate that bee species use different frequency patterns.

  3. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mitchell Aide

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON, a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net. Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.

  4. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works. PMID:23894980

  5. Bioacoustical Periodic Pulse Train Signal Detection and Classification using Spectrogram Intensity Binarization and Energy Projection

    OpenAIRE

    Marian POPESCU; Dugan, Peter J.; Pourhomayoun, Mohammad; Risch, Denise; Harold W. Lewis III; Clark, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    The following work outlines an approach for automatic detection and recognition of periodic pulse train signals using a multi-stage process based on spectrogram edge detection, energy projection and classification. The method has been implemented to automatically detect and recognize pulse train songs of minke whales. While the long term goal of this work is to properly identify and detect minke songs from large multi-year datasets, this effort was developed using sounds off the coast of Mass...

  6. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Julien

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (±1000 Hz and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source. Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island, and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens. Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates, providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance.

  7. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julien

    2004-06-01

    Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (+/- 1000 Hz) and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source). Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island), and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens). Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates), providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance.

  8. A reappraisal of the geographic distribution of Bokkermannohyla sazimai (Anura: Hylidae through morphological and bioacoustic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of Bokermannohyla sazimai is in the municipality of São Roque de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this paper, we reassess the geographic distribution of B. sazimai and provide additional information on variation of several other non-topotypic populations in comparisons of topotypic populations (São Roque de Minas and Vargem Bonita, on the basis of three lines of evidence (color-pattern, morphometry and vocalizations. Differences obtained among all populations with respect to color pattern, morphometry and advertisement calls were attributed to interpopulational variation, so that this variation was not enough to recognize any population as a distinctive lineage in comparison with the topotypic information available on B. sazimai.

  9. Bioacoustics for species management: two case studies with a Hawaiian forest bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Pang-Ching, Joshua; Barbosa, Jomar M; Hart, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The management of animal endangered species requires detailed information on their distribution and abundance, which is often hard to obtain. When animals communicate using sounds, one option is to use automatic sound recorders to gather information on the species for long periods of time with low effort. One drawback of this method is that processing all the information manually requires large amounts of time and effort. Our objective was to create a relatively "user-friendly" (i.e., that does not require big programming skills) automatic detection algorithm to improve our ability to get basic data from sound-emitting animal species. We illustrate our algorithm by showing two possible applications with the Hawai'i 'Amakihi, Hemignathus virens virens, a forest bird from the island of Hawai'i. We first characterized the 'Amakihi song using recordings from areas where the species is present in high densities. We used this information to train a classification algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), in order to identify 'Amakihi songs from a series of potential songs. We then used our algorithm to detect the species in areas where its presence had not been previously confirmed. We also used the algorithm to compare the relative abundance of the species in different areas where management actions may be applied. The SVM had an accuracy of 86.5% in identifying 'Amakihi. We confirmed the presence of the 'Amakihi at the study area using the algorithm. We also found that the relative abundance of 'Amakihi changes among study areas, and this information can be used to assess where management strategies for the species should be better implemented. Our automatic song detection algorithm is effective, "user-friendly" and can be very useful for optimizing the management and conservation of those endangered animal species that communicate acoustically. PMID:26668733

  10. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julien

    2004-06-01

    Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (+/- 1000 Hz) and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source). Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island), and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens). Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates), providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance. PMID:15258658

  11. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William; FitzGibbon, Sean; Pye, Geoff; Whipple, Bill; Barth, Ben; Johnston, Stephen; Seddon, Jenny; Melzer, Alistair; Higgins, Damien; Bercovitch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae) is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas. PMID:26154295

  12. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ellis

    Full Text Available Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.

  13. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William; FitzGibbon, Sean; Pye, Geoff; Whipple, Bill; Barth, Ben; Johnston, Stephen; Seddon, Jenny; Melzer, Alistair; Higgins, Damien; Bercovitch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae) is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.

  14. Morphology, bioacoustics, and ecology of Tibicen neomexicensis sp. n., a new species of cicada from the Sacramento Mountains in New Mexico, U.S.A. (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, Tibicen)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Stucky

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tibicen neomexicensis sp. n., a new species of cicada found in the Sacramento Mountains of southcentral New Mexico, is described. Tibicen neomexicensis closely resembles Tibicen chiricahua Davis morphologically, but males of the two species have highly distinct calling songs that differ in phrasal structure, amplitude burst rates, and pulse structure. Unlike Tibicen chiricahua , male Tibicen neomexicensis use conspicuous dorso-ventral abdominal movements to modulate the amplitude and...

  15. HUNDSONAR (CW2015, ES60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  16. HUDSONAR (CW2014, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  17. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, J.E.; Mooney, T.A.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Hanlon, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogen

  18. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremmel, Neil; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Neil Stremmel.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27475185

  19. Pitch- and spectral-based dynamic time warping methods for comparing field recordings of harmonic avian vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Meliza, C; Keen, Sara C.; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of acoustic similarity can reveal patterns of shared vocal behavior in social species. Many methods for computing similarity have been developed, but their performance has not been extensively characterized in noisy environments and with vocalizations characterized by complex frequency modulations. This paper describes methods of bioacoustic comparison based on dynamic time warping (DTW) of the fundamental frequency or spectrogram. Fundamental frequency is estimated usin...

  20. High Performance Computer Acoustic Data Accelerator: A New System for Exploring Marine Mammal Acoustics for Big Data Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Peter; Zollweg, John; Marian POPESCU; Risch, Denise; Glotin, Herve; LeCun, Yann; Clark, and Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new software model designed for distributed sonic signal detection runtime using machine learning algorithms called DeLMA. A new algorithm--Acoustic Data-mining Accelerator (ADA)--is also presented. ADA is a robust yet scalable solution for efficiently processing big sound archives using distributing computing technologies. Together, DeLMA and the ADA algorithm provide a powerful tool currently being used by the Bioacoustics Research Program (BRP) at the Cornell Lab of O...

  1. Imaging techniques to study the effects of low frequency sounds on cephalopods spp

    OpenAIRE

    Solé, Marta; Lombarte, Antoni; López-Bejar, Manel; Mas, Alex; André, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of artificial sound sources in the marine environment has shown to have negative effects on marine organisms. While marine mammals have attracted most of the attention of the research conducted in that area, invertebrates are also suspected to be negatively affected after an exposure to loud low frequency noise. An ongoing study from the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics of the Technical University of Catalonia is studying through imaging techniques (routine ...

  2. Emotional valence : Is it reflected in call types and in acoustic properties of piglet vocalizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Spinka , Marek; Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    How emotional valence is encoded in mammalian vocalizations is a prominent question in animal-welfare-oriented bioacoustics. We assessed this question using 1513 calls produced by 84 piglets in 11 situations. The negativity of the situations was ranked based on judgments of 28 pig behaviour experts. The acoustic quality of calls was described with 8 acoustic parameters. K-means clustering method was used to classify the calls into 5 call types. Statistics were calculated based on situation me...

  3. Hidden Markov Modeling for humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) call classification

    OpenAIRE

    PACE, Federica; White, Paul; Adam, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study proposes a new approach for the classification of the calls detected in the songs with the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) based on the concept of subunits as building blocks. HMMs have been used once before for such task but in an unsupervised algorithm with promising results, and they are used extensively in speech recognition and in few bioacoustics studies. Their flexibility suggests that they may be suitable for the analysis of the varied repertoir...

  4. Fishy Hearing: A Short Biography of Arthur N. Popper, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    Biologist Dr. Arthur Popper's career spans decades, from his early work on comparative inner ear morphology in fishes to his recent interest in how underwater noise impacts aquatic vertebrates. Along the way Dr. Popper's research subjects span at least 19 vertebrate taxa, from lamprey to lungfish to humans, and he's had a profound influence in the field of fish bioacoustics. This brief biography describes some of Dr. Popper's many contributions to fish hearing research and highlights both some of his major discoveries and some of the biological mysteries he has yet to solve.

  5. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923 from its type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J. R. Kok

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Colostethus, long mistaken for Colostethus beebei, is described from French Guiana. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by absence of median lingual process, first finger longer than second, third finger not distinctly swollen in males, differences in tadpole morphology, coloration and pattern (e.g. absence of dorsolateral stripe, bioacoustics, and reproductive behavior. A complete redescription of Colostethus beebei plus description of its tadpole and call is provided on the basis of recently collected topotypic specimens. The range of C. beebei is restricted to the Kaieteur plateau, Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana.

  6. Description of a new species of the genus Adenomera (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae from French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Boistel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the genus Adenomera from French Guiana. Collecting conditions, details about the localities and microhabitats are given. The advertisement call was recorded and is herein analyzed and described. Morphological and bioacoustic comparisons are drawn with other species of the genus. The new species is readily distinguished from other taxa by its distinctive coloration pattern, the occurrence of dorsolateral ridges and inguinal glands, and by the longer duration of the notes of its advertisement call. The taxonomy of Adenomera is evaluated with regard to current available knowledge.

  7. Underwater noise of small personal watercraft (jet skis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Personal watercraft (water scooters, jet skis) were recorded under water in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia. Underwater noise emissions consisted of broadband energy between 100 Hz and 10 kHz due to the vibrating bubble cloud generated by the jet stream, overlain with frequency-modulated tonals corresponding to impeller blade rates and harmonics. Broadband monopole source levels were 149, 137, and 122 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m (5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles). Even though these are lower than those of small propeller-driven boats, it is not necessarily the broadband source level that correlates with the bioacoustic impact on marine fauna. PMID:23556699

  8. Multibeam volume acoustic backscatter imagery and reverberation measurements in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaudet, Timothy C.; deMoustier, Christian P.

    2002-08-01

    Multibeam volume acoustic backscatter imagery and reverberation measurements are derived from data collected in 200-m-deep waters in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, with the Toroidal Volume Search Sonar (TVSS), a 68-kHz cylindrical sonar operated by the U.S. Navy's Coastal System Station. The TVSS's 360-degree vertical imaging plane allows simultaneous identification of multiple volume scattering sources and their discrimination from backscatter at the sea surface or the seafloor. This imaging capability is used to construct a three-dimensional representation of a pelagic fish school near the bottom. Scattering layers imaged in the mixed layer and upper thermocline are attributed to assemblages of epipelagic zooplankton. The fine scale patchiness of these scatterers is assessed with the two-dimensional variance spectra of vertical volume scattering strength images in the upper and middle water column. Mean volume reverberation levels exhibit a vertical directionality which is attributed to the volume scattering layers. Boundary echo sidelobe interference and reverberation is shown to be the major limitation in obtaining bioacoustic data with the TVSS. Because net tow and trawl samples were not collected with the acoustic data, the analysis presented is based upon comparison to previous biologic surveys in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and reference to the bioacoustic literature. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  9. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Priti

    Full Text Available A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma. Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats.

  10. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, H; Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H S; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats.

  11. Re-evaluating the taxonomic status of Chiromantis in Thailand using multiple lines of evidence (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aowphol, Anchalee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Taksintum, Wut; Arsirapot, Sutipong; McLeod, David S

    2013-01-01

    Because of general phenotypic similarities and distribution of species across two continents, the genus Chiromantis has proven somewhat enigmatic. Among Indochinese species, the validity of C. hansenae has been questioned by some who consider it a junior synonym of C. vittatus. We employ three lines of evidence to elucidate the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of four congeneric species of Chiromantis frogs from Thailand. Results of molecular, morphological, and bioacoustic data analyses support at least four evolutionarily distinct and monophyletic clades: C. doriae, C. nongkhorensis, C. vittatus and C. hansenae. Genetic divergence between C. vittatus and C. hansenae is > 10%, significantly greater than C. doriae and C nongkhorensis (4.5%). Our results support the taxonomic validity of C. hansenae and suggest that there may be more diversity within C. hansenae and C. vittatus than is currently recognized. PMID:26146711

  12. From the Geosphere to the Cosmos

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 1 -2 December, the European Network ASPERA will be organising the “From the Geosphere to the Cosmos” workshop at the Palais de la Découverte in Paris. The LIDO platform, 3D-radiography projects for volcanoes, and CERN’s CLOUD experiment are among the interdisciplinary projects that will be presented at the workshop.   Astroparticle physics is a new field mixing both particle physics and astrophysics. It offers many new opportunities for environmental disciplines such as oceanography, climate science and studies of the atmosphere, and geology. “From the Geosphere to the Cosmos” workshop will present them to the scientific community and the press. LIDO: Probing new territories Whales sing at the same wavelength as the neutrinos emitted by stars. This happy coincidence gave physicists the idea to share their undersea telescopes with marine biologists. By helping the development of a bioacoustics network to monitor the deep-sea envir...

  13. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. PMID:26707982

  14. Why birdsong is sometimes like music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Luis F; Keister, Robin A

    2005-01-01

    The sounds and songs of birds have inspired the musical compositions of numerous cultures throughout the globe. This article examines a variety of compositions from Western music that feature birdsong and explores the concept of birds as both vocalists and instrumentalists. The concept of birds as composers is then developed-how they use rhythmic variations, pitch relationships, and combinations of notes similar to those found in music-and the theory that birds create variation in their songs partially to avoid monotony is considered. Various families of birds that borrow sounds from other species are surveyed, in particular the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), which may have inspired a Mozart composition. We conclude that the fusion of avian bioacoustics and the study of birdsong in music may function as a conservation tool, raising the awareness of humans and stimulating future generations to save for posterity what remains of the natural world.

  15. Classroom Materials from the Acoustical Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. K.; Clark, A.; Schneider, K.

    2013-09-01

    As part of the new education initiatives of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), an activity kit for teachers that includes a variety of lessons addressing acoustics for a range of students (K-12) has been created. The "Sound and Music Activity Kit" is free to K-12 teachers. It includes materials sufficient to teach a class of 30 students plus a USB thumb drive containing 47 research-based, interactive, student-tested lessons, laboratory exercises, several assessments, and video clips of a class using the materials. ASA has also partnered with both the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the American Association of Physics Teachers. AAPT Physics Teaching Resource Agents (PTRA) have reviewed the lessons along with members of the ASA Teacher Activity Kit Committee. Topics include basic learning goals for teaching the physics of sound with examples and applications relating to medical imaging, animal bioacoustics, physical and psychological acoustics, speech, audiology, and architectural acoustics.

  16. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  17. Analytic subject index to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the gen- eration and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectura] acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other tooics in acou.~tic.~.

  18. Analytic subject index to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectural acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other topics in acoustics.

  19. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  20. An 'Orca-stra' of Science and Sound: The Reverberations of Northeast Pacific Whales and How We're Helping People Understand Them Though Games, Demos and Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kanes, K.; Ewing, N.

    2015-12-01

    Presented by the Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Leaning and Engagement team, this demonstration focuses on our strategy for engaging and inspiring the next generation of ocean advocates by introducing them to one of the ocean's most charismatic inhabitants: marine mammals (and don't worry, we don't need any tanks or neoprene suits to do it). Using bioacoustic data, we can bring the essence of the animals with us. ONC, an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data onto their computers from anywhere around the globe, in real-time. Our demo focuses on the story of bioacoustics from instrument to animal. When visiting classrooms or hosting booths, we enhance user knowledge and experience by connecting familiar animals with their acoustic data from hydrophones. This includes listening to hydrophone clips collected from the network, analyzing sounds using interactive, real-time software and playing interactive games designed to get participants thinking like a scientist and taking a whale's perspective. For example, participants listen to recordings and guess the sound, identify frequencies and try a working hydrophone. The presentation consists of a suite of activities that meet a broad range of Next Generation Science Standards and includes links to the SoundCloud, https://soundcloud.com/oceannetworkscanada the ONC hydrophone FAQ, http://www.oceannetworks.ca/smart-hydrophone-faq and a classroom ready resource, Shouting Whales http://openschool.bc.ca/shouting_whales/index.html . The included links allow users anywhere to have a similar whale "experience" as the data are classroom ready, accessible and free.

  1. Field Instrumentation With Bricks: Wireless Networks Built From Tough, Cheap, Reliable Field Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heavner, M.

    2004-12-01

    We describe tough, cheap, reliable field computers configured as wireless networks for distributed high-volume data acquisition and low-cost data recovery. Running under the GNU/Linux open source model these network nodes ('Bricks') are intended for either autonomous or managed deployment for many months in harsh Arctic conditions. We present here results from Generation-1 Bricks used in 2004 for glacier seismology research in Alaska and Antarctica and describe future generation Bricks in terms of core capabilities and a growing list of field applications. Subsequent generations of Bricks will feature low-power embedded architecture, large data storage capacity (GB), long range telemetry (15 km+ up from 3 km currently), and robust operational software. The list of Brick applications is growing to include Geodetic GPS, Bioacoustics (bats to whales), volcano seismicity, tracking marine fauna, ice sounding via distributed microwave receivers and more. This NASA-supported STTR project capitalizes on advancing computer/wireless technology to get scientists more data per research budget dollar, solving system integration problems and thereby getting researchers out of the hardware lab and into the field. One exemplary scenario: An investigator can install a Brick network in a remote polar environment to collect data for several months and then fly over the site to recover the data via wireless telemetry. In the past year Brick networks have moved beyond proof-of-concept to the full-bore development and testing stage; they will be a mature and powerful tool available for IPY 2007-8.

  2. The Soundscape Approach for the Assessment and Conservation of Mediterranean Landscapes: Principles and Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina Almo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained mosaic of natural and human-modified patches that characterizes the Mediterranean region has created a multifaceted system that is difficult to investigate using traditional ecological techniques. In this context, sounds have been found to be the optimum model to provide indirect and timely information about the state of ecosystems. The sonic nature of the environment (the soundscape represents an important component of the landscape, and the new discipline of soundscape ecology has recently been shown to have appropriate tools for investigating the complexity of the environment. In the last decade, technological advances in the acoustic field have led researchers to carry out wide-scale and long-term ecological research using new and efficient tools, such as digital low cost sound recorders, and autonomous software and metrics. Particularly in the Mediterranean region, where land transformation occurs at a very rapid rate, soundscape analysis may represent an efficient tool with which to:1 track transformations in the community balance, 2 indicate the most acoustically complex parts (bioacoustic hotspots of the land mosaic, 3 prevent environmental degradation, and 4 decide whether protection or restoration actions are most appropriate.

  3. Analysis of army-wide hearing conservation database for hearing profiles related to crew-served and individual weapon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Ahroon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage-risk criteria (DRC for noise exposures are designed to protect 95% of the exposed populations from hearing injuries caused by those noise exposures. The current DRC used by the US military follows OSHA guidelines for continuous noise. The current military DRC for impulse exposures follows the recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA and are contained in the current military standard, MIL-STD-1474D "Noise Limits." Suggesting that the MIL-STD for impulse exposure is too stringent, various individuals have proposed that the DRC for exposure to high-level impulses be relaxed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current hearing status of US Army Soldiers, some of whom can be, by their military occupational specialties (MOS, reasonably expected to be routinely exposed to high-level impulses from weapon systems. The Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System - Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC was queried for the hearing status of enlisted Soldiers of 32 different MOSs. The results indicated that less than 95% of the Soldiers in the DOEHRS-HC database were classified as having normal hearing. In other words, the goal of the DRC used for limiting noise injuries (from continuous and impulse exposures was not stringent enough to prevent hearing injuries in all but the most susceptible Soldiers. These results suggest that the current military noise DRC should not be relaxed.

  4. Sperm whale assessment in the Western Ionian Sea using acoustic data from deep sea observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Bellia, Giorgio; Beranzoli, Laura; De Domenico, Emilio; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Scandura, Danila; Sciacca, Virginia; Viola, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) operates two deep sea infrastructures: Capo Passero, Western Ionian Sea 3,600 meters of depth, and Catania Wester Ionian Sea 2,100 m depth. At the two sites, several research observatories have been run: OnDE, NEMO-SN1, SMO, KM3NeT-Italia most of them jointly operated between INFN and INGV. In all these observatories, passive acoustic sensors (hydrophones) have been installed. Passive Acoustics Monitoring (PAM) is nowadays the main tool of the bioacoustics to study marine mammals. In particular, receiving the sounds emitted by cetaceans from a multi-hydrophones array installed in a cabled seafloor observatory, a research about the ecological dynamics of the species may be performed. Data acquired with the hydrophones installed aboard the OnDE, SMO and KM3NeT-Italia observatories will be reported. Thanks to acquired data, the acoustic presence of the sperm whales was assessed and studied for several years (2005:2013). An "ad hoc" algorithm was also developed to allow the automatic identification of the "clicks" emitted by the sperm whales and measure the size of detected animals. According to the results obtained, the sperm whale population in the area is well-distributed in size, sex and sexual maturity. Although specimens more than 14 meters of length (old males) seem to be absent.

  5. The karyotypes of five species of the Scinax perpusillus group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) of southeastern Brazil show high levels of chromosomal stabilization in this taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Marco Antônio Amorim; Lacerda, João Victor Andrade; Coelho-Augusto, Carolina; Feio, Renato Neves; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-12-01

    Based on morphological, bioacoustics, and morphological traits, the genus Scinax has been subdivided into two major clades: S. catharinae and S. ruber. The first clade includes S. catharinae and S. perpusillus groups, whereas the second clade includes S. rostratus and S. uruguayus groups. Chromosome morphology, NOR and C-banding patterns of variation support these clades. This study aims the cytogenetic characterization of five species currently included in the S. perpusillus group: Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus), S. arduous, S. belloni, S. cosenzai, and S. v-signatus, including standard cytogenetic techniques and repetitive DNA FISH probes. All species had 2n = 24 chromosomes. Nucleolar organizing regions occurred in chromosome pair 6 in all species, but differed in their locations among some species, suggesting a putative synaponomastic character for the clade. In S. belloni, the first chromosome pair was a metacentric, contrasting with the submetacentric first pair reported in all other species of the genus. Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus) and S. v-signatus had similar karyotypic formulae, suggesting they are related species. Scinax cosenzai had a divergent C-banding pattern. Repetitive DNA probes hybridized more frequently in chromosomal subtelomeric regions in all species indicating recent cladogenesis in these species. Karyotypic evidence indicates unreported high levels of stabilization within S. perpusillus and in S. catharinae clade, resulting in a wealth of characters potentially informative for higher phylogenetic analyses.

  6. A multigene species tree for Western Mediterranean painted frogs (Discoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabijan, Maciej; Crottini, Angelica; Reckwell, Dennis; Irisarri, Iker; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Vences, Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Painted frogs (Discoglossus) are an anuran clade that originated in the Upper Miocene. Extant species are morphologically similar and have a circum-Mediterranean distribution. We assembled a multilocus dataset from seven nuclear and four mitochondrial genes for several individuals of all but one of the extant species and reconstructed a robust phylogeny by applying a coalescent-based species-tree method and a concatenation approach, both of which gave congruent results. The earliest phylogenetic split within Discoglossus separates D. montalentii from a clade comprising all other species. Discoglossus montalentii is monophyletic for haplotype variation at all loci and has distinct morphological, bioacoustic and karyotypic characters. We find moderate support for a sister-group relationship between the Iberian taxa and the Moroccan D. scovazzi, and high support for a D. pictus -D. sardus clade distributed around the Tyrrhenian basin. Topological discordance among gene trees during the speciation of D. galganoi, D. scovazzi, D. pictus and D. sardus is interpreted as the consequence of nearly simultaneous, vicariant diversification. The timing of these events is unclear, but possibly coincided with the final geotectonic rearrangement of the Western Mediterranean in the Middle Miocene or later during the Messinian salinity crisis. The Iberian taxa D. galganoi galganoi and D. g. jeanneae are reciprocally monophyletic in mitochondrial DNA but not in nuclear gene trees, and are therefore treated as subspecies of D. galganoi. PMID:22641173

  7. Review of the systematics, distribution, biogeography and natural history of Moroccan amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, Wouter; De Pous, Philip; Donaire-Barroso, David; Boaerts, Sergé; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Escoriza, Daniel; Arribas, Oscar J; El Mouden, El Hassan; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian fauna of the Kingdom of Morocco was traditionally regarded as poor and closely related to its European counterpart. However, an increase in research during the last decades revealed a considerable degree of endemism amongst Moroccan amphibians, as well as phenotypic and genotypic inter- and intraspecific divergence. Despite this increase in knowledge, a comprehensible overview is lacking while several systematic issues have remained unresolved. We herein present a contemporary overview of the distribution, taxonomy and biogeography of Moroccan amphibians. Fourteen fieldtrips were made by the authors and colleagues between 2000 and 2012, which produced a total of 292 new distribution records. Furthermore, based on the results of the present work, we (i) review the systematics of the genus Salamandra in Morocco, including the description of a new subspecies from the Rif- and Middle Atlas Mountains, Salamandra algira splendens ssp. nov.; (ii) present data on intraspecific morphological variability of Pelobates varaldiiand Pleurodeles waltl in Morocco; (iii) attempt to resolve the phylogenetic position of Bufo brongersmai and erect a new genus for this species, Barbarophryne gen. nov.; (iv) summarize and assess the availability of tadpole-specific characteristics and bioacoustical data, and (v) summarize natural history data.

  8. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  9. Acoustic Communication in Butterflyfishes: Anatomical Novelties, Physiology, Evolution, and Behavioral Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricas, Timothy C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef fishes live in noisy environments that may challenge their capacity for acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae) are prominent and ecologically diverse members of coral reef communities worldwide. The discovery of a novel association of anterior swim bladder horns with the lateral line canal system in the genus Chaetodon (the laterophysic connection) revealed a putative adaptation for enhancement of sound reception by the lateral line system and/or the ear. Behavioral studies show that acoustic communication is an important component of butterflyfish social behavior. All bannerfish (Forcipiger, Heniochus, and Hemitaurichthys) and Chaetodon species studied thus far produce several sound types at frequencies of 1000 Hz. Ancestral character state analyses predict the existence of both shared (head bob) and divergent (tail slap) acoustic behaviors in these two clades. Experimental auditory physiology shows that butterflyfishes are primarily sensitive to stimuli associated with hydrodynamic particle accelerations of ≤500 Hz. In addition, the gas-filled swim bladder horns in Chaetodon are stimulated by sound pressure, which enhances and extends their auditory sensitivity to 1700-2000 Hz. The broadband spectrum of ambient noise present on coral reefs overlaps with the frequency characteristics of their sounds, thus both the close social affiliations common among butterflyfishes and the evolution of the swim bladder horns in Chaetodon facilitate their short-range acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes provide a unique and unexpected opportunity to carry out studies of fish bioacoustics in the lab and the field that integrate the study of sensory anatomy, physiology, evolution, and behavioral ecology.

  10. Past and present research on gray whale vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollervides, Francisco

    2002-05-01

    Eberhadt and Evans first recorded vocalizations of gray whales in 1967 in Laguna Ojo de Liebre, Mexico. Three and a half decades of bioacoustic research on gray whales has followed this groundbreaking work. Gray whales appear more vocal while at the southern breeding lagoons off Baja California and are least vocal at the northern feeding areas of the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. Ten different vocalizations have been identified on the breeding grounds, while only six different vocalizations have been recorded on the feeding grounds. Evans also conducted the first recordings of vocalizations of gray whales in captivity with his work on J.J. II in San Diego in 1974. Since then, the database of captive gray whale vocalizations has expanded with research on GiGi in 1997. From this review, an acoustic repertoire of at least 12 different types of vocalizations is suggested. Nevertheless, not all gray whale calls fall into obvious or distinct categories; thus, correlating specific behaviors with each vocalization type merits further study.

  11. How do "mute" cicadas produce their calling songs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Luo

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as "mute". This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the "mute" cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism.

  12. Feathering collisions in beating reed simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Tamara; Abel, Jonathan S.; Smith, Julius O.

    2003-10-01

    Pressure controlled valves are the primary sound production mechanisms for woodwind and brass musical instruments, as well as for many bioacoustic vocal systems such as the larynx and syrinx (the vocal organ in birds). During sound production, air flow sets a reed or membrane into motion creating a variable height in the valve channel and, potentially, periodically closing the channel completely. Depending on how this event is handled, an abrupt termination of air flow between open and closed states can cause undesirable discontinuities and inaccuracies in a discrete-time simulation-particularly at relatively low audio sampling rates. A solution was developed by re-examining the behavior of the differential equation governing volume flow through a pressure-controlled valve, paying particular attention to this rather troublesome transition. A closed-form solution for the time evolution of volume flow is given and used to derive an update for volume flow. The result is a smoother, more accurate, and nearly alias-free transition from open to closed. ``Feathered collisions'' of this nature can refine the sound quality produced by the numerical simulation of beating reeds, such as in clarinets, at typical audio sampling rates.

  13. USAF bioenvironmental noise data handbook. Volume 172: Hush-noise suppressor (Aero Systems Engineering, Incorporated) far-field noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.; Rau, T. H.; Jones, C.

    1982-07-01

    The hush-house noise suppressor was made by Aero Systems Engineering of Texas, Inc. for acoustical suppression of various AF fighter/trainer aircraft during ground runup operations. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by several aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house suppressor for various engine power configurations. Far-field data measured at 20 locations are normalized to standard meteorological conditions and extrapolated from 75-8000 meters to derive sets of equal-value contours for seven acoustic measures as function of angle and distance from the source. Refer to Volume 1 of this handbook, 'USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook, Vol 1: Organization, Content and Application,' AMRL-TR-75(1) 1975, for discussion of the objective and design of the handbook, the types of data presented, measurement procedures, instrumentation, data processing, definitions of quantities, symbols, equations, applications, limitations, etc. Data are presented for the following aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house noise suppressor: F-4, F-15, F-16, F-105, F-106, F-111F and T-38 aircraft and the TF41-A-1, J79-GE-15, F100-PW-100, J75-P19, J-75-P-17 and TF30-P-100 engines.

  14. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate. PMID:26627784

  15. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  16. Acoustic Communication in Butterflyfishes: Anatomical Novelties, Physiology, Evolution, and Behavioral Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricas, Timothy C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef fishes live in noisy environments that may challenge their capacity for acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae) are prominent and ecologically diverse members of coral reef communities worldwide. The discovery of a novel association of anterior swim bladder horns with the lateral line canal system in the genus Chaetodon (the laterophysic connection) revealed a putative adaptation for enhancement of sound reception by the lateral line system and/or the ear. Behavioral studies show that acoustic communication is an important component of butterflyfish social behavior. All bannerfish (Forcipiger, Heniochus, and Hemitaurichthys) and Chaetodon species studied thus far produce several sound types at frequencies of 1000 Hz. Ancestral character state analyses predict the existence of both shared (head bob) and divergent (tail slap) acoustic behaviors in these two clades. Experimental auditory physiology shows that butterflyfishes are primarily sensitive to stimuli associated with hydrodynamic particle accelerations of ≤500 Hz. In addition, the gas-filled swim bladder horns in Chaetodon are stimulated by sound pressure, which enhances and extends their auditory sensitivity to 1700-2000 Hz. The broadband spectrum of ambient noise present on coral reefs overlaps with the frequency characteristics of their sounds, thus both the close social affiliations common among butterflyfishes and the evolution of the swim bladder horns in Chaetodon facilitate their short-range acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes provide a unique and unexpected opportunity to carry out studies of fish bioacoustics in the lab and the field that integrate the study of sensory anatomy, physiology, evolution, and behavioral ecology. PMID:26515311

  17. Advertisement and release calls of Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the social context of emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Nali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male calls play different roles in anuran social organization, such as spacing, territoriality and female attraction. However, calls and associated behaviors remain poorly described for many anuran species. Here we describe the advertisement and release calls of the tree frog Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Lutz, 1966 and report on the social context of emissions and a physical combat. Approximately 35 minutes of digital recordings were obtained from 34 hours of observations at one breeding site in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Bioacoustic analysis showed that males emitted two types of advertisement calls: 1 simple call (a sequence of short pulsed notes and 2 composite call (a sequence of short pulsed notes followed by a long pulsed note. Composite calls were emitted more frequently during more intense chorus activity, with various active males at the breeding site. The release call was also composed by short pulsed notes, with a wider spectrum of frequencies and emitted more rapidly than the advertisement calls. Our results suggest that the composite call of P. ayeaye may represent a mixed advertisement call. Long notes might be the aggressive part directed to males, whereas short notes directed to females. Our description of call types, their functions, and male physical interactions will be useful for studies investigating the systematics and behavior of Phyllomedusa species.

  18. Integrating multiple evidences in taxonomy: species diversity and phylogeny of mustached bats (Mormoopidae: Pteronotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Ana Carolina; Marroig, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    A phylogenetic systematic perspective is instrumental in recovering new species and their evolutionary relationships. The advent of new technologies for molecular and morphological data acquisition and analysis, allied to the integration of knowledge from different areas, such as ecology and population genetics, allows for the emergence of more rigorous, accurate and complete scientific hypothesis on species diversity. Mustached bats (genus Pteronotus) are a good model for the application of this integrative approach. They are a widely distributed and a morphologically homogeneous group, but comprising species with remarkable differences in their echolocation strategy and feeding behavior. The latest systematic review suggested six species with 17 subspecies in Pteronotus. Subsequent studies using discrete morphological characters supported the same arrangement. However, recent papers reported high levels of genetic divergence among conspecific taxa followed by bioacoustic and geographic agreement, suggesting an underestimated diversity in the genus. To date, no study merging genetic evidences and morphometric variation along the entire geographic range of this group has been attempted. Based on a comprehensive sampling including representatives of all current taxonomic units, we attempt to delimit species in Pteronotus through the application of multiple methodologies and hierarchically distinct datasets. The molecular approach includes six molecular markers from three genetic transmission systems; morphological investigations used 41 euclidean distances estimated through three-dimensional landmarks collected from 1628 skulls. The phylogenetic analysis reveals a greater diversity than previously reported, with a high correspondence among the genetic lineages and the currently recognized subspecies in the genus. Discriminant analysis of variables describing size and shape of cranial bones support the rising of the genetic groups to the specific status. Based on

  19. Morphological, olfactory, and vocal development in big brown bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather W. Mayberry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a within subjects design, we documented morphological, bioacoustical and behavioral developmental changes in big brown bats. Eptesicus fuscus pups are born naked and blind but assume an adult-like appearance by post-natal day (PND 45 and flight by PND 30. Adult females use spatial memory, acoustic and olfactory cues to reunite with offspring, but it is unclear if pups can recognize maternal scents. We tested the olfactory discrimination abilities of young E. fuscus pups and found they exhibited no odor preferences. Pups also emit distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (i-calls that facilitate mother-offspring reunions, but how pups shift their vocalizations from i-calls to downward frequency modulated (FM sweeps used in echolocation remains unclear. Between PND 0–9, pups emitted mainly long duration, tonal i-calls rich in harmonics, but after they switched to short duration, downward FM sweeps with fewer harmonics. Call maximum frequency and repetition rate showed minor changes across development. Signal duration, bandwidth, and number of harmonics decreased, whereas the maximum, minimum and bandwidth of the fundamental, and peak spectral frequency all increased. We recorded vocalizations during prolonged maternal separation and found that isolated pups called longer and at a faster rate, presumably to signal for maternal assistance. To assess how PND 13 pups alter their signals during interactions with humans we compared spontaneous and provoked vocalizations and found that provoked calls were spectrally and temporally more similar to those of younger bats suggesting that pups in distress emit signals that sound like younger bats to promote maternal assistance.

  20. Effects of group density, hunting, and temperature on the singing patterns of eastern hoolock gibbons (Hoolock leuconedys) in Gaoligongshan, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Long-Yun; Fei, Han-Lan; Chen, Gui-Shou; Li, Jia-Hua; Cui, Liang-Wei; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2016-08-01

    Many non-human primates produce species-specific loud calls to communicate within and between groups over long distances. Understanding these calling patterns can provide insights into how individuals modify their behavior in response to environmental variables as well as help to design efficient bioacoustic survey techniques. Eastern hoolock gibbons in Gaoligongshan inhabit the coldest habitat of all gibbon populations, but both conservation and research efforts on this population have been minimal. We studied singing patterns of two habituated and two unhabituated groups at two sites in Gaoligongshan between July 2010 and June 2015. We systematically collected data of their calls, and its relationship to temperature, group density, and hunting pressure over at least 1 year for each group. Our goal was to elucidate how these factors affect singing patterns of eastern hoolock gibbons. We found that adult pairs coordinated their singing to produce duet bouts that lasted for an average of 25.5 min. The singing rate (number of bouts/number on monitoring days*100%: 7.5-31.4%) was notably lower than other gibbon populations, presumably due to low group density (about 0.5 groups/km(2) ) and prevalence of hunting at the study site. Cold temperature also affected gibbons' singing behavior. Our study groups called, on average, 2.5 hr after sunrise, probably foraging first in the early morning after long nights in this cold habitat delayed singing. Furthermore, mean temperatures in the morning (8:00-12:00 am) were higher on singing days than on non-singing days, and one group called less frequently when monthly mean temperature was below 10°C. Our findings indicate that both hunting pressure from humans and low temperatures suppress calling behavior in hoolock gibbons. Such information is critical in evaluating the use of duetting as a monitoring technique for this endangered gibbon species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:861-871, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  1. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  2. Whistle characteristics and daytime dive behavior in pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in Hawai'i measured using digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tammy L; Mooney, T Aran; Sayigh, Laela S; Tyack, Peter L; Baird, Robin W; Oswald, Julie N

    2016-07-01

    This study characterizes daytime acoustic and dive behavior of pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in Hawai'i using 14.58 h of data collected from five deployments of digital acoustic recording tags (DTAG3) in 2013. For each tagged animal, the number of whistles, foraging buzzes, dive profiles, and dive statistics were calculated. Start, end, minimum, and maximum frequencies, number of inflection points and duration were measured from 746 whistles. Whistles ranged in frequency from 9.7 ± 2.8 to 19.8 ± 4.2 kHz, had a mean duration of 0.7 ± 0.5 s and a mean of 1.2 ± 1.2 inflection points. Thirteen foraging buzzes were recorded across all tags. Mean dive depth and duration were 16 ± 9 m and 1.9 ± 1.0 min, respectively. Tagged animals spent the majority of time in the upper 10 m (76.9% ± 16.1%) of the water column. Both whistle frequency characteristics and dive statistics measured here were similar to previously reported values for spotted dolphins in Hawai'i. Shallow, short dive profiles combined with few foraging buzzes provide evidence that little spotted dolphin feeding behavior occurs during daytime hours. This work represents one of the first successful DTAG3 studies of small pelagic delphinids, providing rare insights into baseline bioacoustics and dive behavior. PMID:27475166

  3. Diversity in Fish Auditory Systems: One of the Riddles of Sensory Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich eLadich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An astonishing diversity of inner ears and accessory hearing structures (AHS that can enhance hearing has evolved in fishes. Inner ears mainly differ in the size of the otolith end organs, the shape and orientation of the sensory epithelia, and the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of sensory hair cells. Despite our profound morphological knowledge of inner ear variation, two main questions remain widely unanswered. (i What selective forces and/or constraints led to the evolution of this inner ear diversity? (ii How is the morphological variability linked to hearing abilities? Improved hearing is mainly based on the ability of many fish species to transmit oscillations of swim bladder walls or other gas-filled bladders to the inner ears. Swim bladders may be linked to the inner ears via a chain of ossicles (in otophysans, anterior extensions (e.g. some cichlids, squirrelfishes, or the gas bladders may touch the inner ears directly (labyrinth fishes. Studies on catfishes and cichlids demonstrate that larger swim bladders and more pronounced linkages to the inner ears positively affect both auditory sensitivities and the detectable frequency range, but lack of a connection does not exclude hearing enhancement. This diversity of auditory structures and hearing abilities is one of the main riddles in fish bioacoustics research. Hearing enhancement might have evolved to facilitate intraspecific acoustic communication. A comparison of sound-producing species, however, indicates that acoustic communication is widespread in taxa lacking AHS. Eco-acoustical constraints are a more likely explanation for the diversity in fish hearing sensitivities. Low ambient noise levels may have facilitated the evolution of AHS, enabling fish to detect low-level abiotic noise and sounds from con- and heterospecifics, including predators and prey. Aquatic habitats differ in ambient noise regimes, and preliminary data indicate that hearing sensitivities of fishes

  4. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in Adult BTBR T+tf/J Mice During Three Types of Social Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social deficits and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. We previously reported an unusual pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR pups that may represent a behavioral homologue to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, impaired communication. The present study investigated the social and vocal repertoire in adult BTBR mice, to evaluate the role of ultrasonic vocalizations in multiple social situations at the adult stage of development. Three different social contexts were considered: male-female, male-male (resident-intruder) and female-female interactions. Behavioral responses and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for BTBR and for the highly social control strain C57BL/6J (B6). No episodes of overt fighting or mating were observed during the short durations of the three different experimental encounters. BTBR displayed lower levels of vocalizations and social investigation in all three social contexts as compared to B6. In addition, the correlation analyses between social investigation and USVs emission rate revealed that in B6 mice the two variables were positively correlated in all the three different social settings, whereas in BTBR mice the positive correlation was significant only in the male-female interactions. These findings strongly support the value of simultaneously recording two aspects of the mouse social repertoire, social motivation and bioacoustic communication. Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared to B6. PMID:20618443

  5. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  6. Little walking leaves from southeast Ecuador: biology and taxonomy of Typophyllum species (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Pterochrozinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Caudell 1918 syn. nov. The discussion treats the problematic taxonomy of the little walking leaves, bioacoustics, the pre-copulatory riding behaviour, the sophisticated mimesis, and very briefly the uncertain position within the katydid phylogeny. PMID:26623843

  7. 中国海兽研究概述%Marine mammal researches in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉江; 王克雄; 韩家波; 郑劲松; 先义杰; 姚志平; 鹿志创; 李海燕; 张先锋

    2011-01-01

    我国对海兽的研究已有80多年的历史.为了回顾我国海兽研究的历史,总结我国海兽研究的进展,并展望我国海兽研究的未来,借创刊30周年之际,作者查阅了大量历史文献,并结合我们的研究积累,从鲸类、鳍脚类和其他海兽三个类群分别综述了我国海兽研究的进展.本文重点总结了我国几种代表性海兽的生态学、饲养与繁殖生物学、保护遗传学、声学和保护生物学等研究进展.我们认为,我国在珍稀濒危淡水豚类的饲养与繁殖生物学、保护生物学和生物声学等方面处于国际前沿地位.对我国海洋沿岸的海兽还缺乏系统研究,对珍稀濒危海兽的保护实践有待突破.%Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica ' s 30 year anniversary, we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience, summarized its progress, and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups: whales, pinnipeds, and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology, conservation genetic, acoustics, and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First, Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology, conservation biology, and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point, unfortunately, is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.

  8. Simple filter microchip for rapid separation of plasma and viruses from whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SQ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ShuQi Wang,1 Dusan Sarenac,1 Michael H Chen,1 Shih-Han Huang,1 Francoise F Giguel,2 Daniel R Kuritzkes,3 Utkan Demirci1,41Bio-acoustic MEMS in Medicine Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 3Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Sample preparation is a significant challenge for detection and sensing technologies, since the presence of blood cells can interfere with the accuracy and reliability of virus detection at the nanoscale for point-of-care testing. To the best of our knowledge, there is not an existing on-chip virus isolation technology that does not use complex fluidic pumps. Here, we presented a lab-on-a-chip filter device to isolate plasma and viruses from unprocessed whole blood based on size exclusion without using a micropump. We demonstrated that viruses (eg, HIV can be separated on a filter-based chip (2-µm pore size from HIV-spiked whole blood at high recovery efficiencies of 89.9% ± 5.0%, 80.5% ± 4.3%, and 78.2% ± 3.8%, for viral loads of 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 copies/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, 81.7% ± 6.7% of red blood cells and 89.5% ± 2.4% of white blood cells were retained on 2 µm pore–sized filter microchips. We also tested these filter microchips with seven HIV-infected patient samples and observed recovery efficiencies ranging from 73.1% ± 8.3% to 82.5% ± 4.1%. These results are first steps towards developing disposable point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring devices for resource-constrained settings, as well as hospital and primary care settings.Keywords: microchip, filtration, virus isolation, plasma separation, point-of-care

  9. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana

    2016-01-01

    these with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  10. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  11. Acoustic Signals of Dendroctonus valens and Structure of Its Stridulatory Apparatus%红脂大小蠹声音信号记录、分析与发声器官电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿斌; 赵丽稳; 罗茜; 张真; 孔祥波

    2012-01-01

    The bioacoustic signals often work alone or together with other signals like visual or olfactory signals in insect communication. The adult stridulatory signals of red turpentine beetle (RTB) , Dendroctonus valens, were recorded and stored digitally after amplification in three experiments ( glass phloem sandwich rearing, bolt rearing and directly field recording). The signals in different behavior were then analyzed by a specific acoustic software Adobe Audition and Matlab for echeme, duration, frequency, time domain and frequency domain analysis. The stridulatory apparatus of both male and female were observed by scanning electron microscope. The result showed that the frequency of the stridulatory sound by D. Valens was from 3 kHz to 5. 3 kHz, and there were clearly differences between the males and females, both in the sounds frequency and in apparatus structure. There were slightly differences with the signals recorded in different behavior, which proved the signals played a role in RTB behavior.%应用开发设计的昆虫声音采集与录制系统,对在不同实验条件下(玻璃板夹心、木段钻孔、室外直接测定)的红脂大小蠹两性成虫声音信号进行了采集、放大与数字化记录,并应用Adobe Audition与matlab软件分别对雌雄成虫的胁迫声、雄虫求偶声、雄虫竞争声、雌虫回应声等声音信号进行了脉冲组、频率、持续时间、频谱等特征分析,此外,还应用扫描电镜对其摩擦发声器官进行了观察与记录.研究结果表明:红脂大小蠹整体摩擦声音频率为3~5.3 kHz;雌雄间声音有显著区别,其摩擦发音结构音锉也有明显不同;而不同行为下所发出的声音信号在时域和频域上也略有差异,显示其与行为交流密切相关.

  12. Integrating multiple evidences in taxonomy: species diversity and phylogeny of mustached bats (Mormoopidae: Pteronotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Ana Carolina; Marroig, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    A phylogenetic systematic perspective is instrumental in recovering new species and their evolutionary relationships. The advent of new technologies for molecular and morphological data acquisition and analysis, allied to the integration of knowledge from different areas, such as ecology and population genetics, allows for the emergence of more rigorous, accurate and complete scientific hypothesis on species diversity. Mustached bats (genus Pteronotus) are a good model for the application of this integrative approach. They are a widely distributed and a morphologically homogeneous group, but comprising species with remarkable differences in their echolocation strategy and feeding behavior. The latest systematic review suggested six species with 17 subspecies in Pteronotus. Subsequent studies using discrete morphological characters supported the same arrangement. However, recent papers reported high levels of genetic divergence among conspecific taxa followed by bioacoustic and geographic agreement, suggesting an underestimated diversity in the genus. To date, no study merging genetic evidences and morphometric variation along the entire geographic range of this group has been attempted. Based on a comprehensive sampling including representatives of all current taxonomic units, we attempt to delimit species in Pteronotus through the application of multiple methodologies and hierarchically distinct datasets. The molecular approach includes six molecular markers from three genetic transmission systems; morphological investigations used 41 euclidean distances estimated through three-dimensional landmarks collected from 1628 skulls. The phylogenetic analysis reveals a greater diversity than previously reported, with a high correspondence among the genetic lineages and the currently recognized subspecies in the genus. Discriminant analysis of variables describing size and shape of cranial bones support the rising of the genetic groups to the specific status. Based on

  13. Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2013-10-01

    and electron-dense inclusions not seen in the control animals. The lesions described here are new to cephalopod pathology. Given that low-frequency noise levels in the ocean are increasing (e.g. shipping, offshore industry, and naval manoeuvres), that the role of cephalopods in marine ecosystems is only now beginning to be understood, and that reliable bioacoustic data on invertebrates are scarce, the present study and future investigations will bring an important contribution to the sustainable use of the marine environment.

  14. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan LINGLE; Megan T.WYMAN; Radim KOTRBA; Lisa J.TEICHROEB; Cora A.ROMANOW

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the cries of human infants,sounds made by non-human infants in different stressful behavioral contexts (hunger or physical discomfort,isolation,capture by humans or predators) are usually treated as distinct types of vocalizations.However,if distress vocalizations produced by different species and in different contexts share a common motivational state and associated neurochemical pathways,we can expect them to share a common acoustic structure and adaptive function,showing only limited variation that corresponds to the infant's level of arousal.Based on this premise,we review the acoustic structure and adaptive function of two types of distress calls,those given when infants were isolated from their mothers (isolation calls) or captured by humans (capture calls).We conducted a within-context comparison examining the two call types across a diverse selection of mammalian species and other vertebrate groups,followed by a comparison of how acoustic structure and function differs between these contexts.In addition,we assessed acoustic traits that are critical to the response of caregivers.Across vertebrate species,distress vocalizations produced in these two behavioral contexts tend to be tonal with a simple chevron,flat or descending pattern of frequency modulation.Reports that both isolation and capture calls of vertebrate infants serve to attract caregivers are universal,and the fundamental frequency of infant vocalizations is often critical to this response.The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in the acoustic structure of isolation and capture distress vocalizations reflect differences in arousal,and not discrete functions.The similarity in acoustic structure and caregiver response observed across vertebrates adds support to the hypothesis that the production and processing of distress vocalizations are part of a highly-conserved system of social vocal behaviour in vertebrates.Bioacoustic research may move

  15. ESONET LIDO Demonstration Mission: the East Sicily node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, Giorgio; Favali, Paolo; Andrè, Michel; Chierici, Francesco; Pavan, Gianni; Esonet Lido Demonstration Mission Team

    2010-05-01

    Off East Sicily (at 2100 m depth, 25 km off the harbour of Catania) a prototype of a cabled deep-sea observatory (NEMO-SN1) was set up and has been operational in real-time since 2005 (the cabled deep-sea multi-parameter station SN1, equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors and the cabled NEMO-OνDE, equipped with 4 broadband hydrophones). The Western Ionian Sea is one of the node sites for the upcoming European permanent underwater network (EMSO). Within the activities of the EC project ESONET-NoE some demonstration missions have been funded. The LIDO-DM (Listening to the Deep Ocean-Demonstration Mission) is one of these and is related to two sites, East Sicily and Iberian Margin (Gulf of Cadiz), the main aims being geo-hazards monitoring and warning (seismic, tsunami, and volcanic) and bio-acoustics. The LIDO-DM East Sicily installation represents a further major step within ESONET-NoE, resulting in a fully integrated system for multidisciplinary deep-sea science, capable to transmit and distribute data in real time to the scientific community and to the general public. LIDO-DM East Sicily hosts a large number of sensors aimed at monitoring and studying oceanographic and environmental parameters (by means of CTD, ADCP, 3-C single point current meter, turbidity meter), geophysical phenomena (low frequency hydrophones, accelerometer, gravity meter, vector and scalar magnetometers, seismometer, absolute and differential pressure gauges), ocean noise monitoring and identification and tracking of biological acoustic sources in deep sea. The latter will be performed using two tetrahedral arrays of 4 hydrophones, located at a relative distance of about 5 km, and at about 25 km from the shore. The whole system will be connected and powered from shore, by means of the electro-optical cable net installed at the East Sicily Site Infrastructure, and synchronised with GPS. Sensors data sampling is performed underwater and transmitted via optical fibre link, with

  16. Integrative taxonomic revision of mantellid frogs of the genus Aglyptodactylus (Anura: Mantellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Jörn; Glaw, Frank; Pabijan, Maciej; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies have in recent years revealed the presence of hidden species diversity in Madagascar's amphibians, and numerous genera contain candidate species awaiting description. We here revise the taxonomy of one such genus within the endemic Malagasy-Comorian family Mantellidae. The target taxon, Aglyptodactylus, is classified in the subfamily Laliostominae and to date contained three recognized nominal species. We focus in particular on clarifying the status of three candidate species proposed for the genus, and for this purpose integrate evidence from molecular genetics, bioacoustics and morphology. We furthermore summarize the information available for all species in the genus concerning their taxonomic identities, distributions and advertisement calls. Our analyses of advertisement calls revealed significant differences coinciding with major clades revealed by phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Together with the new molecular dataset this provides clear evidence for evolutionary lineage divergence and supports the three candidate species previously characterized by mtDNA divergence of single specimens only. We also observed morphological differences among some of the lineages but these were in most cases not unambiguously diagnostic. As a taxonomic consequence we describe two new species: Aglyptodactylus australis sp. nov. from Andohahela rainforest in southeastern Madagascar, which so far is the largest species known in the genus with females reaching 82.5 mm snout-vent length; and Aglyptodactylus chorus sp. nov. from northeastern lowland rainforests in the Maroantsetra region. For the third proposed and confirmed candidate species we resurrect the name Rana inguinalis Günther, 1877 as Aglyptodactylus inguinalis (Günther, 1877) from the synonymy of A. madagascariensis. This name is applied to populations distributed in lowlands along most of the east coast of Madagascar, from Marojejy in the north southward to Tolagnaro

  17. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DelWayne R Bohnenstiehl

    Full Text Available Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92 and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93, as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal

  18. Evaluation of autonomous recording units for detecting 3 species of secretive marsh birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidie-Slettehahl, Anna M.; Jensen, Kent C.; Johnson, Rex R.; Arnold, Todd W.; Austin, Jane; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Population status and habitat use of yellow rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis), Nelson's sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni), and Le Conte's sparrows (A. leconteii) are poorly known, so standardized surveys of these species are needed to inform conservation planning and management. A protocol for monitoring secretive marsh birds exists; however, these species regularly call at night and may be missed during early morning surveys. We tested the effectiveness of autonomous recording units (hereafter, recording units) to survey these species by analyzing recorded vocalizations using bioacoustics software. We deployed 22 recording units at 54 sites in northern Minnesota and eastern North Dakota, USA, and conducted traditional broadcast surveys during May–June, 2010 and 2011. We compared detection probabilities between recording units and standard monitoring protocols using robust-design occupancy models. On average, recording units detected 0.59 (SE = 0.11) fewer Le Conte's sparrows, 0.76 (SE = 0.15) fewer Nelson's sparrows, and 1.01 (SE = 0.14) fewer yellow rails per survey than were detected using the standard protocol. Detection probabilities using the standard protocol averaged 0.95 (yellow rail; 95% CI = 0.86–0.98), 0.93 (Le Conte's sparrow; 95% CI = 0.78–0.98), and 0.89 (Nelson's sparrow; 95% CI = 0.56–0.98), but averaged 0.71 (yellow rail; 95% CI = 0.56–0.83), 0.61 (Le Conte's sparrow; 95% CI = 0.42–0.78), and 0.51 (Nelson's sparrow; 95% CI = 0.19–0.82) using recording units. Reduced detection by recording units was likely due to the ability of human listeners to identify birds calling at greater distances. Recording units may be effective for surveying nocturnal secretive marsh birds if investigators correct for differential detectability. Reduced detectability may be outweighed by the increased spatial and temporal coverage feasible with recording units.

  19. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan LINGLE, Megan T. WYMAN, Radim KOTRBA, Lisa J. TEICHROEB, Cora A. ROMANOW

    2012-10-01

    vertebrates. Bioacoustic research may move forward by recognizing the commonality among different forms of infant solicitations that attract caregivers, and the commonality of these solicitations with vocalizations that attract conspecifics in still other behavioral contexts [Current Zoology 58 (5: 698-726, 2012].

  20. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B

    2016-01-01

    Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz) soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W) is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92) and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93), as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal behaviors and associated changes within the marine

  1. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    . File morphology is one of the main distinctive element in sound emission strategies of insect species. We compared analyses of the microstructures of different species' files (both shape and height of teeth, regularity, distance, etc.) and then confirmed their main characteristics within the acoustic domain. Specific Fourier transforms were employed to derive detailed spectrograms analyses providing a powerful visual tool for understanding. For the three species in this study, the typical stridulation of male individuals were isolated and recorded in high definition (96khz and 192khz / 24bit). These high sampling rates enabled to enter the microcosm of sound - in analogy to the microcosm of morphology - through processes of time and frequency shifting. Different sound design methodologies, then, allowed to compose an imaginary soundscape where the sonic gestures of each individual (or more grouped recordings) were superimposed in a polyphony of rhythms and pitches. The purpose for crossing bioacoustics, electron microscopy and music in this interdisciplinary work is driven by a pressing need of awareness of the sonic heritage of landscapes and its conservation.

  2. Research progress on population decline mechanism of the endangered Yangtze finless porpoise%长江江豚种群衰退机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅志刚; 郝玉江; 郑劲松; 王克雄; 李松海; 王丁

    2011-01-01

    The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), as a relatively isolated and unique freshwater population, is endemic to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and is listed as an endangered species in IUCN Red List since 1996.Its population has been declining continually in the past three decades with a rate of about 6.3% per annum since early 1990s.The survey conducted in 2006 found that there were less than 1 200 individuals left in the main channel of the Yangtze River, which was less than half of the population size in the early 1990s.This project aims to explore the possible population decline mechanism of the Yangtze finless porpoise through aspects of population ecology, bioacoustics and population genetics.This paper reviews the research progress, and prospects research plans that will be carried out in the coming future.This project helps to develop the conservation biology theory of the Yangtze finless porpoise, and also helps to understand the decline and extinction mechanism of the probably extinct baiji (Lipotex vexillifer), another cetacean species once endemic to the Yangtze River.Moreover, this project could also provide some theoretical support for conservation of other aquatic animals in the Yangtze River.%长江江豚(Neophocaenaphocaenoides asiaeorientalis)是生活于我国长江中下游的一种独特的淡水小型鲸类,1996年被收录为IUCN濒危物种.在过去的三十年间,其种群数量呈快速下降趋势.数据显示,20世纪90年代以来,其种群下降速率约为每年6.3%.2006年考察发现长江干流中其种群数量少于1 200头,与15年前相比减少了50%以上.为了深入了解造成长江江豚种群快速衰退的机理,课题组从种群生态学、生物声学和种群遗传学三个方面开展研究工作.综述了该项目的研究进展,并对下一步的研究计划进行了展望.相关研究不仅能促进长江江豚保护生物学理论的发展,也有助于