WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioacoustics

  1. EOP Bioacoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard bioacoustics data collected in the Pacific, both pelagic and near shore environments. Data is collected using Simrad EK60 splitbeam...

  2. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  3. FIRST BIOACOUSTIC SURVEY OF SINGING CICADAS (HEMIPTERA: CICADIDAE) IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gogala,Matija; Trilar, Tomi

    2016-01-01

     New data on the distribution of singing cicadas in Serbia were collected with a bioacoustic approach. Six species were detected in SW Serbia and on Mt. Avala between 4 and 12 June, 2014. Three of the species are new for this country − Cicadetta montana sensu stricto, C. cantilatrix and C. macedonica. For the other three species, Dimissalna dimissa, Cicadivetta tibialis and Tettigettula pygmea, new distributional data are reported.

  4. A Real-time Portable Bioacoustics Species Identification Design Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naufal Alee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an increasing demand of an automated system for animal species identification, where it needs a perfect good knowledge, understanding of the nature under vision and proper efficient system design. Embedded systems nowadays are offering a brilliant solution. Based on nature of economic and feasibility of advanced, embedded technology is chosen. This paper proposes a design of real-time portable bioacoustics species identification system. It contains two major correlated modules apart, the identification module and the system control module. The identification module is to be implemented in FPGA hardware to achieve species identification process while the system control module will manage and control the entire system. The proposed system is a combination of hardware, software development and operating system customization. It is designed to be decentralize, therefore the need of any server is eliminated. It can be placed anywhere, can be viewed and accessed from anywhere through a web server built-in.

  5. Automated categorization of bioacoustic signals: Avoiding perceptual pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deecke, Volker B.; Janik, Vincent M.

    2005-04-01

    Dividing a species acoustic repertoire into biologically relevant categories presents a widespread problem in the study of animal sound communication. Such categorization is fundamental to any attempt to compare repertoires between contexts, individuals, populations or species. Automated procedures allow rapid, repeatable and objective categorization, however, in the past they have often performed poorly at detecting biologically meaningful sound classes. Arguably this is because automated methods have often failed to address the nonlinearities of animal sound perception and a method that incorporates dynamic time warping and an adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network to avoid some of the problems is presented here. The method was tested on 104 randomly chosen whistles recorded from four captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). This data set includes known biologically meaningful categories in the form of 42 distinctive stereotyped whistles produced when each individual was kept in isolation. The automated procedure correctly grouped all but two of the stereotyped whistles into their respective categories, and thus performed as good as human observers. However, compared to humans, the automated system provided finer categorization of the remaining non-stereotyped whistles. These results suggest that this methodology provides a repeatable and objective means of splitting bioacoustic signals into biologically meaningful categories.

  6. Using Bioacoustical Methodologies to Evaluate Equine Hearing Capabilities and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, Shawn

    The field of Bioacoustics is an emerging field of science that investigates various aspects of animal audiology and communication. More recently, audiological means have been used to evaluate the cognitive abilities of animals using event related brain potentials (ERP's). The Mismatch Negativity (MMN) component of the ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon since it is generated in the area of the cortex that is responsible for evaluating sound stimuli including the ability to discriminate. Such discrimination produces a negative-going waveform with a relative latency of about 150-250 msec when elicited with auditory stimuli in human adults. The MMN response is elicited by use of the oddball paradigm in which two different tones are presented in pseudo-random order. The purpose of this study was to determine if elicitation of the MMN is achievable in the horse by use of current equipment in a non-clinical setting such as a barn. During the course of this experiment, it became obvious that the major challenge was the excessive amount of noise that inundated the waveforms thereby making any specific waves even remotely discernible. Attempts were made to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by modifications to the testing unit and the addition of several in-line and digital filters. However, even with these modifications, the MMN response still could not be identifiable within the noise of the waveforms. Therefore, the matter of whether or not the horse elicits a MMN response should be revised to if it is even feasible to elicit a MMN response in these animals.

  7. The use of automated bioacoustic recorders to replace human wildlife surveys: an example using nightjars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke C Zwart

    Full Text Available To be able to monitor and protect endangered species, we need accurate information on their numbers and where they live. Survey methods using automated bioacoustic recorders offer significant promise, especially for species whose behaviour or ecology reduces their detectability during traditional surveys, such as the European nightjar. In this study we examined the utility of automated bioacoustic recorders and the associated classification software as a way to survey for wildlife, using the nightjar as an example. We compared traditional human surveys with results obtained from bioacoustic recorders. When we compared these two methods using the recordings made at the same time as the human surveys, we found that recorders were better at detecting nightjars. However, in practice fieldworkers are likely to deploy recorders for extended periods to make best use of them. Our comparison of this practical approach with human surveys revealed that recorders were significantly better at detecting nightjars than human surveyors: recorders detected nightjars during 19 of 22 survey periods, while surveyors detected nightjars on only six of these occasions. In addition, there was no correlation between the amount of vocalisation captured by the acoustic recorders and the abundance of nightjars as recorded by human surveyors. The data obtained from the recorders revealed that nightjars were most active just before dawn and just after dusk, and least active during the middle of the night. As a result, we found that recording at both dusk and dawn or only at dawn would give reasonably high levels of detection while significantly reducing recording time, preserving battery life. Our analyses suggest that automated bioacoustic recorders could increase the detection of other species, particularly those that are known to be difficult to detect using traditional survey methods. The accuracy of detection is especially important when the data are used to inform

  8. The use of automated bioacoustic recorders to replace human wildlife surveys: an example using nightjars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Mieke C; Baker, Andrew; McGowan, Philip J K; Whittingham, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    To be able to monitor and protect endangered species, we need accurate information on their numbers and where they live. Survey methods using automated bioacoustic recorders offer significant promise, especially for species whose behaviour or ecology reduces their detectability during traditional surveys, such as the European nightjar. In this study we examined the utility of automated bioacoustic recorders and the associated classification software as a way to survey for wildlife, using the nightjar as an example. We compared traditional human surveys with results obtained from bioacoustic recorders. When we compared these two methods using the recordings made at the same time as the human surveys, we found that recorders were better at detecting nightjars. However, in practice fieldworkers are likely to deploy recorders for extended periods to make best use of them. Our comparison of this practical approach with human surveys revealed that recorders were significantly better at detecting nightjars than human surveyors: recorders detected nightjars during 19 of 22 survey periods, while surveyors detected nightjars on only six of these occasions. In addition, there was no correlation between the amount of vocalisation captured by the acoustic recorders and the abundance of nightjars as recorded by human surveyors. The data obtained from the recorders revealed that nightjars were most active just before dawn and just after dusk, and least active during the middle of the night. As a result, we found that recording at both dusk and dawn or only at dawn would give reasonably high levels of detection while significantly reducing recording time, preserving battery life. Our analyses suggest that automated bioacoustic recorders could increase the detection of other species, particularly those that are known to be difficult to detect using traditional survey methods. The accuracy of detection is especially important when the data are used to inform conservation. PMID

  9. Overviews of Emerging Research Techniques in Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics: Proceedings of the 1981 Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    These proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting of the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics cover topics of emerging research in several areas of interest to the Committee. Topics covered include: hair cell function; transduction process of hair cells; speech synthesis; machine recognition of words; neuromagnetic analysis of sensory systems; tinnitus; tactile communication of speech; and biodynamic research at the Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory.

  10. Visual counts, bioacoustics and RADAR: three methods to study waterfowl prenuptial migration in Southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beroud, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study comes from four years (2006–2009 of monitoring on two sites during the prenuptial migration. On each site, a monitoring of 24 hours per each 10–day period from the second 10–day period of January (J2, though February (F1–F3 and March (M1–M3, up to the first 10–day period of April (A1. Monitoring was carried out by RADAR (FURUNO FAR2127, associated with nocturnal bioacoustics recordings, and visual censuses on the same areas. The monitoring effort was considerable: visual counts carried out represent 282 counts–sites (n = 262,030 ducks counted, bioacoustics detected 9,573 calls during 814 hours of nocturnal recording and RADAR recorded 67,368 echoes on a set of 2,128 hours of monitoring. Visual counts showed a decline in the number of birds from late January/early February. Two patterns were observed with the nocturnal recordings with a maximum or a minimum of the value of bioacoustics index on F2 and F3, depending on the years. RADAR, the most relevant method for tracking of bird movements at a population level, identified two different abundance peaks using variables ‘flight altitude > 400 m’ and ‘flight direction towards north–east/south–east’, considered as characteritics of the prenuptial migration. The first peak was detected during F1 on Site 1 only in 2007 (once every four years and during F2 on Site 2 only in 2006 (once every four years. A second peak with a higher number of echoes was recorded on M1 (Site 1 and on M2 (Site 2. Although all methods may suffer from different biases, the combination of two new technologies complementary to visual counts provided reliable and updated data for waterfowl migration in the Mediterranean area.

  11. Review of Low-Level Bioacoustic Behavior in Wild Cetaceans: Conservation Implications of Possible Sleeping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard; Sveegaard, Signe; Dietz, Rune; Teilmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Shallow, low-activity, low-biosonar parabolic-shaped dives were observed in biologging data from tagged harbor porpoises in Danish waters and identified as potential sleeping behavior. This behavioral state merits consideration in assessing the context for noise exposure and passive acoustic monitoring studies. Similar dives have also been reported for other cetacean species. The existence of low-level bioacoustic dives that may represent that sleeping has implications for the mitigation of not only noise exposure but also of bycatch as well as legal repercussions given the protected status of sleeping, as a part of resting, under many legislative regimes. PMID:26611094

  12. VoxNet : An End-to-End System to Support On-line, Real-time Bioacoustics Research

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Michael P.; Girod, Lewis; Newton, Ryan; Collier, Travis Colby; D. Estrin

    2007-01-01

    In bioacoustics research, field biologists study the dynamics of acoustic communication by recording audio streams of animal or bird vocalizations in-situ. Being able to identify an individual's vocalizations is important for classification and census, and relating this to a caller's geographic position can help give insight into behavior. Previous work using distributed acoustic sensing platforms has shown on-line automated event detectors can be used to detect and record only event...

  13. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    most biologically and physically distinct from the ocean habitat also differed greatly from the other sites acoustically, with the most common and high amplitude sound being pump noise versus biological sounds at the other sites. Overall the dolphin facilities were neither clearly noisier nor more sterile than the wild site, but rather differed in particular characteristics. The findings are encouraging for dolphin welfare for several reasons. Sound levels measured were unlikely to cause threshold shifts in hearing. At three of four facilities, prominent biological sounds in the wild site -- snapping shrimp and fish sounds -- were present, meaning that the dolphins at these facilities are experiencing biotic features of the soundscape they would experience in the wild. Additionally, the main anthropogenic sounds experienced at the facilities (construction and cleaning sounds) did not reach the levels of the anthropogenic sounds experienced at the wild site (boat motor sounds), and the highest noise levels for anthropogenic sounds fall outside the dolphins' most sensitive range of hearing. However, there are anthropogenic contributors to the soundscape that are of particular interest and possible concern that should be investigated further, particularly pump noise and periodic or intermittent construction noise. These factors need to be considered on a facility-by-facility basis and appropriate mitigation procedures incorporated in animal handling to mitigate potential responses to planned or anticipated sound producing events, e.g. animal relocation or buffering sound producing activities. The central role of bioacoustics for dolphins means that PAM is a basic life support requirement along with water and food testing. Periodic noise is of highest concern, and PAM is needed to inform mitigation of noise from periodic sources. Priority actions are more widespread and long-term standardized monitoring, further research on habituation, preference, coupling and pool

  14. The importance of bioacoustics for dolphin welfare: Soundscape characterization with implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Heather Ruth

    most biologically and physically distinct from the ocean habitat also differed greatly from the other sites acoustically, with the most common and high amplitude sound being pump noise versus biological sounds at the other sites. Overall the dolphin facilities were neither clearly noisier nor more sterile than the wild site, but rather differed in particular characteristics. The findings are encouraging for dolphin welfare for several reasons. Sound levels measured were unlikely to cause threshold shifts in hearing. At three of four facilities, prominent biological sounds in the wild site -- snapping shrimp and fish sounds -- were present, meaning that the dolphins at these facilities are experiencing biotic features of the soundscape they would experience in the wild. Additionally, the main anthropogenic sounds experienced at the facilities (construction and cleaning sounds) did not reach the levels of the anthropogenic sounds experienced at the wild site (boat motor sounds), and the highest noise levels for anthropogenic sounds fall outside the dolphins' most sensitive range of hearing. However, there are anthropogenic contributors to the soundscape that are of particular interest and possible concern that should be investigated further, particularly pump noise and periodic or intermittent construction noise. These factors need to be considered on a facility-by-facility basis and appropriate mitigation procedures incorporated in animal handling to mitigate potential responses to planned or anticipated sound producing events, e.g. animal relocation or buffering sound producing activities. The central role of bioacoustics for dolphins means that PAM is a basic life support requirement along with water and food testing. Periodic noise is of highest concern, and PAM is needed to inform mitigation of noise from periodic sources. Priority actions are more widespread and long-term standardized monitoring, further research on habituation, preference, coupling and pool

  15. What happens when you want to talk to the animals: lessons of a career in animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.

    2001-05-01

    Animal bioacoustics (AB) is the study of sound in nonhuman animal biology. I entered the field because I was interested in the evolution of language, and I wanted to study the acoustic communication of whales and dolphins. Topics like this within the scope of AB make the discipline accessible to students and laypeople. Although career opportunities are limited (professionals declaring AB as their primary area represent only 3% of ASA membership [http://www.acoustics.org/WIA, statistics for 2000]), an interest in AB can foster entry into more marketable disciplines. It has been a particularly important avenue for bringing women into careers in traditionally male-dominated subject areas. For example, women represent 14% of the ASA membership and 12% or fewer of those declaring Underwater Acoustics, Engineering Acoustics, and Noise as their primary interest. However, 25% of those declaring AB as their primary interest are women, and AB includes all three topic areas within its scope. Unfortunately, AB is still fairly inaccessible to interested lay professionals such as educators, science writers, and environmental planners. By helping them to develop a deeper understanding of topics in AB, ASA can help them foster careers in acoustics.

  16. Morphology, molecular genetics, and bioacoustics support two new sympatric Xenophrys toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  17. A phylogeographic break and bioacoustic intraspecific differentiation in the Buff-barred Warbler (Phylloscopus pulcher)(Aves:Passeriformes,Phylloscopidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin; P?ckert; Yue-Hua; Sun; Balduin; S; Fischer; Dieter; Thomas; Tietze; Jochen; Martens

    2014-01-01

    structure among regions: Himalayan songs consisted of repeated syllables while Chinese songs comprised repetitions of single, long and strongly modulated elements.Subtle morphological differences among specimens from the two study regions could only be confirmed for plumage coloration but not for metric characters.Conclusions: Based on the genetic and bioacoustic distinctiveness of Chinese Buff-barred Warbler populations,we recommend that the name Phylloscopus pulcher vegetus Bangs, 1913 should be re-validated for this taxon.

  18. INSECT FLIGHT - BIOACOUSTICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Gopala Krishna, G.; Krishna Shankar, B.; Ahmad, A.

    1990-01-01

    Insect aerodynamics is drawing the attention of a number of researchers belonging to different disciplines with a view to understand its aerodynamic capabilities so as to revolutionise the aircraft technology. It is possible to understand, to some extent, the insect aerodynamics by experimentally determining the frequency of wing beat in its fethered state of flight by using flight sound technique and computing rate of mass flow, velocity, acceleration and mass of air induced in downward dire...

  19. Automated Recognition of Bioacoustic Signals: a Review of Methods and Applications Reconocimiento automatizado de señales bioacústicas: Una revisión de métodos y aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Catalina Caycedo-Rosales

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, numerous research studies and applications on automated bioacoustic monitoring have been published; however, such studies are scattered in the literature of engineering and life sciences. This paper presents a review on fundamental concepts of automated acoustic monitoring. Our aim is to compare and categorize —in a taxonomy of techniques DSP/PR— the contributions of published research studies and applications; in order to suggest some directions for future research and highlight challenges and opportunities related to the deployment of this technology in Colombia.Durante la última década se ha publicado una gran cantidad de estudios de investigación y aplicaciones sobre monitoreo bioacústico automatizado. No obstante, tales estudios están dispersos en la literatura de ingeniería y ciencias biológicas. En este artículo se presentan conceptos fundamentales sobre monitoreo bioacústico automatizado; se revisan, comparan y categorizan —en una taxonomía de técnicas de DSP/PR— las contribuciones de las investigaciones y las aplicaciones publicadas; se sugieren algunas direcciones para investigaciones futuras y se resaltan los retos y las oportunidades relacionados con la instalación de esta tecnología en Colombia.

  20. Pile driving and bioacoustic impacts on fish

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Deborah C.

    2005-01-01

    How did those of us in the transportation industry suddenly find ourselves in need of knowing about underwater pressure waves and fish barotrauma? On October 17, 1989, a portion of the East Span of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge collapsed. That event was the catalyst for the State of California to institute a comprehensive seismic retrofit program for its bridge structures. The bridge is considered a “vital lifeline structure” to San Francisco. Therefore, the bridge was to be designed t...

  1. Humpback whale bioacoustics: From form to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo, III

    This thesis investigates how humpback whales produce, perceive, and use sounds from a comparative and computational perspective. Biomimetic models are developed within a systems-theoretic framework and then used to analyze the properties of humpback whale sounds. First, sound transmission is considered in terms of possible production mechanisms and the propagation characteristics of shallow water environments frequented by humpback whales. A standard source-filter model (used to describe human sound production) is shown to be well suited for characterizing sound production by humpback whales. Simulations of sound propagation based on normal mode theory reveal that optimal frequencies for long range propagation are higher than the frequencies used most often by humpbacks, and that sounds may contain spectral information indicating how far they have propagated. Next, sound reception is discussed. A model of human auditory processing is modified to emulate humpback whale auditory processing as suggested by cochlear anatomical dimensions. This auditory model is used to generate visual representations of humpback whale sounds that more clearly reveal what features are likely to be salient to listening whales. Additionally, the possibility that an unusual sensory organ (the tubercle) plays a role in acoustic processing is assessed. Spatial distributions of tubercles are described that suggest tubercles may be useful for localizing sound sources. Finally, these models are integrated with self-organizing feature maps to create a biomimetic sound classification system, and a detailed analysis of individual sounds and sound patterns in humpback whale 'songs' is performed. This analysis provides evidence that song sounds and sound patterns vary substantially in terms of detectability and propagation potential, suggesting that they do not all serve the same function. New quantitative techniques are also presented that allow for more objective characterizations of the long term acoustic features of songs. The quantitative framework developed in this thesis provides a basis for theoretical consideration of how humpback whales (and other cetaceans) might use sound. Evidence is presented suggesting that vocalizing humpbacks could use sounds not only to convey information to other whales, but also to collect information about other whales. In particular, it is suggested that some sounds currently believed to be primarily used as communicative signals, might be primarily used as sonar signals. This theoretical framework is shown to be generalizable to other baleen whales and to toothed whales.

  2. Smartphone-powered citizen science for bioacoustic monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Zilli, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is the involvement of amateur scientists in research for the purpose of data collection and analysis. This practice, well known to different research domains, has recently received renewed attention through the introduction of new and easy means of communication, namely the internet and the advent of powerful “smart” mobile phones, which facilitate the interaction between scientists and citizens. This is appealing to the field of biodiversity monitoring, where traditional manu...

  3. Cetacean Bioacoustics with Emphasis on Recording and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Tomonari

    More than 80 cetacean species live in oceans, lakes, and rivers. For underwater navigation and recognition, whales and dolphins have developed unique sensory systems using acoustic signals. Toothed whales, such as dolphins and porpoises, have sonar using ultrasonic pulse trains called echolocations (Au, 1993). As top predators in the water, dolphins and porpoises rely on accurate and long-range sensory systems for catching prey. Dolphins have another type of vocalization called a whistle that is narrowband with a long duration.

  4. Bioacoustics and D. V. Holliday: A scientific tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G.

    2001-05-01

    A number of Holliday's seminal contributions to the acoustics of observing aquatic organisms are noted. Schooling pelagic fish have been sized from their echo resonance structure; fish swimming speeds have been measured through the Doppler effect; and snappers/groupers have been enumerated by high-resolution sidescan sonar. Zooplankton have been sized through multiple-frequency measurements of backscatter, and related to the underlying oceanography. Bowhead whales have been localized and tracked by means of a passive sonobuoy array. Certain themes have recurred, emphasizing the importance of both frequency diversity and spatial resolution in quantitative applications. Devices have been designed and built to solve specific problems, advancing the state of the art in these areas. For the student, the respective published work exemplifies the scientific method, introducing an important observational problem, describing its systematic approach, and interpreting results by means of simple but sound physical models. [Work supported by ONR.

  5. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mitchell Aide

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON, a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net. Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.

  6. Comparative bioacoustical studies on flight and buzzing of neotropical bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Burkart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bees is typically accompanied by the humming sound of their flight. Bees of several tribes are also capable of pollen collecting by vibration, known as buzzing behaviour, which produces a buzzing sound, different from the flight sound. An open question is whether bee species have species-specific buzzing patterns or frequencies dependent of the bees' morphology or are capable to adjust their indivudual buzzing sound to optimize pollen return. The investigations to approach this issue were performed in northeastern Brazil near Recife in the state of Pernambuco. We present a new field method using a commercially available portable system able to record the sound of bees during flight and buzzing at flowers. Further, we describe computer linguistical algorithms to analyse the frequency of the recorded sound sequences. With this method, we recorded the flight and buzzing sequences of 59 individual bees out of 12 species visiting the flowers of Solanum stramoniifolium and S. paniculatum. Our findings demonstrate a typical frequency range for the sounds produced by the bees of a species. Our statistical analysis shows a strong correlation of bee size and flight frequency and demonstrate that bee species use different frequency patterns.

  7. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works. PMID:23894980

  8. Pinniped bioacoustics: Atmospheric and hydrospheric signal production, reception, and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Reichmuth Kastak, Colleen; Holt, Marla; Southall, Brandon L.

    2001-05-01

    There is no convincing evidence that any of the 33 pinniped species evolved acoustic specializations for echolocation. However, all species produce and localize signals amphibiously in different communicative contexts. In the setting of sexual selection, aquatic mating male phocids and walruses tend to emit underwater calls, while male otariids and phocids that breed terrestrially emit airborne calls. Signature vocalizations are widespread among pinnipeds. There is evidence that males use signature threat calls, and it is possible that vocal recognition may be used by territorial males to form categories consisting of neighbors and strangers. In terms of mother-offspring recognition, both otariid females and their pups use acoustical cues for mutual recognition. In contrast, reunions between phocid females and their dependent pups depend mostly on pup vocalizations. In terms of signal reception, audiometric studies show that otariids are highly sensitive to aerial sounds but slightly less sensitive to underwater sounds. Conversely, except for deep-diving elephant seals, phocids are quite sensitive to acoustic signals both in air and under water. Finally, despite differences in absolute hearing sensitivity, pinnipeds have similar masked hearing capabilities in both media, supporting the notion that cochlear mechanics determine the effects of noise on hearing.

  9. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: an alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Julien

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Whistled languages are a valuable heritage of human culture. This paper gives a first survey about a new multidisciplinary approach to these languages. Previous studies on whistled equivalents of languages have already documented that they can provide significant information about the role of rhythm and melody in language. To substantiate this, most whistles are represented by modulations of frequency, centered around 2000 Hz (±1000 Hz and often reach a loudness of about 130 dB (measured at 1m from the source. Their transmission range can reach up to 10 km (as verified in La Gomera, Canary Island, and the messages can remain understandable, even if the signal is deteriorated. In some cultures the use of whistled language is associated with some "talking musical instruments" (e.g. flutes, guitars, harps, gongs, drums, khens. Finally, whistles as a means of conveying information have some analogues in the animal kingdom (e.g. some birds, cetaceans, primates, providing opportunities to compare the acoustic characteristics of the respective signals. With such properties as a reference, the project reported here has two major tasks: to further elucidate the many facets of whistled language and, above all, help to immediately stop the process of its gradual disappearance.

  10. Field testing a rare species bioacoustic smartphone application: challenges and future considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pantidi, Nadia; Moran, Stuart; Bachour, Khaled; Rodden, Tom; Zilli, Davide; Merrett, Geoff V.; Rogers, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The New Forest cicada is a declining species native to the UK, and the last unconfirmed sighting was in 2000. One of the difficulties in identifying the cicada is that it sings at a high frequency typically inaudible to adults. In this paper we describe a field test of a novel citizen science smartphone application designed to detect and classify the cicada’s call. We discuss some of the obstacles to studying this novel technology, and describe the results from a user trial with a simulated c...

  11. A reappraisal of the geographic distribution of Bokkermannohyla sazimai (Anura: Hylidae through morphological and bioacoustic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of Bokermannohyla sazimai is in the municipality of São Roque de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this paper, we reassess the geographic distribution of B. sazimai and provide additional information on variation of several other non-topotypic populations in comparisons of topotypic populations (São Roque de Minas and Vargem Bonita, on the basis of three lines of evidence (color-pattern, morphometry and vocalizations. Differences obtained among all populations with respect to color pattern, morphometry and advertisement calls were attributed to interpopulational variation, so that this variation was not enough to recognize any population as a distinctive lineage in comparison with the topotypic information available on B. sazimai.

  12. Bioacoustics for species management: two case studies with a Hawaiian forest bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Pang-Ching, Joshua; Barbosa, Jomar M; Hart, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The management of animal endangered species requires detailed information on their distribution and abundance, which is often hard to obtain. When animals communicate using sounds, one option is to use automatic sound recorders to gather information on the species for long periods of time with low effort. One drawback of this method is that processing all the information manually requires large amounts of time and effort. Our objective was to create a relatively "user-friendly" (i.e., that does not require big programming skills) automatic detection algorithm to improve our ability to get basic data from sound-emitting animal species. We illustrate our algorithm by showing two possible applications with the Hawai'i 'Amakihi, Hemignathus virens virens, a forest bird from the island of Hawai'i. We first characterized the 'Amakihi song using recordings from areas where the species is present in high densities. We used this information to train a classification algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), in order to identify 'Amakihi songs from a series of potential songs. We then used our algorithm to detect the species in areas where its presence had not been previously confirmed. We also used the algorithm to compare the relative abundance of the species in different areas where management actions may be applied. The SVM had an accuracy of 86.5% in identifying 'Amakihi. We confirmed the presence of the 'Amakihi at the study area using the algorithm. We also found that the relative abundance of 'Amakihi changes among study areas, and this information can be used to assess where management strategies for the species should be better implemented. Our automatic song detection algorithm is effective, "user-friendly" and can be very useful for optimizing the management and conservation of those endangered animal species that communicate acoustically. PMID:26668733

  13. Bioacoustical Periodic Pulse Train Signal Detection and Classification using Spectrogram Intensity Binarization and Energy Projection

    OpenAIRE

    Marian POPESCU; Dugan, Peter J.; Pourhomayoun, Mohammad; Risch, Denise; Harold W. Lewis III; Clark, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    The following work outlines an approach for automatic detection and recognition of periodic pulse train signals using a multi-stage process based on spectrogram edge detection, energy projection and classification. The method has been implemented to automatically detect and recognize pulse train songs of minke whales. While the long term goal of this work is to properly identify and detect minke songs from large multi-year datasets, this effort was developed using sounds off the coast of Mass...

  14. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ellis

    Full Text Available Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.

  15. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William; FitzGibbon, Sean; Pye, Geoff; Whipple, Bill; Barth, Ben; Johnston, Stephen; Seddon, Jenny; Melzer, Alistair; Higgins, Damien; Bercovitch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae) is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas. PMID:26154295

  16. Morphology, bioacoustics, and ecology of Tibicen neomexicensis sp. n., a new species of cicada from the Sacramento Mountains in New Mexico, U.S.A. (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, Tibicen)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Stucky

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tibicen neomexicensis sp. n., a new species of cicada found in the Sacramento Mountains of southcentral New Mexico, is described. Tibicen neomexicensis closely resembles Tibicen chiricahua Davis morphologically, but males of the two species have highly distinct calling songs that differ in phrasal structure, amplitude burst rates, and pulse structure. Unlike Tibicen chiricahua , male Tibicen neomexicensis use conspicuous dorso-ventral abdominal movements to modulate the amplitude and...

  17. HUNDSONAR (CW2015, ES60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  18. Proximal mechanisms for sound production in male Pacific walruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    impulsive and metallic signals, we conducted a series of in situ studies with two captive adult male Pacific walruses that were trained for voluntary participation in bioacoustic research. Through a combination of observational, acoustic, endoscopic, and ultrasonic methods, we confirmed the probable...

  19. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, J.E.; Mooney, T.A.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Hanlon, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogen

  20. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaeser, Susan B; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Susan B. Blaeser.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27036268

  1. Går det att mäta blodtryck med fotopletysmografi och bioakustisk sensor i kombination?

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the possibility to combine information from PPG and bio-acoustic technology to extract information that is related to the blood pressure. The measurements have been carried out with several different configurations. First the relation between arterial sounds and the PPG-signal was studied. After those measurements with both PPG and the bio- acoustic technique was concluded on people in different positions and after riding a bike. The goal was to vary the...

  2. Pitch- and spectral-based dynamic time warping methods for comparing field recordings of harmonic avian vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Meliza, C; Keen, Sara C.; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of acoustic similarity can reveal patterns of shared vocal behavior in social species. Many methods for computing similarity have been developed, but their performance has not been extensively characterized in noisy environments and with vocalizations characterized by complex frequency modulations. This paper describes methods of bioacoustic comparison based on dynamic time warping (DTW) of the fundamental frequency or spectrogram. Fundamental frequency is estimated usin...

  3. Emotional valence : Is it reflected in call types and in acoustic properties of piglet vocalizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Spinka , Marek; Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    How emotional valence is encoded in mammalian vocalizations is a prominent question in animal-welfare-oriented bioacoustics. We assessed this question using 1513 calls produced by 84 piglets in 11 situations. The negativity of the situations was ranked based on judgments of 28 pig behaviour experts. The acoustic quality of calls was described with 8 acoustic parameters. K-means clustering method was used to classify the calls into 5 call types. Statistics were calculated based on situation me...

  4. The autonomous acoustic buoy

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer, Francisco; Reitsma, Robert; Agüera, Joaquín; Marinas, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The Acoustic Buoy is a project between the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics (LAB) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). In areas that the human activities produce high noise levels, such as oil exploration or construction, there is a need to monitor the environment for the presence of cetaceans. Another need is for fishing, to prevent endangered species from being killed. This can be done with an Autonomous Acoustic Buoy (AAB). Mooring or anchoring at to the seaflo...

  5. Imaging techniques to study the effects of low frequency sounds on cephalopods spp

    OpenAIRE

    Solé, Marta; Lombarte, Antoni; López-Bejar, Manel; Mas, Alex; André, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of artificial sound sources in the marine environment has shown to have negative effects on marine organisms. While marine mammals have attracted most of the attention of the research conducted in that area, invertebrates are also suspected to be negatively affected after an exposure to loud low frequency noise. An ongoing study from the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics of the Technical University of Catalonia is studying through imaging techniques (routine ...

  6. Hidden Markov Modeling for humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) call classification

    OpenAIRE

    PACE, Federica; White, Paul; Adam, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study proposes a new approach for the classification of the calls detected in the songs with the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) based on the concept of subunits as building blocks. HMMs have been used once before for such task but in an unsupervised algorithm with promising results, and they are used extensively in speech recognition and in few bioacoustics studies. Their flexibility suggests that they may be suitable for the analysis of the varied repertoir...

  7. High Performance Computer Acoustic Data Accelerator: A New System for Exploring Marine Mammal Acoustics for Big Data Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Peter; Zollweg, John; Marian POPESCU; Risch, Denise; Glotin, Herve; LeCun, Yann; Clark, and Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new software model designed for distributed sonic signal detection runtime using machine learning algorithms called DeLMA. A new algorithm--Acoustic Data-mining Accelerator (ADA)--is also presented. ADA is a robust yet scalable solution for efficiently processing big sound archives using distributing computing technologies. Together, DeLMA and the ADA algorithm provide a powerful tool currently being used by the Bioacoustics Research Program (BRP) at the Cornell Lab of O...

  8. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India

    OpenAIRE

    Seshadri, KS; Singal, Ramit; Priti, H.; G. Ravikanth; Vidisha, MK; Saurabh, S; Pratik, M.; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Micro...

  9. Optimizing passive acoustic sampling of bats in forests

    OpenAIRE

    Froidevaux, Jeremy S P; Zellweger, Florian; Bollmann, Kurt; Obrist, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Passive acoustic methods are increasingly used in biodiversity research and monitoring programs because they are cost-effective and permit the collection of large datasets. However, the accuracy of the results depends on the bioacoustic characteristics of the focal taxa and their habitat use. In particular, this applies to bats which exhibit distinct activity patterns in three-dimensionally structured habitats such as forests. We assessed the performance of 21 acoustic sampling schemes with t...

  10. [FIRST EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY OF A TWO-STREAM LOW-FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY IN ABDOMINAL SURGERY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshits, Yu Z; Babayev, E; Afremov, M; Valetskiy, V L; Grigoruk, A V; Omelchenko, A N

    2015-09-01

    Biophysical peculiarities of action on tissues of a two-strem low-frequency ultrasound (TSLFU) technology, elaborated by "Arobella Medical LLC" (USA) firm, were studied. Capacity of ultrasound to separate a pathologically-changed and healthy tissues, to divide the structures in accordance to their bioacoustical parameters constitutes the technology peculiarities. The presence of such a biophysical effect permits to achieve high resectability (R0) in patients with oncological diseases. Antibacterial effect and stimulation of intraorgan microcirculation with ultrasound irradiation were noted. Biophysical peculiarities of TSLFU were successfully applied in surgical treatment of 48 patients, suffering inflammatory and oncological diseases of the abdominal cavity organs. PMID:26817081

  11. A fisherman's friend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives details of a new study entitled 'A UK guide to intake fish screening regulations, policy and best practice'. The impact on migratory fish populations of low-head run-of-the-river sites, the regulation of fish screening in the UK, a survey of developers and operators of small hydroelectric projects for their views on fish protection, and concerns of regulators are discussed. Smolt screens, spillway and smolt-safe screens, louvre screens, the bio-acoustic fish fence, the by washes arrangement, and the selection of the right screening systems are described. (UK)

  12. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923 from its type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J. R. Kok

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Colostethus, long mistaken for Colostethus beebei, is described from French Guiana. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by absence of median lingual process, first finger longer than second, third finger not distinctly swollen in males, differences in tadpole morphology, coloration and pattern (e.g. absence of dorsolateral stripe, bioacoustics, and reproductive behavior. A complete redescription of Colostethus beebei plus description of its tadpole and call is provided on the basis of recently collected topotypic specimens. The range of C. beebei is restricted to the Kaieteur plateau, Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana.

  13. Underwater noise of small personal watercraft (jet skis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Personal watercraft (water scooters, jet skis) were recorded under water in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia. Underwater noise emissions consisted of broadband energy between 100 Hz and 10 kHz due to the vibrating bubble cloud generated by the jet stream, overlain with frequency-modulated tonals corresponding to impeller blade rates and harmonics. Broadband monopole source levels were 149, 137, and 122 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m (5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles). Even though these are lower than those of small propeller-driven boats, it is not necessarily the broadband source level that correlates with the bioacoustic impact on marine fauna. PMID:23556699

  14. Fishy Hearing: A Short Biography of Arthur N. Popper, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    Biologist Dr. Arthur Popper's career spans decades, from his early work on comparative inner ear morphology in fishes to his recent interest in how underwater noise impacts aquatic vertebrates. Along the way Dr. Popper's research subjects span at least 19 vertebrate taxa, from lamprey to lungfish to humans, and he's had a profound influence in the field of fish bioacoustics. This brief biography describes some of Dr. Popper's many contributions to fish hearing research and highlights both some of his major discoveries and some of the biological mysteries he has yet to solve. PMID:26515307

  15. Detection of Adult Beetles Inside the Stored Wheat Mass Based on Their Acoustic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Potamitis, I; Kontodimas, D Ch; Givropoulou, E G

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy of bioacoustics in detecting the presence of adult beetles inside the grain mass was evaluated in the laboratory. A piezoelectric sensor and a portable acoustic emission amplifier connected with a computer were used. Adults of the most common beetle pests of stored wheat have been detected in varying population densities (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 adults per kilogram of wheat). The verification of the presence of the insect individuals was achieved through automated signal parameterization and classification. We tried out two different ways to detect impulses: 1) by applying a Hilbert transform on the audio recording and 2) by subtracting a noise estimation of the recording from the spectral content of the recording, thus allowing the frequency content of possible impulses to emerge. Prediction for infestation was rated falsely negative in 60-74%, 48-60%, 0-28%, and 0-4% of the cases when actual population density was 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 adults per kilogram, respectively, irrespective of pest species. No significant differences were recorded in positive predictions among different species in almost all cases. The system was very accurate (72-100%) in detecting 1 or 2 insects per kilogram of hard wheat grain, which is the standard threshold for classifying a grain mass "clean" or "infested." Our findings are discussed on the basis of enhancing the use of bioacoustics in stored-product IPM framework. PMID:26470377

  16. Acoustic Repertoire of the Philippine Tarsier (Tarsius syrichta fraterculus and Individual Variation of Long-Distance Calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Řeháková-Petrů

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the spectrographic description of the vocal repertoire of the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta fraterculus, a solitary living nocturnal primate for which a very limited information about acoustic communication exists to date. The majority of vocalizations were performed around sunset and, less frequently, at sunrise. We identified eight call types. Five calls recorded during communication between adults included three long-distance calls—loud call, smack-whistle, and whistle—then a soft locust-like chirp and a bird-like trill. Two other calls—cheep and twitter—were recorded during mother-infant communication. One distress call was emitted by adults during handling. All calls were performed in the 9752 Hz to more than 22 kHz frequency range. This study provides the first evidence of individual variation in the long-distance calls performed by tarsiers. Moreover, our study provides a basis for future comparison within as well as between tarsier species taxonomy. Bioacoustic methods can be used in monitoring of these cryptic species and determining their distribution range. Thus, bioacoustic studies can help to improve conservation strategies of different population/species.

  17. Review of the Balkan Isophya (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae) with particular emphasis on the Isophya modesta group and remarks on the systematics of the genus based on morphological and acoustic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanov, Dragan P; Grzywacz, Beata; Iorgu, Ionuţ Ş; Ciplak, Battal; Ilieva, Maya B; Warchałowska-Śliwa, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    A critical review of the taxonomy and systematics of the genus Isophya from the Balkan Peninsula, together with a revision of the I. modesta group, including its representatives outside the Balkans, has been made using morphological, bioacoustic and karyological data. As a result, the following taxonomic considerations have been proposed: (1) the status of two taxa has been reconsidered: Isophya rhodopensis leonorae Kaltenbach, stat.n., I. rhodopensis petkovi Peshev, stat.n.; (2) five synonymies have been established: I. hospodar (Saussure) = I. hospodar medimontana Nedelkov, syn.n.; I. plevnensis Peshev, sensu novo = I. pravdini pravdini Peshev, syn.n.; I. rhodopensis leonorae Kaltenbach = I. kisi Peshev, syn.n.; I. obtusa = I. pravdini bazyluki Peshev, syn.n.; I. modesta Frivaldszky = I. modesta intermedia Kis syn.n. The descriptions of the taxa under consideration are supplemented with unpublished morphological and/or bioacoustic data. An updated list of the taxa occurring on the Balkans includes 24 taxa (21 species, including the doubtful data on I. camptoxypha). A dichotomic and tabulated key for recognition and maps of distribution of the established taxa are presented. PMID:25333087

  18. Biosonar, dive, and foraging activity of satellite tracked harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Teilmann, Jonas; Akamatsu, Tomonari;

    2013-01-01

    This study presents bioacoustic recordings in combination with movements and diving behavior of three free-ranging harbor porpoises (a female and two males) in Danish waters. Each porpoise was equipped with an acoustic data logger (A-tag), a time-depth-recorder, a VHF radio transmitter, and a...... satellite transmitter. The units were programmed to release after 24 or 72 h. Possible foraging occurred mostly near the surface or at the bottom of a dive. The porpoises showed individual diversity in biosonar activity (<100 to >50,000 clicks per hour) and in dive frequency (6–179 dives per hour). We...... confirm that wild harbor porpoises use more intense clicks than captive animals. A positive tendency between number of dives and clicks per hour was found for a subadult male, which stayed near shore. It showed a distinct day-night cycle with low echolocation rates during the day, but five times higher...

  19. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences.

  20. From the Geosphere to the Cosmos

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 1 -2 December, the European Network ASPERA will be organising the “From the Geosphere to the Cosmos” workshop at the Palais de la Découverte in Paris. The LIDO platform, 3D-radiography projects for volcanoes, and CERN’s CLOUD experiment are among the interdisciplinary projects that will be presented at the workshop.   Astroparticle physics is a new field mixing both particle physics and astrophysics. It offers many new opportunities for environmental disciplines such as oceanography, climate science and studies of the atmosphere, and geology. “From the Geosphere to the Cosmos” workshop will present them to the scientific community and the press. LIDO: Probing new territories Whales sing at the same wavelength as the neutrinos emitted by stars. This happy coincidence gave physicists the idea to share their undersea telescopes with marine biologists. By helping the development of a bioacoustics network to monitor the deep-sea envir...

  1. Classroom Materials from the Acoustical Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. K.; Clark, A.; Schneider, K.

    2013-09-01

    As part of the new education initiatives of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), an activity kit for teachers that includes a variety of lessons addressing acoustics for a range of students (K-12) has been created. The "Sound and Music Activity Kit" is free to K-12 teachers. It includes materials sufficient to teach a class of 30 students plus a USB thumb drive containing 47 research-based, interactive, student-tested lessons, laboratory exercises, several assessments, and video clips of a class using the materials. ASA has also partnered with both the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the American Association of Physics Teachers. AAPT Physics Teaching Resource Agents (PTRA) have reviewed the lessons along with members of the ASA Teacher Activity Kit Committee. Topics include basic learning goals for teaching the physics of sound with examples and applications relating to medical imaging, animal bioacoustics, physical and psychological acoustics, speech, audiology, and architectural acoustics.

  2. Analytic subject index to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the gen- eration and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectura] acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other tooics in acou.~tic.~.

  3. Analytic subject index to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectural acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other topics in acoustics.

  4. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. PMID:26707982

  5. Re-evaluating the taxonomic status of Chiromantis in Thailand using multiple lines of evidence (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aowphol, Anchalee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Taksintum, Wut; Arsirapot, Sutipong; McLeod, David S

    2013-01-01

    Because of general phenotypic similarities and distribution of species across two continents, the genus Chiromantis has proven somewhat enigmatic. Among Indochinese species, the validity of C. hansenae has been questioned by some who consider it a junior synonym of C. vittatus. We employ three lines of evidence to elucidate the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of four congeneric species of Chiromantis frogs from Thailand. Results of molecular, morphological, and bioacoustic data analyses support at least four evolutionarily distinct and monophyletic clades: C. doriae, C. nongkhorensis, C. vittatus and C. hansenae. Genetic divergence between C. vittatus and C. hansenae is > 10%, significantly greater than C. doriae and C nongkhorensis (4.5%). Our results support the taxonomic validity of C. hansenae and suggest that there may be more diversity within C. hansenae and C. vittatus than is currently recognized. PMID:26146711

  6. An 'Orca-stra' of Science and Sound: The Reverberations of Northeast Pacific Whales and How We're Helping People Understand Them Though Games, Demos and Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kanes, K.; Ewing, N.

    2015-12-01

    Presented by the Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Leaning and Engagement team, this demonstration focuses on our strategy for engaging and inspiring the next generation of ocean advocates by introducing them to one of the ocean's most charismatic inhabitants: marine mammals (and don't worry, we don't need any tanks or neoprene suits to do it). Using bioacoustic data, we can bring the essence of the animals with us. ONC, an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data onto their computers from anywhere around the globe, in real-time. Our demo focuses on the story of bioacoustics from instrument to animal. When visiting classrooms or hosting booths, we enhance user knowledge and experience by connecting familiar animals with their acoustic data from hydrophones. This includes listening to hydrophone clips collected from the network, analyzing sounds using interactive, real-time software and playing interactive games designed to get participants thinking like a scientist and taking a whale's perspective. For example, participants listen to recordings and guess the sound, identify frequencies and try a working hydrophone. The presentation consists of a suite of activities that meet a broad range of Next Generation Science Standards and includes links to the SoundCloud, https://soundcloud.com/oceannetworkscanada the ONC hydrophone FAQ, http://www.oceannetworks.ca/smart-hydrophone-faq and a classroom ready resource, Shouting Whales http://openschool.bc.ca/shouting_whales/index.html . The included links allow users anywhere to have a similar whale "experience" as the data are classroom ready, accessible and free.

  7. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  8. Trading twitter: Amateur recorders and economies of scientific exchange at the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyninckx, Joeri

    2015-06-01

    Scientists have long engaged in collaborations with field collectors, but how are such collaborations established and maintained? This article examines structures of collaborative data collection between professional scientists and various field recorders around the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds. The Library collects animal sound recordings for use in education, preservation, and entertainment, but primarily in the scientific field of bio-acoustics. Since 1945, the Library has enlisted academic researchers, commercial recorders and broadcasters (such as the British Broadcasting Corporation), and amateur sound hunters in its expansion. I argue that the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds managed to craft and sustain a crucial network of contributors through creative and strategic brokering with its collection of recordings/data. Drawing on notions from exchange theory, I show that sound recordings were valued not just as scientific data, but also as copyrighted commodities that could be bought, sold, traded, and converted in a range of economic, social, and symbolic capitals within collaborators' respective social fields. Thus, aligning collaborators' interests, these exchange relations enabled the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds to negotiate amateur recorders' reliability, willingness to share work, and commitment to scientific standards, as well as the bonds that solidified their collaboration with the Cornell Library of Natural Sounds. Attending to the micro-economics of data exchange, this article thus brings into perspective the multi-dimensional processes through which data-flows are managed. PMID:26477196

  9. The zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata: an avian model for investigating the neurobiological basis of vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Claudio V

    2014-12-01

    Songbirds are capable of learning their vocalizations by copying a singing adult. This vocal learning ability requires juveniles to hear and memorize the sound of the adult song, and later to imitate it through a process involving sensorimotor integration. Vocal learning is a trait that songbirds share with humans, where it forms the basis of spoken language acquisition, with other avian groups (parrots and hummingbirds), and with a few other mammals (cetaceans, bats). It is however absent in traditional model organisms such as rodents and nonhuman primates. Zebra finches, a songbird species from Australia, are popular pets and are easy to breed. They also sing a relatively simple and stereotyped song that is amenable to quantitative analysis. Zebra finches have thus emerged as a choice model organism for investigating the neurobiological basis of vocal learning. A number of tools and methodologies have been developed to characterize the bioacoustics properties of their song, analyze the degree of accurate copying during vocal learning, map the brain circuits that control singing and song learning, and investigate the physiology of these circuits. Such studies have led to a large base of knowledge on song production and learning, and their underlying neural substrate. Several molecular resources have recently become available, including brain cDNA/EST databases, microarrays, BAC libraries, a molecular brain atlas, a complete genome assembly, and the ability to perform transgenesis. The recent availability of many other avian genomes provides unique opportunities for comparative analysis in the search for features unique to vocal learning organisms. PMID:25342070

  10. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  11. The Soundscape Approach for the Assessment and Conservation of Mediterranean Landscapes: Principles and Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina Almo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained mosaic of natural and human-modified patches that characterizes the Mediterranean region has created a multifaceted system that is difficult to investigate using traditional ecological techniques. In this context, sounds have been found to be the optimum model to provide indirect and timely information about the state of ecosystems. The sonic nature of the environment (the soundscape represents an important component of the landscape, and the new discipline of soundscape ecology has recently been shown to have appropriate tools for investigating the complexity of the environment. In the last decade, technological advances in the acoustic field have led researchers to carry out wide-scale and long-term ecological research using new and efficient tools, such as digital low cost sound recorders, and autonomous software and metrics. Particularly in the Mediterranean region, where land transformation occurs at a very rapid rate, soundscape analysis may represent an efficient tool with which to:1 track transformations in the community balance, 2 indicate the most acoustically complex parts (bioacoustic hotspots of the land mosaic, 3 prevent environmental degradation, and 4 decide whether protection or restoration actions are most appropriate.

  12. Sperm whale assessment in the Western Ionian Sea using acoustic data from deep sea observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Bellia, Giorgio; Beranzoli, Laura; De Domenico, Emilio; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Scandura, Danila; Sciacca, Virginia; Viola, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) operates two deep sea infrastructures: Capo Passero, Western Ionian Sea 3,600 meters of depth, and Catania Wester Ionian Sea 2,100 m depth. At the two sites, several research observatories have been run: OnDE, NEMO-SN1, SMO, KM3NeT-Italia most of them jointly operated between INFN and INGV. In all these observatories, passive acoustic sensors (hydrophones) have been installed. Passive Acoustics Monitoring (PAM) is nowadays the main tool of the bioacoustics to study marine mammals. In particular, receiving the sounds emitted by cetaceans from a multi-hydrophones array installed in a cabled seafloor observatory, a research about the ecological dynamics of the species may be performed. Data acquired with the hydrophones installed aboard the OnDE, SMO and KM3NeT-Italia observatories will be reported. Thanks to acquired data, the acoustic presence of the sperm whales was assessed and studied for several years (2005:2013). An "ad hoc" algorithm was also developed to allow the automatic identification of the "clicks" emitted by the sperm whales and measure the size of detected animals. According to the results obtained, the sperm whale population in the area is well-distributed in size, sex and sexual maturity. Although specimens more than 14 meters of length (old males) seem to be absent.

  13. A multigene species tree for Western Mediterranean painted frogs (Discoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabijan, Maciej; Crottini, Angelica; Reckwell, Dennis; Irisarri, Iker; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Vences, Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Painted frogs (Discoglossus) are an anuran clade that originated in the Upper Miocene. Extant species are morphologically similar and have a circum-Mediterranean distribution. We assembled a multilocus dataset from seven nuclear and four mitochondrial genes for several individuals of all but one of the extant species and reconstructed a robust phylogeny by applying a coalescent-based species-tree method and a concatenation approach, both of which gave congruent results. The earliest phylogenetic split within Discoglossus separates D. montalentii from a clade comprising all other species. Discoglossus montalentii is monophyletic for haplotype variation at all loci and has distinct morphological, bioacoustic and karyotypic characters. We find moderate support for a sister-group relationship between the Iberian taxa and the Moroccan D. scovazzi, and high support for a D. pictus -D. sardus clade distributed around the Tyrrhenian basin. Topological discordance among gene trees during the speciation of D. galganoi, D. scovazzi, D. pictus and D. sardus is interpreted as the consequence of nearly simultaneous, vicariant diversification. The timing of these events is unclear, but possibly coincided with the final geotectonic rearrangement of the Western Mediterranean in the Middle Miocene or later during the Messinian salinity crisis. The Iberian taxa D. galganoi galganoi and D. g. jeanneae are reciprocally monophyletic in mitochondrial DNA but not in nuclear gene trees, and are therefore treated as subspecies of D. galganoi. PMID:22641173

  14. The vocal repertoire of the domesticated zebra finch: a data-driven approach to decipher the information-bearing acoustic features of communication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Julie E; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2016-03-01

    Although a universal code for the acoustic features of animal vocal communication calls may not exist, the thorough analysis of the distinctive acoustical features of vocalization categories is important not only to decipher the acoustical code for a specific species but also to understand the evolution of communication signals and the mechanisms used to produce and understand them. Here, we recorded more than 8000 examples of almost all the vocalizations of the domesticated zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata: vocalizations produced to establish contact, to form and maintain pair bonds, to sound an alarm, to communicate distress or to advertise hunger or aggressive intents. We characterized each vocalization type using complete representations that avoided any a priori assumptions on the acoustic code, as well as classical bioacoustics measures that could provide more intuitive interpretations. We then used these acoustical features to rigorously determine the potential information-bearing acoustical features for each vocalization type using both a novel regularized classifier and an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Vocalization categories are discriminated by the shape of their frequency spectrum and by their pitch saliency (noisy to tonal vocalizations) but not particularly by their fundamental frequency. Notably, the spectral shape of zebra finch vocalizations contains peaks or formants that vary systematically across categories and that would be generated by active control of both the vocal organ (source) and the upper vocal tract (filter). PMID:26581377

  15. Environmental sensor networks for vegetation, animal and soil sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, A.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Swain, D. L.; Wark, T.; Handcock, R. N.; Doerr, V. A. J.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; Doerr, E. D.; Gibbons, P. G.; Lobsey, C.

    2010-10-01

    Environmental sensor networks (ESNs) provide new opportunities for improving our understanding of the environment. In contrast to remote sensing technologies where measurements are made from large distances (e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photography, airborne radiometric surveys), ESNs focus on measurements that are made in close proximity to the target environmental phenomenon. Sensors can be used to collect a much larger number of measurements, which are quantitative and repeatable. They can also be deployed in locations that may otherwise be difficult to visit regularly. Sensors that are commonly used in the environmental sciences include ground-based multispectral vegetation sensors, soil moisture sensors, GPS tracking and bioacoustics for tracking movement in wild and domesticated animals. Sensors may also be coupled with wireless networks to more effectively capture, synthesise and transmit data to decision-makers. The climate and weather monitoring domains provide useful examples of how ESNs can provide real-time monitoring of environmental change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, sea-surface temperature) to many users. The objective of this review is to examine state-of-the-art use of ESNs for three environmental monitoring domains: (a) terrestrial vegetation, (b) animal movement and diversity, and (c) soil. Climate and aquatic monitoring sensor applications are so extensive that they are beyond the scope of this review. In each of the three application domains (vegetation, animals and soils) we review the technologies, the attributes that they sense and briefly examine the technical limitations. We conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  16. Advertisement and release calls of Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the social context of emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Nali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male calls play different roles in anuran social organization, such as spacing, territoriality and female attraction. However, calls and associated behaviors remain poorly described for many anuran species. Here we describe the advertisement and release calls of the tree frog Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Lutz, 1966 and report on the social context of emissions and a physical combat. Approximately 35 minutes of digital recordings were obtained from 34 hours of observations at one breeding site in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Bioacoustic analysis showed that males emitted two types of advertisement calls: 1 simple call (a sequence of short pulsed notes and 2 composite call (a sequence of short pulsed notes followed by a long pulsed note. Composite calls were emitted more frequently during more intense chorus activity, with various active males at the breeding site. The release call was also composed by short pulsed notes, with a wider spectrum of frequencies and emitted more rapidly than the advertisement calls. Our results suggest that the composite call of P. ayeaye may represent a mixed advertisement call. Long notes might be the aggressive part directed to males, whereas short notes directed to females. Our description of call types, their functions, and male physical interactions will be useful for studies investigating the systematics and behavior of Phyllomedusa species.

  17. Power Management and Data Recovery: Results and Recipes from Vexcel's Wireless Sensor Network Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.; Heavner, M.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2005-12-01

    Under NASA STTR sponsorship, Vexcel Corporation in Boulder Colorado is collaborating with Penn State University on a Wireless Sensor Network program designed to acquire high-frequency active and passive seismic data in harsh environments, notably temperate glaciers in Alaska and on Antarctic ice streams. This work has led to further collaboration with the University of Alaska Southeast in other applications of wireless sensors to remote data acquisition, particularly mammalian and marine bioacoustic recording, hazard monitoring, and education-outreach. A significant engineering challenge in returning data from unattended sensors is overcoming the inherent cost-data tradeoff. One approach in meeting this challenge is to take advantage of advances in relevant technologies: Wireless telemetry, low-cost low-power computers, GPS electronics, instrumentation, and environmental hardening. A second approach is to build intelligent data handling into the network operational software, an approach we intend to promote through the Open Source paradigm. We discuss two important aspects of the resulting design and integration problem: Reducing power consumption and data recovery strategies. We describe the project status and direction based on results from prototype deployments in the Colorado Front Range, the environment around Juneau Alaska, and on the tidewater Columbia Glacier in Southcentral Alaska.

  18. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate. PMID:26627784

  19. Feathering collisions in beating reed simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Tamara; Abel, Jonathan S.; Smith, Julius O.

    2003-10-01

    Pressure controlled valves are the primary sound production mechanisms for woodwind and brass musical instruments, as well as for many bioacoustic vocal systems such as the larynx and syrinx (the vocal organ in birds). During sound production, air flow sets a reed or membrane into motion creating a variable height in the valve channel and, potentially, periodically closing the channel completely. Depending on how this event is handled, an abrupt termination of air flow between open and closed states can cause undesirable discontinuities and inaccuracies in a discrete-time simulation-particularly at relatively low audio sampling rates. A solution was developed by re-examining the behavior of the differential equation governing volume flow through a pressure-controlled valve, paying particular attention to this rather troublesome transition. A closed-form solution for the time evolution of volume flow is given and used to derive an update for volume flow. The result is a smoother, more accurate, and nearly alias-free transition from open to closed. ``Feathered collisions'' of this nature can refine the sound quality produced by the numerical simulation of beating reeds, such as in clarinets, at typical audio sampling rates.

  20. Acoustic Communication in Butterflyfishes: Anatomical Novelties, Physiology, Evolution, and Behavioral Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricas, Timothy C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-01-01

    Coral reef fishes live in noisy environments that may challenge their capacity for acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes (Family Chaetodontidae) are prominent and ecologically diverse members of coral reef communities worldwide. The discovery of a novel association of anterior swim bladder horns with the lateral line canal system in the genus Chaetodon (the laterophysic connection) revealed a putative adaptation for enhancement of sound reception by the lateral line system and/or the ear. Behavioral studies show that acoustic communication is an important component of butterflyfish social behavior. All bannerfish (Forcipiger, Heniochus, and Hemitaurichthys) and Chaetodon species studied thus far produce several sound types at frequencies of 1000 Hz. Ancestral character state analyses predict the existence of both shared (head bob) and divergent (tail slap) acoustic behaviors in these two clades. Experimental auditory physiology shows that butterflyfishes are primarily sensitive to stimuli associated with hydrodynamic particle accelerations of ≤500 Hz. In addition, the gas-filled swim bladder horns in Chaetodon are stimulated by sound pressure, which enhances and extends their auditory sensitivity to 1700-2000 Hz. The broadband spectrum of ambient noise present on coral reefs overlaps with the frequency characteristics of their sounds, thus both the close social affiliations common among butterflyfishes and the evolution of the swim bladder horns in Chaetodon facilitate their short-range acoustic communication. Butterflyfishes provide a unique and unexpected opportunity to carry out studies of fish bioacoustics in the lab and the field that integrate the study of sensory anatomy, physiology, evolution, and behavioral ecology. PMID:26515311

  1. Acoustic tracking of sperm whales in the Gulf of Alaska using a two-element vertical array and tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Delphine; Thode, Aaron M; Straley, Jan; Andrews, Russel D

    2013-09-01

    Between 15 and 17 August 2010, a simple two-element vertical array was deployed off the continental slope of Southeast Alaska in 1200 m water depth. The array was attached to a vertical buoy line used to mark each end of a longline fishing set, at 300 m depth, close to the sound-speed minimum of the deep-water profile. The buoy line also served as a depredation decoy, attracting seven sperm whales to the area. One animal was tagged with both a LIMPET dive depth-transmitting satellite and bioacoustic "B-probe" tag. Both tag datasets were used as an independent check of various passive acoustic schemes for tracking the whale in depth and range, which exploited the elevation angles and relative arrival times of multiple ray paths recorded on the array. Analytical tracking formulas were viable up to 2 km range, but only numerical propagation models yielded accurate locations up to at least 35 km range at Beaufort sea state 3. Neither localization approach required knowledge of the local bottom bathymetry. The tracking system was successfully used to estimate the source level of an individual sperm whale's "clicks" and "creaks" and predict the maximum detection range of the signals as a function of sea state. PMID:23968042

  2. Acoustic and diving behavior of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) during natural and depredation foraging in the Gulf of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Delphine; Thode, Aaron M; Straley, Jan; Calambokidis, John; Schorr, Gregory S; Folkert, Kendall

    2012-07-01

    Sperm whales have depredated black cod (Anoplopoma fimbria) from demersal longlines in the Gulf of Alaska for decades, but the behavior has recently spread in intensity and geographic coverage. Over a three-year period 11 bioacoustic tags were attached to adult sperm whales off Southeast Alaska during both natural and depredation foraging conditions. Measurements of the animals' dive profiles and their acoustic behavior under both behavioral modes were examined for statistically significant differences. Two rough categories of depredation are identified: "deep" and "shallow." "Deep depredating" whales consistently surface within 500 m of a hauling fishing vessel, have maximum dive depths greater than 200 m, and display significantly different acoustic behavior than naturally foraging whales, with shorter inter-click intervals, occasional bouts of high "creak" rates, and fewer dives without creaks. "Shallow depredating" whales conduct dives that are much shorter, shallower, and more acoustically active than both the natural and deep depredating behaviors, with median creak rates three times that of natural levels. These results suggest that depredation efforts might be measured remotely with passive acoustic monitoring at close ranges. PMID:22779498

  3. Sound production and reception in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Asila; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Because of their dependence on a highly restricted coastal habitat, Enhydra lutris is especially vulnerable to a variety of different environmental and anthropogenic threats. This species is presently listed as threatened and is protected throughout the northern and southern portions of its range.Resource managers are presently faced with uncertainty when responding to and prioritizing potential threats to these animals due to insufficient understanding of the factors that may disturb or disrupt normal behavior patterns both above and below the water's surface. The objective of these studies was to obtain direct measurements of the source characteristics of vocalizations and the limits of auditory reception in Enhydra lutris. These data are necessary to form a basic but essential under-standing of bioacoustics in this species. To further develop this knowledge base, psychoacoustic profiles of aerial and underwater hearing sensitivity as a function of sound frequency are imperative to adequately consider sea otters alongside other marine mammals within the issue of anthropogenic impacts. These studies are presently ongoing i n our laboratory. A s these coastal-living carnivores have only recently transitioned to a marine lifestyle, an improved understanding of their acoustic communication and auditory adaptations will also provide insight into their evolutionary biology and behavioral ecology as well as the evolutionary pressures shaping underwater perception in marine mammals. PMID:22278472

  4. How do "mute" cicadas produce their calling songs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Luo

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as "mute". This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the "mute" cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism.

  5. Effects of group density, hunting, and temperature on the singing patterns of eastern hoolock gibbons (Hoolock leuconedys) in Gaoligongshan, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Long-Yun; Fei, Han-Lan; Chen, Gui-Shou; Li, Jia-Hua; Cui, Liang-Wei; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2016-08-01

    Many non-human primates produce species-specific loud calls to communicate within and between groups over long distances. Understanding these calling patterns can provide insights into how individuals modify their behavior in response to environmental variables as well as help to design efficient bioacoustic survey techniques. Eastern hoolock gibbons in Gaoligongshan inhabit the coldest habitat of all gibbon populations, but both conservation and research efforts on this population have been minimal. We studied singing patterns of two habituated and two unhabituated groups at two sites in Gaoligongshan between July 2010 and June 2015. We systematically collected data of their calls, and its relationship to temperature, group density, and hunting pressure over at least 1 year for each group. Our goal was to elucidate how these factors affect singing patterns of eastern hoolock gibbons. We found that adult pairs coordinated their singing to produce duet bouts that lasted for an average of 25.5 min. The singing rate (number of bouts/number on monitoring days*100%: 7.5-31.4%) was notably lower than other gibbon populations, presumably due to low group density (about 0.5 groups/km(2) ) and prevalence of hunting at the study site. Cold temperature also affected gibbons' singing behavior. Our study groups called, on average, 2.5 hr after sunrise, probably foraging first in the early morning after long nights in this cold habitat delayed singing. Furthermore, mean temperatures in the morning (8:00-12:00 am) were higher on singing days than on non-singing days, and one group called less frequently when monthly mean temperature was below 10°C. Our findings indicate that both hunting pressure from humans and low temperatures suppress calling behavior in hoolock gibbons. Such information is critical in evaluating the use of duetting as a monitoring technique for this endangered gibbon species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:861-871, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  6. Whistle characteristics and daytime dive behavior in pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in Hawai'i measured using digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tammy L; Mooney, T Aran; Sayigh, Laela S; Tyack, Peter L; Baird, Robin W; Oswald, Julie N

    2016-07-01

    This study characterizes daytime acoustic and dive behavior of pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) in Hawai'i using 14.58 h of data collected from five deployments of digital acoustic recording tags (DTAG3) in 2013. For each tagged animal, the number of whistles, foraging buzzes, dive profiles, and dive statistics were calculated. Start, end, minimum, and maximum frequencies, number of inflection points and duration were measured from 746 whistles. Whistles ranged in frequency from 9.7 ± 2.8 to 19.8 ± 4.2 kHz, had a mean duration of 0.7 ± 0.5 s and a mean of 1.2 ± 1.2 inflection points. Thirteen foraging buzzes were recorded across all tags. Mean dive depth and duration were 16 ± 9 m and 1.9 ± 1.0 min, respectively. Tagged animals spent the majority of time in the upper 10 m (76.9% ± 16.1%) of the water column. Both whistle frequency characteristics and dive statistics measured here were similar to previously reported values for spotted dolphins in Hawai'i. Shallow, short dive profiles combined with few foraging buzzes provide evidence that little spotted dolphin feeding behavior occurs during daytime hours. This work represents one of the first successful DTAG3 studies of small pelagic delphinids, providing rare insights into baseline bioacoustics and dive behavior. PMID:27475166

  7. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in Adult BTBR T+tf/J Mice During Three Types of Social Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social deficits and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. We previously reported an unusual pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR pups that may represent a behavioral homologue to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, impaired communication. The present study investigated the social and vocal repertoire in adult BTBR mice, to evaluate the role of ultrasonic vocalizations in multiple social situations at the adult stage of development. Three different social contexts were considered: male-female, male-male (resident-intruder) and female-female interactions. Behavioral responses and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for BTBR and for the highly social control strain C57BL/6J (B6). No episodes of overt fighting or mating were observed during the short durations of the three different experimental encounters. BTBR displayed lower levels of vocalizations and social investigation in all three social contexts as compared to B6. In addition, the correlation analyses between social investigation and USVs emission rate revealed that in B6 mice the two variables were positively correlated in all the three different social settings, whereas in BTBR mice the positive correlation was significant only in the male-female interactions. These findings strongly support the value of simultaneously recording two aspects of the mouse social repertoire, social motivation and bioacoustic communication. Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared to B6. PMID:20618443

  8. Morphological, olfactory, and vocal development in big brown bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather W. Mayberry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a within subjects design, we documented morphological, bioacoustical and behavioral developmental changes in big brown bats. Eptesicus fuscus pups are born naked and blind but assume an adult-like appearance by post-natal day (PND 45 and flight by PND 30. Adult females use spatial memory, acoustic and olfactory cues to reunite with offspring, but it is unclear if pups can recognize maternal scents. We tested the olfactory discrimination abilities of young E. fuscus pups and found they exhibited no odor preferences. Pups also emit distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (i-calls that facilitate mother-offspring reunions, but how pups shift their vocalizations from i-calls to downward frequency modulated (FM sweeps used in echolocation remains unclear. Between PND 0–9, pups emitted mainly long duration, tonal i-calls rich in harmonics, but after they switched to short duration, downward FM sweeps with fewer harmonics. Call maximum frequency and repetition rate showed minor changes across development. Signal duration, bandwidth, and number of harmonics decreased, whereas the maximum, minimum and bandwidth of the fundamental, and peak spectral frequency all increased. We recorded vocalizations during prolonged maternal separation and found that isolated pups called longer and at a faster rate, presumably to signal for maternal assistance. To assess how PND 13 pups alter their signals during interactions with humans we compared spontaneous and provoked vocalizations and found that provoked calls were spectrally and temporally more similar to those of younger bats suggesting that pups in distress emit signals that sound like younger bats to promote maternal assistance.

  9. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  10. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  11. Integrating multiple evidences in taxonomy: species diversity and phylogeny of mustached bats (Mormoopidae: Pteronotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Ana Carolina; Marroig, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    A phylogenetic systematic perspective is instrumental in recovering new species and their evolutionary relationships. The advent of new technologies for molecular and morphological data acquisition and analysis, allied to the integration of knowledge from different areas, such as ecology and population genetics, allows for the emergence of more rigorous, accurate and complete scientific hypothesis on species diversity. Mustached bats (genus Pteronotus) are a good model for the application of this integrative approach. They are a widely distributed and a morphologically homogeneous group, but comprising species with remarkable differences in their echolocation strategy and feeding behavior. The latest systematic review suggested six species with 17 subspecies in Pteronotus. Subsequent studies using discrete morphological characters supported the same arrangement. However, recent papers reported high levels of genetic divergence among conspecific taxa followed by bioacoustic and geographic agreement, suggesting an underestimated diversity in the genus. To date, no study merging genetic evidences and morphometric variation along the entire geographic range of this group has been attempted. Based on a comprehensive sampling including representatives of all current taxonomic units, we attempt to delimit species in Pteronotus through the application of multiple methodologies and hierarchically distinct datasets. The molecular approach includes six molecular markers from three genetic transmission systems; morphological investigations used 41 euclidean distances estimated through three-dimensional landmarks collected from 1628 skulls. The phylogenetic analysis reveals a greater diversity than previously reported, with a high correspondence among the genetic lineages and the currently recognized subspecies in the genus. Discriminant analysis of variables describing size and shape of cranial bones support the rising of the genetic groups to the specific status. Based on

  12. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DelWayne R Bohnenstiehl

    Full Text Available Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92 and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93, as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal

  13. Seismic and Biological Sources of Ambient Ocean Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Simon Eric

    Sound is the most efficient radiation in the ocean. Sounds of seismic and biological origin contain information regarding the underlying processes that created them. A single hydrophone records summary time-frequency information from the volume within acoustic range. Beamforming using a hydrophone array additionally produces azimuthal estimates of sound sources. A two-dimensional array and acoustic focusing produce an unambiguous two-dimensional `image' of sources. This dissertation describes the application of these techniques in three cases. The first utilizes hydrophone arrays to investigate T-phases (water-borne seismic waves) in the Philippine Sea. Ninety T-phases were recorded over a 12-day period, implying a greater number of seismic events occur than are detected by terrestrial seismic monitoring in the region. Observation of an azimuthally migrating T-phase suggests that reverberation of such sounds from bathymetric features can occur over megameter scales. In the second case, single hydrophone recordings from coral reefs in the Line Islands archipelago reveal that local ambient reef sound is spectrally similar to sounds produced by small, hard-shelled benthic invertebrates in captivity. Time-lapse photography of the reef reveals an increase in benthic invertebrate activity at sundown, consistent with an increase in sound level. The dominant acoustic phenomenon on these reefs may thus originate from the interaction between a large number of small invertebrates and the substrate. Such sounds could be used to take census of hard-shelled benthic invertebrates that are otherwise extremely difficult to survey. A two-dimensional `map' of sound production over a coral reef in the Hawaiian Islands was obtained using two-dimensional hydrophone array in the third case. Heterogeneously distributed bio-acoustic sources were generally co-located with rocky reef areas. Acoustically dominant snapping shrimp were largely restricted to one location within the area surveyed

  14. Integrative taxonomic revision of mantellid frogs of the genus Aglyptodactylus (Anura: Mantellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Jörn; Glaw, Frank; Pabijan, Maciej; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies have in recent years revealed the presence of hidden species diversity in Madagascar's amphibians, and numerous genera contain candidate species awaiting description. We here revise the taxonomy of one such genus within the endemic Malagasy-Comorian family Mantellidae. The target taxon, Aglyptodactylus, is classified in the subfamily Laliostominae and to date contained three recognized nominal species. We focus in particular on clarifying the status of three candidate species proposed for the genus, and for this purpose integrate evidence from molecular genetics, bioacoustics and morphology. We furthermore summarize the information available for all species in the genus concerning their taxonomic identities, distributions and advertisement calls. Our analyses of advertisement calls revealed significant differences coinciding with major clades revealed by phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Together with the new molecular dataset this provides clear evidence for evolutionary lineage divergence and supports the three candidate species previously characterized by mtDNA divergence of single specimens only. We also observed morphological differences among some of the lineages but these were in most cases not unambiguously diagnostic. As a taxonomic consequence we describe two new species: Aglyptodactylus australis sp. nov. from Andohahela rainforest in southeastern Madagascar, which so far is the largest species known in the genus with females reaching 82.5 mm snout-vent length; and Aglyptodactylus chorus sp. nov. from northeastern lowland rainforests in the Maroantsetra region. For the third proposed and confirmed candidate species we resurrect the name Rana inguinalis Günther, 1877 as Aglyptodactylus inguinalis (Günther, 1877) from the synonymy of A. madagascariensis. This name is applied to populations distributed in lowlands along most of the east coast of Madagascar, from Marojejy in the north southward to Tolagnaro

  15. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana

    2016-01-01

    these with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  16. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  17. Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2013-10-01

    and electron-dense inclusions not seen in the control animals. The lesions described here are new to cephalopod pathology. Given that low-frequency noise levels in the ocean are increasing (e.g. shipping, offshore industry, and naval manoeuvres), that the role of cephalopods in marine ecosystems is only now beginning to be understood, and that reliable bioacoustic data on invertebrates are scarce, the present study and future investigations will bring an important contribution to the sustainable use of the marine environment.

  18. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan LINGLE; Megan T.WYMAN; Radim KOTRBA; Lisa J.TEICHROEB; Cora A.ROMANOW

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the cries of human infants,sounds made by non-human infants in different stressful behavioral contexts (hunger or physical discomfort,isolation,capture by humans or predators) are usually treated as distinct types of vocalizations.However,if distress vocalizations produced by different species and in different contexts share a common motivational state and associated neurochemical pathways,we can expect them to share a common acoustic structure and adaptive function,showing only limited variation that corresponds to the infant's level of arousal.Based on this premise,we review the acoustic structure and adaptive function of two types of distress calls,those given when infants were isolated from their mothers (isolation calls) or captured by humans (capture calls).We conducted a within-context comparison examining the two call types across a diverse selection of mammalian species and other vertebrate groups,followed by a comparison of how acoustic structure and function differs between these contexts.In addition,we assessed acoustic traits that are critical to the response of caregivers.Across vertebrate species,distress vocalizations produced in these two behavioral contexts tend to be tonal with a simple chevron,flat or descending pattern of frequency modulation.Reports that both isolation and capture calls of vertebrate infants serve to attract caregivers are universal,and the fundamental frequency of infant vocalizations is often critical to this response.The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in the acoustic structure of isolation and capture distress vocalizations reflect differences in arousal,and not discrete functions.The similarity in acoustic structure and caregiver response observed across vertebrates adds support to the hypothesis that the production and processing of distress vocalizations are part of a highly-conserved system of social vocal behaviour in vertebrates.Bioacoustic research may move

  19. What makes a cry a cry? A review of infant distress vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan LINGLE, Megan T. WYMAN, Radim KOTRBA, Lisa J. TEICHROEB, Cora A. ROMANOW

    2012-10-01

    vertebrates. Bioacoustic research may move forward by recognizing the commonality among different forms of infant solicitations that attract caregivers, and the commonality of these solicitations with vocalizations that attract conspecifics in still other behavioral contexts [Current Zoology 58 (5: 698-726, 2012].

  20. Acoustic Signals of Dendroctonus valens and Structure of Its Stridulatory Apparatus%红脂大小蠹声音信号记录、分析与发声器官电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿斌; 赵丽稳; 罗茜; 张真; 孔祥波

    2012-01-01

    The bioacoustic signals often work alone or together with other signals like visual or olfactory signals in insect communication. The adult stridulatory signals of red turpentine beetle (RTB) , Dendroctonus valens, were recorded and stored digitally after amplification in three experiments ( glass phloem sandwich rearing, bolt rearing and directly field recording). The signals in different behavior were then analyzed by a specific acoustic software Adobe Audition and Matlab for echeme, duration, frequency, time domain and frequency domain analysis. The stridulatory apparatus of both male and female were observed by scanning electron microscope. The result showed that the frequency of the stridulatory sound by D. Valens was from 3 kHz to 5. 3 kHz, and there were clearly differences between the males and females, both in the sounds frequency and in apparatus structure. There were slightly differences with the signals recorded in different behavior, which proved the signals played a role in RTB behavior.%应用开发设计的昆虫声音采集与录制系统,对在不同实验条件下(玻璃板夹心、木段钻孔、室外直接测定)的红脂大小蠹两性成虫声音信号进行了采集、放大与数字化记录,并应用Adobe Audition与matlab软件分别对雌雄成虫的胁迫声、雄虫求偶声、雄虫竞争声、雌虫回应声等声音信号进行了脉冲组、频率、持续时间、频谱等特征分析,此外,还应用扫描电镜对其摩擦发声器官进行了观察与记录.研究结果表明:红脂大小蠹整体摩擦声音频率为3~5.3 kHz;雌雄间声音有显著区别,其摩擦发音结构音锉也有明显不同;而不同行为下所发出的声音信号在时域和频域上也略有差异,显示其与行为交流密切相关.

  1. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B

    2016-01-01

    Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz) soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W) is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92) and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93), as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal behaviors and associated changes within the marine

  2. Research progress on population decline mechanism of the endangered Yangtze finless porpoise%长江江豚种群衰退机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅志刚; 郝玉江; 郑劲松; 王克雄; 李松海; 王丁

    2011-01-01

    The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), as a relatively isolated and unique freshwater population, is endemic to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and is listed as an endangered species in IUCN Red List since 1996.Its population has been declining continually in the past three decades with a rate of about 6.3% per annum since early 1990s.The survey conducted in 2006 found that there were less than 1 200 individuals left in the main channel of the Yangtze River, which was less than half of the population size in the early 1990s.This project aims to explore the possible population decline mechanism of the Yangtze finless porpoise through aspects of population ecology, bioacoustics and population genetics.This paper reviews the research progress, and prospects research plans that will be carried out in the coming future.This project helps to develop the conservation biology theory of the Yangtze finless porpoise, and also helps to understand the decline and extinction mechanism of the probably extinct baiji (Lipotex vexillifer), another cetacean species once endemic to the Yangtze River.Moreover, this project could also provide some theoretical support for conservation of other aquatic animals in the Yangtze River.%长江江豚(Neophocaenaphocaenoides asiaeorientalis)是生活于我国长江中下游的一种独特的淡水小型鲸类,1996年被收录为IUCN濒危物种.在过去的三十年间,其种群数量呈快速下降趋势.数据显示,20世纪90年代以来,其种群下降速率约为每年6.3%.2006年考察发现长江干流中其种群数量少于1 200头,与15年前相比减少了50%以上.为了深入了解造成长江江豚种群快速衰退的机理,课题组从种群生态学、生物声学和种群遗传学三个方面开展研究工作.综述了该项目的研究进展,并对下一步的研究计划进行了展望.相关研究不仅能促进长江江豚保护生物学理论的发展,也有助于

  3. Wave energy conversion and the marine environment: Colonization patterns and habitat dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhamer, Olivia

    2009-09-15

    clusters, north and south, and the degree to which early recruits covered the foundations and the succession of epibenthic communities were documented during two years. Sessile organisms colonized the northern foundations more rapidly, producing a higher diversity which suggests that the placement of wave energy devices affects colonization patterns. Biofouling on buoys was examined and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, dominated with a cover about 90%. Wave exposed buoys were particularly favoured by M. edulis which there had a higher biomass and larger shells compared to those on sheltered buoys. Biofouling on wave power buoys, independent whether these had a cylindrical or toroidal shape, was insufficient to markedly affect their energy production. Finally, the thesis incorporates a review describing wave power projects in general pointing out the need of future research on for instance no-take zones, marine bioacoustics and electromagnetic fields. The main conclusions are that large-scale renewable wave energy conversion will cause ecological impact primarily by adding new hard substrate to an area but not by harming organisms or decreasing biodiversity within wave power parks

  4. Acoustic comunication systems and sounds in three species of crickets from central Italy: musical instruments for a three-voices composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacchi, David; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    . File morphology is one of the main distinctive element in sound emission strategies of insect species. We compared analyses of the microstructures of different species' files (both shape and height of teeth, regularity, distance, etc.) and then confirmed their main characteristics within the acoustic domain. Specific Fourier transforms were employed to derive detailed spectrograms analyses providing a powerful visual tool for understanding. For the three species in this study, the typical stridulation of male individuals were isolated and recorded in high definition (96khz and 192khz / 24bit). These high sampling rates enabled to enter the microcosm of sound - in analogy to the microcosm of morphology - through processes of time and frequency shifting. Different sound design methodologies, then, allowed to compose an imaginary soundscape where the sonic gestures of each individual (or more grouped recordings) were superimposed in a polyphony of rhythms and pitches. The purpose for crossing bioacoustics, electron microscopy and music in this interdisciplinary work is driven by a pressing need of awareness of the sonic heritage of landscapes and its conservation.