WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioacoustics

  1. EOP Bioacoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard bioacoustics data collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using Simrad EK60 splitbeam...

  2. Bioacoustic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    frequencies (Ching and Weston, 1971). RESULTS Measured resonance frequencies of absorption lines, which were attributed to adult (~ 1.3 khz) and juvenile ...of adult and juvenile sardines. These results suggest that bioacoustic absorption spectroscopy measurements permit isolation of juvenile from adult...from broadband tomographic transmission loss measurements over large areas . 2. Depths of sardines and contours of phytoplankton concentrations vs. time

  3. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    well as the techniques used to study the ecology of marine animals in situ. By bringing together many of the top researchers in marine bioacoustics...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future 5a...distribution is unlimited. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks the Future Charles H. Greene Kohala Center P.O. Box 437462 Kamuela, HI 96743

  4. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  5. Automated bioacoustic identification of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chesmore

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the automated identification of animals by bioacoustics is becoming more widespread mainly due to difficulties in carrying out manual surveys. This paper describes automated recognition of insects (Orthoptera using time domain signal coding and artificial neural networks. Results of field recordings made in the UK in 2002 are presented which show that it is possible to accurately recognize 4 British Orthoptera species in natural conditions under high levels of interference. Work is under way to increase the number of species recognized.Pesquisas sobre a identificação automatizada de animais através da bioacústica estão se ampliando, principalmente em vista das dificuldades para realizar levantamentos diretos. Este artigo descreve o reconhecimento automático de insetos Orthoptera utilizando a codificação de sinal no domínio temporal e redes neurais artificiais. Resultados de registros sonoros feitos no campo no Reino Unido em 2002 são apresentados, mostrando ser possível reconhecer corretamente 4 espécies britânicas de Orthoptera em condições naturais com altos níveis de interferências. Estão em andamento trabalhos para aumentar o número de espécies identificadas.

  6. Marine Bioacoustics: Soundtracks for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    bringing together many of the top researchers in marine bioacoustics, biological oceanography, and marine biology , we provide students with a unique...focused on active acoustics, both traditional fisheries/zooplankton acoustics and tracking of acoustically tagged fish . Students were taught how to...174. Meyer-Gutbrod, E., C.H. Greene, A.J. Pershing, and P. Sullivan. Climate-associated changes in prey availability drive reproductive dynamics

  7. 2014 Bio-Acoustics Data Challenge for the International Community on Machine Learning and Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2014 Bio -Acoustics Data Challenge for the...distribution is unlimited. 2014 Bio -Acoustics Data Challenge for the International Community on Machine Learning and Bioacoustics Christopher

  8. Overviews of Emerging Research Techniques in Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics: Proceedings of the 1981 Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    These proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting of the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics cover topics of emerging research in several areas of interest to the Committee. Topics covered include: hair cell function; transduction process of hair cells; speech synthesis; machine recognition of words; neuromagnetic analysis of sensory systems; tinnitus; tactile communication of speech; and biodynamic research at the Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.

  9. Species delimitation in the White-faced Cuckoo-dove(Turacoena manadensis) based on bioacoustic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathaniel S.R.Ng; Frank E.Rheindt

    2016-01-01

    Background: The White-faced Cuckoo-dove(Turacoena manadensis) is a poorly-known Wallacean endemic with a limited distribution on Sulawesi and its satellites, including the Togian, Banggai and Sula archipelagoes. In 1900, populations from the Sula archipelago were awarded subspecies status T. manadensis sulaensis based on smaller size and minor differences in plumage; however, this distinction has not been corroborated subsequently, and T. manadensis is considered by most modern sources to be monotypic across its range.Methods: We conducted vocal analysis of the cuckoo-doves’ main song using recordings collected from across the taxon’s natural range. Descriptive information on the songs was obtained from the recordings using bioacoustic analysis software, after which several statistical methods were used to investigate differences in vocalizations among populations.Results: We report deep bioacoustic divergences in vocal trait pattern from across the cuckoo-doves’ range, with birds from Peleng and Taliabu in the east having a different vocal trait pattern from birds from Sulawesi, Buton, and Togian in the west. These patterns agree with changes in landmass that accompanied the sea level fluctuations caused by Pleistocene glacial cycles, and indicate that eastern and western cuckoo-dove populations are at the level of different biological species.Conclusions: We propose that the eastern taxon be elevated to species level as T. sulaensis. Given the rampant degree of habitat destruction in its limited range, this taxonomic change will have important implications on the conservation status of T. sulaensis.

  10. Bioacoustic monitoring of nocturnal songbird migration in a southern great lakes ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Claire Elizabeth

    Many species of birds produce short vocalizations during nocturnal migration. My thesis uses bioacoustic monitoring of these night flight calls to study bird migration through a southern Great Lakes ecosystem. I deployed recording devices around western Lake Erie during spring and fall migrations. Analysis of thousands of hours of recordings revealed that night flight calls accurately predicted both the magnitude of migration, as well as the timing of migrant passage, as assessed by banding. The first arrival dates for 48 species of migratory birds were significantly earlier on Pelee Island than on mainland Ontario in the spring. More flight calls were detected over Pelee Island than over mainland comparison sites. These results suggest that many birds cross Lake Erie in spring and fall, and that islands are important for migratory birds. This research provides insight into the use of acoustics for monitoring birds in active migration.

  11. Lipids of freshwater Dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis: comparison of odontocete bioacoustic lipids and habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, R G; Eaton, C A; Kinneman, J; Litchfield, C

    1975-01-01

    The melon and jaw lipids of the freshwater dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis are composed mainly of isovaleroyl wax esters and diisovaleroyl triglycerides. The blubber fat contains only a trace of wax ester and is mostly tri-(long chain) and monoisovaleroyl triglycerides. Detailed gas liquid chromatographic analyses of the intact wax esters and triglycerides and of the derived fatty acids and fatty alcohols indicate common compositional patterns in the wax esters and triglycerides of the respective head lipids. Both odd and even long chain (C12-C16) isostructures are prominent in the melon and jaw lipids, but only higher odd chain length iso-acids are major components in the blubber. Sotalia fluviatilis (family Delphinidae) and Inia geoffrensis (family Platanistidae) share the same freshwater habitat in the upper Amazon River, and both utilize echolocation to navigate and to find food. Comparison of their respective bioacoustical lipid compositions show distinctive types of head fats, Sotalia being rich in iso-5:0 and Inia lacking iso-5:0. This indicates that iso-valeric acid per se has no obligatory role in dolphin echolocation.

  12. A Bio-Acoustic Levitational (BAL) Assembly Method for Engineering of Multilayered, 3D Brain-Like Constructs, Using Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neuro-Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Charlène; Chen, Pu; Güven, Sinan; Demirtaş, Tuğrul Tolga; Nieland, Thomas J F; Padilla, Frédéric; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-06

    A bio-acoustic levitational assembly method for engineering of multilayered, 3D brainlike constructs is presented. Acoustic radiation forces are used to levitate neuroprogenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells in 3D multilayered fibrin tissue constructs. The neuro-progenitor cells are subsequently differentiated in neural cells, resulting in a 3D neuronal construct with inter and intralayer neurite elongations.

  13. Vocal repertoire of Scinax v-signatus (Lutz 1968 (Anura, Hylidae and comments on bioacoustical synapomorphies for Scinax perpusillus species group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Peixoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the vocal repertoire of Scinax v-signatus, compare it to the other species belonging to the S. perpusillus species group and discuss the bioacoustical synapomorphies proposed for the group. We recorded an advertisement call and an aggressive call of S. v-signatus. The advertisement call is similar to the one described for others species of the Scinax perpusillus group. Similarly to Scinax cosenzai, the first note in the advertisement call of S. v-signatus is the longest. The aggressive call was preceded by a series of advertisement calls. We suggest that bioacoustical parameters proposed as synapomorphies for the Scinax perpusillus group are not valid, as they are also observed in species belonging to other groups within the genus.

  14. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    most biologically and physically distinct from the ocean habitat also differed greatly from the other sites acoustically, with the most common and high amplitude sound being pump noise versus biological sounds at the other sites. Overall the dolphin facilities were neither clearly noisier nor more sterile than the wild site, but rather differed in particular characteristics. The findings are encouraging for dolphin welfare for several reasons. Sound levels measured were unlikely to cause threshold shifts in hearing. At three of four facilities, prominent biological sounds in the wild site -- snapping shrimp and fish sounds -- were present, meaning that the dolphins at these facilities are experiencing biotic features of the soundscape they would experience in the wild. Additionally, the main anthropogenic sounds experienced at the facilities (construction and cleaning sounds) did not reach the levels of the anthropogenic sounds experienced at the wild site (boat motor sounds), and the highest noise levels for anthropogenic sounds fall outside the dolphins' most sensitive range of hearing. However, there are anthropogenic contributors to the soundscape that are of particular interest and possible concern that should be investigated further, particularly pump noise and periodic or intermittent construction noise. These factors need to be considered on a facility-by-facility basis and appropriate mitigation procedures incorporated in animal handling to mitigate potential responses to planned or anticipated sound producing events, e.g. animal relocation or buffering sound producing activities. The central role of bioacoustics for dolphins means that PAM is a basic life support requirement along with water and food testing. Periodic noise is of highest concern, and PAM is needed to inform mitigation of noise from periodic sources. Priority actions are more widespread and long-term standardized monitoring, further research on habituation, preference, coupling and pool

  15. What happens when you want to talk to the animals: lessons of a career in animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.

    2004-05-01

    Animal bioacoustics (AB) is the study of sound in nonhuman animal biology. I entered the field because I was interested in the evolution of language, and I wanted to study the acoustic communication of whales and dolphins. Topics like this within the scope of AB make the discipline accessible to students and laypeople. Although career opportunities are limited (professionals declaring AB as their primary area represent only 3% of ASA membership [http://www.acoustics.org/WIA, statistics for 2000]), an interest in AB can foster entry into more marketable disciplines. It has been a particularly important avenue for bringing women into careers in traditionally male-dominated subject areas. For example, women represent 14% of the ASA membership and 12% or fewer of those declaring Underwater Acoustics, Engineering Acoustics, and Noise as their primary interest. However, 25% of those declaring AB as their primary interest are women, and AB includes all three topic areas within its scope. Unfortunately, AB is still fairly inaccessible to interested lay professionals such as educators, science writers, and environmental planners. By helping them to develop a deeper understanding of topics in AB, ASA can help them foster careers in acoustics.

  16. A phylogeographic break and bioacoustic intraspecific differentiation in the Buff-barred Warbler (Phylloscopus pulcher)(Aves:Passeriformes,Phylloscopidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin; P?ckert; Yue-Hua; Sun; Balduin; S; Fischer; Dieter; Thomas; Tietze; Jochen; Martens

    2014-01-01

    structure among regions: Himalayan songs consisted of repeated syllables while Chinese songs comprised repetitions of single, long and strongly modulated elements.Subtle morphological differences among specimens from the two study regions could only be confirmed for plumage coloration but not for metric characters.Conclusions: Based on the genetic and bioacoustic distinctiveness of Chinese Buff-barred Warbler populations,we recommend that the name Phylloscopus pulcher vegetus Bangs, 1913 should be re-validated for this taxon.

  17. Automated Recognition of Bioacoustic Signals: a Review of Methods and Applications Reconocimiento automatizado de señales bioacústicas: Una revisión de métodos y aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Catalina Caycedo-Rosales

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, numerous research studies and applications on automated bioacoustic monitoring have been published; however, such studies are scattered in the literature of engineering and life sciences. This paper presents a review on fundamental concepts of automated acoustic monitoring. Our aim is to compare and categorize —in a taxonomy of techniques DSP/PR— the contributions of published research studies and applications; in order to suggest some directions for future research and highlight challenges and opportunities related to the deployment of this technology in Colombia.Durante la última década se ha publicado una gran cantidad de estudios de investigación y aplicaciones sobre monitoreo bioacústico automatizado. No obstante, tales estudios están dispersos en la literatura de ingeniería y ciencias biológicas. En este artículo se presentan conceptos fundamentales sobre monitoreo bioacústico automatizado; se revisan, comparan y categorizan —en una taxonomía de técnicas de DSP/PR— las contribuciones de las investigaciones y las aplicaciones publicadas; se sugieren algunas direcciones para investigaciones futuras y se resaltan los retos y las oportunidades relacionados con la instalación de esta tecnología en Colombia.

  18. Bioacoustic Characterization of the Mediterranean Sea SOLMAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    experimentation and testing. The Nauta-rcs company is the CIBRA interface for these operations and for eventually marketing final products. Either directly or... tipo di analisi permette infatti di distinguere, all’interno di ciascun click, almeno due impulsi successivi (Fig. 1). I1 primo, definito "impulso

  19. Next-Generation Bioacoustic Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    scanning (J. Barlow, pers. comm). Acoustic methods, in contrast to visual ones, function well in darkness, fog , high sea states, and other inclement...for real-time input, several methods for acoustic localization, beamforming, several methods for automatic call recognition , and a sound annotation

  20. Bioacoustic Signal Classification in Cat Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    representation as the input ( front end ) to a self- organizing signal classifier and as training pattern for the output of a dynamic neural network. In the...potential use as a front end for a biological based signal classifier, their use as a trainer for network models, and their ability to predict spatial...usually contributing more spikes, at best level, than monotonic neurons. d) One region in the center of the dorsal-ventral extent of czt Al appears to have

  1. Humpback whale bioacoustics: From form to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo, III

    This thesis investigates how humpback whales produce, perceive, and use sounds from a comparative and computational perspective. Biomimetic models are developed within a systems-theoretic framework and then used to analyze the properties of humpback whale sounds. First, sound transmission is considered in terms of possible production mechanisms and the propagation characteristics of shallow water environments frequented by humpback whales. A standard source-filter model (used to describe human sound production) is shown to be well suited for characterizing sound production by humpback whales. Simulations of sound propagation based on normal mode theory reveal that optimal frequencies for long range propagation are higher than the frequencies used most often by humpbacks, and that sounds may contain spectral information indicating how far they have propagated. Next, sound reception is discussed. A model of human auditory processing is modified to emulate humpback whale auditory processing as suggested by cochlear anatomical dimensions. This auditory model is used to generate visual representations of humpback whale sounds that more clearly reveal what features are likely to be salient to listening whales. Additionally, the possibility that an unusual sensory organ (the tubercle) plays a role in acoustic processing is assessed. Spatial distributions of tubercles are described that suggest tubercles may be useful for localizing sound sources. Finally, these models are integrated with self-organizing feature maps to create a biomimetic sound classification system, and a detailed analysis of individual sounds and sound patterns in humpback whale 'songs' is performed. This analysis provides evidence that song sounds and sound patterns vary substantially in terms of detectability and propagation potential, suggesting that they do not all serve the same function. New quantitative techniques are also presented that allow for more objective characterizations of the long term acoustic features of songs. The quantitative framework developed in this thesis provides a basis for theoretical consideration of how humpback whales (and other cetaceans) might use sound. Evidence is presented suggesting that vocalizing humpbacks could use sounds not only to convey information to other whales, but also to collect information about other whales. In particular, it is suggested that some sounds currently believed to be primarily used as communicative signals, might be primarily used as sonar signals. This theoretical framework is shown to be generalizable to other baleen whales and to toothed whales.

  2. Cetacean Bioacoustics with Emphasis on Recording and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Tomonari

    More than 80 cetacean species live in oceans, lakes, and rivers. For underwater navigation and recognition, whales and dolphins have developed unique sensory systems using acoustic signals. Toothed whales, such as dolphins and porpoises, have sonar using ultrasonic pulse trains called echolocations (Au, 1993). As top predators in the water, dolphins and porpoises rely on accurate and long-range sensory systems for catching prey. Dolphins have another type of vocalization called a whistle that is narrowband with a long duration.

  3. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works.

  4. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrada-Bravo, Carlos; Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi; Milan, Carlos; Vega, Giovany; Alvarez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON), a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net). Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. PMID:23882441

  5. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mitchell Aide

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON, a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net. Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.

  6. Project Report of Virtual Experiments in Marine Bioacoustics: Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98: 51-59. AU, W.W.L., R.H. PENNER, AND C.W. TURL. 1987. Propagation of beluga ...Atlantic Norfolk, VA Merel Dalebout University of New South Wales Sydney, Australia Robin W. Baird Cascadia Research Collective Olympia

  7. A reappraisal of the geographic distribution of Bokkermannohyla sazimai (Anura: Hylidae through morphological and bioacoustic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of Bokermannohyla sazimai is in the municipality of São Roque de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this paper, we reassess the geographic distribution of B. sazimai and provide additional information on variation of several other non-topotypic populations in comparisons of topotypic populations (São Roque de Minas and Vargem Bonita, on the basis of three lines of evidence (color-pattern, morphometry and vocalizations. Differences obtained among all populations with respect to color pattern, morphometry and advertisement calls were attributed to interpopulational variation, so that this variation was not enough to recognize any population as a distinctive lineage in comparison with the topotypic information available on B. sazimai.

  8. Cost Benefit Analysis: Cost Benefit Analysis for Human Effectiveness Research: Bioacoustic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    APPENDIX A. ACRONYMS ACCES Attenuating Custom Communication Earpiece System ACEIT Automated Cost estimating Integrated Tools AFSC Air Force...documented in the ACEIT cost estimating tool developed by Tecolote, Inc. The factor used was 14 percent of PMP. 1.3 System Engineering/ Program...The data source is the ASC Aeronautical Engineering Products Cost Factor Handbook which is documented in the ACEIT cost estimating tool developed

  9. Development of Bioacoustic Tools for Long-Term,Non-invasive Monitoring of Threatened and Endangered Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-14

    the emperor penguin , Aptenodytes forsteri: adaptation to a noisy environment. Ethology 94: 279-290. Saruwatari, H., Kawamura, T., Nishikawa, T...population parameters, such as survival to the age of first reproduction and interval between successive nestings. A recent analysis of data for the...they often return to the same stand, or at least the same general area, to roost and defend their territories regardless of reproductive status (Ganey

  10. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Julien

    2004-06-01

    Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (+/- 1000 Hz) and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source). Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island), and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens). Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates), providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance.

  11. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Julien

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (±1000 Hz and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source. Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island, and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens. Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates, providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance.

  12. Can treefrog phylogeographical clades and species’ phylogenetic topologies be recovered by bioacoustical analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Lucas Rodriguez; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Encarnação, Lais Carvalho; Bertoluci, Jaime; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as the frog advertisement call, are generally correlated with interspecific genetic variation, and, as a consequence of strong sexual selection, these behaviors may carry a phylogenetic signal. However, variation in acoustic traits is not always correlated with genetic differences between populations (intraspecific variation); phenotypic plasticity and environmental variables may explain part of such variation. For example, local processes can affect acoustic properties in different lineages due to differences in physical structure, climatic conditions, and biotic interactions, particularly when populations are isolated. However, acoustic traits can be used to test phylogenetic hypotheses. We analyzed the advertisement calls of Dendropsophus elegans males from 18 sites and compared them with those of four closely related congeneric species, in order to test for differences between inter and intraspecific variation. We analyzed 451 calls of 45 males of these five species. Because males from distant sites were grouped together without population congruence, differences found in advertisement calls among individuals were not correlated with phylogeographical clades. Phylogenetic and cluster analyses of the D. elegans clades and those of closely related species grouped all five species into the same topology, as reported by previous molecular and morphological phylogenies. However, the topology of the D. elegans phylogeographical clades did not match the topology previously reported. Acoustic communication in D. elegans seems to be conserved among populations, and the phylogeographical history of the species does not explain the variation among lineages in call properties, despite some congruent phylogenetic signals evident at the species level. Based on molecular clocks retrieved from the literature, it seems that more than 6.5 million years of divergence (late Miocene) are necessary to allow significant changes to occur in the acoustic properties of these treefrog calls, making it possible to recover their phylogenetic history only based on acoustic evidence. PMID:28235089

  13. Blue Whale Behavioral Response Study and Field Testing of the New Bioacoustic Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    shipping routes into southern and central California ports with predictable blue whale feeding grounds makes this an ideal location of the study of...4.8 hrs., while maximum deployment duration was Although this project focused on blue whales , tags also were deployed on 3 humpback whales , one...of Cetacean Research and Management 7: 177-187. FRISTRUP, K. M., L. T. HATCH and C. W. CLARK. 2003. Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera

  14. Blue Whale Behavioral Response Study & Field Testing of the New Bioacoustic Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    were to determine how blue whales respond to close approach of ships and exposure to high intensity ship noise including changes in diving, feeding ...central California ports with predictable blue whale feeding grounds makes this an ideal location of the study of the impact of intense low-frequency...L. T. HATCH and C. W. CLARK. 2003. Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to low-frequency sound broadcasts

  15. Towards the Automatic Classification of Avian Flight Calls for Bioacoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Juan Pablo; Farnsworth, Andrew; Robbins, Matt; Keen, Sara; Klinck, Holger; Kelling, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Automatic classification of animal vocalizations has great potential to enhance the monitoring of species movements and behaviors. This is particularly true for monitoring nocturnal bird migration, where automated classification of migrants’ flight calls could yield new biological insights and conservation applications for birds that vocalize during migration. In this paper we investigate the automatic classification of bird species from flight calls, and in particular the relationship between two different problem formulations commonly found in the literature: classifying a short clip containing one of a fixed set of known species (N-class problem) and the continuous monitoring problem, the latter of which is relevant to migration monitoring. We implemented a state-of-the-art audio classification model based on unsupervised feature learning and evaluated it on three novel datasets, one for studying the N-class problem including over 5000 flight calls from 43 different species, and two realistic datasets for studying the monitoring scenario comprising hundreds of thousands of audio clips that were compiled by means of remote acoustic sensors deployed in the field during two migration seasons. We show that the model achieves high accuracy when classifying a clip to one of N known species, even for a large number of species. In contrast, the model does not perform as well in the continuous monitoring case. Through a detailed error analysis (that included full expert review of false positives and negatives) we show the model is confounded by varying background noise conditions and previously unseen vocalizations. We also show that the model needs to be parameterized and benchmarked differently for the continuous monitoring scenario. Finally, we show that despite the reduced performance, given the right conditions the model can still characterize the migration pattern of a specific species. The paper concludes with directions for future research. PMID:27880836

  16. Science, Technical Innovation and Applications in Bioacoustics: Summary of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    acoustical experiments on beluga whales, which sonar system surpasses that one of bottlenose dolphins, and we still do not know why. The set of tests, which...tests on beluga whales will help us discover the reasons of that superiority. Appendix 3n Paul Doust Transducer Equalisation Techniques. P.E. Doust...Clinic EPSRC IMPROVES Project Three-year £600K Programme. Commenced 2001, and involves: University of Southampton University of Wales College Newport

  17. SeaBASS: A Marine BioAcoustics Summer School 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    present state of the field, identified current obstacles and challenges, and discussed important “hot topics” areas (Table 1). Each seminar included an...Friday June 20 7:00-8:00 Breakfast and Welcome Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast 8:00-12:00 A. Frankel Introduction to Acoustics...like me they end up with little background when reaching the post-graduate level when this knolwedge/skills are very important . I would love for

  18. Bioacoustic variation of swimbladder disturbance sounds in Neotropical doradoid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae,Auchenipteridae): Potential morphological correlates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingrid M. KAATZ; Donald J. STEWART

    2012-01-01

    Swimbladder disturbance sounds of doradoid catfishes (Doradidae and Auchenipteridae) demonstrated striking waveform and spectrographic variation.We surveyed sounds of 25 doradoid species in 20 genera comparing these to sounds of four vocal outgroup catfish families.Sounds were either continuous waveforms (lacking interpulses) or pulsed (groups of pulses repeated at fixed temporal intervals).This is the first evidence for swimbladder calls with fixed interpulse patterns in catfishes.Vocal mechanism components that were similar between doradids and auchenipterids included:swimbladder shape,swimbladder dimensions and sonic muscle-somatic index.Morphological traits that showed variation among taxa and were evaluated for potential correlates of call diversity are:1) diverticula (marginal outpocketings of the swimbladder with no connection to inner ear) and 2) elastic spring apparatus Millerian rami (ESA-Mr).Within the doradid subfamilies and within the Auchenipteridae most species differed significantly in dominant frequency with frequency ranges overlapping to some extent for most.Doradid swimbladder diverticula did not explain dominant frequency variation within the doradoid superfamily.Some doradids with conical ESA-Mr had the highest dominant frequency sounds.Auchenipterids included both relatively lower and higher dominant frequency sound producers but lacked diverticula and had discoidal ESA-Mr.Comparing a phylogeny of doradoid genera with outgroup taxa,we infer that complex diverticula and conical ESA-Mr are derived characters within the Doradidae.Species representing outgroup families produced either continuous lower dominant frequency sounds (aspredinids,mochokids and pseudopimelodids) or pulsed higher dominant frequency sounds (pimelodids) [Current Zoology 58 (1):171-188,2012].

  19. The bush-cricket Isophya kraussii (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae): bioacoustics, distribution and description of a new subspecies from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgu, Ionuţ Ştefan; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Isophya kraussii Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878, one of the widest spread bush-crickets within this genus, is confirmed to be present east of the Carpathian Mountains. Based on acoustic analysis and morphological characters, the populations from NE Romania are considered to belong to a different subspecies, I. kraussii moldavica ssp. n. A map with distribution of both subspecies is presented.

  20. Distribution, Abundance, Behavior, and Bioacoustics of Endangered Whales in the Western Beaufort and Northeastern Chukchi Seas, 1979-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    the area. Other Marine Mammals a. Belukha or White Whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) Thirty-three sightings of 140 belukhas were made in the western...contour was clipped near St . Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. Data Processing and Quality Control A computer program (SPEED) was written to screen for...Estimates 42 c. Habitat Relationships and Behavior 43 d. Calf Sightings 44 ix Page Other Marine Mammals 44 a. Belukha, or White Whale ( Delphinapterus

  1. Distribution, Abundance, Behavior, and Bioacoustics of Endangered Whales in the Alaskan Beaufort and Eastern Chukchi Seas, 1979-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Habitat Relationships and Behavior 70 d. Calf Sightings and Estimated Recruitment 72 Other Marine Mammals 72 a. Belukha ( Delphinapterus leucas ) 72 b...been seen in the Chukchi Sea only in 3uly. Other Marine Mammals a. Belukha, or White Whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) There were 109 sightings of 492...physalus) whales in the St . Lawrence river (Macfarlane, 1981); and minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) off 3apan (Nishiwaki and Sasao, 1977

  2. Cryptic within cryptic: genetics, morphometrics, and bioacoustics delimitate a new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Dugo-Cota, Álvaro; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Vences, Miguel; Vilà, Carles

    2017-01-20

    We studied the variation in genetics, bioacustics, and morphology in Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a regionally endemic frog species restricted to high elevations in the Sierra Maestra Massif, Western Cuba that was originally described as a cryptic species hidden under the name E. auriculatus. Genetic analysis of mtDNA sequences of the 16S and cob genes identify two allopatric and strongly supported mitochondrial clades (phylogroups) which also showed no haplotype sharing in the nuclear Rag-1 gene. Bioacustic, and morphological comparisons concordantly identify these two phylogroups as independent evolutionary lineages. Therefore, we herein restrict the name Eleutherodactylus glamyrus Estrada and Hedges to populations represented in our analyses as the western phylogroup (Cordillera del Turquino to Pico La Bayamesa) and consider specimens from the eastern phylogroup (Sierra del Cobre) to represent a new species described and named as Eleutherodactylus cattus. Our results add to the growing list of Eleutherodactylus species endemic to Cuba and highlight the importance of combining different sources of evidence for obtaining robust assessments of species limits in amphibians.

  3. Assessing the Role of Small-Scale Bio-Optical and Bio-Acoustical Distributions in Upper Ocean Biological and Optical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    addressed that goal by examining specific scientific questions that relate the distribution and variability in sub-1m scale bio-optical properties with...dynamics, optical and acoustical signal propagation, and remote sensing. The collaborative work we have been conducting within this project is...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Oregon State University,College of Oceanic and Atmospheric

  4. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ellis

    Full Text Available Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.

  5. DCL System Using Deep Learning Approaches for Land-Based or Ship-Based Real Time Recognition and Localization of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FINAL REPORT DCL System Using Deep Learning Approaches for...that do not integrate well with data formats in bioacoustics or they are too general. Furthermore, complex algorithms that use deep learning ...explore aspects of deep - learning as they relate to bioacoustics, the initial planning suggested from the beginning that bioacoutsics did not yet

  6. A new species of poison-dart frog (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Manu province, Amazon region of southeastern Peru, with notes on its natural history, bioacoustics, phylogenetics, and recommended conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Rojas, Shirley J; Whitworth, Andrew; Villacampa, Jaime; May, Rudolf VON; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; Padial, José M; Chaparro, Juan C

    2017-01-16

    We describe and name a new species of poison-dart frog from the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in Manu Province, Madre de Dios Department, Peru; specifically within the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve and the buffer zone of Manu National Park. Ameerega shihuemoy sp. nov. is supported by a unique combination of characters: black dorsum with cream to light orange dorsolateral lines, blue belly reticulated with black, and the lack of axillary, thigh and calf flash marks. Within Ameerega, it shares the general appearance of A. altamazonica, A. boliviana, A. hahneli, A. ignipedis, A. petersi, A. picta, A. pongoensis, A. pulchripecta, A. simulans, A. smaragdina, and A. yungicola; each possessing a granular black to brown dorsum, a light labial bar, a conspicuous dorsolateral line running from the snout to the groin, and a metallic blue belly and underside of arms and hind limbs. From most of these species it can be distinguished by lacking flash marks on the axillae, thighs, and calves (absent in only A. boliviana and A. smaragdina, most A. petersi, and some A. pongoensis), by having bright cream to orange dorsolateral stripes (white, intense yellow, or green in all other species, with the exception of A. picta), and by its blue belly reticulated with black (bluish white and black in A. boliviana, green and blue with black marbling in A. petersi, and green and blue lacking black marbling in A. smaragdina). Its mating call also shows clear differences to morphologically similar species, with a lower note repetition rate, longer space between calls, and higher fundamental and dominant frequencies. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment also support the distinctiveness of the new species and suggest that A. shihuemoy is most closely related to Ameerega macero, A. altamazonica, A. rubriventris, and two undescribed species (Ameerega sp. from Porto Walter, Acre, Brazil, and Ameerega sp. from Ivochote, Cusco, Peru). Genetically, the new species is most similar to the sympatric A. macero, from which it clearly differs in characteristics of its advertisement call and coloration. The new species is found near rocky streams during the dry season and near temporary water bodies during the rainy season. Tadpoles are found in lentic water along streams, or in shallow, slow-moving streams. Given its small geographic range, we recommend that A. shihuemoy should be considered 'Near threatened' (NT) according to IUCN Red List criteria.

  7. HUDSONAR (CW2014, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  8. HUDSONAR (CW2013, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  9. HUNDSONAR (CW2015, ES60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  10. DCL System Using Deep Learning Approaches for Land-based or Ship-based Real-Time Recognition and Localization of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    or Ship-based Real-Time Recognition and Localization of Marine Mammals Peter J. Dugan & Christopher W. Clark Bioacoustics Research Program...TITLE AND SUBTITLE DCL System Using Deep Learning Approaches for Land-based or Ship-based Real-Time Recognition and Localization of Marine Mammals ...New System for Exploring Marine Mammal Acoustics for Big Data Applications,” ICML 2014, Workshop on Machine Learning for Bioacoustics, Beijing, China

  11. Minutes. Accredited Standards Committee on Bioacoustics, S3, U.S. Tag for ISO/TC43, Acoustics, IEC/TC 29 Electroacoustics, and ISO/TC108/SC4 Human Exposure to Mechanical Vibration and Shock Held in Baltimore, Maryland on 2 May 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-02

    Auditory Evoked Potentials - R.A. Ruth, Chair Mr. Ruth reported as follows prior to the meeting: We have collected norma ,(ive perceptual threshold data...list of ISO/TC 43 standards was sent to ANSI: o ISO 3382:1975 Acoustics - Measurement of reverberation time in auditoria 0 ISO 4869:1981 Acoustics

  12. Minutes: Accredited Standards Committee on Bioacoustics, S3. U.S. tag for ISO/TC 43, Acoustics, IEC/TC 29 Electroacoustics, and ISO/TC 108/SC4 Human Exposure to Mechanical VIbration and Shock. Meeting held in Denver, Colorado on October 7, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-07

    the next meeting has been set for October 7 at NEMA Headquarters. To: ExCo ExCo2 2 44 John Rennie will give this report formally for 4/23/93 Stan...The initial appointments to the Ad Hoc Committee were Dr. Stanley Warshaw, NIST, as Chair; Mr. Philip Piqueira, GE; and Mr. John Rennie, FMRC. In a...TC46 and SC46 TA (56) Lawrence Hoffman, Townley and Updike , TC56 TA (72) Jamie Lankford, TC72 Secretary Five of these commenters are Technical

  13. The King of the Dwarves: a new cryptic species of Dainty Frog (Anura: Pyxicephalidae: Cacosternum) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, Werner

    2014-04-04

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using the mitochondrial 16S marker shows the presence of a cryptic species of Cacosternum (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa, supporting the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region of vertebrate endemism. Bioacoustic and morphological characteristics, in conjunction with colouration differences, allow the description of this cryptic species. Tadpoles and details of life history are described.

  14. 75 FR 49759 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Pa (rms) criteria are the received levels above which, in the view of a panel of bioacoustics... summarized later in this document, data that are now available imply that TTS is unlikely to occur unless bow... mammals that approach the vessel from the side or stern in order to ride the bow wave or rub on...

  15. 75 FR 32379 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... levels above which, in the view of a panel of bioacoustics specialists convened by NMFS before TTS... available to imply that TTS is unlikely to occur unless bow-riding odontocetes are exposed to airgun pulses... panel (see the ``Monitoring Plan Peer Review'' section later in this document). Mitigation...

  16. Third International Conference on Acoustic Communication by Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    predominant aim of this conference is to consider acoustic communication, its mechanisms, and the detection of acoustic signals, particularly in noisy ...frogs (6). Topics covered included cognition/language; song and call classification; rule learning; acoustic ecology; communication in noisy ...at the Statler Hotel and Conference Center on the Cornell University campus. Evening programs included a networking dinner (“Bioacoustics and Pizza

  17. Fusion of Linear and Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Automatic Classification of Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Noda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioacoustic research of reptile calls and vocalizations has been limited due to the general consideration that they are voiceless. However, several species of geckos, turtles, and crocodiles are abletoproducesimpleandevencomplexvocalizationswhicharespecies-specific.Thisworkpresents a novel approach for the automatic taxonomic identification of reptiles through their bioacoustics by applying pattern recognition techniques. The sound signals are automatically segmented, extracting each call from the background noise. Then, their calls are parametrized using Linear and Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (LFCC and MFCC to serve as features in the classification stage. In this study, 27 reptile species have been successfully identified using two machine learning algorithms: K-Nearest Neighbors (kNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM. Experimental results show an average classification accuracy of 97.78% and 98.51%, respectively.

  18. Advanced Technologies for Acoustic Monitoring of Bird Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Grasshopper Sparrow Henslow’s Sparrow Detection and classification software for songs/calls of target species The Bioacoustics Research Program has...instruments and signal detection and classification software has the potential to lead to improved monitoring of bird populations on DoD lands and elsewhere...the area surveyed. These hardware and software tools can also enable passive acoustic monitoring of nocturnally migrating birds across large

  19. Remote Medical Diagnosis System (RMDS) Design Review Meeting Minutes 27-28 August 1980, held at Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Head Bioacoustics & Bionics Division Biosciences Department 7’. i" i S+1 Iŕ UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) REPOT...Transmitted and Received Images (Analog and Digital) of Eye Over ADM Terminals Via HF...19 i1 Project Plan...21 12 EDM Procurement Cycle Summary...22...received images (analog and digital) of eye over ADM terminals via hf. *1 19 -14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT MODELS (EDMs) Dr. W. Rasmussen (NOSC): Many

  20. VOICE. A Spectrogram Computer Display Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Bioacoustics Laboratory of the Biology Department. Funding for the work has been from the Office of Naval Research under contracts N00014-88-K-0273...a 0; /einitializes at each exit from running display*/ which a Alevels Epuebkt]; which->pge a pagenow; which->incr - step; which->ofset M doff set...Collection Hancock Library of Biology & Texas A&M University Oceanography Dept. of Oceanography Alan Hancock Laboratory College Station, TX 77843 University of

  1. Review of Published Safety Thresholds for Human Divers Exposed to Underwater Sound (Veilige maximale geluidsniveaus voor duikers - beoordeling van publicaties)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    American Scientist (Figure 1 below); the other in UDT conference proceedings by Parvin et al. [3] (Figure 2). In both figures, the audiograms are in the...Beerens & M.A. Ainslie, Diver detection in Harbours, TNO report in preporation. [2] E.R. Gerstein, Manatees, bioacoustics and boats, American ... Scientist 90 (2), 154 (2002). [3] Parvin et al., S.J. Parvin, E.A Cudahy & D.M Fothergill, Guidance for diver exposure to underwater sound in the frequency

  2. Improving the Navy’s Passive Underwater Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    bioacoustic sounds in the SoCal Bight with man- made underwater sounds, with physical properties of the environment, and with fields relevant to the...off fringing 3 Kauai. The sediments in this region are a composite of coarse-grained carbonate and fine- grained volcanic sediments (Fig. 1b) that...correlations with man-made underwater sounds, with physical properties of the environment, and with fields relevant to the biological productivity of

  3. Basic Research in Human–Computer–Biosphere Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Hiroki Kobayashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a vision of how a human–computer–biosphere interaction (HCBI can facilitate a sustainable society. HCBI extends and transforms the subject of human–computer interaction from countable people, objects, pets, and plants into an auditory biosphere that is an uncountable, a complex, and a non-linguistic soundscape. As an example, utilizing HCBI to experience forest soundscapes can help us feel one with nature, without physically being present in nature. The goal of HCBI is to achieve ecological interactions between humans and nature through computer systems without causing environmental destruction. To accomplish this, information connectivity must be created despite the physical separation between humans and the environment. This combination should also ensure ecological neutrality. In this paper, we present an overview of an HCBI concept, related work, methodologies, and developed interfaces. We used pre-recorded animal calls to enable a bio-acoustical feedback from the target wildlife. In this study, we primarily focus on the design and evaluation of a bio-acoustic interaction system utilizing tracking collars, microphones, speakers, infrared cameras, infrared heat sensors, micro-climate sensors, radio-tracking devices, GPS devices, radio clocks, embedded Linux boards, high-capacity batteries, and high-speed wireless communication devices. Our experiments successfully demonstrated bio-acoustic interactions between wildlife—more specifically, an endangered species of a wild cat—and human beings via a computer system, thus validating the HCBI concept.

  4. Studies of depredating sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) off Sitka, AK, using videocameras, tags, and long-range passive acoustic tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Delphine

    This dissertation uses videocameras, tags and acoustic recorders to investigate the diving and acoustic behavior of sperm whales in the Gulf of Alaska during natural and depredation foraging conditions. First, underwater videocamera footage of a sperm whale attacking a fisherman's longline at 100 m depth was used to examine its acoustic behavior at close range and to estimate its size both acoustically and visually. Second, bioacoustic tagging data demonstrated that the same individuals displayed different acoustic behaviors during natural and depredation foraging states. Two broad categories of depredation, "shallow" and "deep," were also identified. These results suggest that passive acoustic monitoring at close ranges may yield useful metrics for quantifying depredation activity. Third, the behavioral reactions of depredating sperm whales to a variety of acoustic playbacks generated at relatively low source levels were investigated using bioacoustic tags. Finally, bioacoustic and satellite tag data were used to develop passive acoustic techniques for tracking sperm whales with a short-aperture two-element vertical array. When numeric sound propagation models were exploited, localization ranges up to 35 km were obtained. The tracking methods were also used to estimate the source levels of sperm whale "clicks" and "creaks", predict the maximum detection range of the signals as a function of sea state, and measure the drift of several whales away from a visual decoy.

  5. Blast Overpressure Studies with Animals and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-31

    Rapport R 127/83. CHABA (National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics ), 1968. ProDosed...H. and Brinkmann, H. 1975. Das Kanll- trauma, Springer -Verlag. Pfander, F., Bongartz, H., Brinkmann, H. and Case, H. 1980. Danger of auditory...PAA-3 broke a toe playing soccer and was delayed for several days. d. PAA-7 was an auditory failure after 5/6 whit TTS at 3 kHz of 27 dB. e. PAA-4 and

  6. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923 from its type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J. R. Kok

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Colostethus, long mistaken for Colostethus beebei, is described from French Guiana. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by absence of median lingual process, first finger longer than second, third finger not distinctly swollen in males, differences in tadpole morphology, coloration and pattern (e.g. absence of dorsolateral stripe, bioacoustics, and reproductive behavior. A complete redescription of Colostethus beebei plus description of its tadpole and call is provided on the basis of recently collected topotypic specimens. The range of C. beebei is restricted to the Kaieteur plateau, Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana.

  7. Description of a new species of the genus Adenomera (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae from French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Boistel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the genus Adenomera from French Guiana. Collecting conditions, details about the localities and microhabitats are given. The advertisement call was recorded and is herein analyzed and described. Morphological and bioacoustic comparisons are drawn with other species of the genus. The new species is readily distinguished from other taxa by its distinctive coloration pattern, the occurrence of dorsolateral ridges and inguinal glands, and by the longer duration of the notes of its advertisement call. The taxonomy of Adenomera is evaluated with regard to current available knowledge.

  8. Fishy Hearing: A Short Biography of Arthur N. Popper, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    Biologist Dr. Arthur Popper's career spans decades, from his early work on comparative inner ear morphology in fishes to his recent interest in how underwater noise impacts aquatic vertebrates. Along the way Dr. Popper's research subjects span at least 19 vertebrate taxa, from lamprey to lungfish to humans, and he's had a profound influence in the field of fish bioacoustics. This brief biography describes some of Dr. Popper's many contributions to fish hearing research and highlights both some of his major discoveries and some of the biological mysteries he has yet to solve.

  9. Multibeam volume acoustic backscatter imagery and reverberation measurements in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaudet, Timothy C.; deMoustier, Christian P.

    2002-08-01

    Multibeam volume acoustic backscatter imagery and reverberation measurements are derived from data collected in 200-m-deep waters in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, with the Toroidal Volume Search Sonar (TVSS), a 68-kHz cylindrical sonar operated by the U.S. Navy's Coastal System Station. The TVSS's 360-degree vertical imaging plane allows simultaneous identification of multiple volume scattering sources and their discrimination from backscatter at the sea surface or the seafloor. This imaging capability is used to construct a three-dimensional representation of a pelagic fish school near the bottom. Scattering layers imaged in the mixed layer and upper thermocline are attributed to assemblages of epipelagic zooplankton. The fine scale patchiness of these scatterers is assessed with the two-dimensional variance spectra of vertical volume scattering strength images in the upper and middle water column. Mean volume reverberation levels exhibit a vertical directionality which is attributed to the volume scattering layers. Boundary echo sidelobe interference and reverberation is shown to be the major limitation in obtaining bioacoustic data with the TVSS. Because net tow and trawl samples were not collected with the acoustic data, the analysis presented is based upon comparison to previous biologic surveys in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and reference to the bioacoustic literature. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  10. Biosonar, dive, and foraging activity of satellite tracked harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Teilmann, Jonas; Akamatsu, Tomonari

    2013-01-01

    rates and higher dive activity at night. A female traveling in open waters showed no diel rhythm, but its sonar activity was three times higher compared to the males’. Considerable individual differences in dive and echolocation activity could have been influenced by biological and physical factors......This study presents bioacoustic recordings in combination with movements and diving behavior of three free-ranging harbor porpoises (a female and two males) in Danish waters. Each porpoise was equipped with an acoustic data logger (A-tag), a time-depth-recorder, a VHF radio transmitter......, and a satellite transmitter. The units were programmed to release after 24 or 72 h. Possible foraging occurred mostly near the surface or at the bottom of a dive. The porpoises showed individual diversity in biosonar activity (50,000 clicks per hour) and in dive frequency (6–179 dives per hour). We...

  11. Why birdsong is sometimes like music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Luis F; Keister, Robin A

    2005-01-01

    The sounds and songs of birds have inspired the musical compositions of numerous cultures throughout the globe. This article examines a variety of compositions from Western music that feature birdsong and explores the concept of birds as both vocalists and instrumentalists. The concept of birds as composers is then developed-how they use rhythmic variations, pitch relationships, and combinations of notes similar to those found in music-and the theory that birds create variation in their songs partially to avoid monotony is considered. Various families of birds that borrow sounds from other species are surveyed, in particular the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), which may have inspired a Mozart composition. We conclude that the fusion of avian bioacoustics and the study of birdsong in music may function as a conservation tool, raising the awareness of humans and stimulating future generations to save for posterity what remains of the natural world.

  12. Response of round gobies, Neogobius melanostomus, to conspecific sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabella-Valenzi, Lisa

    A useful model group to examine reproductive plasticity in acoustic responsiveness is the family Gobiidae. Male round gobies Neogobius melanostomus emit calls and females respond to these calls with high specificity. The current study investigates differential attraction between reproductive morphologies of the goby to conspecific calls and explores the use of calls to develop a bioacoustic trap. Behavioural responsiveness to conspecific calls was tested using playback experiments in the lab and field. Females showed a strong attraction to the grunt call in both the lab and field, while nonreproductive and sneaker males preferred the drum call in the lab, but favoured the grunt call in the field. By determining the relationship between reproductive state and auditory responsiveness to conspecific calls, I am further elucidating the function of acoustic communication in the round goby and may be essential when creating control strategies to prevent the spread of the invasive species.

  13. From the Geosphere to the Cosmos

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 1 -2 December, the European Network ASPERA will be organising the “From the Geosphere to the Cosmos” workshop at the Palais de la Découverte in Paris. The LIDO platform, 3D-radiography projects for volcanoes, and CERN’s CLOUD experiment are among the interdisciplinary projects that will be presented at the workshop.   Astroparticle physics is a new field mixing both particle physics and astrophysics. It offers many new opportunities for environmental disciplines such as oceanography, climate science and studies of the atmosphere, and geology. “From the Geosphere to the Cosmos” workshop will present them to the scientific community and the press. LIDO: Probing new territories Whales sing at the same wavelength as the neutrinos emitted by stars. This happy coincidence gave physicists the idea to share their undersea telescopes with marine biologists. By helping the development of a bioacoustics network to monitor the deep-sea envir...

  14. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, H; Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H S; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats.

  15. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Seshadri

    Full Text Available In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them.

  16. Physical biologists and biological physicists: combining biology and physics in research on the effects of noise on aquatic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, Douglas H

    2012-01-01

    Research in aquatic bioacoustics and the effects of noise is interdisciplinary and to be effective requires a collaboration of experts from all the fields involved. The full range of expertise is needed for adequate understanding of the processes involved, adequate experimental design, analysis and interpretation, and adequate knowledge of the research already published. The biologists need to understand how physicists work and make allowance, and vice versa. Both need to understand that the other will not be familiar with their practices and approach and that there will be a certain amount of negotiation and education on both sides.However, the best reason to develop collaborations with other experts in interdisciplinary research is that it is such a rewarding experience from the insights it provides into other disciplines and from the opportunity to do really effective and very significant research, well beyond what the individuals might have achieved on their own.

  17. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Priti

    Full Text Available A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma. Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats.

  18. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  19. Analytic subject index to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectural acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other topics in acoustics.

  20. Classroom Materials from the Acoustical Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. K.; Clark, A.; Schneider, K.

    2013-09-01

    As part of the new education initiatives of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), an activity kit for teachers that includes a variety of lessons addressing acoustics for a range of students (K-12) has been created. The "Sound and Music Activity Kit" is free to K-12 teachers. It includes materials sufficient to teach a class of 30 students plus a USB thumb drive containing 47 research-based, interactive, student-tested lessons, laboratory exercises, several assessments, and video clips of a class using the materials. ASA has also partnered with both the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the American Association of Physics Teachers. AAPT Physics Teaching Resource Agents (PTRA) have reviewed the lessons along with members of the ASA Teacher Activity Kit Committee. Topics include basic learning goals for teaching the physics of sound with examples and applications relating to medical imaging, animal bioacoustics, physical and psychological acoustics, speech, audiology, and architectural acoustics.

  1. Analytic subject index to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the gen- eration and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectura] acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other tooics in acou.~tic.~.

  2. Fifty Shades of Grey: giving colour to the poorly known Angolan Ashy reed frog (Hyperoliidae: Hyperolius cinereus), with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, Werner; Branch, William R; Tolley, Krystal A

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using the mitochondrial 16S marker shows that geographically separated populations of the poorly known Hyperolius cinereus (Anura: Hyperoliidae) from Angola form two distinct clades. The description of H. cinereus was originally based on only a single preserved adult male. Fresh material of both sexes allowed a detailed redescription of the species, which is restricted mainly to the south-draining Cunene and Cubango river systems. Bioacoustic and morphological characters, in conjunction with colouration differences, allow the description of a cryptic sister species from Lagoa Carumbo in north-eastern Angola, occurring in the Luele and Lovuo river systems of the Congo drainage basin. Tadpoles, for H. cinereus and the new species, are described.

  3. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  4. An 'Orca-stra' of Science and Sound: The Reverberations of Northeast Pacific Whales and How We're Helping People Understand Them Though Games, Demos and Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kanes, K.; Ewing, N.

    2015-12-01

    Presented by the Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Leaning and Engagement team, this demonstration focuses on our strategy for engaging and inspiring the next generation of ocean advocates by introducing them to one of the ocean's most charismatic inhabitants: marine mammals (and don't worry, we don't need any tanks or neoprene suits to do it). Using bioacoustic data, we can bring the essence of the animals with us. ONC, an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data onto their computers from anywhere around the globe, in real-time. Our demo focuses on the story of bioacoustics from instrument to animal. When visiting classrooms or hosting booths, we enhance user knowledge and experience by connecting familiar animals with their acoustic data from hydrophones. This includes listening to hydrophone clips collected from the network, analyzing sounds using interactive, real-time software and playing interactive games designed to get participants thinking like a scientist and taking a whale's perspective. For example, participants listen to recordings and guess the sound, identify frequencies and try a working hydrophone. The presentation consists of a suite of activities that meet a broad range of Next Generation Science Standards and includes links to the SoundCloud, https://soundcloud.com/oceannetworkscanada the ONC hydrophone FAQ, http://www.oceannetworks.ca/smart-hydrophone-faq and a classroom ready resource, Shouting Whales http://openschool.bc.ca/shouting_whales/index.html . The included links allow users anywhere to have a similar whale "experience" as the data are classroom ready, accessible and free.

  5. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  6. Crowdsourcing modern and historical data identifies sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus habitat offshore of south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Johnson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and use of pelagic habitat by sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus is poorly understood in the south-eastern Indian Ocean off Western Australia. However, a variety of data are available via online portals where records of historical expeditions, commercial whaling operations, and modern scientific research voyages can now be accessed. Crowdsourcing these online data allows collation of presence-only information of animals and provides a valuable tool to help augment areas of low research effort. Four data sources were examined, the primary one being the Voyage of the Odyssey expedition, a five-year global study of sperm whales and ocean pollution. From December 2001-May 2002, acoustic surveys were conducted along 5,200 nautical miles of transects off Western Australia including the Perth Canyon and historical whaling grounds off Albany; 60 tissue biopsy samples were also collected. To augment areas not surveyed by the RV Odyssey, historical Yankee whaling data (1712-1920, commercial whaling data (1904-1999, and citizen science reports of sperm whale sightings (1990-2003 were used. Using Maxent, a species distribution modeling tool, we found that the submarine canyons off Albany and Perth provide important habitat for sperm whales. Current technology, along with current understanding of sperm whale bioacoustics and habitat preferences, provides strong motivation for undertaking long-term passive acoustic studies that can monitor the sperm whale population within Australia’s EEZ waters (Perth and Albany canyons as a way of informing future marine management and policy decisions.

  7. Feathering collisions in beating reed simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Tamara; Abel, Jonathan S.; Smith, Julius O.

    2003-10-01

    Pressure controlled valves are the primary sound production mechanisms for woodwind and brass musical instruments, as well as for many bioacoustic vocal systems such as the larynx and syrinx (the vocal organ in birds). During sound production, air flow sets a reed or membrane into motion creating a variable height in the valve channel and, potentially, periodically closing the channel completely. Depending on how this event is handled, an abrupt termination of air flow between open and closed states can cause undesirable discontinuities and inaccuracies in a discrete-time simulation-particularly at relatively low audio sampling rates. A solution was developed by re-examining the behavior of the differential equation governing volume flow through a pressure-controlled valve, paying particular attention to this rather troublesome transition. A closed-form solution for the time evolution of volume flow is given and used to derive an update for volume flow. The result is a smoother, more accurate, and nearly alias-free transition from open to closed. ``Feathered collisions'' of this nature can refine the sound quality produced by the numerical simulation of beating reeds, such as in clarinets, at typical audio sampling rates.

  8. Review of the systematics, distribution, biogeography and natural history of Moroccan amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, Wouter; De Pous, Philip; Donaire-Barroso, David; Boaerts, Sergé; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Escoriza, Daniel; Arribas, Oscar J; El Mouden, El Hassan; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian fauna of the Kingdom of Morocco was traditionally regarded as poor and closely related to its European counterpart. However, an increase in research during the last decades revealed a considerable degree of endemism amongst Moroccan amphibians, as well as phenotypic and genotypic inter- and intraspecific divergence. Despite this increase in knowledge, a comprehensible overview is lacking while several systematic issues have remained unresolved. We herein present a contemporary overview of the distribution, taxonomy and biogeography of Moroccan amphibians. Fourteen fieldtrips were made by the authors and colleagues between 2000 and 2012, which produced a total of 292 new distribution records. Furthermore, based on the results of the present work, we (i) review the systematics of the genus Salamandra in Morocco, including the description of a new subspecies from the Rif- and Middle Atlas Mountains, Salamandra algira splendens ssp. nov.; (ii) present data on intraspecific morphological variability of Pelobates varaldiiand Pleurodeles waltl in Morocco; (iii) attempt to resolve the phylogenetic position of Bufo brongersmai and erect a new genus for this species, Barbarophryne gen. nov.; (iv) summarize and assess the availability of tadpole-specific characteristics and bioacoustical data, and (v) summarize natural history data.

  9. The effect of schedules of reinforcement on the composition of spontaneous and evoked black-capped chickadee calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2009-09-15

    Songbirds often modify elements of their songs or calls in particular social situations (e.g. song matching, flock convergence, etc.) but whether adult individuals also make vocal modifications in response to abiotic environmental factors (e.g. food availability) is relatively unknown. In the present study we test whether two different schedules of food reinforcement, fixed ratio continuous reinforcement and variable ratio partial reinforcement, cause adult black-capped chickadees to change the structure of their chick-a-dee calls. We also examine how these calls differ in two contexts: being alone versus when experiencing an alarming event. Wild-caught black-capped chickadees were housed in isolation to prevent social interaction and recorded weekly for seven weeks. Baseline recordings on week one show that calls given alone differed from those given during an alarming event in both note type composition and frequency (i.e. pitch). Calls also changed over time between birds on the two different schedules of reinforcement. In addition, birds on different reinforcement schedules responded differently during the two recording conditions. Our results suggest that call characteristics can be modified rapidly and may reflect abiotic environmental conditions. If call structure varies consistently with particular abiotic environmental conditions, much can be gained from bioacoustic analyses of calls from wild birds. However, vocal patterns must be consistent across dialects, and we must disentangle vocal changes due to the abiotic environment from those due to social interaction. Further research is needed from natural populations and across multiple regions.

  10. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Jeremy A; Newman, Catherine E; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Schlesinger, Matthew D; Zarate, Brian; Curry, Brian R; Shaffer, H Bradley; Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data) and south to North Carolina (based on call data).

  11. A new species of Andean poison frog, Andinobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae), from the northwestern Andes of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Márquez, Roberto; Medina, Ricardo; Mejía-Vargas, Daniel; Kahn, Ted R; Suárez, Gustavo; Mazariegos, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The poison frogs of the Colombian Andes, Pacific lowlands and Panama have been recently recognized as a new, monophyletic and well-supported genus: Andinobates. The species richness and distribution within Andinobates remain poorly understood due to the paucity of geographic, genetic and phenotypic data. Here we use a combination of molecular, bioacoustic and morphometric evidence to describe a new species of Andean poison frog: Andinobates cassidyhornae sp. nov. from the high elevation cloud forests of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental, in the northwestern Andes. The new species is associated to the bombetes group and characterized by a unique combination of ventral and dorsal color patterns. Data on 1119 bp from two mitochondrial markers allowed us to reject the null hypotheses that A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. is part of the phenotypically similar and geographically less distant species: A. opisthomelas, A. virolinensis or A. bombetes. The best available phylogenetic trees and the genetic distance to other Andinobates species further support this decision. Altogether, the advertisement call parameters unambiguously separated A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. calls from the calls of the three closest species. The new species adds to a poorly known and highly endangered genus of poison frogs that requires further studies and urgent conservation measures.

  12. Acoustic property reconstruction of a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) forehead based on computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongchang; Xu, Xiao; Dong, Jianchen; Xing, Luru; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Xuecheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Songhai; Berggren, Per

    2015-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging and sound experimental measurements were used to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the forehead tissues of a deceased pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps). The forehead was segmented along the body axis and sectioned into cross section slices, which were further cut into sample pieces for measurements. Hounsfield units (HUs) of the corresponding measured pieces were obtained from CT scans, and regression analyses were conducted to investigate the linear relationships between the tissues' HUs and velocity, and HUs and density. The distributions of the acoustic properties of the head at axial, coronal, and sagittal cross sections were reconstructed, revealing that the nasal passage system was asymmetric and the cornucopia-shaped spermaceti organ was in the right nasal passage, surrounded by tissues and airsacs. A distinct dense theca was discovered in the posterior-dorsal area of the melon, which was characterized by low velocity in the inner core and high velocity in the outer region. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences in density, velocity, and acoustic impedance between all four structures, melon, spermaceti organ, muscle, and connective tissue (p acoustic properties of the forehead tissues provide important information for understanding the species' bioacoustic characteristics.

  13. High Species Richness of Scinax Treefrogs (Hylidae) in a Threatened Amazonian Landscape Revealed by an Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Colatreli, Olavo; de Fraga, Rafael; Kaefer, Igor L; Moravec, Jiří; Lima, Albertina P

    2016-01-01

    Rising habitat loss is one of the main drivers of the global amphibian decline. Nevertheless, knowledge of amphibian diversity needed for effective habitat protection is still highly inadequate in remote tropical regions, the greater part of the Amazonia. In this study we integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence to evaluate the species richness of the treefrogs genus Scinax over a 1000 km transect across rainforest of the Purus-Madeira interfluve, and along the east bank of the upper Madeira river, Brazilian Amazonia. Analysis revealed that 82% of the regional species richness of Scinax is still undescribed; two nominal species, seven confirmed candidate species, two unconfirmed candidate species, and one deep conspecific lineage were detected in the study area. DNA barcoding based analysis of the 16s rRNA gene indicates possible existence of three discrete species groups within the genus Scinax, in addition to the already-known S. rostratus species Group. Quantifying and characterizing the number of undescribed Scinax taxa on a regional scale, we provide a framework for future taxonomic study in Amazonia. These findings indicate that the level to which Amazonian anura species richness has been underestimated is far greater than expected. Consequently, special attention should be paid both to taxonomic studies and protection of the still-neglected Amazonian Scinax treefrogs.

  14. The karyotypes of five species of the Scinax perpusillus group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) of southeastern Brazil show high levels of chromosomal stabilization in this taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Marco Antônio Amorim; Lacerda, João Victor Andrade; Coelho-Augusto, Carolina; Feio, Renato Neves; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-12-01

    Based on morphological, bioacoustics, and morphological traits, the genus Scinax has been subdivided into two major clades: S. catharinae and S. ruber. The first clade includes S. catharinae and S. perpusillus groups, whereas the second clade includes S. rostratus and S. uruguayus groups. Chromosome morphology, NOR and C-banding patterns of variation support these clades. This study aims the cytogenetic characterization of five species currently included in the S. perpusillus group: Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus), S. arduous, S. belloni, S. cosenzai, and S. v-signatus, including standard cytogenetic techniques and repetitive DNA FISH probes. All species had 2n = 24 chromosomes. Nucleolar organizing regions occurred in chromosome pair 6 in all species, but differed in their locations among some species, suggesting a putative synaponomastic character for the clade. In S. belloni, the first chromosome pair was a metacentric, contrasting with the submetacentric first pair reported in all other species of the genus. Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus) and S. v-signatus had similar karyotypic formulae, suggesting they are related species. Scinax cosenzai had a divergent C-banding pattern. Repetitive DNA probes hybridized more frequently in chromosomal subtelomeric regions in all species indicating recent cladogenesis in these species. Karyotypic evidence indicates unreported high levels of stabilization within S. perpusillus and in S. catharinae clade, resulting in a wealth of characters potentially informative for higher phylogenetic analyses.

  15. Sperm whale assessment in the Western Ionian Sea using acoustic data from deep sea observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Bellia, Giorgio; Beranzoli, Laura; De Domenico, Emilio; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Scandura, Danila; Sciacca, Virginia; Viola, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) operates two deep sea infrastructures: Capo Passero, Western Ionian Sea 3,600 meters of depth, and Catania Wester Ionian Sea 2,100 m depth. At the two sites, several research observatories have been run: OnDE, NEMO-SN1, SMO, KM3NeT-Italia most of them jointly operated between INFN and INGV. In all these observatories, passive acoustic sensors (hydrophones) have been installed. Passive Acoustics Monitoring (PAM) is nowadays the main tool of the bioacoustics to study marine mammals. In particular, receiving the sounds emitted by cetaceans from a multi-hydrophones array installed in a cabled seafloor observatory, a research about the ecological dynamics of the species may be performed. Data acquired with the hydrophones installed aboard the OnDE, SMO and KM3NeT-Italia observatories will be reported. Thanks to acquired data, the acoustic presence of the sperm whales was assessed and studied for several years (2005:2013). An "ad hoc" algorithm was also developed to allow the automatic identification of the "clicks" emitted by the sperm whales and measure the size of detected animals. According to the results obtained, the sperm whale population in the area is well-distributed in size, sex and sexual maturity. Although specimens more than 14 meters of length (old males) seem to be absent.

  16. Analysis of army-wide hearing conservation database for hearing profiles related to crew-served and individual weapon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Ahroon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage-risk criteria (DRC for noise exposures are designed to protect 95% of the exposed populations from hearing injuries caused by those noise exposures. The current DRC used by the US military follows OSHA guidelines for continuous noise. The current military DRC for impulse exposures follows the recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA and are contained in the current military standard, MIL-STD-1474D "Noise Limits." Suggesting that the MIL-STD for impulse exposure is too stringent, various individuals have proposed that the DRC for exposure to high-level impulses be relaxed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current hearing status of US Army Soldiers, some of whom can be, by their military occupational specialties (MOS, reasonably expected to be routinely exposed to high-level impulses from weapon systems. The Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System - Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC was queried for the hearing status of enlisted Soldiers of 32 different MOSs. The results indicated that less than 95% of the Soldiers in the DOEHRS-HC database were classified as having normal hearing. In other words, the goal of the DRC used for limiting noise injuries (from continuous and impulse exposures was not stringent enough to prevent hearing injuries in all but the most susceptible Soldiers. These results suggest that the current military noise DRC should not be relaxed.

  17. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Feinberg

    Full Text Available We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data and south to North Carolina (based on call data.

  18. How do "mute" cicadas produce their calling songs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Luo

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as "mute". This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the "mute" cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism.

  19. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  20. The advertisement call of Stumpffia be Köhler, Vences, D'Cruze & Glaw, 2010 (Anura: Microhylidae: Cophylinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattenkamp, Ella Z; Mandák, Martin; Scherz, Mark D

    2016-12-09

    We describe the calls of Stumpffia be Köhler, Vences, D'Cruze & Glaw, 2010. This is the first call description made for a species belonging to the large-bodied northern Madagascan radiation of Stumpffia Boettger, 1881. Stumpffia is a genus of small (~9-28 mm) microhylid frogs in the Madagascar-endemic subfamily Cophylinae Cope. Little is known about their reproductive strategies. Most species are assumed to lay their eggs in foam nests in the leaf litter of Madagascar's humid and semi-humid forests (Glaw & Vences 1994; Klages et al. 2013). They exhibit some degree of parental care, with the males guarding the nest after eggs are laid (Klages et al. 2013). The bioacoustic repertoire of these frogs is thought to be limited, and there are two distinct call structures known for the genus: the advertisement call of the type species, S. psologlossa Boettger, 1881, is apparently unique in being a trill of notes repeated in short succession. All other species from which calls are known emit single, whistling or chirping notes (Vences & Glaw 1991; Vences et al. 2006).

  1. The advertisement calls of Quasipaa shini (Ahl, 1930) (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shen Shen; Zheng, Rong Quan; Zhang, Qi Peng

    2016-12-04

    The genus Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) is currently composed of 11 species distributed in China and Southeast Asia: Quasipaa acanthophora (Dubois & Ohler 2009), Q. boulengeri (Günther 1889), Q. courtoisi (Angel 1922), Q. delacouri (Angel 1928), Q. exilispinosa (Liu & Hu, 1975), Q. fasciculispina (Inger 1970), Q. jiulongensis (Huang & Liu, 1985), Q. shini (Ahl 1930), Q. spinosa (David 1875), Q. verrucospinosa (Bourret 1937), Q. yei (Chen, Qu & Jiang 2002) (Frost 2016). These species are morphologically similar, and their taxonomy is subject to controversy (Che et al. 2009). Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggest the genus likely encompass additional cryptic species (Ye et al. 2013). Bioacoustics has contributed to studies on the taxonomy of the genus (Ye et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2015), however, to date, only the advertisement calls of Q. spinosa are known (Yu & Zheng 2009; Chen et al. 2012; Shen et al. 2015). Here, we describe the advertisement calls of Q. shini, which inhabits streams in the southern part of central China(Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Jiangxi) and is characterized by the presence of keratinized skin spines on the lateral surfaces of the body.

  2. Comparison of song frequency and receptor tuning in two closely related bushcricket species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmring, K; Rössler, W; Jatho, M; Hoffmann, E

    1995-01-01

    The songs and the structure and physiology of the auditory organs in the closely related bushcricket species Tettigonia viridissima and Tettigonia cantans were investigated comparatively using bioacoustical, histological and neurophysiological methods. The morphology of the crista acustica, the main auditory receptor organ, is very similar in the two species in respect to both the distribution of scolopidia along the length axis of the crista and the dimensions of corresponding scolopidia and attachment structures. The only obvious difference is that T. viridissima has one more scolopidium in the crista acustica and that the overall length of the crista is by about 50 microns larger than in T. cantans. In contrast, differences were found in the physiology of individual auditory receptor cells. Comparison of the threshold characteristics of all the receptor cells of the crista acustica in both species reveals a differential sensitivity of groups of auditory receptor cells at dominant frequencies of the song. In each species, the sensitivity of auditory receptor cells is method to the energy spectrum of the song. These differences in the physiology can partly be explained by differences in transmission characteristics of the acoustic trachea.

  3. Acoustic Communication in Butterflyfishes: Anatomical Novelties, Physiology, Evolution, and Behavioral Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricas, Timothy C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef fishes live in noisy environments that may challenge their capacity for acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae) are prominent and ecologically diverse members of coral reef communities worldwide. The discovery of a novel association of anterior swim bladder horns with the lateral line canal system in the genus Chaetodon (the laterophysic connection) revealed a putative adaptation for enhancement of sound reception by the lateral line system and/or the ear. Behavioral studies show that acoustic communication is an important component of butterflyfish social behavior. All bannerfish (Forcipiger, Heniochus, and Hemitaurichthys) and Chaetodon species studied thus far produce several sound types at frequencies of 1000 Hz. Ancestral character state analyses predict the existence of both shared (head bob) and divergent (tail slap) acoustic behaviors in these two clades. Experimental auditory physiology shows that butterflyfishes are primarily sensitive to stimuli associated with hydrodynamic particle accelerations of ≤500 Hz. In addition, the gas-filled swim bladder horns in Chaetodon are stimulated by sound pressure, which enhances and extends their auditory sensitivity to 1700-2000 Hz. The broadband spectrum of ambient noise present on coral reefs overlaps with the frequency characteristics of their sounds, thus both the close social affiliations common among butterflyfishes and the evolution of the swim bladder horns in Chaetodon facilitate their short-range acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes provide a unique and unexpected opportunity to carry out studies of fish bioacoustics in the lab and the field that integrate the study of sensory anatomy, physiology, evolution, and behavioral ecology.

  4. DNA reveals long-distance partial migratory behavior in a cryptic owl lineage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keren R.Sadanandan; David J.X.Tan; Kolbj?rn Schj?lberg; Philip D.Round; Frank E.Rheindt

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Brown Hawk Owl complex is said to consist of three species,the Brown Boobook(Ninox scutulata),the Chocolate Boobook(Ninox randi) and the Northern Boobook(Ninox japonica),which includes the nominate migratory lineage Ninox japonica japonica and a mitochondrially distinct lineage of taxonomically uncertain status that has been recorded year-round at least in Taiwan.Overlap in ranges during migration and morphological similarity have led to difficulties in distinguishing the Brown Boobook from the Northern Boobook.Methods: PCR of cytochrome-b and Sanger sequencing of Ninox samples from Singapore and Brunei were used to determine sample identity.Results: Two out of four Singaporean samples and the Brunei sample were identified as Northern Boobooks.This is the first official record of this species in Singapore and represents a considerable range extension for the species.Further,the samples belong to the mitochondrially distinct lineage previously characterized in resident Taiwanese populations rather than to the well-known nominate migratory lineage.Conclusions: Our data show that the mitochondrial signature previously documented in resident Taiwanese populations of the Northern Boobook extends to migratory populations.This cryptic lineage may be more widespread in its breeding quarters,extending to the Chinese and Russian mainland,in which case the name florensis would apply to it.Further genetic and bioacoustic investigation is required to resolve the taxonomic status of this lineage.

  5. USAF bioenvironmental noise data handbook. Volume 172: Hush-noise suppressor (Aero Systems Engineering, Incorporated) far-field noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.; Rau, T. H.; Jones, C.

    1982-07-01

    The hush-house noise suppressor was made by Aero Systems Engineering of Texas, Inc. for acoustical suppression of various AF fighter/trainer aircraft during ground runup operations. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by several aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house suppressor for various engine power configurations. Far-field data measured at 20 locations are normalized to standard meteorological conditions and extrapolated from 75-8000 meters to derive sets of equal-value contours for seven acoustic measures as function of angle and distance from the source. Refer to Volume 1 of this handbook, 'USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook, Vol 1: Organization, Content and Application,' AMRL-TR-75(1) 1975, for discussion of the objective and design of the handbook, the types of data presented, measurement procedures, instrumentation, data processing, definitions of quantities, symbols, equations, applications, limitations, etc. Data are presented for the following aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house noise suppressor: F-4, F-15, F-16, F-105, F-106, F-111F and T-38 aircraft and the TF41-A-1, J79-GE-15, F100-PW-100, J75-P19, J-75-P-17 and TF30-P-100 engines.

  6. Trading twitter: Amateur recorders and economies of scientific exchange at the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyninckx, Joeri

    2015-06-01

    Scientists have long engaged in collaborations with field collectors, but how are such collaborations established and maintained? This article examines structures of collaborative data collection between professional scientists and various field recorders around the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds. The Library collects animal sound recordings for use in education, preservation, and entertainment, but primarily in the scientific field of bio-acoustics. Since 1945, the Library has enlisted academic researchers, commercial recorders and broadcasters (such as the British Broadcasting Corporation), and amateur sound hunters in its expansion. I argue that the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds managed to craft and sustain a crucial network of contributors through creative and strategic brokering with its collection of recordings/data. Drawing on notions from exchange theory, I show that sound recordings were valued not just as scientific data, but also as copyrighted commodities that could be bought, sold, traded, and converted in a range of economic, social, and symbolic capitals within collaborators' respective social fields. Thus, aligning collaborators' interests, these exchange relations enabled the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds to negotiate amateur recorders' reliability, willingness to share work, and commitment to scientific standards, as well as the bonds that solidified their collaboration with the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds. Attending to the micro-economics of data exchange, this article thus brings into perspective the multi-dimensional processes through which data-flows are managed.

  7. High Species Richness of Scinax Treefrogs (Hylidae) in a Threatened Amazonian Landscape Revealed by an Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Miquéias; Colatreli, Olavo; de Fraga, Rafael; Kaefer, Igor L.; Moravec, Jiří; Lima, Albertina P.

    2016-01-01

    Rising habitat loss is one of the main drivers of the global amphibian decline. Nevertheless, knowledge of amphibian diversity needed for effective habitat protection is still highly inadequate in remote tropical regions, the greater part of the Amazonia. In this study we integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence to evaluate the species richness of the treefrogs genus Scinax over a 1000 km transect across rainforest of the Purus-Madeira interfluve, and along the east bank of the upper Madeira river, Brazilian Amazonia. Analysis revealed that 82% of the regional species richness of Scinax is still undescribed; two nominal species, seven confirmed candidate species, two unconfirmed candidate species, and one deep conspecific lineage were detected in the study area. DNA barcoding based analysis of the 16s rRNA gene indicates possible existence of three discrete species groups within the genus Scinax, in addition to the already-known S. rostratus species Group. Quantifying and characterizing the number of undescribed Scinax taxa on a regional scale, we provide a framework for future taxonomic study in Amazonia. These findings indicate that the level to which Amazonian anura species richness has been underestimated is far greater than expected. Consequently, special attention should be paid both to taxonomic studies and protection of the still-neglected Amazonian Scinax treefrogs. PMID:27806089

  8. Systematics of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species complex (Anura: Hylidae): Cryptic diversity and the description of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminer, Marcel A.; Milá, Borja; Jansen, Martin; Fouquet, Antoine; Venegas, Pablo J.; Chávez, Germán; Lougheed, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic data in studies of systematics of Amazonian amphibians frequently reveal that purportedly widespread single species in reality comprise species complexes. This means that real species richness may be significantly higher than current estimates. Here we combine genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic data to assess the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of two Amazonian species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group: D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum. Our results uncovered the existence of five confirmed and four unconfirmed candidate species. Among the confirmed candidate species, three have available names: Dendropsophus leucophyllatus, Dendropsophus triangulum, and Dendropsophus reticulatus, this last being removed from the synonymy of D. triangulum. A neotype of D. leucophyllatus is designated. We describe the remaining two confirmed candidate species, one from Bolivia and another from Peru. All confirmed candidate species are morphologically distinct and have much smaller geographic ranges than those previously reported for D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum sensu lato. Dendropsophus leucophyllatus sensu stricto occurs in the Guianan region. Dendropsophus reticulatus comb. nov. corresponds to populations in the Amazon basin of Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru previously referred to as D. triangulum. Dendropsophus triangulum sensu stricto is the most widely distributed species; it occurs in Amazonian Ecuador, Peru and Brazil, reaching the state of Pará. We provide accounts for all described species including an assessment of their conservation status. PMID:28248998

  9. Cetacean distributions relative to ocean processes in the northern California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Cynthia T.; Ainley, David G.; Barth, John A.; Cowles, Timothy J.; Pierce, Stephen D.; Spear, Larry B.

    2005-01-01

    Associations between cetacean distributions, oceanographic features, and bioacoustic backscatter were examined during two process cruises in the northern California Current System (CCS) during late spring and summer 2000. Line-transect surveys of cetaceans were conducted across the shelf and slope, out to 150 km offshore from Newport, Oregon (44.6°N) to Crescent City, California (41.9°N), in conjunction with multidisciplinary mesoscale and fine-scale surveys of ocean and ecosystem structure. Occurrence patterns (presence/absence) of cetaceans were compared with hydrographic and ecological variables (e.g., sea surface salinity, sea surface temperature, thermocline depth, halocline depth, chlorophyll maximum, distance to the center of the equatorward jet, distance to the shoreward edge of the upwelling front, and acoustic backscatter at 38, 120, 200 and 420 kHz) derived from a towed, undulating array and a bioacoustic system. Using a multiple logistic regression model, 60.2% and 94.4% of the variation in occurrence patterns of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae during late spring and summer, respectively, were explained. Sea surface temperature, depth, and distance to the alongshore upwelling front were the most important environmental variables during June, when humpbacks occurred over the slope (200-2000 m). During August, when humpbacks concentrated over a submarine bank (Heceta Bank) and off Cape Blanco, sea surface salinity was the most important variable, followed by latitude and depth. Humpbacks did not occur in the lowest salinity water of the Columbia River plume. For harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena, the model explained 79.2% and 70.1% of the variation in their occurrence patterns during June and August, respectively. During spring, latitude, sea surface salinity, and thermocline gradient were the most important predictors. During summer, latitude and distance to the inshore edge of the upwelling front were the most important variables. Typically a

  10. Diversity in Fish Auditory Systems: One of the Riddles of Sensory Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich eLadich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An astonishing diversity of inner ears and accessory hearing structures (AHS that can enhance hearing has evolved in fishes. Inner ears mainly differ in the size of the otolith end organs, the shape and orientation of the sensory epithelia, and the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of sensory hair cells. Despite our profound morphological knowledge of inner ear variation, two main questions remain widely unanswered. (i What selective forces and/or constraints led to the evolution of this inner ear diversity? (ii How is the morphological variability linked to hearing abilities? Improved hearing is mainly based on the ability of many fish species to transmit oscillations of swim bladder walls or other gas-filled bladders to the inner ears. Swim bladders may be linked to the inner ears via a chain of ossicles (in otophysans, anterior extensions (e.g. some cichlids, squirrelfishes, or the gas bladders may touch the inner ears directly (labyrinth fishes. Studies on catfishes and cichlids demonstrate that larger swim bladders and more pronounced linkages to the inner ears positively affect both auditory sensitivities and the detectable frequency range, but lack of a connection does not exclude hearing enhancement. This diversity of auditory structures and hearing abilities is one of the main riddles in fish bioacoustics research. Hearing enhancement might have evolved to facilitate intraspecific acoustic communication. A comparison of sound-producing species, however, indicates that acoustic communication is widespread in taxa lacking AHS. Eco-acoustical constraints are a more likely explanation for the diversity in fish hearing sensitivities. Low ambient noise levels may have facilitated the evolution of AHS, enabling fish to detect low-level abiotic noise and sounds from con- and heterospecifics, including predators and prey. Aquatic habitats differ in ambient noise regimes, and preliminary data indicate that hearing sensitivities of fishes

  11. Seven new species of Night Frogs (Anura, Nyctibatrachidae) from the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot of India, with remarkably high diversity of diminutive forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sonali; Suyesh, Robin; Sukesan, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    The Night Frog genus Nyctibatrachus (Family Nyctibatrachidae) represents an endemic anuran lineage of the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, India. Until now, it included 28 recognised species, of which more than half were described recently over the last five years. Our amphibian explorations have further revealed the presence of undescribed species of Nights Frogs in the southern Western Ghats. Based on integrated molecular, morphological and bioacoustic evidence, seven new species are formally described here as Nyctibatrachus athirappillyensis sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus manalari sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus pulivijayani sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus radcliffei sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus robinmoorei sp. nov., Nyctibatrachus sabarimalai sp. nov. and Nyctibatrachus webilla sp. nov., thereby bringing the total number of valid Nyctibatrachus species to 35 and increasing the former diversity estimates by a quarter. Detailed morphological descriptions, comparisons with other members of the genus, natural history notes, and genetic relationships inferred from phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial dataset are presented for all the new species. Additionally, characteristics of male advertisement calls are described for four new and three previously known species. Among the new species, six are currently known to be geographically restricted to low and mid elevation regions south of Palghat gap in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and one is probably endemic to high-elevation mountain streams slightly northward of the gap in Tamil Nadu. Interestingly, four new species are also among the smallest known Indian frogs. Hence, our discovery of several new species, particularly of easily overlooked miniaturized forms, reiterates that the known amphibian diversity of the Western Ghats of India still remains underestimated. PMID:28243532

  12. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  13. Integrating multiple evidences in taxonomy: species diversity and phylogeny of mustached bats (Mormoopidae: Pteronotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Ana Carolina; Marroig, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    A phylogenetic systematic perspective is instrumental in recovering new species and their evolutionary relationships. The advent of new technologies for molecular and morphological data acquisition and analysis, allied to the integration of knowledge from different areas, such as ecology and population genetics, allows for the emergence of more rigorous, accurate and complete scientific hypothesis on species diversity. Mustached bats (genus Pteronotus) are a good model for the application of this integrative approach. They are a widely distributed and a morphologically homogeneous group, but comprising species with remarkable differences in their echolocation strategy and feeding behavior. The latest systematic review suggested six species with 17 subspecies in Pteronotus. Subsequent studies using discrete morphological characters supported the same arrangement. However, recent papers reported high levels of genetic divergence among conspecific taxa followed by bioacoustic and geographic agreement, suggesting an underestimated diversity in the genus. To date, no study merging genetic evidences and morphometric variation along the entire geographic range of this group has been attempted. Based on a comprehensive sampling including representatives of all current taxonomic units, we attempt to delimit species in Pteronotus through the application of multiple methodologies and hierarchically distinct datasets. The molecular approach includes six molecular markers from three genetic transmission systems; morphological investigations used 41 euclidean distances estimated through three-dimensional landmarks collected from 1628 skulls. The phylogenetic analysis reveals a greater diversity than previously reported, with a high correspondence among the genetic lineages and the currently recognized subspecies in the genus. Discriminant analysis of variables describing size and shape of cranial bones support the rising of the genetic groups to the specific status. Based on

  14. Audio segmentation using Flattened Local Trimmed Range for ecological acoustic space analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany Vega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic space in a given environment is filled with footprints arising from three processes: biophony, geophony and anthrophony. Bioacoustic research using passive acoustic sensors can result in thousands of recordings. An important component of processing these recordings is to automate signal detection. In this paper, we describe a new spectrogram-based approach for extracting individual audio events. Spectrogram-based audio event detection (AED relies on separating the spectrogram into background (i.e., noise and foreground (i.e., signal classes using a threshold such as a global threshold, a per-band threshold, or one given by a classifier. These methods are either too sensitive to noise, designed for an individual species, or require prior training data. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is not sensitive to noise, does not need any prior training data and works with any type of audio event. To do this, we propose: (1 a spectrogram filtering method, the Flattened Local Trimmed Range (FLTR method, which models the spectrogram as a mixture of stationary and non-stationary energy processes and mitigates the effect of the stationary processes, and (2 an unsupervised algorithm that uses the filter to detect audio events. We measured the performance of the algorithm using a set of six thoroughly validated audio recordings and obtained a sensitivity of 94% and a positive predictive value of 89%. These sensitivity and positive predictive values are very high, given that the validated recordings are diverse and obtained from field conditions. The algorithm was then used to extract audio events in three datasets. Features of these audio events were plotted and showed the unique aspects of the three acoustic communities.

  15. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  16. Morphological, olfactory, and vocal development in big brown bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather W. Mayberry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a within subjects design, we documented morphological, bioacoustical and behavioral developmental changes in big brown bats. Eptesicus fuscus pups are born naked and blind but assume an adult-like appearance by post-natal day (PND 45 and flight by PND 30. Adult females use spatial memory, acoustic and olfactory cues to reunite with offspring, but it is unclear if pups can recognize maternal scents. We tested the olfactory discrimination abilities of young E. fuscus pups and found they exhibited no odor preferences. Pups also emit distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (i-calls that facilitate mother-offspring reunions, but how pups shift their vocalizations from i-calls to downward frequency modulated (FM sweeps used in echolocation remains unclear. Between PND 0–9, pups emitted mainly long duration, tonal i-calls rich in harmonics, but after they switched to short duration, downward FM sweeps with fewer harmonics. Call maximum frequency and repetition rate showed minor changes across development. Signal duration, bandwidth, and number of harmonics decreased, whereas the maximum, minimum and bandwidth of the fundamental, and peak spectral frequency all increased. We recorded vocalizations during prolonged maternal separation and found that isolated pups called longer and at a faster rate, presumably to signal for maternal assistance. To assess how PND 13 pups alter their signals during interactions with humans we compared spontaneous and provoked vocalizations and found that provoked calls were spectrally and temporally more similar to those of younger bats suggesting that pups in distress emit signals that sound like younger bats to promote maternal assistance.

  17. A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryan, Robert [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Department of Fisheries and Wildlife; Albertani, Roberto [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering; Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    2016-07-15

    Wind energy production in the U.S. is projected to increase to 35% of our nation’s energy by 2050. This substantial increase in the U.S. is only a portion of the global wind industry growth, as many countries strive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A major environmental concern and potential market barrier for expansion of wind energy is bird and bat mortality from impacts with turbine blades, towers, and nacelles. Carcass surveys are the standard protocol for quantifying mortality at onshore sites. This method is imperfect, however, due to survey frequency at remote sites, removal of carcasses by scavengers between surveys, searcher efficiency, and other biases as well as delays of days to weeks or more in obtaining information on collision events. Furthermore, carcass surveys are not feasible at offshore wind energy sites. Near-real-time detection and quantification of interaction rates is possible at both onshore and offshore wind facilities using an onboard, integrated sensor package with data transmitted to central processing centers. We developed and experimentally tested an array of sensors that continuously monitors for interactions (including impacts) of birds and bats with wind turbines. The synchronized array includes three sensor nodes: (1) vibration (accelerometers and contact microphones), (2) optical (visual and infrared spectrum cameras), and (3) bioacoustics (acoustic and ultrasonic microphones). Accelerometers and contact acoustic microphones are placed at the root of each blade to detect impact vibrations and sound waves propagating through the structure. On-board data processing algorithms using wavelet analysis detect impact signals exceeding background vibration. Stereo-visual and infrared cameras were placed on the nacelle to allow target tracking, distance, and size calculations. On-board image processing and target detection algorithms identify moving targets within the camera field of view. Bioacoustic recorders monitor vocalizations

  18. 中国海兽研究概述%Marine mammal researches in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉江; 王克雄; 韩家波; 郑劲松; 先义杰; 姚志平; 鹿志创; 李海燕; 张先锋

    2011-01-01

    我国对海兽的研究已有80多年的历史.为了回顾我国海兽研究的历史,总结我国海兽研究的进展,并展望我国海兽研究的未来,借创刊30周年之际,作者查阅了大量历史文献,并结合我们的研究积累,从鲸类、鳍脚类和其他海兽三个类群分别综述了我国海兽研究的进展.本文重点总结了我国几种代表性海兽的生态学、饲养与繁殖生物学、保护遗传学、声学和保护生物学等研究进展.我们认为,我国在珍稀濒危淡水豚类的饲养与繁殖生物学、保护生物学和生物声学等方面处于国际前沿地位.对我国海洋沿岸的海兽还缺乏系统研究,对珍稀濒危海兽的保护实践有待突破.%Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica ' s 30 year anniversary, we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience, summarized its progress, and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups: whales, pinnipeds, and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology, conservation genetic, acoustics, and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First, Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology, conservation biology, and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point, unfortunately, is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.

  19. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan LINGLE; Megan T.WYMAN; Radim KOTRBA; Lisa J.TEICHROEB; Cora A.ROMANOW

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the cries of human infants,sounds made by non-human infants in different stressful behavioral contexts (hunger or physical discomfort,isolation,capture by humans or predators) are usually treated as distinct types of vocalizations.However,if distress vocalizations produced by different species and in different contexts share a common motivational state and associated neurochemical pathways,we can expect them to share a common acoustic structure and adaptive function,showing only limited variation that corresponds to the infant's level of arousal.Based on this premise,we review the acoustic structure and adaptive function of two types of distress calls,those given when infants were isolated from their mothers (isolation calls) or captured by humans (capture calls).We conducted a within-context comparison examining the two call types across a diverse selection of mammalian species and other vertebrate groups,followed by a comparison of how acoustic structure and function differs between these contexts.In addition,we assessed acoustic traits that are critical to the response of caregivers.Across vertebrate species,distress vocalizations produced in these two behavioral contexts tend to be tonal with a simple chevron,flat or descending pattern of frequency modulation.Reports that both isolation and capture calls of vertebrate infants serve to attract caregivers are universal,and the fundamental frequency of infant vocalizations is often critical to this response.The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in the acoustic structure of isolation and capture distress vocalizations reflect differences in arousal,and not discrete functions.The similarity in acoustic structure and caregiver response observed across vertebrates adds support to the hypothesis that the production and processing of distress vocalizations are part of a highly-conserved system of social vocal behaviour in vertebrates.Bioacoustic research may move

  20. Little walking leaves from southeast Ecuador: biology and taxonomy of Typophyllum species (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Pterochrozinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Holger

    2015-09-02

    Caudell 1918 syn. nov. The discussion treats the problematic taxonomy of the little walking leaves, bioacoustics, the pre-copulatory riding behaviour, the sophisticated mimesis, and very briefly the uncertain position within the katydid phylogeny.

  1. Simple filter microchip for rapid separation of plasma and viruses from whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SQ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ShuQi Wang,1 Dusan Sarenac,1 Michael H Chen,1 Shih-Han Huang,1 Francoise F Giguel,2 Daniel R Kuritzkes,3 Utkan Demirci1,41Bio-acoustic MEMS in Medicine Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 3Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Sample preparation is a significant challenge for detection and sensing technologies, since the presence of blood cells can interfere with the accuracy and reliability of virus detection at the nanoscale for point-of-care testing. To the best of our knowledge, there is not an existing on-chip virus isolation technology that does not use complex fluidic pumps. Here, we presented a lab-on-a-chip filter device to isolate plasma and viruses from unprocessed whole blood based on size exclusion without using a micropump. We demonstrated that viruses (eg, HIV can be separated on a filter-based chip (2-µm pore size from HIV-spiked whole blood at high recovery efficiencies of 89.9% ± 5.0%, 80.5% ± 4.3%, and 78.2% ± 3.8%, for viral loads of 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 copies/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, 81.7% ± 6.7% of red blood cells and 89.5% ± 2.4% of white blood cells were retained on 2 µm pore–sized filter microchips. We also tested these filter microchips with seven HIV-infected patient samples and observed recovery efficiencies ranging from 73.1% ± 8.3% to 82.5% ± 4.1%. These results are first steps towards developing disposable point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring devices for resource-constrained settings, as well as hospital and primary care settings.Keywords: microchip, filtration, virus isolation, plasma separation, point-of-care

  2. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DelWayne R Bohnenstiehl

    Full Text Available Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92 and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93, as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal

  3. ESONET LIDO Demonstration Mission: the East Sicily node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, Giorgio; Favali, Paolo; Andrè, Michel; Chierici, Francesco; Pavan, Gianni; Esonet Lido Demonstration Mission Team

    2010-05-01

    Off East Sicily (at 2100 m depth, 25 km off the harbour of Catania) a prototype of a cabled deep-sea observatory (NEMO-SN1) was set up and has been operational in real-time since 2005 (the cabled deep-sea multi-parameter station SN1, equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors and the cabled NEMO-OνDE, equipped with 4 broadband hydrophones). The Western Ionian Sea is one of the node sites for the upcoming European permanent underwater network (EMSO). Within the activities of the EC project ESONET-NoE some demonstration missions have been funded. The LIDO-DM (Listening to the Deep Ocean-Demonstration Mission) is one of these and is related to two sites, East Sicily and Iberian Margin (Gulf of Cadiz), the main aims being geo-hazards monitoring and warning (seismic, tsunami, and volcanic) and bio-acoustics. The LIDO-DM East Sicily installation represents a further major step within ESONET-NoE, resulting in a fully integrated system for multidisciplinary deep-sea science, capable to transmit and distribute data in real time to the scientific community and to the general public. LIDO-DM East Sicily hosts a large number of sensors aimed at monitoring and studying oceanographic and environmental parameters (by means of CTD, ADCP, 3-C single point current meter, turbidity meter), geophysical phenomena (low frequency hydrophones, accelerometer, gravity meter, vector and scalar magnetometers, seismometer, absolute and differential pressure gauges), ocean noise monitoring and identification and tracking of biological acoustic sources in deep sea. The latter will be performed using two tetrahedral arrays of 4 hydrophones, located at a relative distance of about 5 km, and at about 25 km from the shore. The whole system will be connected and powered from shore, by means of the electro-optical cable net installed at the East Sicily Site Infrastructure, and synchronised with GPS. Sensors data sampling is performed underwater and transmitted via optical fibre link, with

  4. Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2013-10-01

    and electron-dense inclusions not seen in the control animals. The lesions described here are new to cephalopod pathology. Given that low-frequency noise levels in the ocean are increasing (e.g. shipping, offshore industry, and naval manoeuvres), that the role of cephalopods in marine ecosystems is only now beginning to be understood, and that reliable bioacoustic data on invertebrates are scarce, the present study and future investigations will bring an important contribution to the sustainable use of the marine environment.

  5. Descriptions of four new species of Choerophryne(Anura,Microhylidae)from Papua Province,Indonesian New Guinea%印尼新几内亚巴布亚省豕蛙属4新种(两栖纲:姬蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rainer G(U)NTHER

    2008-01-01

    姬蛙科豕蛙属(Choerophryne)已知5种,几乎都分布于新几内亚岛东部地区,已有物种的描述多基于较少数量的标本,由于标本贫乏,迄今无 后续研究.本文针对采集于1998-2003年的50号标本,对该属进行了再研究,并描述了分布 于新几内亚岛的巴布亚西北地区鲜为人知的4新种.与同属已知物种比较,新种的有效性得 到来自形态、声谱以及分子数据的综合分析结果的支持.在新几内亚岛西部地区豕蛙属4新 种中,至少有3种的种群密度很高,从而极大增加了对该属的了解%The Australopapuan microhylid genus Choerophryne was known until now from five species occurring almost exclusively on the eastern half of New Guinea. Descriptions of these species were based on only few specimens, and after their description no or only a few additional specimens were found. On the basis of more than 50 additional specimens, collected in the years 1998-2003, four new species of this secretive and poorly known genus from north-western Papua Province, Indonesia, are described in the present paper. Morphological, bioacoustic and molecular data, as well as comparisons with all previously known species of this genus, confirm the validity of the new descriptions. The occurrence of four new Choerophryne species, at least three of them in high population densities, and from western New Guinea, increases our knowledge of this genus substantially

  6. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    . File morphology is one of the main distinctive element in sound emission strategies of insect species. We compared analyses of the microstructures of different species' files (both shape and height of teeth, regularity, distance, etc.) and then confirmed their main characteristics within the acoustic domain. Specific Fourier transforms were employed to derive detailed spectrograms analyses providing a powerful visual tool for understanding. For the three species in this study, the typical stridulation of male individuals were isolated and recorded in high definition (96khz and 192khz / 24bit). These high sampling rates enabled to enter the microcosm of sound - in analogy to the microcosm of morphology - through processes of time and frequency shifting. Different sound design methodologies, then, allowed to compose an imaginary soundscape where the sonic gestures of each individual (or more grouped recordings) were superimposed in a polyphony of rhythms and pitches. The purpose for crossing bioacoustics, electron microscopy and music in this interdisciplinary work is driven by a pressing need of awareness of the sonic heritage of landscapes and its conservation.

  7. Research progress on population decline mechanism of the endangered Yangtze finless porpoise%长江江豚种群衰退机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅志刚; 郝玉江; 郑劲松; 王克雄; 李松海; 王丁

    2011-01-01

    The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), as a relatively isolated and unique freshwater population, is endemic to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and is listed as an endangered species in IUCN Red List since 1996.Its population has been declining continually in the past three decades with a rate of about 6.3% per annum since early 1990s.The survey conducted in 2006 found that there were less than 1 200 individuals left in the main channel of the Yangtze River, which was less than half of the population size in the early 1990s.This project aims to explore the possible population decline mechanism of the Yangtze finless porpoise through aspects of population ecology, bioacoustics and population genetics.This paper reviews the research progress, and prospects research plans that will be carried out in the coming future.This project helps to develop the conservation biology theory of the Yangtze finless porpoise, and also helps to understand the decline and extinction mechanism of the probably extinct baiji (Lipotex vexillifer), another cetacean species once endemic to the Yangtze River.Moreover, this project could also provide some theoretical support for conservation of other aquatic animals in the Yangtze River.%长江江豚(Neophocaenaphocaenoides asiaeorientalis)是生活于我国长江中下游的一种独特的淡水小型鲸类,1996年被收录为IUCN濒危物种.在过去的三十年间,其种群数量呈快速下降趋势.数据显示,20世纪90年代以来,其种群下降速率约为每年6.3%.2006年考察发现长江干流中其种群数量少于1 200头,与15年前相比减少了50%以上.为了深入了解造成长江江豚种群快速衰退的机理,课题组从种群生态学、生物声学和种群遗传学三个方面开展研究工作.综述了该项目的研究进展,并对下一步的研究计划进行了展望.相关研究不仅能促进长江江豚保护生物学理论的发展,也有助于