WorldWideScience

Sample records for bio-hydrogen based energy

  1. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-jen Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1 a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2 autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment.

  2. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-jen Cheng; Chiu-Yue Lin; Chen-Yeon Chu; Shang-Yuan Chen

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient ene...

  3. Potential improvement to a citric wastewater treatment plant using bio-hydrogen and a hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Berthold, Sascha; Doetsch, Christian; Shen, Jianquan

    Treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater is characterized as cost-consuming. The conventional technology uses the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A 2/O), which does not produce hydrogen. There is potential for energy saving using hydrogen utilization associated with wastewater treatment because hydrogen can be produced from organic wastewater using anaerobic fermentation. A 50 m 3 pilot bio-reactor for hydrogen production was constructed in Shandong Province, China in 2006 but to date the hydrogen produced has not been utilized. In this work, a technical-economic model based on hydrogen utilization is presented and analyzed to estimate the potential improvement to a citric wastewater plant. The model assesses the size, capital cost, annual cost, system efficiency and electricity cost under different configurations. In a stand-alone situation, the power production from hydrogen is not sufficient for the required load, thus a photovoltaic array (PV) is employed as the power supply. The simulated results show that the combination of solar and bio-hydrogen has a much higher cost compared with the A 2/O process. When the grid is connected, the system cost achieved is 0.238 US t -1 wastewater, which is lower than 0.257 US t -1 by the A 2/O process. The results reveal that a simulated improvement by using bio-hydrogen and a FC system is effective and feasible for the citric wastewater plant, even when compared to the current cost of the A 2/O process. In addition, lead acid and vanadium flow batteries were compared for energy storage service. The results show that a vanadium battery has lower cost and higher efficiency due to its long lifespan and energy efficiency. Additionally, the cost distribution of components shows that the PV dominates the cost in the stand-alone situation, while the bio-reactor is the main cost component in the parallel grid.

  4. Improvement of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial hydrogen gas production from organic matters stands out as one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable green energy production. Based on the literature review, investigation of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste using a mixed culture has been very limited. The objective of this study was to assess the anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste under various conditions. (Author)

  5. Analysis of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of the life cycle of bio-hydrogen applied to the Portuguese road transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Baptista, Patricia; Silva, Carla [IDMEC (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In this work the main objective is to analyze energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of biohydrogen for use in the transportation sector in Portugal. A life cycle assessment will be performed in order to evaluate bio-hydrogen pathways, having biodiesel and conventional fossil diesel as reference. The pathways were production of feedstock, pre-treatment, treatment, compression, distribution and applications. For the well-to-tank analysis the SimaPro 7.1 software and excel tools are used. This study includes not only a well-to-tank analysis but also a tank-to-wheel analysis (using ADVISOR software) estimating hydrogen consumption and electricity consumption of a fuel cell hybrid and a plug-in hybrid. Several bio-hydrogen feedstocks to produce hydrogen through fermentation processes will be considered: potato peels. (orig.)

  6. A two-stage bio hydrogen process for energy generation from municipal solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo-Benitez, J. a.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    Energy supply and disposal of solid wastes are two big challenges that great cities face at the present time. Several experts have shown that hydrogen is the fuel of the future, due to their high energy content (three times more than that of the gasoline) and its clean combustion. (Author)

  7. Design of temperature automatic control system based on solar energy compensation in photosynthetic bio-hydrogen reactor%基于太阳能温度补偿的光合生物制氢反应器自控系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜金宇; 王毅; 周雪花; 张全国

    2012-01-01

    In order to fufill the requirements of photosynthtic bio-hydrogen operation process by solar energy, the solar heating temperature compensation automatic control system was designed, STK12C5A0882 single chip microcomputer was chosen as controller, and Pt100 temperature sensors as temperature collector to realize the real-time temperature regulation curve online display. Photosynthetic bio-hydrogen reactor cooling and heating switched by relay control, and software design adopted PID algorithm progrem. The experiment result showed that the system adjusted accurately, controled stably and could fufill the data online monitoring, The corresponse time of detector was less than 10 ms.the response time of regulation was less than 30s, and the temperature fluctuation was less than ±2 ℃ , which indicates that the design can adjust the temperature of bio-reacter during (30 ± 2)℃ to meet the solar photosynthetic bio-hydrogen reactor temperature control requirements.%针对太阳能光合生物连续制氢运行工艺的要求,设计了太阳能加热温度补偿自控系统,以STK12C5A0882单片机作为控制器,选用Pt100型温度传感器采集温度,实现实时温度调节曲线的在线显示.光合生物制氢反应器制冷和制热的切换由继电器控制,软件设计采用了PID算法.试验结果表明,该系统具有调节精密,控制稳定,数据在线记录及监测等优点,系统检测响应是时间小于10 ms,调控响应时间小于30 s,可将温度控制在(30±2)℃,温度波动小于±2℃,能够有效提高太阳能光合生物制氢反应器的温度控制精度.

  8. Bio-hydrogen Production Potential from Market Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lanna Jaitalee; Orathai Chavalparit

    2010-01-01

    This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS) of ...

  9. Bio-hydrogen Production Potential from Market Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna Jaitalee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS of organic waste were varied from 2%, 3% and 5% respectively. The pH was controlled at 5.5 for all batches in the experiment. The results showed that bio-hydrogen production depended on feed-substrate concentration. At initial TVS content of 3%, the highest hydrogen production was achieved at a level of 0.59 L-H2/L at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen yield was 15.3 ml H2/g TVS or 8.5 ml H2/g COD. The composition of H2 in the biogas ranged from 28.1-30.9% and no CH4 was detected in all batch tests.

  10. Bio-hydrogen production by dark fermentation from organic wastes and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei

    Der er stigende opmærksomhed omkring biohydrogen. Ved hydrogen fermentering kan kun en lille del af det organiske materiale eller COD i affald omdannes til hydrogen. Der findes endnu ingen full-skala bio-hydrogen anlæg, eftersom effektive rentable teknologier ikke er udviklet endnu. En to......-trins proces der kombinerer bio-hydrogen og bio-metan produktionen er en attraktiv mulighed til at øge det totale energi-udbytte af fermentering af organisk materiale. I en to-trins proces, med bio-hydrogen som første trin og bio-methan som andet trin, kunne der opnås 43mL-H2/gVSadded ved 37°C fra...... bio-hydrogen produktionen med 88 % i en to-trins proces i forhold til et-trins proces. Hydrogen produktionen kunne forøges ved at skifte temperaturen fra mesofil til ekstrem-termofil. Hydrogen produktion ved ekstrem-termofile temperaturer med blandede kulturer blev demonstreret for første gang. Der...

  11. Isolation and characterization of a Klebsiella oxytoca strain for simultaneous azo-dye anaerobic reduction and bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing; Wu, Chao

    2012-07-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacteria strain GS-4-08, isolated from an anaerobic sequence batch reactor for synthetic dye wastewater treatment, was investigated for azo-dye decolorization. This bacterium was identified as a member of Klebsiella oxytoca based on Gram staining, morphology characterization and 16S rRNA gene analysis. It exhibited a good capacity of simultaneous decolorization and hydrogen production in the presence of electron donor. The hydrogen production was less affected even at a high Methyl Orange (MO) concentration of 0.5 mM, indicating a superior tolerability of this strain to MO. This efficient bio-hydrogen production from electron donor can not only avoid bacterial inhibition due to accumulation of volatile fatty acids during MO decolorization, but also can recover considerable energy from dye wastewater.

  12. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H2 concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH4 is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  13. Development of Bio-Hydrogen Production Technology from Organic Wastewater%有机废水生物制氢资源化技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈燕飞; 胡岚; 张咏

    2013-01-01

    There are some advantages of clean , energy-saving, resource-saving for biological hydrogen production technology .The bio-hydrogen production reaction can take place in conditions of normal temperature , pressure and neutral pH by microorganism .The way to carry out bio-hydrogen production from organic wastewater achieves the recovering resource and decreases the cost , which is consistent with strategic planning for sustainable development .In this paper , the classification and biological principle of bio -hydrogen production were introduced, and the technology development of bio -hydrogen production from organic wastewater was discussed .In the last, the new technology of bio-hydrogen production was presented .%生物制氢技术具有清洁、节能和不消耗矿物资源等突出优点,依赖微生物自身的新陈代谢,在常温、常压和接近中性的温和条件下即可进行,以有机废水为制氢原料,既实现了废弃物资源化,又可降低成本,是一条符合可持续发展战略的废水资源化途径。本文介绍了生物制氢类型及生物学原理,并就以有机废水为原料的生物制氢研究进展进行了讨论,归纳出生物制氢最新技术进展。

  14. Application of Bio -hydrogen Production Technology%生物制氢技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金明兰

    2012-01-01

    氢气具有清洁、可更新的优点,是最具发展潜力、最理想的新能源之一.由于生物制氢技术具有无污染、可再生、成本低等优点,受到国内外广泛的关注,在新能源的研究利用中占有越来越重要的位置.本文较系统地综述了国内外各种生物制氢技术的产生背景、基本原理和应用现状,总结了该技术的优点和面临的问题,探讨其在环境科学中的应用前景.%The hydrogen is a kind of most development potential and best energy source for clean and renewable. Compared with other hydrogen production methods, the technology of bio - hydrogen production was hold more im- portant situation in new energy research for the advantages of being free of pollution, being renewable and with low costs. This presentation comprises a review of the technology of bio - hydrogen production development background, basic technical mechanism and current applications was presented. Its merits and locals were summarized, as well as potential and future perspectives of its applications in environmental science were also approached.

  15. A novel anaerobic co-culture system for bio-hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingrong; Zhu, Mingjun

    2013-09-01

    A novel co-culture of Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense with pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) under mild alkali conditions for bio-hydrogen production was established, exhibiting a cost-effective and synergetic advantage in bio-hydrogen production over monoculture of C. thermocellum or T. aotearoense with untreated SCB. The optimized pretreatment conditions were established to be 3% NaOH, and a liquid to solid ratio of 25:1 at 80°C for 3h. A final hydrogen production of 50.05±1.51 mmol/L was achieved with 40 g/L pretreated SCB at 55°C. The established co-culture system provides a novel consolidated bio-processing strategy for bioconversion of SCB to bio-hydrogen.

  16. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  17. Small proton exchange membrane fuel cell power station by using bio-hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志祥; 毛宗强; 王诚; 任南琪

    2006-01-01

    In fermentative organic waste water treatment process, there was hydrogen as a by-product. After some purification,there was about 50% ~ 70% hydrogen in the bio-gas, which could be utilized for electricity generation with fuel cell. Half a year ago, joint experiments between biological hydrogen production in Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power station in Tsinghua University were conducted for electricity generation with bio-hydrogen from the pilot plant in HIT. The results proved the feasibility of the bio-hydrogen as a by-product utilization with PEMFC power station and revealed some problems of fuel cell power station for this application.

  18. Bio-hydrogen production in an EGSB reactor under mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, A. A.; Danko, Anthony S.; Alves, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bio-hydrogen production with an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) fed with glucose and arabinose, without methane production, was demonstrated. Homoacetogenesis was observed on reactor when operated under mesophilic (37ºC) conditions but not under thermophilic (55ºC) and hyper-thermophilic conditions (70ºC). It was also found that under thermophilic and hyper-thermophilic conditions glucose is preferentially consumed than ara...

  19. Process optimization of bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate supernatants of corn stalk%玉米秸秆酶解上清液厌氧发酵产氢工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全国; 孙堂磊; 荆艳艳; 王毅; 张洋; 胡建军

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, hydrogen as eco-friendly clean energy has received the widespread attention. In numerous hydrogen production methods, anaerobic fermentation bio-hydrogen production has become a research hotspot in the field of renewable energy because it can utilize biomass raw materials effectively, reduce the agricultural waste pollution to the environment. The straw biomass is the main agricultural waste of crop production in China, which can be used to take direct or prepare molding fuel combustion and convert into biogas for comprehensive utilization generally. Cellulose content in maize straw (about 36%) is higher than that in wheat、soybean and sorghum straws, the research of cellulose energy efficient transformation in maize straw has important scientific significance and practical value. In this study, anaerobic fermentation experiments were performed for bio-hydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolyzate of corn stalk powder (<0.088 mm) using heat pretreated activated sludge as fermentation microorganism, choosing cumulative amount of hydrogen production as main experiment parameter,the influences of different factors on anaerobic fermentation bio-hydrogen production of corn stalk’s enzymolysis were studied based on Box-Behnken model of response surface method. The significance of interactions between different factors during the anaerobic bio-hydrogen production process was examined and the anaerobic fermentation bio-hydrogen production process of corn stalk’s enzymolysis was optimized. The results showed that temperature and enzymatic hydrolysate concentration were the factors that mostly impacted on the corn stalk anaerobic fermentation bio-hydrogen production process comparing with initial pH value. The interaction of two factors on the effect of hydrogen yield were all significant (P<0.05). Box-Behnken model was used to obtain the optimal conditions of hydrogen production. The optimal conditions were temperature of 38.32℃, the initial p

  20. [Characteristics and operation of enhanced continuous bio-hydrogen production reactor using support carrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Nan-qi; Tang, Jing; Gong, Man-li

    2006-06-01

    A kind of granular activated carbon, whose granular size is no more than 2mm and specific gravity is 1.54g/cm3, was used as the support carrier to allow retention of activated sludge within a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) using molasses wastewater as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. Continuous operation characteristics and operational controlling strategy of the enhanced continuous bio-hydrogen production system were investigated. It was indicated that, support carriers could expand the activity scope of hydrogen production bacteria, make the system fairly stable in response to organic load impact and low pH value (pH reactor at low HRT. The reactor with ethanol-type fermentation achieved an optimal hydrogen production rate of 0.37L/(g x d), while the pH value ranged from 3.8 to 4.4, and the hydrogen content was approximately 40% approximately 57% of biogas. It is effective to inhibit the methanogens by reducing the pH value of the bio-hydrogen production system, consequently accelerate the start-up of the reactor.

  1. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  2. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of mixed waste streams to separate generation of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Horam, N.J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    two phase and sub optimal conditions improves the energy potential to 8.27 MW/tonne VS{sub fed} with VS(removal) efficiency as 80.7% in total 15 days of HRT. The net energy balance results indicated the co-digestion of IFW with waste products of SS treatment plant viz. primary sludge (PS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) are amenable substrates for the two-stage anaerobic bio-hydrogen and biomethane digestion process. (orig.)

  3. High efficiency bio-hydrogen production from glucose revealed in an inoculum of heat-pretreated landfill leachate sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-hydrogen is a promising sustainable energy to replace fossil fuels. This study investigated bio-H2 production from the inoculum of heat-pretreated landfill leachate sludge using glucose as model substrate. The seed sludge pretreated at 65 °C showed the highest amount of H2 at the optimum condition of pH 6 and 37 °C. The maximum H2 yield estimated by the modified Gompertz model was 6.43 mol H2/mol glucose. The high efficient of H2 production is thermodynamically feasible with the Gibbs free energy of −34 kJ/mol. This study reveals that pretreated landfill leachate sludge has considerable potential for H2 production. - Highlights: • Heat retreated landfill leachate sludge revealed high efficient H2 production. • High efficient H2 yield, 6.4 mol H2/mol glucose. • The synergisms between H2-producing bacteria may responsible for the high H2 yield. • High H2 yield is thermodynamically feasible with Gibbs free energy of −34 kJ/mol

  4. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sattar; C. Arslan; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; K. Yousaf; S. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen productio...

  5. Anaerobic bio-hydrogen production from ethanol fermentation: the role of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Moon H; Jang, Nam J; Hyun, Seung H; Kim, In S

    2004-08-01

    Hydrogen was produced by an ethanol-acetate fermentation at pH of 5.0 +/- 0.2 and HRT of 3 days. The yield of hydrogen was 100-200 ml g Glu(-1) with a hydrogen content of 25-40%. This fluctuation in the hydrogen yield was attributed to the formation of propionate and the activity of hydrogen utilizing methanogens. The change in the operational pH for the inhibition of this methanogenic activity induced a change in the main fermentation pathway. In this study, the main products were butyrate, ethanol and propionate, in the pH ranges 4.0-4.5, 4.5-5.0 and 5.0-6.0, respectively. However, the activity of all the microorganisms was inhibited below pH 4.0. Therefore, pH 4.0 was regarded as the operational limit for the anaerobic bio-hydrogen production process. These results indicate that the pH plays an important role in determining the type of anaerobic fermentation pathway in anaerobic bio-hydrogen processes.

  6. Organic Waste Treatment via Anaerobic Bio-hydrogenation%有机废弃物厌氧生物制氢处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高斯 M K; 孙义; 刘晋; 王黎; 西瓦 K M

    2015-01-01

    The resources of fossil fuel will be dried up in the near future. Moreover,greenhouse gas from fossil fuel burning has worsened the global warming situation. The development of sustainable en-ergy has currently become a hot issue in the world. H2 as cleanest ernergy was combused with O2 to pro-duce pure water. The paper presents a model of bio-hydrogenation process with anaerobic bacterial growth on organic wastewater. Data from laboratory scale reactors operating with artificial substrates u-sing bacteria from agricultural waste were conducted. The calculating bio-hydrogen yields and assuming from the waste stream were suitable properties in the digestion. Bacteria played a very important role in the processes of bio-hydrogenation. Bacteria that produce hydrogen were isolated by its characteristic of heat-resistance. Factors that affect the efficiency of bio-hydrogenation process include pH, temperature and the ratio of biomass to substrate concentration( F/M) . By using glucose as the substrate with Clos-tridium sp. seeding,it is shown that of bio-hydrogenation can be produced efficiently in the experiment. Methanogenesis which consumes H2 may be prevented by special operation,and optimum parameters, such as pH around 5,Temperature at 35 ℃,HRT approximately 8hours and F/M between 25% ~50%. And the maximum hydrogen concentration is found to be 88. 6%( V/V) for practical application were obtained from the model.%化石燃料的枯竭,化石燃料燃烧排放的温室气体加剧了全球变暖的问题,已经成为世界的热点问题之一.氢气作为清洁能源,与沼气和化石燃料相比,燃烧产物只有水.利用有机废弃物厌氧发酵制氢气,通过厌氧反应器和农业废弃物生物制氢模型,计算实验过程中生物产氢量和废弃物消解与微生物生长的关系.实验过程表明:在生物制氢过程中,产氢细菌作用显著,产氢菌可以通过其耐热性进行筛选.而影响生物制氢效率的因素还包括:pH值

  7. 有机废弃物厌氧生物制氢处理%Organic Waste Treatment via Anaerobic Bio-hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高斯 M K; 孙义; 刘晋; 王黎; 西瓦 K M

    2015-01-01

    化石燃料的枯竭,化石燃料燃烧排放的温室气体加剧了全球变暖的问题,已经成为世界的热点问题之一.氢气作为清洁能源,与沼气和化石燃料相比,燃烧产物只有水.利用有机废弃物厌氧发酵制氢气,通过厌氧反应器和农业废弃物生物制氢模型,计算实验过程中生物产氢量和废弃物消解与微生物生长的关系.实验过程表明:在生物制氢过程中,产氢细菌作用显著,产氢菌可以通过其耐热性进行筛选.而影响生物制氢效率的因素还包括:pH值、温度和有机负荷率等.通过有机物梭菌转化培养,生物制氢纯度高且过程可以有效地进行.采用产甲烷菌抑制步可以消除其H2 的消耗.当pH值为4. 5~5,温度为35 ℃,水力停留时间( HRT)为8 h,有机负荷率为25 % ~50 %时,通过模型对实验数据拟合得到最大氢气体积分数为88. 6 %.%The resources of fossil fuel will be dried up in the near future. Moreover,greenhouse gas from fossil fuel burning has worsened the global warming situation. The development of sustainable en-ergy has currently become a hot issue in the world. H2 as cleanest ernergy was combused with O2 to pro-duce pure water. The paper presents a model of bio-hydrogenation process with anaerobic bacterial growth on organic wastewater. Data from laboratory scale reactors operating with artificial substrates u-sing bacteria from agricultural waste were conducted. The calculating bio-hydrogen yields and assuming from the waste stream were suitable properties in the digestion. Bacteria played a very important role in the processes of bio-hydrogenation. Bacteria that produce hydrogen were isolated by its characteristic of heat-resistance. Factors that affect the efficiency of bio-hydrogenation process include pH, temperature and the ratio of biomass to substrate concentration( F/M) . By using glucose as the substrate with Clos-tridium sp. seeding,it is shown that of bio-hydrogenation can be produced

  8. 暗发酵-光发酵两阶段联合生物制氢技术研究进展%The advances in bio-hydrogen production by two steps of dark and photo-fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 陈银广; 赵玉晓

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing of energy shortage and environmental problems caused by burning fossil fuels, hydrogen, as a clean and renewable energy has gained special attention.Compared with thermochemical and electrochemical hydrogen production, bio-hydrogen production has a lot of advantages, such as ambient reaction conditions, low consumption and environmentally friendly.Therefore, it was considered as a promising technology.Bio-hydrogen production usually undergoes two stages, i.e., dark fermentation and light fermentation.In dark fermentative stage, waste organic materials can be converted to hydrogen by bacteria, and leave some by-products, such as organic acids.The photosynthetic bacteria can decompose organic acids and release hydrogen by using light energy and nitrogenase in a photo fermentation process.Thus, combining these two kinds of hydrogen production methods can improve the utilization rate of waste organic material.This review is based on the development of dark and photo two-stage fermentation in recent years.It was elaborated mainly from the following aspects: mechanism of two-stage hydrogen production, main influence factors, kinds of two steps bio-hydrogen production (sequential dark and photo-fermentation & combined dark and photo-fermentation), and the facing challenges.%随着能源紧缺的日益加剧,以及化石燃料燃烧引起的环境问题逐渐突显,氢能作为一种清洁可再生能源越来越受到青睐.生物制氢与热化学及电化学制氢相比其反应条件温和、低耗、绿色,是一项非常有应用前景的技术.生物制氢从广义上可以分为暗发酵和光发酵产氢两种,其中暗发酵微生物可以利用有机废弃物产生氢气以及有机酸等副产物,光合细菌在光照和固氮酶的作用下可以将暗发酵产生的有机酸继续用于产氢,因此两种发酵产氢方式相结合可以提高有机废物的资源化效率.将近年来暗发酵-光发酵两阶段生物制氢技术进行

  9. Assessing optimal fermentation type for bio-hydrogen production in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, N Q; Chua, H; Chan, S Y; Tsang, Y F; Wang, Y J; Sin, N

    2007-07-01

    In this study, the optimal fermentation type and the operating conditions of anaerobic process in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors was investigated for the maximization of bio-hydrogen production using mixed cultures. Butyric acid type fermentation occurred at pH>6, propionic acid type fermentation occurred at pH about 5.5 with E(h) (redox potential) >-278mV, and ethanol-type fermentation occurred at pHClostridium sp., Propionibacterium sp. and Bacteriodes sp., respectively. Ethanol fermentation was optimal type by comparing the operating stabilities and hydrogen production capacities between the fermentation types, which remained stable when the organic loading rate (OLR) reached the highest OLR at 86.1kgCOD/m(3)d. The maximum hydrogen production reached up to 14.99L/d.

  10. Synergistic collaboration of gut symbionts in Odontotermes formosanus for lignocellulosic degradation and bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Gincy Marina; Mathew, Dony Chacko; Lo, Shou-Chen; Alexios, Georgy Mathew; Yang, Jia-Cih; Sashikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam; Shaikh, Tanveer Mahamadali; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2013-10-01

    In this work, gut microbes from the macrotermitine termite Odontotermes formosanus the cellulolytic Bacillus and fermentative Clostridium were studied in batch experiments using different carbon substrates to bio-mimic the termite gut for hydrogen production. Their fungus comb aging and the in vitro lignocellulosic degradation of the mango tree substrates by the synergistic interaction of Bacillus, Clostridium and Termitomyces were detected by Solid-state NMR. From the results, Bacillus species acted as a mutualist, by initiating an anaerobic environment for the growth of Clostridium, for bio-hydrogen production and the presence of Termitomyces enhanced the lignocellulosic degradation of substrates in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the synergistic collaboration of these three microbes can be used for termite-derived bio-fuel processing technology.

  11. Fiscal 1997 survey report on a feasibility of international collaboration on bio-hydrogen R and D; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    R and D of the production technology of biohydrogen is an option effective for the world energy supply technology and the world environmental preservation technology in the 21st century. At present, a project named `R and D of the environment harmony type hydrogen production technology` tackles the R and D of the hydrogen production technology using photosynthetic microorganisms, and promotes the R and D in this field from both aspects of a basis and application as seen in a workshop held including interchanges with researchers and research institutes overseas. With the recently increasing interest in bio-hydrogen production technology also overseas, search and bleeding/improvement of microorganisms related to the hydrogen production and utilization technology of biomass have been advancing. For development in this field, it is necessary to construct a widespread research network and promote the comprehensive research and development. In this survey, most of the research institutes visited recognized an importance of international cooperation in this field and agreed to make future research interchanges in a wide range. Based on the survey, a feasibility of concrete international collaboration is searched. 146 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    C. Arslan; A. Sattar; Ji, C; S. Sattar; K. Yousaf; S. Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste...

  13. Feasibility of bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge using defined microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shireen Meher Kotay; Debabrata Das [Fermentation Technology Lab., Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, W.B., INDIA-721302 (India)

    2006-07-01

    Biological hydrogen production potential of a defined microbial consortium consisting of three facultative anaerobes, Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 was studied. In this investigation their individual and combinatorial H{sub 2} production capabilities have been studied on defined media and pretreated sewage sludge. Defined medium, MYG (1% w/v Malt extract, 0.4% w/v yeast extract and 1% w/v glucose) with glucose as limiting substrate has been found to be most suitable for hydrogen production. Individually E. cloacae clearly gave higher yield (276 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD reduced) using defined medium than the other two strains. There was no considerable difference in maximal yield of hydrogen from individual and combinatorial (1:1:1 consortium) modes suggesting that E. cloacae dominated in the consortia on defined medium. Contradictorily, B. coagulans gave better bio-hydrogen yield (37.16 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD consumed) than the other two strains when activated sewage sludge was used as substrate. The pretreatment of sludge included sterilization, (15% v/v) dilution and supplementation with 0.5% w/v glucose which was found to be essential to screen out the hydrogen consuming bacteria and ameliorate the hydrogenation. Considering (1:1:1) consortium as inoculum, interestingly yield of hydrogen was recorded to increase to 41.23 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD reduced inferring that in consortium, the substrate utilization was significantly higher. The hydrogen yield from pretreated sludge obtained in this study (35.54 ml H{sub 2}/ g sludge) has been found to be distinctively higher than the earlier reports (8.1 - 16.9 ml H{sub 2} / g sludge). However it was lower compared to the yield obtained from co-digestion of (83:17) food waste and sewage sludge (122 ml H{sub 2}/ g carbohydrate COD). Employing formulated microbial consortia for bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge was an attempt to augment the hydrogen yield from

  14. Feasibility of bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge using defined microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shireen Meher Kotay; Debabrata Das [Fermentation Technology Lab., Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, W.B., INDIA-721302 (India)

    2006-07-01

    Biological hydrogen production potential of a defined microbial consortium consisting of three facultative anaerobes, Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 was studied. In this investigation their individual and combinatorial H{sub 2} production capabilities have been studied on defined media and pretreated sewage sludge. Defined medium, MYG (1% w/v Malt extract, 0.4% w/v yeast extract and 1% w/v glucose) with glucose as limiting substrate has been found to be most suitable for hydrogen production. Individually E. cloacae clearly gave higher yield (276 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD reduced) using defined medium than the other two strains. There was no considerable difference in maximal yield of hydrogen from individual and combinatorial (1:1:1 consortium) modes suggesting that E. cloacae dominated in the consortia on defined medium. Contradictorily, B. coagulans gave better bio-hydrogen yield (37.16 ml H{sub 2}/g COD consumed) than the other two strains when activated sewage sludge was used as substrate. The pretreatment of sludge included sterilization, (15% v/v) dilution and supplementation with 0.5%w/v glucose which was found to be essential to screen out the hydrogen consuming bacteria and ameliorate the hydrogenation. Considering (1:1:1) consortium as inoculum, interestingly yield of hydrogen was recorded to increase to 41.23 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD reduced inferring that in consortium, the substrate utilization was significantly higher. The hydrogen yield from pretreated sludge obtained in this study (35.54 ml H{sub 2} g sludge) has been found to be distinctively higher than the earlier reports (8.1 - 16.9 ml H{sub 2}/g sludge). However it was lower compared to the yield obtained from co-digestion of (83:17) food waste and sewage sludge (122 ml H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate COD). Employing formulated microbial consortia for bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge was an attempt to augment the hydrogen yield from sludge

  15. Feasibility of bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge using defined microbial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological hydrogen production potential of a defined microbial consortium consisting of three facultative anaerobes, Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 was studied. In this investigation their individual and combinatorial H2 production capabilities have been studied on defined media and pretreated sewage sludge. Defined medium, MYG (1% w/v Malt extract, 0.4% w/v yeast extract and 1% w/v glucose) with glucose as limiting substrate has been found to be most suitable for hydrogen production. Individually E. cloacae clearly gave higher yield (276 ml H2/ g COD reduced) using defined medium than the other two strains. There was no considerable difference in maximal yield of hydrogen from individual and combinatorial (1:1:1 consortium) modes suggesting that E. cloacae dominated in the consortia on defined medium. Contradictorily, B. coagulans gave better bio-hydrogen yield (37.16 ml H2/g COD consumed) than the other two strains when activated sewage sludge was used as substrate. The pretreatment of sludge included sterilization, (15% v/v) dilution and supplementation with 0.5%w/v glucose which was found to be essential to screen out the hydrogen consuming bacteria and ameliorate the hydrogenation. Considering (1:1:1) consortium as inoculum, interestingly yield of hydrogen was recorded to increase to 41.23 ml H2/ g COD reduced inferring that in consortium, the substrate utilization was significantly higher. The hydrogen yield from pretreated sludge obtained in this study (35.54 ml H2 g sludge) has been found to be distinctively higher than the earlier reports (8.1 - 16.9 ml H2/g sludge). However it was lower compared to the yield obtained from co-digestion of (83:17) food waste and sewage sludge (122 ml H2/g carbohydrate COD). Employing formulated microbial consortia for bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge was an attempt to augment the hydrogen yield from sludge. (authors)

  16. Bio Hydrogen Production from Pharmaceutical Waste Water Treatment by a Suspended Growth Reactor Using Environmental Anaerobic Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, R. Hema; Mohan, S. Venkata; Swamy, A. V. V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is considered as the future fuel. The present work on “Bio Hydrogen Production from Pharmaceutical Waste Water Treatment by a Suspended Growth Reactor Using Environmental Anaerobic Technology. This is an appreciated approach at wealth generation through value addition to wastes. The optimization process included the selection of ideal co-substrate (sucrose) and nitrogen source (DAP) to examine the feasibility of hydrogen production from industrial effluent in a 50%-50% mix...

  17. Comparing the Bio-Hydrogen Production Potential of Pretreated Rice Straw Co-Digested with Seeded Sludge Using an Anaerobic Bioreactor under Mesophilic Thermophilic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Sattar; Chaudhry Arslan; Changying Ji; Sumiyya Sattar; Irshad Ali Mari; Haroon Rashid; Fariha Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Three common pretreatments (mechanical, steam explosion and chemical) used to enhance the biodegradability of rice straw were compared on the basis of bio-hydrogen production potential while co-digesting rice straw with sludge under mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures. The results showed that the solid state NaOH pretreatment returned the highest experimental reduction of LCH (lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose) content and bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The i...

  18. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bondin...

  19. Comparing the Bio-Hydrogen Production Potential of Pretreated Rice Straw Co-Digested with Seeded Sludge Using an Anaerobic Bioreactor under Mesophilic Thermophilic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Sattar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three common pretreatments (mechanical, steam explosion and chemical used to enhance the biodegradability of rice straw were compared on the basis of bio-hydrogen production potential while co-digesting rice straw with sludge under mesophilic (37 °C and thermophilic (55 °C temperatures. The results showed that the solid state NaOH pretreatment returned the highest experimental reduction of LCH (lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content and bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The increase in incubation temperature from 37 °C to 55 °C increased the bio-hydrogen yield, and the highest experimental yield of 60.6 mL/g VSremoved was obtained under chemical pretreatment at 55 °C. The time required for maximum bio-hydrogen production was found on the basis of kinetic parameters as 36 h–47 h of incubation, which can be used as a hydraulic retention time for continuous bio-hydrogen production from rice straw. The optimum pH range of bio-hydrogen production was observed to be 6.7 ± 0.1–5.8 ± 0.1 and 7.1 ± 0.1–5.8 ± 0.1 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The increase in temperature was found useful for controlling the volatile fatty acids (VFA under mechanical and steam explosion pretreatments. The comparison of pretreatment methods under the same set of experimental conditions in the present study provided a baseline for future research in order to select an appropriate pretreatment method.

  20. Production of bio-hydrogenated diesel by catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srifa, Atthapon; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Viriya-Empikul, Nawin; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai

    2014-04-01

    Catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil (refined palm olein type) to produce bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Effects of dominant hydrotreating parameters: temperature: 270-420°C; H2 pressure: 15-80 bar; LHSV: 0.25-5.0 h(-1); and H2/oil ratio: 250-2000 N(cm(3)/cm(3)) on the conversion, product yield, and a contribution of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and decarbonylation/decarboxylation (DCO/DCO2) were investigated to find the optimal hydrotreating conditions. All calculations including product yield and the contribution of HDO and DCO/DCO2 were extremely estimated based on mole balance corresponding to the fatty acid composition in feed to fully understand deoxygenation behaviors at different conditions. These analyses demonstrated that HDO, DCO, and DCO2 reactions competitively occurred at each condition, and had different optimal and limiting conditions. The differences in the hydrotreating reactions, liquid product compositions, and gas product composition were also discussed. PMID:24583218

  1. Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez; María Victoria Gil; María Martínez; Fernando Rubiera; Covadonga Pevida

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO2) than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO2 is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation), in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO2-N2) and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory hav...

  2. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, C.; Sattar, A.; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; Yousaf, K.; Hashim, S.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste. The maximum cumulative bio-hydrogen production of 650 mL was obtained from noodle waste under thermophilic temperature condition. Most of the production was observed during the first 48 h of incubation, which continued until 72 h of incubation. The decline in pH during this interval was 4.3 and 4.4 from a starting value of 7 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Most of the glucose consumption was also observed during 72 h of incubation and the maximum consumption was observed during the first 24 h, which was the same duration where the maximum pH drop occurred. The maximum hydrogen yields of 82.47 mL VS-1, 131.38 mL COD-1, and 44.90 mL glucose-1 were obtained from thermophilic food waste, thermophilic noodle waste and mesophilic rice waste, respectively. The production of volatile fatty acids increased with an increase in time and temperature in food waste and noodle waste reactors whereas they decreased with temperature in rice waste reactors. The statistical modelling returned good results with high values of coefficient of determination (R2) for each waste type and 3-D response surface plots developed by using models developed. These plots developed a better understanding regarding the impact of temperature and incubation time on bio-hydrogen production trend, glucose consumption during incubation and volatile fatty acids production.

  3. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  4. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sattar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C to thermophilic (55 °C was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste. The maximum cumulative bio-hydrogen production of 650 mL was obtained from noodle waste under mesophilic temperature condition. Most of the production was observed during 48 h of incubation that continued till 72 h of incubation, and a decline in pH during this interval was 4.3 and 4.4 from a starting value of 7 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Most of glucose consumption was also observed during 72 h of incubation and the maximum consumption was observed during the first 24 h, which was the same duration where the maximum pH drop occurred. The maximum hydrogen yields of 82.47 mL VS−1, 131.38 mL COD−1, and 44.90 mL glucose−1 were obtained from mesophilic food waste, thermophilic noodle waste and mesophilic rice waste respectively. The production of volatile fatty acids increased with an increase in time and temperature from food waste and noodle waste reactors whereas it decreased with temperature in rice waste reactors. The statistical modelling returned good results with high values of coefficient of determination (R2 for each waste type when it was opted for the study of cumulative hydrogen production, glucose consumption and volatile fatty acid production. The 3-D response surface plots developed by the statistical models helped a lot in developing better understanding of the impact of temperature and incubation time.

  5. [Start-up and continuous operation of bio-hydrogen production reactor at pH 5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Man-li; Ren, Nan-qi; Tang, Jing

    2005-03-01

    A continuous stirred-tank reactor(CSTR)for bio-hydrogen production using molasses wastewater as substrate was investigated. Emphasis was placed on assessing the start-up and continuous operation characteristics when keeping pH value constant. It was found that at pH of 5, biomass of 6g/L, organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.0kg/(m3 x d) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6h, an equilibrial hydrogen-producing microbial community could be established within 30 days. Following that, oxidation redox potential (ORP) were kept within the ranges - 460mV - -480mV. Typical mixed acid type fermentation was exhibited in the reactor. Little difference was observed in the distribution of liquid end products. The liquid end products proportion of the total amount was 36% of acetic acid, 33% of ethanol, 18% of butyric acid, 13% of propionic acid and valeric acid, respectively. Hydrogen content in the biogas was about 30% - 35% . Maximal hydrogen production rate was 1.3m3/(m3 x d). The acid-producing fermentative bacteria were in the same preponderant status when the reactor showed mixed acid type fermentation. They are mostly cocci and bacilli.

  6. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  7. Bio-hydrogen and bio-methane potentials of skim latex serum in batch thermophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyaboon, Rattana; O-Thong, Sompong; Kongjan, Prawit

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion by two-stage process, containing hydrogen-producing (acidogenic) first stage and methanogenic second stage, has been proposed to degrade substrates which are difficult to be treated by single stage anaerobic digestion process. This research was aimed to evaluate the bio-hydrogen and the bio-methane potentials (BHP and BMP) of skim latex serum (SLS) by using sequential batch hydrogen and methane cultivations at thermophilic conditions (55°C) and with initial SLS concentrations of 37.5-75.0% (v/v). The maximal 1.57 L H2/L SLS for BHP and 12.2L CH4/L SLS for BMP were both achieved with 60% (v/v) SLS. The dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the H2 batch reactor were Thermoanaerobacterium sp. and Clostrdium sp. Meanwhile, the CH4 batch reactor was dominated by the methanogens Methanosarcina mazei and Methanothermobacter defluvii. The results demonstrate that SLS can be degraded by conversion to form hydrogen and methane, waste treatment and bioenergy production are thus combined. PMID:26386423

  8. Direct degradation of cellulosic biomass to bio-hydrogen from a newly isolated strain Clostridium sartagoforme FZ11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Nan; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Hui-Qin; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2015-09-01

    A mesophilic hydrogen-producing strain, Clostridium sartagoforme FZ11, had been newly isolated from cow dung compost acclimated using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for at least 30 rounds in an anaerobic bioreactor, and identified by the 16S rDNA gene sequencing, which could directly utilized various carbon sources, especially cellulosic biomass, to produce hydrogen. The maximum hydrogen yields from MCC (10 g/l) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 10 g/l) were 77.2 and 64.6 ml/g, separately. Furthermore, some key parameters of affecting hydrogen production from raw corn stalk were also optimized. The maximal hydrogen yield and substrate degradation rate from raw corn stalk were 87.2 ml/g and 41.2% under the optimized conditions with substrate concentration of 15 g/l, phosphate buffer of 0.15 M, urea of 6 g/l and initial pH of 6.47 at 35 °C. The result showed that the strain FZ11 would be an ideal candidate to directly convert cellulosic biomass into bio-hydrogen without substrate pretreatment.

  9. Evaluation and simultaneous optimization of bio-hydrogen production using 3 2 factorial design and the desirability function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, M. J.; Gómez, X.; Escapa, A.; Morán, A.

    Various mixtures incorporating a simulated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and blood from a poultry slaughterhouse were used as substrate in a dark fermentation process for the production of hydrogen. The individual and interactive effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solid content in the feed (%TS) and proportion of residues (%Blood) on bio-hydrogen production were studied in this work. A central composite design and response surface methodology were employed to determine the optimum conditions for the hydrogen production process. Experimental results were approximated to a second-order model with the principal effects of the three factors considered being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The production of hydrogen obtained from the experimental point at conditions close to best operability was 0.97 L Lr -1 day -1. Moreover, a desirability function was employed in order to optimize the process when a second, methanogenic, phase is coupled with it. In this last case, the optimum conditions lead to a reduction in the production of hydrogen when the optimization process involves the maximization of intermediary products.

  10. Evaluation and simultaneous optimization of bio-hydrogen production using 3{sup 2} factorial design and the desirability function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuetos, M.J.; Gomez, X.; Escapa, A.; Moran, A. [Institute of Natural Resources, University of Leon, Avda. de Portugal 41, 24071 Leon (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    Various mixtures incorporating a simulated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and blood from a poultry slaughterhouse were used as substrate in a dark fermentation process for the production of hydrogen. The individual and interactive effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solid content in the feed (%TS) and proportion of residues (%Blood) on bio-hydrogen production were studied in this work. A central composite design and response surface methodology were employed to determine the optimum conditions for the hydrogen production process. Experimental results were approximated to a second-order model with the principal effects of the three factors considered being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The production of hydrogen obtained from the experimental point at conditions close to best operability was 0.97 L Lr{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Moreover, a desirability function was employed in order to optimize the process when a second, methanogenic, phase is coupled with it. In this last case, the optimum conditions lead to a reduction in the production of hydrogen when the optimization process involves the maximization of intermediary products. (author)

  11. Timeline of bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadette E. TELEKY; Mugur C. BĂLAN; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of biomass is a process capable to produce biohydrogen, a clean source of alternative energy. Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural waste is considered a renewable energy source; therefore its utilization also contributes to the reduction of water, soil and air pollution. The study consists in five consecutive experiments designed to utilize anaerobic bacterial enrichment cultures originating from the Hungarian Lake, Hévíz. Wheat straw was used as com...

  12. Timeline of bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette E. TELEKY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of biomass is a process capable to produce biohydrogen, a clean source of alternative energy. Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural waste is considered a renewable energy source; therefore its utilization also contributes to the reduction of water, soil and air pollution. The study consists in five consecutive experiments designed to utilize anaerobic bacterial enrichment cultures originating from the Hungarian Lake, Hévíz. Wheat straw was used as complex substrate to produce hydrogen. The timeline evolution of hydrogen production was analyzed and modelled by two functions: Logistic and Boltzmann. The results proved that hydrogen production is significant, with a maximum of 0.24 mlN/ml and the highest hydrogen production occurs between the days 4-10 of the experiment.

  13. Production of bio-hydrogen by mesophilic anaerobic fermentation in an acid-phase sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L; Stevens, David K

    2007-02-15

    The pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) were varied to optimize the conversion of carbohydrate-rich synthetic wastewater into bio-hydrogen. A full factorial design using evolutionary operation (EVOP) was used to determine the effect of the factors and to find the optimum condition of each factor required for high hydrogen production rate. Experimental results from 20 runs indicate that a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4,460-5,540 mL/L/day under the volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR) of 75 g-COD/L/day obtained at an observed design point of HRT = 8 h and pH = 5.7. The hydrogen production rate was strongly dependent on the HRT, and the effect was statistically significant (P 0.05) was found for the pH on the hydrogen production rate. When the ASBR conditions were set for a maximum hydrogen production rate, the hydrogen production yield and specific hydrogen production rate were 60-74 mL/g-COD and 330-360 mL/g-VSS/day, respectively. The hydrogen composition was 43-51%, and no methanogenesis was observed. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, caproate, and ethanol were major liquid intermediate metabolites during runs of this ASBR. The dominant fermentative types were butyrate-acetate or ethanol-acetate, representing the typical anaerobic pathway of Clostridium species. This hydrogen-producing ASBR had a higher hydrogen production rate, compared with that produced using continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). This study suggests that the hydrogen-producing ASBR is a promising bio-system for prolonged and stable hydrogen production.

  14. Development of a simple bio-hydrogen production system through dark fermentation by using unique microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Bando, Yukiko; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu [Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    In order to ensure efficient functioning of hydrogen fermentation systems that use Clostridium as the dominant hydrogen producer, energy-intensive process such as heat pretreatment of inoculum and/or substrate, continuous injection, and control of anaerobic conditions are required. Here, we describe a simple hydrogen fermentation system designed using microflora from leaf-litter cattle-waste compost. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production was measured at various hydraulic retention times, and bacterial genera were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. Although hydrogen fermentation yield was approximately one-third of values reported in previous studies, this system requires no additional treatment and thus may be advantageous in terms of cost and operational control. Interestingly, Clostridium was absent from this system. Instead, Megasphaera elsdenii was the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were prevalent. This study is the first to characterize M. elsdenii as a useful hydrogen producer in hydrogen fermentation systems. These results demonstrate that pretreatment is not necessary for stable hydrogen fermentation using food waste. (author)

  15. Effects of thermally pretreated temperature on bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ben-yi; LIU Jun-xin

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge. Therefore, in this paper the effects of thermally pretreated temperatures on hydrogen production from sewage sludge were investigated under different pre-treatment conditions. In the thermal pretreatment, some microbial matters of sludge were converted into soluble matters from insoluble ones. As a result, the suspended solid(SS) and volatile suspended solid(VSS) of sludge decreased and the concentration of soluble COD(SCOD) increased,including soluble carbohydrates and proteins. The experimental results showed that all of those pretreated sludge could produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation and the hydrogen yields under the temperatures of 121 ℃ and 50℃ were 12.23 ml/g VS(most)and 1.17 ml/g VS (least), respectively. It illuminated that the hydrogen yield of sludge was affected by the thermally pretreated temperatures. Additionally, the endurance of high hydrogen yield depended on the translation of microbial matters and inhibition of methanogens in the sludge. The temperatures of 100℃ and 121℃ (treated time, 30 min) could kill or inhibit completely the methanogens while the others could not. To produce hydrogen and save energy, 100℃ was chosen as the optimal temperature for thermal pretreatment. The composition changes in liquid phase in the fermentation process were also discussed. The SCOD of sludge increased, which was affected by the pretreatment temperature. The production of volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic fermentation increased with the pretreatment temperature.

  16. Effects of thermally pretreated temperature on bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ben-Yi; Liu, Jun-Xin

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation of sewage sludge. Therefore, in this paper the effects of thermally pretreated temperatures on hydrogen production from sewage sludge were investigated under different pre-treatment conditions. In the thermal pretreatment, some microbial matters of sludge were converted into soluble matters from insoluble ones. As a result, the suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) of sludge decreased and the concentration of soluble COD (SCOD) increased, including soluble carbohydrates and proteins. The experimental results showed that all of those pretreated sludge could produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation and the hydrogen yields under the temperatures of 121 degrees C and 50 degrees C were 12.23 ml/g VS (most) and 1.17 ml/g VS (least), respectively. It illuminated that the hydrogen yield of sludge was affected by the thermally pretreated temperatures. Additionally, the endurance of high hydrogen yield depended on the translation of microbial matters and inhibition of methanogens in the sludge. The temperatures of 100 degrees C and 121 degrees C (treated time, 30 min) could kill or inhibit completely the methanogens while the others could not. To produce hydrogen and save energy, 100 degrees C was chosen as the optimal temperature for thermal pretrcatment. The composition changes in liquid phase in the fermentation process were also discussed. The SCOD of sludge increased, which was affected by the pretreatment temperature. The production of volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic fermentation increased with the pretreatment temperature.

  17. 酸碱预处理对稻草秸秆发酵产氢的影响%Effect of acid and alkaline pretreatment on bio-hydrogen production from rice straw by anaerobic fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晶; 于龙; 王楠

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean energy that can replace conventional fossil fuels, is attracting worldwide attentions. Bio-hydrogen production process with anaerobic fermentation resolves the organic waste by the biological technology to produce hydrogen with simple equipments, easy manipulation and low cost. Effects of acid and alkaline pretreatment on bio-hydrogen production from rice straw by anaerobic sludge fermentation were studied. The results show that H2SO4 pretreatment is the best one. Rice straw with 1% H2SO4 pretreatment, the maximum hydrogen concentration, the highest specific hydrogen production yield rate and the highest hydrogen production yield were respectively 47. 68% 、4. 67 mL/( h · g) and 59. 21 mL/g. With 1 % NaOH pretreatment, the maximum hydrogen concentration, the highest specific hydrogen production yield rate and the highest hydrogen production yield were respectively 41.92% 、3. 24 mL/( h · g) and 42.02 mL/g. The produced volatile fatty acids in the fermentation solutions are mainly ethanol, acetate and butyrate.%随着环保要求的日益严格和化石能源的日益短缺,氢能作为清洁高效的可再生能源受到人们的普遍重视.厌氧发酵生物制氢是利用生物技术分解有机废弃物制备氢气,该工艺设备简单、操作容易、成本低廉等优点.以稻草秸秆为发酵底料,以厌氧活性污泥为接种物,研究酸碱预处理对秸秆发酵产氢的影响.结果表明,H2SO4预处理为最佳的预处理方式;稻草秸秆经1%的H2SO4预处理后发酵气中氢气的最大含量、最高比产氢速率和最高氢气产率分别为47.68%、4.67mL/(h·g)和59.21mL/g;经1%的NaOH预处理后发酵气中氢气的最大含量、最高比产氢速率和最高氢气产率分别为41.92%、3.24mL/(h·g)和42.02mL/g;发酵液相中主要产物为乙醇、乙酸和丁酸.

  18. Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Sakanishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste cooking oil with a high-acid-value (28.7 mg-KOH/g-oil was converted to bio-hydrogenated diesel by a hydrotreatment process over supported Ru catalysts. The standard reaction temperature, H2 pressure, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV, and H2/oil ratio were 350 °C, 2 MPa, 15.2 h–1, and 400 mL/mL, respectively. Both the free fatty acids and the triglycerides in the waste cooking oil were deoxygenated at the same time to form hydrocarbons in the hydrotreatment process. The predominant liquid hydrocarbon products (98.9 wt% were n-C18H38, n-C17H36, n-C16H34, and n-C15H32 when a Ru/SiO2 catalyst was used. These long chain normal hydrocarbons had high melting points and gave the liquid hydrocarbon product over Ru/SiO2 a high pour point of 20 °C. Ru/H-Y was not suitable for producing diesel from waste cooking oil because it formed a large amount of C5–C10 gasoline-ranged paraffins on the strong acid sites of HY. When Al-polyoxocation-pillared montmorillonite (Al13-Mont was used as a support for the Ru catalyst, the pour point of the liquid hydrocarbon product decreased to −15 °C with the conversion of a significant amount of C15–C18 n-paraffins to iso-paraffins and light paraffins on the weak acid sites of Al13-Mont. The liquid product over Ru/Al13-Mont can be expected to give a green diesel for current diesel engines because its chemical composition and physical properties are similar to those of commercial petro-diesel. A relatively large amount of H2 was consumed in the hydrogenation of unsaturated C=C bonds and the deoxygenation of C=O bonds in the hydrotreatment process. A sulfided Ni-Mo/Al13-Mont catalyst also produced bio-hydrogenated diesel by the hydrotreatment process but it showed slow deactivation during the reaction due to loss of sulfur. In contrast, Ru/Al13-Mont did not show catalyst deactivation in the hydrotreatment of waste cooking oil after 72 h on-stream because the waste cooking oil was not found to contain sulfur

  19. EFFECT OF APPLIED VOLTAGE ON BIO-HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM ACETIC ACID USING A SINGLE-CHAMBER ELECTROLYTICALLY ASSISTED BIO-HYDROGEN PRODUCTION DEVICE%电解电压对乙酸单池电解协助发酵产氢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建昌; 孙可伟; 杨斌; 王文根; 尹芳; 张无敌

    2011-01-01

    A single-cell electrolytically assisted device for bio-hydrogen production was used to investigate the effect of applied voltage on electrochemically assisted bio-hydrogen production from acetic acid by using anaerobic activated sludge as inoculum and sodium acetate as substrate, at the temperature of 35°C and anaerobic condition. The results showed that applied voltage was a main control parameter. When the value of applied voltage was about 250mV, current began to occur, and then bio-gas was produced. Until applied voltage went up from 0. 8V to 1.0V, hydrogen content changed from 15% to 30%. Hence, it was suitable for bio-hydrogen production from acetic acid at an applied voltage of 0. 8V to 1. 0V. However, when investigation of hydrogen potential was futher carried out under a constant applied voltage of 1.0V, the hydrogen potential was only 0.039mol H2/mol acetate due to the forming of methane.%采用单池电解协助发酵产氢装置,以厌氧活性污泥为接种物,以产酸发酵末端产物乙酸为底物,在35℃下,研究电解电压对乙酸的微生物电化学辅助产氢的影响.结果表明:电解电压是电解协助发酵制氢的主要控制参数,当电解电压约为250mV时,电解电流开始出现,随后有气体产生,当电解电压从0.8V升至1.0V时,氢气含量从15%升至30%,因此乙酸单池电解协助产氢的适宜电压为0.8~1.0V;在恒定电解电压1.0V下,由于有甲烷的形成,乙酸的氢转化率仅为0.039mol H2/mol乙酸.

  20. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). PMID:26210142

  1. Solid substrate anaerobic fermentation of municipal and juice fruit-industry solid wastes for the production of bio hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use and abuse of fossil fuels has lead to decreased supply, increasing energy costs and negative environmental and health impacts. Thus, renewable and environmentally-friendly sources of energy are attracting increased attention in recent years. Hydrogen has been targeted as the fuel of the future because of its high calorific heat and clean combustion. (Author)

  2. Solid substrate anaerobic fermentation of municipal and juice fruit-industry solid wastes for the production of bio hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Paez, K.; Pareja-Camacho, J.; Rios-Leal, E.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Esparza-Garcia, F. J.; Garcia Mena, J.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    Use and abuse of fossil fuels has lead to decreased supply, increasing energy costs and negative environmental and health impacts. Thus, renewable and environmentally-friendly sources of energy are attracting increased attention in recent years. Hydrogen has been targeted as the fuel of the future because of its high calorific heat and clean combustion. (Author)

  3. Applications of the Box-Wilson design model for bio-hydrogen production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalayah, W M; Kalil, M S; Kadhum, A A H; Jahim, J; Zaharim, A; Alauj, N M; El-Shafie, A

    2010-07-15

    Box-Wilson design (BWD) model was applied to determine the optimum values of influencing parameters in anaerobic fermentation to produce hydrogen using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564). The main focus of the study was to find the optimal relationship between the hydrogen yield and three variables including initial substrate concentration, initial medium pH and reaction temperature. Microbial growth kinetic parameters for hydrogen production under anaerobic conditions were determined using the Monod model with incorporation of a substrate inhibition term. The values of micro(max) (maximum specific growth rate) and K, (saturation constant) were 0.398 h(-1) and 5.509 g L(-1), respectively, using glucose as the substrate. The experimental substrate and biomass-concentration profiles were in good agreement with those obtained by the kinetic-model predictions. By varying the conditions of the initial substrate concentration (1-40 g L(-1)), reaction temperature (25-40 degrees C) and initial medium pH (4-8), the model predicted a maximum hydrogen yield of 3.24 mol H2 (mol glucose)(-1). The experimental data collected utilising this design was successfully fitted to a second-order polynomial model. An optimum operating condition of 10 g L(-1) initial substrate concentration, 37 degrees C reaction temperature and 6.0 +/- 0.2 initial medium pH gave 80% of the predicted maximum yield of hydrogen where as the experimental yield obtained in this study was 77.75% exhibiting a close accuracy between estimated and experimental values. This is the first report to predict bio-hydrogen yield by applying Box-Wilson Design in anaerobic fermentation while optimizing the effects of environmental factors prevailing there by investigating the effects of environmental factors.

  4. 白酒糟降解生物制氢试验研究%A study on degradation of distillers grains and bio-hydrogen production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯臻

    2013-01-01

    试验研究了白酒糟降解生物制氢的影响因素,包括预处理、菌种、营养液、底物浓度和初始pH值。结果表明,在盐酸预处理质量分数为0.7%,煮沸30min,底物质量浓度19g/L,产氢营养液添加量7mL/100g 底物,牛粪为产氢菌种来源,初始pH7.0的条件下,白酒糟达到最大产氢量和速率,分别为131.8mL/g和8.8mL/(g·h)。%The major factors which influence the degradation of distillers grains and bio-hydrogen production, including pretreatment, bacteria, nutrient substances, substrate concentration and initial pH value, were investigated experimentally. The maximum hydrogen yield of 311.8 mL·g-1 and hydrogen generation rate of 20.8 mL·g-1·h-1 were obtained under the conditions of 0.7% HCl pretreating substrate for 30 min, substrate concentration of 19 g·L-1, nutrient substances of 7 mL per 100g substrate, the bacteria from cow dung and initial pH value of 7.0.

  5. 固态发酵对秸秆废弃物产氢性能的影响%Effect of solid state fermentation of corn straw waster on bio-hydrogen production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白真真; 吴黎阳; 樊耀亭; 侯红卫

    2011-01-01

    Usually, large quantities of waste water are generated in bio-hydrogen production process because of using low concentration substrate. In order to reduce the discharge of waste water, the effects of substrate concentration on bio-hydrogen production from corn straw were investigated in this paper. The result showed that with the increasing substrate concentration from 20 g ? L-1 to 60 g ? L-1, the hydrogen produced decreased from 104. 0 ml ? (g TS)-1 to 49. 6 ml ? (g TS)-1. While the VFAs (volatile fatty acid) concentration increased sharply from 4705. 23 mg ? L-1 to 9374. 01 mg ? L-1, and the pH of fermentation liquid after hydrogen production decreased from 4. 8 to 4. 2. So, it can be seen that high substrate concentration affected significantly the hydrogen yield of solid state fermentation of corn stalk. To improve potential hydrogen production at higher substrate concentration, the key parameters for bio-hydrogen production at 60 g ? L-1 of corn straw was optimized in a batch fermentation process by investigating effects of the ambient temperature, initial pH and Na2CO3 on the hydrogen yield. The maximum hydrogen yield and rate of hydrogen production were 78. 7 ml ? (g TS)-1 and 2. 3 ml H2 ? (g TS ? H)-1 at initial pH of 8. 0±0.1, temperature of (37±1)℃ and adding Na2CO3 0. 06 g ? (g corn stalk)-1, respectively. The content of H2 was 44. 3%-51. 2 % (vol) and there was no significant methane in the biogas gas.%在发酵生物制氢研究中,通常采用低的底物浓度(≤2.0%),由此产生的大量废水造成严重的二次环境污染问题.为了减少发酵生物产氢过程中废水的产生,以秸秆废弃物为底物,研究了高底物浓度对发酵产氢的影响.结果表明:当底物浓度从20g· L-1上升到60g· L-1时,累积产氢量却从104.0 ml·(g TS)-下降至49.6ml·(g TS)-1.相应地,副产物中挥发性脂肪酸(VFAs)的含量从4705.23mg·L-1快速增加到9374.01mg·L-1,反应后的pH也从4.8下降至4.2.为

  6. Pyrolusite reduction with dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria in the effluent of bio-hydrogen production%异化金属还原菌利用发酵制氢废液还原软锰矿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田京雷; 冯雅丽; 李浩然; 齐凤杰; 唐新华

    2011-01-01

    利用纯二氧化锰在微酸性条件下对异化金属还原菌进行驯化,二氧化锰的颜色由黑色逐渐变浅至白色,X射线衍射分析表明微生物可有效还原二氧化锰成为碳酸锰;以发酵制氢废液为还原底物,利用异化金属还原菌在不同酸性条件下直接浸出低品位软锰矿,通过单因素实验研究厌氧条件、pH值对锰浸出率的影响,并对制氢废液化学需氧量(COD)的去除率及浸出机理进行研究.结果表明,异化金属还原菌利用发酵制氢废液还原软锰矿,厌氧浸出优于好氧浸出,最佳pH值为3.0~3.5,浸出时间为3 d时,最大浸出率达到98%;用软锰矿对发酵制氢废液在微酸%Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria were domesticated with MnO2 in acidic conditions,and then the MnO2 color changed from black to white,even colorless.X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that dissimilatory reductive microbes could reduce MnO2 effectively after domestication.Manganese leaching from pyrolusite was investigated by using dissimilatory metal reducing bacteriaunder acid conditions,with the effluent of bio-hydrogen production as a reducing agent.Single-factor experiments were employed to examine the effects of anaerobic conditions and pH values on the leaching rate of Mn.The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand(COD) and the mechanism were also studied.It was shown that dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria reduced pyrolusite using the effluent of fermentative hydrogen production.The leaching rate of manganese under anaerobic conditions was higher than that under aerobic conditions,and it could reach 98% under the conditions of pH 3.0-3.5 and the leaching time of 3d.For degrading the effluent of bio-hydrogen production under subacid conditions,the COD removal rate could reach 84% when COD in the effluent of bio-hydrogen production was 2612mg·L-1,and it would be higher with more pyrolusite.

  7. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid.

  8. International Collaboration on bio-hydrogen R and D. Report for the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesing, B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the foreseeable depletion of fossil energy resources and of expected global climatic changes due to the emission of greenhouse gases future energy systems are required which meet the growing world energy demand but do not depend on fossil fuels. One possible option which is discussed as a clean and environmentally friendly energy source for the 21{sup st} century is the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen. Hydrogen as an environmentally friendly energy source can also be an integral part of a zero-emission economy because it can contribute to the minimization of toxic dispersion (especially the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}) and to the maximization of sustainable use of renewable resources. It has been known for more than 50 years that certain living organisms are able to produce hydrogen. Biological hydrogen production has several comparative advantages over competing hydrogen production technologies such as photovoltaic or solarthermic electricity generation plus water hydrolysis. These advantages are - simpler systems: hydrogen production from direct water splitting without involvement of electricity/electrolysis, - self-regenerating systems, - biologically degradable systems: disposal can be coupled to the production of additional value-added substances, - flexible systems: production organisms can adapt to changing environmental conditions, - versatile systems: production organisms which are tailor-made to special environmental conditions can be selected. (orig.)

  9. Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO2 than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO2 is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation, in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO2-N2 and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory have been evaluated under static conditions (adsorption isotherms as potential adsorbents for CO2 separation at sub-atmospheric pressures, i.e., in post-combustion processes or from biogas and bio-hydrogen streams. CO2, H2, N2, and CH4 adsorption isotherms at 25 °C and up to 100 kPa were obtained using a volumetric equipment and were correlated by applying the Sips model. Adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by extending the multicomponent Sips model and the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST in conjunction with the Sips model. The CO2 uptakes of the resin-derived carbons from CO2-CH4, CO2-H2, and CO2-N2 at atmospheric pressure were greater than those of the reference commercial carbon (Calgon BPL. The performance of the resin-derived carbons in terms of equilibrium of adsorption seems therefore relevant to CO2 separation in post-combustion (flue gas, CO2-N2 and in hydrogen fermentation (CO2-H2, CO2-CH4.

  10. Energy conservation employing membrane-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membranes based processes, if properly adapted to industrial processes have good potential with regard to optimisation and economisation of energy consumption. The specific benefits of MBT (membrane based technology) as an energy conservation methodology are highlighted. (author). 6 refs

  11. Preliminary investigation on the production of fuels and bio-char from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass residue after bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Samorì, Chiara; Adamiano, Alessio; Fabbri, Daniele; Faraloni, Cecilia; Torzillo, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential conversion of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass harvested after hydrogen production. The spent algal biomass was converted into nitrogen-rich bio-char, biodiesel and pyrolysis oil (bio-oil). The yield of lipids (algal oil), obtained by solvent extraction, was 15 ± 2% w/w(dry-biomass). This oil was converted into biodiesel with a 8.7 ± 1% w/w(dry-biomass) yield. The extraction residue was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 350 °C obtaining bio-char as the principal fraction (44 ± 1% w/w(dry-biomass)) and 28 ± 2% w/w(dry-biomass) of bio-oil. Pyrolysis fractions were characterized by elemental analysis, while the chemical composition of bio-oil was fully characterized by GC-MS, using various derivatization techniques. Energy outputs resulting from this approach were distributed in hydrogen (40%), biodiesel (12%) and pyrolysis fractions (48%), whereas bio-char was the largest fraction in terms of mass. PMID:21345670

  12. Energy based hybrid turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. We present the continued development of a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach specifically developed to address these challenges. In general, modeled turbulence is returned to resolved scales by reduced or negative model viscosity until a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy is attained provided the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. A viscosity-based correction is proposed to account for resolution inhomogeneities. Both the hybrid framework and resolution gradient corrections are energy conserving through an exchange of resolved and modeled turbulence.

  13. Flow-FISH analysis and isolation of clostridial strains in an anaerobic semi-solid bio-hydrogen producing system by hydrogenase gene target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Chang Jui; Chou, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Ping-Chi; Yu, Sian-Jhong; Chen, Wei-En; Lay, Jiunn-Jyi; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Wen, Fu-Shyan

    2007-04-01

    By using hydrogenase gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), the predominant clostridial hydrogenase that may have contributed to biohydrogen production in an anaerobic semi-solid fermentation system has been monitored. The results revealed that a Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogenase gene sequence can be detected by both PCR and RT-PCR and suggested that the bacterial strain possessing this specific hydrogenase gene was dominant in hydrogenase activity and population. Whereas another Clostridium saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase gene can be detected only by RT-PCR and suggest that the bacterial strain possessing this specific hydrogenase gene may be less dominant in population. In this study, hydrogenase gene-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that only 6.6% of the total eubacterial cells in a hydrogen-producing culture were detected to express the C. saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase, whereas the eubacteria that expressed the C. pasteurianum-like hydrogenase was 25.6%. A clostridial strain M1 possessing the identical nucleotide sequences of the C. saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase gene was then isolated and identified as Clostridium butyricum based on 16S rRNA sequence. Comparing to the original inoculum with mixed microflora, either using C. butyricum M1 as the only inoculum or co-culturing with a Bacillus thermoamylovorans isolate will guarantee an effective and even better production of hydrogen from brewery yeast waste. PMID:17277963

  14. Effect of thermal pre-treatment on inoculum sludge to enhance bio-hydrogen production from alkali hydrolysed rice straw in a mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bery, Haitham; Tawfik, Ahmed; Kumari, Sheena; Bux, Faizal

    2013-01-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on inoculum sludge for continuous H2 production from alkali hydrolysed rice straw using anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated. Two reactors, ABR1 and ABR2, were inoculated with untreated and thermally pre-treated sludge, respectively. Both reactors were operated in parallel at a constant hydraulic retention time of 20 h and organic loading rate ranged from 0.5 to 2.16 g COD/L d. The results obtained indicated that ABR2 achieved a better hydrogen conversion rate and hydrogen yield as compared with ABR1. The hydrogen conversion rates were 30% and 24%, while the hydrogen yields were 1.19 and 0.97 mol H2/mol glucose for ABR2 and ABR1, respectively. Similar trend was observed for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbohydrate removal, where ABR2 provided a removal efficiency of 53 +/- 2.3% for COD and 46 +/- 2% for carbohydrate. The microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA phylogeny revealed the presence of different species of bacteria, namely Clostridium, Prevotella, Paludibacter, Ensifer, and Petrimonas within the reactors. Volatile fatty acids generated from ABR1 and ABR2 were mainly in the form of acetate and butyrate and a relatively low fraction ofpropionate was detected in ABR1. Based on these results, thermal pre-treatment ofinoculum sludge is preferable for hydrogen production from hydrolysed rice straw.

  15. Flow-FISH analysis and isolation of clostridial strains in an anaerobic semi-solid bio-hydrogen producing system by hydrogenase gene target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Chang Jui; Chou, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Ping-Chi; Yu, Sian-Jhong; Chen, Wei-En; Lay, Jiunn-Jyi; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Wen, Fu-Shyan

    2007-04-01

    By using hydrogenase gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), the predominant clostridial hydrogenase that may have contributed to biohydrogen production in an anaerobic semi-solid fermentation system has been monitored. The results revealed that a Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogenase gene sequence can be detected by both PCR and RT-PCR and suggested that the bacterial strain possessing this specific hydrogenase gene was dominant in hydrogenase activity and population. Whereas another Clostridium saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase gene can be detected only by RT-PCR and suggest that the bacterial strain possessing this specific hydrogenase gene may be less dominant in population. In this study, hydrogenase gene-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that only 6.6% of the total eubacterial cells in a hydrogen-producing culture were detected to express the C. saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase, whereas the eubacteria that expressed the C. pasteurianum-like hydrogenase was 25.6%. A clostridial strain M1 possessing the identical nucleotide sequences of the C. saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase gene was then isolated and identified as Clostridium butyricum based on 16S rRNA sequence. Comparing to the original inoculum with mixed microflora, either using C. butyricum M1 as the only inoculum or co-culturing with a Bacillus thermoamylovorans isolate will guarantee an effective and even better production of hydrogen from brewery yeast waste.

  16. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  17. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.e....... number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  18. Relationship of proton motive force and the F(0)F (1)-ATPase with bio-hydrogen production activity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: effects of diphenylene iodonium, hydrogenase inhibitor, and its solvent dimethylsulphoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Lilit; Gabrielyan, Lilit; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-08-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides MDC 6521 was able to produce bio-hydrogen (H(2)) in anaerobic conditions under illumination. In this study the effects of the hydrogenase inhibitor-diphenylene iodonium (Ph(2)I) and its solvent dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) on growth characteristics and H(2) production by R. sphaeroides were investigated. The results point out the concentration dependent DMSO effect: in the presence of 10 mM DMSO H(2) yield was ~6 fold lower than that of the control. The bacterium was unable to produce H(2) in the presence of Ph(2)I. In order to examine the mediatory role of proton motive force (∆p) or the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in H(2) production by R. sphaeroides, the effects of Ph(2)I and DMSO on ∆p and its components (membrane potential (∆ψ) and transmembrane pH gradient), and ATPase activity were determined. In these conditions ∆ψ was of -98 mV and the reversed ∆pH was +30 mV, resulting in ∆p of -68 mV. Ph(2)I decreased ∆ψ in concentrations of 20 μM and higher; lower concentrations of Ph(2)I as DMSO had no valuable effect on ∆ψ. The R. sphaeroides membrane vesicles demonstrated significant ATPase activity sensitive to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The 10-20 μM Ph(2)I did not affect the ATPase activity, whereas 40 μM Ph(2)I caused a marked inhibition (~2 fold) in ATPase activity. The obtained results provide novel evidence on the involvement of hydrogenase and the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in H(2) production by R. sphaeroides. Moreover, these data indicate the role of hydrogenase and the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in ∆p generation. In addition, DMSO might increase an interaction of nitrogenase with CO(2), decreasing nitrogenase activity and affecting H(2) production.

  19. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy......Decrease of fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector is an important step towards more sustainable energy production. Environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Denmark with high shares of wind and biomass energy were evaluated using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Based...... environmental impacts in the 2050 scenarios, in particular upstream impacts from land use changes (LUCs), fertilizer use and NOx emissions from the transport sector were critical. Land occupation (including LUC effects) caused by energy crop production increased to a range of 600–2100 × 106 m2/PJ depending...

  20. Integrated energy systems based on cascade utilization of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Hongguang; Gao Lin; Han Wei; Li Bingyu; Feng Zhibing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Engineering Thermophysics

    2007-02-15

    Focusing on the traditional principle of physical energy utilization, new integration concepts for combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system were identified, and corresponding systems were investigated. Furthermore, the principle of cascade utilization of both chemical and physical energy in energy systems with the integration of chemical processes and thermal cycles was introduced, along with a general equation describing the interrelationship among energy levels of substance, Gibbs free energy of chemical reaction and physical energy. On the basis of this principle, a polygeneration system for power and liquid fuel (methanol) production has been presented and investigated. This system innovatively integrates a fresh gas preparation subsystem without composition adjustment process (NA) and a methanol synthesis subsystem with partial-recycle scheme (PR). Meanwhile, a multi-functional energy system (MES) that consumes coal and natural gas as fuels simultaneously, and co-generates methanol and power, has been presented. In the MES, coal and natural gas are utilized synthetically based on the method of dual-fuel reforming, which integrates methane/steam reforming and coal combustion. Compared with conventional energy systems that do not consider cascade utilization of chemical energy, both of these systems provide superior performance, whose energy saving ratio can be as high as 10%-15%. With special attention paid to chemical energy utilization, the integration features of these two systems have been revealed, and the important role that the principle of cascade utilization of both chemical and physical energy plays in system integration has been identified.

  1. Graphene-based materials for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal [Energy Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Pan, Yongzheng; Li, Lin; Chan, Siew Hwa [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2012-08-08

    With the depletion of conventional energy sources, the demand for renewable energy and energy-efficient devices continues to grow. As a novel 2D nanomaterial, graphene attracts considerable research interest due to its unique properties and is a promising material for applications in energy conversion and storage devices. Recently, the fabrication of fuel cells and solar cells using graphene for various functional parts has been studied extensively. This research news summarizes and compares the advancements that have been made and are in progress in the utilization of graphene-based materials for energy conversion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Energy Efficient Military Mobile Base Station Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ray

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an energy efficient network for military mobile base station placement. Theproposed method is based on minimizing the energy loss of military communication networks where thebase station is moving along a preset path and the users are constantly moving in an independent speedand direction. It takes into account the free space loss and the knife edge effect for the energy loss toestablish a path weight for the shortest path model. Then, it evaluates the neighboring points to the basestation for the energy loss of the network in order to find the position at which the minimum energy lossoccurs. The results show a clear energy saving advantage when compared to Lloyd-Max’s method

  3. Energy based prediction models for building acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach robust and simplified yet accurate prediction models, energy based principle are commonly used in many fields of acoustics, especially in building acoustics. This includes simple energy flow models, the framework of statistical energy analysis (SEA) as well as more elaborated...... principles as, e.g., wave intensity analysis (WIA). The European standards for building acoustic predictions, the EN 12354 series, are based on energy flow and SEA principles. In the present paper, different energy based prediction models are discussed and critically reviewed. Special attention is placed...... on underlying basic assumptions, such as diffuse fields, high modal overlap, resonant field being dominant, etc., and the consequences of these in terms of limitations in the theory and in the practical use of the models....

  4. Base Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2008-06-30

    The main objective of the Base Research Program was to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting the energy requirements of the Nation. In that regard, tasks proposed under the WRI research areas were aligned with DOE objectives of secure and reliable energy; clean power generation; development of hydrogen resources; energy efficiency and development of innovative fuels from low and no-cost sources. The goal of the Base Research Program was to develop innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources--coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the overall Base Program. This document represents a stand-alone Final Report for the entire Program. It should be noted that an interim report describing the Program achievements was prepared in 2003 covering the progress made under various tasks completed during the first five years of this Program.

  5. State Energy Base Proposed in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenling

    2008-01-01

    @@ Experts recently suggested China set up a state energy base in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to ease its energy thirst. The survey was co-conducted by senior researchers from the National Development and Reform Commission, Development Research Center of the State Council, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Finance.

  6. Integrated energy systems based on cascade utilization of energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hongguang; LI Bingyu; FENG Zhibing; GAO Lin; HAN Wei

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on the traditional principle of physical energy utilization,new integration concepts for combined cooling,heating and power (CCHP) system were identified,and corresponding systems were investigated.Furthermore,the principle of cascade utilization of both chemical and physical energy in energy systems with the integration of chemical processes and thermal cycles was introduced,along with a general equation describing the interrelationship among energy levels of substance,Gibbs free energy of chemical reaction and physical energy.On the basis of this principle,a polygeneration system for power and liquid fuel (methanol)production has been presented and investigated.This system innovatively integrates a fresh gas preparation subsystem without composition adjustment process (NA) and a methanol synthesis subsystem with partial-recycle scheme (PR).Meanwhile,a multi-functional energy system (MES) that consumes coal and natural gas as fuels simultaneously,and co-generates methanol and power,has been presented.In the MES,coal and natural gas are utilized synthetically based on the method of dual-fuel reforming,which integrates methane/steam reforming and coal combustion.Compared with conventional energy systems that do not consider cascade utilization of chemical energy,both of these systems provide superior performance,whose energy saving ratio can be as high as 10%-15%.With special attention paid to chemical energy utilization,the integration features of these two systems have been revealed,and the important role that the principle of cascade utilization of both chemical and physical energy plays in system integration has been identified.

  7. CVLEACH: Coverage based energy efficient LEACH algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Thakkar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing a protocol stack for wireless sensor network (WSNis a challenging task due to energy, computational and storageconstraints. Energy spent for communication between sensornodes dominates the energy spent for the computation [10].Multi-hop short range communication between wireless sensorsnodes is energy efficient compared to single-hop long rangecommunication. Hierarchical clustering is one of the possiblesolutions to save energy of wireless sensor nodes. Low-EnergyAdaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Centralized Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH-C andAdvanced Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(ALEACH are energy efficient hierarchical clustering routingprotocol. In this paper we proposed Coverage based Low-EnergyAdaptive Clustering Hierarchy routing protocol – CVLEACH tomake uniform distribution of Cluster Heads (CHs by creatingnon-overlapped cluster regions using overhearing properties ofthe sensor nodes, which makes the routing protocol more energyefficient and prolongs life time of a wireless sensor network.Simulation results show that CVLEACH improves network lifetime compared to LEACH and ALEACH algorithms.

  8. Tariff based value of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  9. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  10. Thermal energy harvesting plasmonic based chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A

    2014-10-28

    Detection of gases such as H2, CO, and NO2 at 500 °C or greater requires materials with thermal stability and reliability. One of the major barriers toward integration of plasmonic-based chemical sensors is the requirement of multiple components such as light sources and spectrometers. In this work, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting sensing paradigm with PCA analysis offers a novel path toward simplification and integration of plasmonic-based sensing methods. PMID:25280004

  11. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  12. Pervasive Computing Based Intelligent Energy Conservation System

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A.Kanagaraj; Ms S.Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Most of the HVAC system in home is running based on static control algorithm; based on fixed work schedules. In that old system energy became waste when home contains low or no people occupancy. In this paper we presented new dynamic approach of HVAC system control, by combined with pervasive computing. Pervasive computing can be defined as availability of centralized system and information anywhere and anytime. We achieved our target by using occupancy sensors for collecting home status. ...

  13. Topological insulator-based energy efficient devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong P.

    2012-06-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have emerged as a new class of quantum materials with many novel and unusual properties. In this article, we will give a brief review of the key electronic properties of topological insulators, including the signatures for the unusual electronic transport properties of their characteristic topological surface states (TSS). We will then discuss how these novel properties and physics may be utilized for TI-based energy efficient devices, such as lowpower- consumption electronics and high performance thermo-electrics. Furthermore, going beyond conventional singleparticle, charge-based transport, to utilize coherent many-body coherent ground states such as excitonic condensates (EC), new and intriguing functionalities previously unexplored in electronic and energy devices may be realized with the potential to dramatically improve the energy efficiency.

  14. Electromagnetic ferrofluid-based energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibo, A.; Masana, R.; King, A.; Li, G. [Nonlinear Vibrations and Energy Harvesting Laboratory (NOVEHL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Daqaq, M.F., E-mail: mdaqaq@clemson.edu [Nonlinear Vibrations and Energy Harvesting Laboratory (NOVEHL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2012-06-25

    This Letter investigates the use of ferrofluids for vibratory energy harvesting. In particular, an electromagnetic micro-power generator which utilizes the sloshing of a ferrofluid column in a seismically-excited tank is proposed to transform mechanical motions directly into electricity. Unlike traditional electromagnetic generators that implement a solid magnet, ferrofluids can easily conform to different shapes and respond to very small acceleration levels offering an untapped opportunity to design scalable energy harvesters. The feasibility of the proposed concept is demonstrated and its efficacy is discussed through several experimental studies. -- Highlights: ► A ferrofluid-based electromagnetic energy harvester is proposed and tested. Conformability of fluids offers unique capabilities to design scalable harvesters. ► Power is sensitive to changes in the fluid surface area and external magnetization. ► Device generates 1 microwatt of output power at a base acceleration of 3 m/s{sup 2}.

  15. Sustainable urban regeneration based on energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Zwetsloot, J.; Brezet, H.; Silvester, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming econo

  16. Who puts the most energy into energy conservation? A segmentation of energy consumers based on energy-related behavioral characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper aims to identify and describe different types of energy consumers in a more comprehensive way than previous segmentation studies using cluster analysis. Energy consumers were segmented based on their energy-related behavioral characteristics. In addition to purchase- and curtailment-related energy-saving behavior, consumer classification was also based on acceptance of policy measures and energy-related psychosocial factors, so the used behavioral segmentation base was more comprehensive compared to other studies. Furthermore, differentiation between the energy-saving purchase of daily products, such as food, and of energy efficient appliances allowed a more differentiated characterization of the energy consumer segments. The cluster analysis revealed six energy consumer segments: the idealistic, the selfless inconsequent, the thrifty, the materialistic, the convenience-oriented indifferent, and the problem-aware well-being-oriented energy consumer. Findings emphasize that using a broader and more distinct behavioral base is crucial for an adequate and differentiated description of energy consumer types. The paper concludes by highlighting the most promising energy consumer segments and discussing possible segment-specific marketing and policy strategies. - Highlights: ► By applying a cluster-analytic approach, new energy consumer segments are identified. ► A comprehensive, differentiated description of the different energy consumer types is provided. ► A distinction between purchase of daily products and energy efficient appliances is essential. ► Behavioral variables are a more suitable base for segmentation than general characteristics.

  17. Sustainable Urban Regeneration Based on Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Silvester

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming economical and environmental interests on infrastructure, in relation to the sustainable urban development and regeneration from the perspective of the tripod people, technology and design is elaborated. However, this is at different scales, starting mainly from the perspective of the urban dynamics. This approach includes a renewed look at the ‘urban metabolism’ and the role of environmental technology, urban ecology and environment behavior focus. Second, the potential benefits of strategic and balanced introduction and use of decentralized devices and electric vehicles (EVs, and attached generation based on renewables are investigated in more detail in the case study of the ‘Merwe-Vierhaven’ area (MW4 in the Rotterdam city port in the Netherlands. In order to optimize the energy balance of this urban renewal area, it is found to be impossible to do this by tuning the energy consumption. It is more effective to change the energy mix and related infrastructures. However, the problem in existing urban areas is that often these areas are restricted to a few energy sources due to lack of available space for integration. Besides this, energy consumption in most cases is relatively concentrated in (existing urban areas. This limits the potential of sustainable urban regeneration based on decentralized systems, because there is no balanced choice regarding the energy mix based on renewables and system optimization. Possible solutions to obtain a balanced energy profile can come from either the choice to not provide all energy locally, or by adding different types of storage devices to the systems. The use of energy balance based on renewables as a

  18. Pervasive Computing Based Intelligent Energy Conservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A.Kanagaraj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the HVAC system in home is running based on static control algorithm; based on fixed work schedules. In that old system energy became waste when home contains low or no people occupancy. In this paper we presented new dynamic approach of HVAC system control, by combined with pervasive computing. Pervasive computing can be defined as availability of centralized system and information anywhere and anytime. We achieved our target by using occupancy sensors for collecting home status. Initially our occupancy sensors collect human presence and current HVAC status details and stored in centralized system. Then based on our user defined threshold value the centralized system maintains the building's heating, cooling and air quality conditions by controlling HVAC devices. I.e. this system turned off HVAC systems when a home is unoccupied, or put the system into an energy saving sleep mode when persons are asleep.

  19. Technological change of the energy innovation system: From oil-based to bio-based energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonglimpiyarat, Jarunee [College of Innovation, Thammasat University, Anekprasong Building 7th Fl., Prachan Rd., Bangkok 10200 (Thailand)

    2010-03-15

    This paper concerns the structural developments and the direction of technological change of the energy innovation system, based on the studies of Kuhn's model of scientific change and Schumpeter's model of technological change. The paper uses the case study of Thai government agencies for understanding the way governments can facilitate technological innovation. The analyses are based on a pre-foresight exercise to examine the potential of the bio-based energy and investigate a set of development policies necessary for the direction of energy system development. The results have shown that bio-based energy is seen as the next new wave for future businesses and one of the solutions to the problem of high oil prices to improve the world's economic security and sustainable development. (author)

  20. Ferrofluid based micro-electrical energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Viswas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Jena, Grishma; Mishra, Madhusha; Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA93106 Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Innovations in energy harvesting have seen a quantum leap in the last decade. With the introduction of low energy devices in the market, micro energy harvesting units are being explored with much vigor. One of the recent areas of micro energy scavenging is the exploitation of existing vibrational energy and the use of various mechanical motions for the same, useful for low power consumption devices. Ferrofluids are liquids containing magnetic materials having nano-scale permanent magnetic dipoles. The present work explores the possibility of the use of this property for generation of electricity. Since the power generation is through a liquid material, it can take any shape as well as response to small acceleration levels. In this work, an electromagnet-based micropower generator is proposed to utilize the sloshing of the ferrofluid within a controlled chamber which moves to different low frequencies. As compared to permanent magnet units researched previously, ferrofluids can be placed in the smallest of containers of different shapes, thereby giving an output in response to the slightest change in motion. Mechanical motion from 1- 20 Hz was able to give an output voltage in mV's. In this paper, the efficiency and feasibility of such a system is demonstrated.

  1. Bluetooth low energy based ticketing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchimanchi, Sriharsha

    2015-01-01

    This thesis proposes a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) based payment solution for public transportation. The thesis first reviews some of the ‘Mobile payment solutions´. Traditionally, these services have revolved around technologies like Barcodes, Quick Response (QR) codes, Short Messaging Services (SMS) etc. However, with the advent of smartphones equipped with Bluetooth controllers and security chips, a number of innovative payment services are being studied. Furthermore, this thesis a...

  2. Sustainable Urban Regeneration Based on Energy Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha Silvester; Han Brezet; Arjan van Timmeren; Jonna Zwetsloot

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming economical and environmental interests on infrastructure, in relation to the sustainable urban development and regeneration from the perspective of the tripod people, technology and design is ...

  3. Evaluation of biomass combustion based energy systems by cumulative energy demand and energy yield coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Oser, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32 presents a method for a comparison of different energy systems with respect to the overall energy yield during their life cycles. For this purpose, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) based on primary energy and the Energy Yield Factor (EYC) are introduced and determined for the following scenarios: Log wood, wood chips, and wood pellets for residential heating and - except for log wood - also for district heating. As an alternative to heat production, power production via combustion and use of the electricity for decentralised heat pumps is also looked at. The evaluation and comparison of both the EYC for all fuels and the EYC{sub N}R for the non-renewable part enables a ranking of energy systems without a subjective weighing of non-renewable and renewable fuels to be made. For a sustainable energy supply, it is proposed to implement renewable energy systems in future which achieve an energy yield EYC{sub N}R of at least greater than 2 but favourably greater than 5. The evaluation of the different scenarios presented is proposed as the future basis for the choice of the most efficient energy systems based on biomass combustion.

  4. Cantilever-based electret energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of structures and functions has permitted the electricity consumption of sensors, actuators and electronic devices to be reduced. Therefore, it is now possible to imagine low-consumption devices able to harvest energy from their surrounding environment. One way to proceed is to develop converters able to turn mechanical energy, such as vibrations, into electricity: this paper focuses on electrostatic converters using electrets. We develop an accurate analytical model of a simple but efficient cantilever-based electret energy harvester. We prove that with vibrations of 0.1g (∼1 m s−2), it is theoretically possible to harvest up to 30 µW per gram of mobile mass. This power corresponds to the maximum output power of a resonant energy harvester according to the model of William and Yates. Simulation results are validated by experimental measurements, raising at the same time the large impact of parasitic capacitances on the output power. Therefore, we 'only' managed to harvest 10 µW per gram of mobile mass, but according to our factor of merit, this is among the best results so far achieved

  5. Value of the energy data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Roderer, N.K.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.

    1982-03-31

    An assessment was made of the Energy Data Base (EDB) of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center (TIC). As the major resource containing access information to the world's energy literature, EDB products and services are used extensively by energy researchers to identify journal articles, technical reports and other items of potential utility in their work. The approach taken to assessing value begins with the measurement of extent of use of the EDB. Apparent value is measured in terms of willingness to pay. Consequential value is measured in terms of effect - for searching, the cost of reading which results; and for reading, the savings which result from the application of the information obtained in reading. Resulting estimates of value reflect value to the searchers, the reader, and the reader's organization or funding source. A survey of the 60,000 scientists and eingineers funded by the DOE shows that annually they read about 7.1 million journal articles and 6.6 million technical reports. A wide range of savings values were reported for one-fourth of all article readings and three-fourths of all report readings. There was an average savings of $590 per reading of all articles; there was an average savings of $1280 for technical reports. The total annual savings attributable to reading by DOE-funded scientists and engineers is estimated to be about $13 billion. An investment of $5.3 billion in the generation of information and about $500 million in processing and using information yields a partial return of about $13 billion. Overall, this partial return on investment is about 2.2 to 1. In determining the value of EDB only those searches and readings directly attributable to it are included in the analysis. The values are $20 million to the searchers, $117 million to the readers and $3.6 billion to DOE.

  6. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Siddiqui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide.

  7. The quasi-Gaussian entropy theory : Free energy calculations based on the potential energy distribution function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, A; Apol, MEF; DiNola, A; Berendsen, HJC

    1996-01-01

    A new theory is presented for calculating the Helmholtz free energy based on the potential energy distribution function. The usual expressions of free energy, internal energy and entropy involving the partition function are rephrased in terms of the potential energy distribution function, which must

  8. Flow based vs. demand based energy-water modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozos, Evangelos; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The water flow in hydro-power generation systems is often used downstream to cover other type of demands like irrigation and water supply. However, the typical case is that the energy demand (operation of hydro-power plant) and the water demand do not coincide. Furthermore, the water inflow into a reservoir is a stochastic process. Things become more complicated if renewable resources (wind-turbines or photovoltaic panels) are included into the system. For this reason, the assessment and optimization of the operation of hydro-power systems are challenging tasks that require computer modelling. This modelling should not only simulate the water budget of the reservoirs and the energy production/consumption (pumped-storage), but should also take into account the constraints imposed by the natural or artificial water network using a flow routing algorithm. HYDRONOMEAS, for example, uses an elegant mathematical approach (digraph) to calculate the flow in a water network based on: the demands (input timeseries), the water availability (simulated) and the capacity of the transmission components (properties of channels, rivers, pipes, etc.). The input timeseries of demand should be estimated by another model and linked to the corresponding network nodes. A model that could be used to estimate these timeseries is UWOT. UWOT is a bottom up urban water cycle model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of water demand signals. In this study, we explore the potentials of UWOT in simulating the operation of complex hydrosystems that include energy generation. The evident advantage of this approach is the use of a single model instead of one for estimation of demands and another for the system simulation. An application of UWOT in a large scale system is attempted in mainland Greece in an area extending over 130×170 km². The challenges, the peculiarities and the advantages of this approach are examined and critically discussed.

  9. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  10. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puzzle is prepared for primary-school students aiming at teaching of energy sources as a supplementary source. In the mean time, the puzzle we prepared reveals the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and fossil energy sources. Here, the student’s aim is to complete the puzzle by answering the questions respectively. .

  11. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puz...

  12. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    , as responsible entities for physical planning, can hold a key role in transforming energy systems towards carbon-neutrality, based on renewable energies. The implementation should be approached at community scale, which has advantages compared to only focusing on buildings or cities. But community energy...... settings. The current case study presents a community energy concept for the inner-city of Elmshorn. By estimating the energy demand, consideration of local energy saving potentials, and available energy potentials within the community, it was possible to develop several energy system variants...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat...

  13. Energy Based Acoustic Measurement Senors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research focuses on fully developing energy density sensors that will yield a significant benefit both for measurements of interest to NASA, as well as for...

  14. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, Makoto [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  15. An agent-based model for energy service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An agent-based model for household energy efficiency upgrades is considered. • Energy service companies provide an alternative to traditional utility providers. • Household self-financing is a limiting factor to widespread efficiency upgrading. • Longer term service contracts can lead to reduced household energy costs. • Future energy price increases enable service providers to retain their customer base. - Abstract: The residential housing sector is a major consumer of energy accounting for approximately one third of carbon emissions in the United Kingdom. Achieving a sustainable, low-carbon infrastructure necessitates a reduced and more efficient use of domestic energy supplies. Energy service companies offer an alternative to traditional providers, which supply a single utility product to satisfy the unconstrained demand of end users, and have been identified as a potentially important actor in sustainable future economies. An agent-based model is developed to examine the potential of energy service companies to contribute to the large scale upgrading of household energy efficiency, which would ultimately lead to a more sustainable and secure energy infrastructure. The migration of households towards energy service companies is described by an attractiveness array, through which potential customers can evaluate the future benefits, in terms of household energy costs, of changing provider. It is shown that self-financing is a limiting factor to the widespread upgrading of residential energy efficiency. Greater reductions in household energy costs could be achieved by committing to longer term contracts, allowing upgrade costs to be distributed over greater time intervals. A steadily increasing cost of future energy usage lends an element of stability to the market, with energy service companies displaying the ability to retain customers on contract expiration. The model highlights how a greater focus on the provision of energy services, as

  16. Kinetic energy decomposition scheme based on information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Jun; Nakai, Hiromi

    2013-12-15

    We proposed a novel kinetic energy decomposition analysis based on information theory. Since the Hirshfeld partitioning for electron densities can be formulated in terms of Kullback-Leibler information deficiency in information theory, a similar partitioning for kinetic energy densities was newly proposed. The numerical assessments confirm that the current kinetic energy decomposition scheme provides reasonable chemical pictures for ionic and covalent molecules, and can also estimate atomic energies using a correction with viral ratios.

  17. Market-Based Mechanisms to Promote Renewable Energy in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatachalam ANBUMOZHI; Alex BOWEN; Puthusserikunnel Devasia JOSE

    2015-01-01

    Market-based instruments such as Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are increasingly favoured as an alternative to command-and-control legislation to increase the uptake of renewable energy. Focusing on the renewable energy industry and policy situation in Asia, this paper analysed the strengths and weaknesses of market-based approaches in the long-term interest of developing Asia. It found that approaches such as REC are disadvantaged by a lack of both market acceptance and a strong institut...

  18. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  19. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  20. Landfill energy complex based on the renewable energy installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, Iskander; Kashapov, Nail; Gilmanshina, Suriya; Galeeva, Asiya

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the analysis of standard approaches to degassing of landfills. The need of comprehensive work on the degassing of the landfill body is identified. The author's task decomposition of the landfill degassing is formulated. The analysis of existing methods of work on degassing of landfills is presented. The author's approach is including implements of series of parallel studies in the framework of achieving a common goal to reduce the anthropogenic pressure on the ecosystem of the region due to the need for disposal of solid waste. An action plan for the development of the target problem-oriented management techniques of the landfill with the following development of the effective energy complex is formulated.

  1. Electromagnetic ferrofluid-based energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibo, A.; Masana, R.; King, A.; Li, G.; Daqaq, M. F.

    2012-06-01

    This Letter investigates the use of ferrofluids for vibratory energy harvesting. In particular, an electromagnetic micro-power generator which utilizes the sloshing of a ferrofluid column in a seismically-excited tank is proposed to transform mechanical motions directly into electricity. Unlike traditional electromagnetic generators that implement a solid magnet, ferrofluids can easily conform to different shapes and respond to very small acceleration levels offering an untapped opportunity to design scalable energy harvesters. The feasibility of the proposed concept is demonstrated and its efficacy is discussed through several experimental studies.

  2. Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Scott R.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Bannuru, Thirumalesh; Mostafa, Salwa; Rajic, Slo; Datskos, Panos G.

    2011-06-01

    The efficient conversion of waste thermal energy into electrical energy is of considerable interest due to the huge sources of low-grade thermal energy available in technologically advanced societies. Our group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a new type of high efficiency thermal waste heat energy converter that can be used to actively cool electronic devices, concentrated photovoltaic solar cells, computers and large waste heat producing systems, while generating electricity that can be used to power remote monitoring sensor systems, or recycled to provide electrical power. The energy harvester is a temperature cycled pyroelectric thermal-to-electrical energy harvester that can be used to generate electrical energy from thermal waste streams with temperature gradients of only a few degrees. The approach uses a resonantly driven pyroelectric capacitive bimorph cantilever structure that potentially has energy conversion efficiencies several times those of any previously demonstrated pyroelectric or thermoelectric thermal energy harvesters. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating high conversion efficiency MEMS based pyroelectric energy converters that can be fabricated into scalable arrays using well known microscale fabrication techniques and materials. These fabrication efforts are supported by detailed modeling studies of the pyroelectric energy converter structures to demonstrate the energy conversion efficiencies and electrical energy generation capabilities of these energy converters. This paper reports on the modeling, fabrication and testing of test structures and single element devices that demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of high efficiency thermal-to-electrical energy harvesters.

  3. Energy Performance of Water-based and Air-based Cooling Systems in Plus-energy Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads E.; Schøtt, Jacob; Kazanci, Ongun Berk;

    2016-01-01

    -space, and air-to-water heat pump vs. ground heat exchanger as cooling source) on the system energy performance were investigated while achieving the same thermal indoor conditions. The results show that the water-based floor cooling system performed better than the air-based cooling system in terms of energy......Energy use in buildings accounts for a large part of the energy use globally and as a result of this, international building energy performance directives are becoming stricter. This trend has led to the development of zero-energy and plus-energy buildings. Some of these developments have led...... to certain issues regarding thermal indoor environments, such as overheating. Thermal comfort of occupants should not be sacrificed for energy efficiency but rather, these should be achieved simultaneously. Although the priority should be to minimize the cooling demand during the design, this is not always...

  4. Can Tidal Current Energy Provide Base Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giorgi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tidal energy belongs to the class of intermittent but predictable renewable energy sources. In this paper, we consider a compact set of geographically diverse locations, which have been assessed to have significant tidal stream energy, and attempt to find the degree to which the resource in each location should be exploited so that the aggregate power from all locations has a low variance. An important characteristic of the locations chosen is that there is a good spread in the peak tidal flow times, though the geographical spread is relatively small. We assume that the locations, all on the island of Ireland, can be connected together and also assume a modular set of tidal turbines. We employ multi-objective optimisation to simultaneously minimise variance, maximise mean power and maximise minimum power. A Pareto front of optimal solutions in the form of a set of coefficients determining the degree of tidal energy penetration in each location is generated using a genetic algorithm. While for the example chosen the total mean power generated is not great (circa 100 MW, the case study demonstrated a methodology that can be applied to other location sets that exhibit similar delays between peak tidal flow times.

  5. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  6. Management of a power system based on renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronay Karoly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article main purpose is to highlight the main advantage of the hardware and software implementation for an energy management system based on renewable energy sources. By using implemented and dedicated hardware and software the evolution of energy production and consumption can be monitored. The advantages of such system are highlighted by the results obtained from experimental simulations. An experimental model for the power system based on renewable energy sources was implemented, where the actual status of the system in different situations when the equipments change their own statuses can be shown.

  7. Graphene and graphene-based materials for energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jixin; Yang, Dan; Yin, Zongyou; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2014-09-10

    With the increased demand in energy resources, great efforts have been devoted to developing advanced energy storage and conversion systems. Graphene and graphene-based materials have attracted great attention owing to their unique properties of high mechanical flexibility, large surface area, chemical stability, superior electric and thermal conductivities that render them great choices as alternative electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems. This Review summarizes the recent progress in graphene and graphene-based materials for four energy storage systems, i.e., lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, lithium-sulfur batteries and lithium-air batteries.

  8. A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy flow to sustain the world's economy and population. We show that a feasible transition pathway requires that the rate of investment in renewable energy should accelerate approximately by an order of magnitude if we are to stay within the range of IPCC recommendations.

  9. Wind Energy Conversion Based on Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutharasan Anburaj

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years renewable sources such as solar, wave and wind are used for the generation of electricity. Wind is one of the major renewable sources. The amount of energy from a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS depends not only on the wind at the site, but also on the control strategy used for the WECS. In assistance to get the appropriate wind energy from the conversion system, wind turbine generator will be run in variable speed mode. The variable speed capability is achieved through the use of an advanced power electronic converter. Fixed speed wind turbines and induction generators are often used in wind farms. But the limitations of such generators are low efficiency and poor power quality which necessitates the variable speed wind turbine generators such as Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG. A high-performance configuration can be obtained by using Scherbius drive composed of a DFIG and a converter in combination AC-DC-AC connect between stator & rotor points for providing the required variable speed operation

  10. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: With Thermodynamic-Based Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations using ferroelectric materials as a microgenerator. The previous researches show that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting is not effective, whereas thermodynamic-based cycles give higher energy. Also, at different temperatures some thermodynamic cycles exhibit different behaviours. In this paper pyroelectric energy harvesting using Lenoir and Ericsson thermodynamic cycles has been studied numerically and the two cycles were compared with each other. The material used is the PMN-25 PT single crystal that is a very interesting material in the framework of energy harvesting and sensor applications.

  11. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fumin Ma; O’Hare, Gregory M.P.; Tengfei Zhang; Michael J. O’Grady

    2015-01-01

    Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry en...

  12. Recent Progress on PZT Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gyu Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, fluids, vibrations, etc. In particular, piezoelectric energy harvesting, which uses a direct energy conversion from vibrations and mechanical deformation to the electrical energy, is a promising technique to supply power sources in unattended electronic devices, wireless sensor nodes, micro-electronic devices, etc., since it has higher energy conversion efficiency and a simple structure. Up to now, various technologies, such as advanced materials, micro- and macro-mechanics, and electric circuit design, have been investigated and emerged to improve performance and conversion efficiency of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. In this paper, we focus on recent progress of piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies based on PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT materials, which have the most outstanding piezoelectric properties. The advanced piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies included materials, fabrications, unique designs, and properties are introduced to understand current technical levels and suggest the future directions of piezoelectric energy harvesting.

  13. Sea wave energy based in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Carlos

    2010-09-15

    Application on which it turns east document is the recovery of the energy of the sea waves turning it into electricity by means of the combination of nano-piezoelectric and condensing, the system would be seen like a compound floating fabric of million piezoelectric crystals that turn the oscillating movement of the sea into micro-electrical signals that they are added and they left by means cables to the surface where electronics devices classified to the load of condensers, from the electricity is confined and later is invested and synchronize itself with the great national mains.

  14. Energy saving behaviours: Development of a practice-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial pressure and concern for the environment has meant many consumers are aware of the need to reduce their consumption of many resources, including energy, which is the focus of the present study. While potential energy use deterrents in the form of access constraints and price increases are forms of extrinsic control, it is not clear how effective these are at reducing consumption and, indeed, it is not clear if such measures are consistent with people's underlying energy saving motivations. Beyond behavioural motivations, people's desires to reduce energy can be thwarted (barriers) and/or supported by a variety of factors, some within their control, while others are perhaps less so. Using a practice-based framework and a qualitative focus group approach, this study presents an exploratory study of these issues. Policy suggestions for overcoming barriers, as well suggestions as to how energy saving behaviours can be supported are offered. - Highlights: • We obtained consumers views about energy saving motivations, barriers and support. • Attitudes towards energy saving are not sufficient to change behaviours. • A practice-based approach to understanding energy saving behaviours is applied. • A practice-based energy-cultures framework (PBECF) is developed. • Barriers and support factors are identified that can be conceptualised within a PBECF

  15. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six BSs (Base Transceiver Stations) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy. - Highlights: • Energy consumption and environmental parameters of a base transceiver system have been monitored. • Energy consumption is related to the air conditioning functions and to the load of telephone traffic. • Energy saving can be obtained by careful choice of cooling parameters and by turn off BS transceivers. • Energy saving parameters can be estimated by a simulation Monte Carlo method

  16. Energy demand forecasting method based on international statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland is in a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy; data collected under former economic conditions do not reflect a market economy. Final energy demand forecasts are based on the assumption that the economic transformation in Poland will gradually lead the Polish economy, technologies and modes of energy use, to the same conditions as mature market economy countries. The starting point has a significant influence on the future energy demand and supply structure: final energy consumption per capita in 1992 was almost half the average of OECD countries; energy intensity, based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) and referred to GDP, is more than 3 times higher in Poland. A method of final energy demand forecasting based on regression analysis is described in this paper. The input data are: output of macroeconomic and population growth forecast; time series 1970-1992 of OECD countries concerning both macroeconomic characteristics and energy consumption; and energy balance of Poland for the base year of the forecast horizon. (author). 1 ref., 19 figs, 4 tabs

  17. High-energy attosecond nanoplasmonic-based electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, S. R.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-03-01

    We present the design of an ultrafast conical lens based nanoplasmonic electron gun. Through excitation with a radially polarized laser pulse, and a combination of magnetostatic and spatial filtering, high energy electron packets with attosecond durations can be achieved.

  18. MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R; Datskos, Panagiotis G

    2013-08-27

    A pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting apparatus for generating an electric current includes a cantilevered layered pyroelectric capacitor extending between a first surface and a second surface, where the first surface includes a temperature difference from the second surface. The layered pyroelectric capacitor includes a conductive, bimetal top electrode layer, an intermediate pyroelectric dielectric layer and a conductive bottom electrode layer. In addition, a pair of proof masses is affixed at a distal end of the layered pyroelectric capacitor to face the first surface and the second surface, wherein the proof masses oscillate between the first surface and the second surface such that a pyroelectric current is generated in the pyroelectric capacitor due to temperature cycling when the proof masses alternately contact the first surface and the second surface.

  19. Combined Cycle Fatigue Investigation Based on Energy Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Kalynenko Mykyta

    2016-01-01

    We present a modified energy-principle based model of fatigue damage accumulation in high temperature alloys usually used in gas turbine engine under combined high cycle fatigue and low cycle fatigue (LCF/HCF) loading conditions. Our model is based on the energy principle which includes a modified approximation formula that describes fatigue crack origin depending on the relative amplitude of stress intensity in the ranges of both high- and low-cycle fatigue under non-isothermal loading. Func...

  20. Action dependent heuristic dynamic programming based residential energy scheduling with home energy inter-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The algorithm is developed in the two-household energy management environment. • We develop the absent energy penalty cost for the first time. • The algorithm has ability to keep adapting in real-time operations. • Its application can lower total costs and achieve better load balancing. - Abstract: Residential energy scheduling is a hot topic nowadays in the background of energy saving and environmental protection worldwide. To achieve this objective, a new residential energy scheduling algorithm is developed for energy management, based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programming. The algorithm works under the circumstance of residential real-time pricing and two adjacent housing units with energy inter-exchange, which can reduce the overall cost and enhance renewable energy efficiency after long-term operation. It is designed to obtain the optimal control policy to manage the directions and amounts of electricity energy flux. The algorithm’s architecture is mainly constructed based on neural networks, denoting the learned characteristics in the linkage of layers. To get close to real situations, many constraints such as maximum charging/discharging power of batteries are taken into account. The absent energy penalty cost is developed for the first time as a part of the performance index function. When the environment changes, the residential energy scheduling algorithm gains new features and keeps adapting in real-time operations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm is beneficial to energy conversation

  1. Feasibility and impact analysis of a renewable energy source (RES)-based energy system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we analyze the feasibility and impacts of a renewable energy source (RES)-based electricity supply system of future Korea. To achieve this goal, we first developed different scenarios for increasing the contribution of RES by lowering the rate of i) nuclear power, ii) thermal power, iii) both nuclear and thermal power, and iv) these scenarios with real-world constraints. Based on the generated scenarios, we then specified the established systems with practical strategies which encourage different renewable sources (wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass, and waste). Finally, we analyzed the impacts of the established RES-based systems according to various criteria: the total required cost, the dependence on imported energy, CO2 emissions, and land use. The results show that the RES-based system that utilizes wind energy as its main source by steadily decreasing the rate of thermal power for electricity generation is the most affordable for future Korean electricity system. We also identify the merits and drawbacks of the analyzed systems and provide relevant recommendations for the establishment of a sustainable energy system for Korea. These findings will support policy makers in integrating quantitative assessments into energy-related policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • We model and analyze RES-based electricity supply system in Korea. • Impact analysis includes: economic, energy security, environmental protection aspects. • We also evaluate different strategies to establish RES-based system. • We show that wind energy-based system is the most affordable for Korea

  2. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  3. Note: Vibration energy harvesting based on a round acoustic fence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-bin; Huang, Cheng-ping; Hu, Jun-hui

    2015-07-01

    An energy harvester based on a round acoustic fence (RAF) has been proposed and studied. The RAF is composed of cylindrical stubs stuck in a circular array on a thin metal plate, which can confine the acoustic energy efficiently. By removing one stub and thus opening a small gap in the RAF, acoustic leakage with larger intensity can be produced at the gap opening. With the vibration source surrounded by the RAF, the energy harvesting at the gap opening has a wide bandwidth and is insensitive to the position of the vibration source. The results may have potential applications in harvesting the energy of various vibration sources in solid structure. PMID:26233415

  4. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  5. Material identification based upon energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying a material in a sample and imaging the sample are described herein. The material is identified by computing energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons that is caused by presence of the sample in travel paths of the neutrons. A mono-energetic neutron generator emits the neutron, which is downscattered in energy by a first detector unit. The neutron exits the first detector unit and is detected by a second detector unit subsequent to passing through the sample. Energy-dependent attenuation of neutrons passing through the sample is computed based upon a computed energy of the neutron, wherein such energy can be computed based upon 1) known positions of the neutron generator, the first detector unit, and the second detector unit; or 2) computed time of flight of neutrons between the first detector unit and the second detector unit.

  6. FEL based energy driver for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An FEL based energy driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is proposed. The key element of the scheme is a free electron laser system. Novel technical solutions reveal a possibility to construct the FEL system operating at a radiation wavelength λ= 0.5 μm and providing a flash energy E 1 MJ and brightness 4 x1022 W cm-2sr-1 within the steering pulse duration 0.1-2 ns. The total energy efficiency of the proposed ICF energy driver is about 11% and repetition rate is 40 Hz. It is shown that the FEL based ICF energy driver may be constructed at the present level of accelerator technique R and D. (orig.)

  7. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six Base Transceiver Stations (BSs) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy.

  8. Solar Energy Based Automated Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Lodhi A. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important because the main reason is the lack of rains {&} scarcity of land reservoir water. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes waste. For this purpose; we use this automatic plant irrigation system. In this project we use solar energy which is used to operate the irrigation pump. The circuit comprises of sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM358. Op-amp are configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The Microcontroller is used to control the whole system by monitoring the sensors and when sensors sense the dry condition then the microcontroller will send command to relay driver IC the contacts of which are used to switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet condition. The microcontroller does the above job as it receives the signal from the sensors through the output of the comparator, and these signals operate under the control of software which is stored in ROM of the Microcontroller. The condition of the pump i.e., ON/OFF is displayed on a 16X2 LCD

  9. Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

  10. Energy conservation technologies based on thermodynamic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Masaru [Shibaura Institute of Technology of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission to prevent global warming, the most promising way for electric generation in the Northeast Asia is to introduce cogeneration and {open_quotes}repowering{close_quotes} technologies based on high temperature gas turbines fueled by natural gas. Especially the old type coal burning boiler-steam turbine plants should be retrofit by introducing gas turbines to become highly efficient combined cycle. Same technologies should be applied to the old garbage incineration plants and/or even to the nuclear power plants. The exhaust heat or steam should become much increased and it should be utilized as the process heat for industries or heat supply as the distinct heating or cooling for residential area. This paper introduces a brief survey of these new technologies.

  11. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    CERN Document Server

    Dedinec, Aleksandar; Gajduk, Andrej; Markovska, Natasa; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  12. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  13. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  14. THE ENERGY ISSUES: A CORPUS-BASED ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Floriana Popescu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy-related issues have become of paramount importance in recent years due to the exhaustion of fossil fuel resources, their price variations and political dependence on nations with role of energy providers. In addition, the changing in climate conditions requires reduction emissions of greenhouse gases. Therefore, this paper proposes and assesses the novel idea of using constructions as a unit of analysis for corpus-based discourse analysis in the energy field. This article will use a standard method in linguistics to quantitatively investigate academic writings from both a lexical and a stylistic perspective. The present research paper aims to add to the knowledge about energy issues by conducting a data-driven analysis of economic academic discourse, through three periods of time and using secondary data analysis. The findings suggest the evolution of the energy sector throughout time and they gave interesting and different insights into the content of the discourses and enabled better comparison of corpora.

  15. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  16. Energy efficient cluster-based routing in wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zeghilet, Houda; Badache, Nadjib; Maimour, Moufida

    2009-01-01

    Because of the lack of a global naming scheme, routing protocols in sensor networks usually use flooding to select paths and deliver data. This process although simple and effective, is very costly in terms of energy consumption, an important design issue in sensor networks routing protocols. Cluster-based routing is one solution to save energy. In this paper, we propose a combination of an improved clustering algorithm and directed diffusion, a well-known data-centric routing paradigm in sen...

  17. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  18. Deep Structured Energy Based Models for Anomaly Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Shuangfei; Cheng, Yu; Lu, Weining; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we attack the anomaly detection problem by directly modeling the data distribution with deep architectures. We propose deep structured energy based models (DSEBMs), where the energy function is the output of a deterministic deep neural network with structure. We develop novel model architectures to integrate EBMs with different types of data such as static data, sequential data, and spatial data, and apply appropriate model architectures to adapt to the data structure. Our trai...

  19. Metamaterials-based enhanced energy harvesting: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in low power design open the possibility to harvest ambient energies to power directly the electronics or recharge a secondary battery. The key parameter of an energy harvesting (EH) device is its efficiency, which strongly depends on the conversion medium. To address this issue, metamaterials, artificial materials and structures with exotic properties, have been introduced for EH in recent years. They possess unique properties not easily achieved using naturally occurring materials, such as negative stiffness, mass, Poisson's ratio, and refractive index. The goal of this paper is to review the fundamentals, recent progresses and future directions in the field of metamaterials-based enhanced energy harvesting. An introduction on EH followed by the classification of potential metamaterials for EH is presented. A number of theoretical and experimental studies on metamaterials-based EH are outlined, including phononic crystals, acoustic metamaterials, and electromagnetic metamaterials. Finally, we give an outlook on future directions of metamaterials-based energy harvesting research including but not limited to active metamaterials-based EH, metamaterials-based thermal EH, and metamaterials-based multifunctional EH capabilities.

  20. Energy based Efficient Resource Scheduling in Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Vasumathi,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is an evolving area of efficient utilization of computing resources. Data centers accommodating Cloud applications ingest massive quantities of energy, contributing to high functioning expenditures and carbon footprints to the atmosphere. Hence, Green Cloud computing resolutions are required not only to save energy for the environment but also to decrease operating charges. In this paper, we emphasis on the development of energy based resource scheduling framework and present an algorithm that consider the synergy between various data center infrastructures (i.e., software, hardware, etc., and performance. In specific, this paper proposes (a architectural principles for energy efficient management of Clouds; (b energy efficient resource allocation strategies and scheduling algorithm considering Quality of Service (QoS outlooks. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated with the existing energy based scheduling algorithms. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach is effective in minimizing the cost and energy consumption of Cloud applications thus moving towards the achievement of Green Clouds.

  1. An Energy-Based Safety Evaluation Index of Blast Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined peak particle velocity (PPV and frequency safety criterion for blast vibration is widely used in blasting engineering. However, some field investigations are inconsistent with this criterion. On the basis of field investigations, it is found that there are two failure modes of structures subjected to blasting seismic waves, that is, first-excursion failure and cumulative plastic damage failure. Moreover, the nature of structural responses under blast vibrations is a process of energy input, transformation, and dissipation. Therefore, an energy-based dual safety standard is proposed in this work to more comprehensively explain all failure modes of structures under blast vibrations. To this end, structures are simplified into elastic-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF systems with bilinear restoring force models, and energy responses of SDOF systems are then determined using the Newmark-β method. From the energy responses, the maximum instantaneous input energy and hysteretic energy are selected as the basis of the dual safety criterion, because they can reflect first-excursion failure and cumulative plastic damage failure, respectively. Finally, field investigations in a blasting site in Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, are used to prove that compared to the PPV-frequency criterion the proposed energy-based dual safety criterion is more capable of assessing the damage potential of blast vibrations.

  2. Graphene-Based Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique 2D structure and numerous fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have attracted particular attention for their potential applications in energy storage devices. In this review paper, we focus on the latest work regarding the development of electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors from graphene and graphene-based carbon materials. To begin, the advantages of graphene as an electrode material and the existing problems facing its use in this application will be discussed. The next several sections deal with three different methods for improving the energy storage performance of graphene: the restacking of the nanosheets, the doping of graphene with other elements, and the creation of defects on graphene planes. State-of-the-art work is reviewed. Finally, the prospects and further developments in the field of graphene-based materials for electrochemical energy storage are discussed.

  3. Energy Storage System Based on Cascaded Multilevel Inverter with Decoupled Energy Balancing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yuanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three phase cascaded multilevel inverter based supercapacitor (SC energy storage system with novel structure and control strategy to maintain the energy balance of between phases. Every two phases are coupled with a series LC filter. With the filter, SC cells in different phases could exchange energy with an auxiliary power flow at high frequency. The auxiliary power flow is orthogonal to the primary power flow. The phase difference between high frequency voltage and current components of each phase determines whether the energy is absorbed into or released from its SC cells. Unlike traditional energy balancing strategies, the proposed method is independent to the fundamental real power drawn by the energy storage system. Simulation results confirmed the effects of proposed theories.

  4. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  5. MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....

  6. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototype level. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structural and maintenance (inspection) costs......, as well as on the harvested power from the waves. The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output, but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize the structural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem...

  7. Cooperative relay-based multicasting for energy and delay minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-08-01

    Relay-based multicasting for the purpose of cooperative content distribution is studied. Optimized relay selection is performed with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption or the content distribution delay within a cluster of cooperating mobiles. Two schemes are investigated. The first consists of the BS sending the data only to the relay, and the second scheme considers the scenario of threshold-based multicasting by the BS, where a relay is selected to transmit the data to the mobiles that were not able to receive the multicast data. Both schemes show significant superiority compared to the non-cooperative scenarios, in terms of energy consumption and delay reduction. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Net Balanced Floorplanning Based on Elastic Energy Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    balanced net delays to increase the safety margins of the design. In this paper, we investigate the properties of floorplanning based on the elastic energy model. The B*-tree, which is based on an ordered binary tree, is used for circuit representation and the elastic energy is used as the cost function....... To evaluate how well a net is balanced, we introduced a new metric 'unbalancing'. A more balanced net would have a smaller 'unbalancing' value. Experimental results show that our approach can not only meet fixed-outline constraints, but also achieve significant improvements in net balance for all the...

  9. A molecularly based theory for electron transfer reorganization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using field-theoretic techniques, we develop a molecularly based dipolar self-consistent-field theory (DSCFT) for charge solvation in pure solvents under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions and apply it to the reorganization energy of electron transfer reactions. The DSCFT uses a set of molecular parameters, such as the solvent molecule’s permanent dipole moment and polarizability, thus avoiding approximations that are inherent in treating the solvent as a linear dielectric medium. A simple, analytical expression for the free energy is obtained in terms of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium electrostatic potential profiles and electric susceptibilities, which are obtained by solving a set of self-consistent equations. With no adjustable parameters, the DSCFT predicts activation energies and reorganization energies in good agreement with previous experiments and calculations for the electron transfer between metallic ions. Because the DSCFT is able to describe the properties of the solvent in the immediate vicinity of the charges, it is unnecessary to distinguish between the inner-sphere and outer-sphere solvent molecules in the calculation of the reorganization energy as in previous work. Furthermore, examining the nonequilibrium free energy surfaces of electron transfer, we find that the nonequilibrium free energy is well approximated by a double parabola for self-exchange reactions, but the curvature of the nonequilibrium free energy surface depends on the charges of the electron-transferring species, contrary to the prediction by the linear dielectric theory

  10. A molecularly based theory for electron transfer reorganization energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Bilin; Wang, Zhen-Gang, E-mail: zgw@cheme.caltech.edu [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Using field-theoretic techniques, we develop a molecularly based dipolar self-consistent-field theory (DSCFT) for charge solvation in pure solvents under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions and apply it to the reorganization energy of electron transfer reactions. The DSCFT uses a set of molecular parameters, such as the solvent molecule’s permanent dipole moment and polarizability, thus avoiding approximations that are inherent in treating the solvent as a linear dielectric medium. A simple, analytical expression for the free energy is obtained in terms of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium electrostatic potential profiles and electric susceptibilities, which are obtained by solving a set of self-consistent equations. With no adjustable parameters, the DSCFT predicts activation energies and reorganization energies in good agreement with previous experiments and calculations for the electron transfer between metallic ions. Because the DSCFT is able to describe the properties of the solvent in the immediate vicinity of the charges, it is unnecessary to distinguish between the inner-sphere and outer-sphere solvent molecules in the calculation of the reorganization energy as in previous work. Furthermore, examining the nonequilibrium free energy surfaces of electron transfer, we find that the nonequilibrium free energy is well approximated by a double parabola for self-exchange reactions, but the curvature of the nonequilibrium free energy surface depends on the charges of the electron-transferring species, contrary to the prediction by the linear dielectric theory.

  11. Energy consumption quota of public buildings based on statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of building energy consumption quota as a comprehensive indicator used to evaluate the actual energy consumption level is an important measure for promoting the development of building energy efficiency. This paper focused on the determination method of the quota, and firstly introduced the procedure of establishing energy consumption quota of public buildings including four important parts: collecting data, classifying and calculating EUIs, standardizing EUIs, determining the measure method of central tendency. The paper also illustrated the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation based on the samples of 10 commercial buildings and 19 hotel buildings. According to the analysis of the frequency distribution of standardized EUIs of sample buildings and combining the characteristics of each measure method of central tendency, comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is selected to be the best method for determining the energy consumption quota of public buildings. Finally the paper gave some policy proposals on energy consumption quota to help achieve the goal of further energy conservation. - Highlights: ► We introduce the procedure of determining energy consumption quota (ECQ). ► We illustrate the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation of samples. ► Measures of central tendency are brought into determine the ECQ. ► Comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is the best method for ECQ. ► Punitive or incentive measures for ECQ are proposed.

  12. Agent-based modelling of consumer energy choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Henry, Adam Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to mitigate global climate change should be grounded in a rigorous understanding of energy systems, particularly the factors that drive energy demand. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a powerful tool for representing the complexities of energy demand, such as social interactions and spatial constraints. Unlike other approaches for modelling energy demand, ABM is not limited to studying perfectly rational agents or to abstracting micro details into system-level equations. Instead, ABM provides the ability to represent behaviours of energy consumers -- such as individual households -- using a range of theories, and to examine how the interaction of heterogeneous agents at the micro-level produces macro outcomes of importance to the global climate, such as the adoption of low-carbon behaviours and technologies over space and time. We provide an overview of ABM work in the area of consumer energy choices, with a focus on identifying specific ways in which ABM can improve understanding of both fundamental scientific and applied aspects of the demand side of energy to aid the design of better policies and programmes. Future research needs for improving the practice of ABM to better understand energy demand are also discussed.

  13. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2015-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability.

  14. High energy sodium based room temperature flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamie, Jack

    As novel energy sources such as solar, wind and tidal energies are explored it becomes necessary to build energy storage facilities to load level the intermittent nature of these energy sources. Energy storage is achieved by converting electrical energy into another form of energy. Batteries have many properties that are attractive for energy storage including high energy and power. Among many different types of batteries, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer many advantages. Unlike conventional batteries, RFBs store energy in a liquid medium rather than solid active materials. This method of storage allows for the separation of energy and power unlike conventional batteries. Additionally flow batteries may have long lifetimes because there is no expansion or contraction of electrodes. A major disadvantage of RFB's is its lower energy density when compared to traditional batteries. In this Thesis, a novel hybrid Na-based redox flow battery (HNFB) is explored, which utilizes a room temperature molten sodium based anode, a sodium ion conducting solid electrolyte and liquid catholytes. The sodium electrode leads to high voltages and energy and allows for the possibility of multi-electron transfer per molecule. Vanadium acetylacetonate (acac) and TEMPO have been investigated for their use as catholytes. In the vanadium system, 2 electrons transfers per vanadium atom were found leading to a doubling of capacity. In addition, degradation of the charged state was found to be reversible within the voltage range of the cell. Contamination by water leads to the formation of vanadyl acetylacetonate. Although it is believed that vanadyl complex need to be taken to low voltages to be reduced back to vanadium acac, a new mechanism is shown that begins at higher voltages (2.1V). Vanadyl complexes react with excess ligand and protons to reform the vanadium complex. During this reaction, water is reformed leading to the continuous cycle in which vanadyl is formed and then reduced back

  15. Enhanced vibration based energy harvesting using embedded acoustic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Semperlotti, F.; Conlon, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of dynamic structural tailoring via the concept of an Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) to enhance the performance of piezoelectric based energy harvesting from operational mechanical vibrations. The ABH is a variable thickness structural feature that can be embedded in the host structure allowing a smooth reduction of the phase velocity while minimizing the amplitude of reflected waves. The ABH thickness variation is typically designed according to power-law profiles. As a propagating wave enters the ABH, it is progressively slowed down while its wavelength is compressed. This effect results in structural areas with high energy density that can be exploited effectively for energy harvesting. The potential of ABH for energy harvesting is shown via a numerical study based on fully coupled finite element electromechanical models of an ABH tapered plate with surface mounted piezo-transducers. The performances of the novel design are evaluated by direct comparison with a non-tapered structure in terms of energy ratios and attenuation indices. Results show that the tailored structural design allows a drastic increase in the harvested energy both for steady state and transient excitation. Performance dependencies of key design parameters are also investigated.

  16. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year

  17. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  18. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO2/ha,year) and costs for CO2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO2) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  19. Enhanced electrophoretic motion using supercapacitor-based energy storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Wong, Flory; Duan, Wentao; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-12-23

    Electrophoretic motion at low potentials is facilitated by redox chemistry occurring in a supercapacitor-based electrochemical energy storage system during charge and discharge. We show that MnO2 -modified electrodes can effectively alleviate the electrode surface polarization, the main factor that leads to inefficient electrophoresis at low voltages. A self-powered electrophoretic system based on a discharging battery has been also fabricated.

  20. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH2 and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH2 to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH2 as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV0.62Mn1.5 alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles

  1. Theoretically predicted Fox-7 based new high energy density molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Susanta

    2016-08-01

    Computational investigation of CHNO based high energy density molecules (HEDM) are designed with FOX-7 (1, 1-dinitro 2, 2-diamino ethylene) skeleton. We report structures, stability and detonation properties of these new molecules. A systematic analysis is presented for the crystal density, activation energy for nitro to nitrite isomerisation and the C-NO2 bond dissociation energy of these molecules. The Atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations have been performed to interpret the intra-molecular weak H-bonding interactions and the stability of C-NO2 bonds. The structure optimization, frequency and bond dissociation energy calculations have been performed at B3LYP level of theory by using G03 quantum chemistry package. Some of the designed molecules are found to be more promising HEDM than FOX-7 molecule, and are proposed to be candidate for synthetic purpose.

  2. A supply and demand based volatility model for energy prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamura, Takashi [J-POWER, 15-1, Ginza 6-Chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-8165 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a new volatility model for energy prices using the supply-demand relationship, which we call a supply and demand based volatility model. We show that the supply curve shape in the model determines the characteristics of the volatility in energy prices. It is found that the inverse Box-Cox transformation supply curve reflecting energy markets causes the inverse leverage effect, i.e., positive correlation between energy prices and volatility. The model is also used to show that an existing (G)ARCH-M model has the foundations on the supply-demand relationship. Additionally, we conduct the empirical studies analyzing the volatility in the U.S. natural gas prices. (author)

  3. Note: Localization based on estimated source energy homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Eriksen, Fredrik Kvalheim; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic signal localization is a complex problem with a wide range of industrial and academic applications. Herein, we propose a localization method based on energy attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison (termed estimated source energy homogeneity, or ESEH). This inversion is tested on both synthetic (numerical) data using a Lamb wave propagation model and experimental 2D plate data (recorded with 4 accelerometers sensitive up to 26 kHz). We compare the performance of this technique with classic source localization algorithms: arrival time localization, time reversal localization, and localization based on energy amplitude. Our technique is highly versatile and out-performs the conventional techniques in terms of error minimization and cost (both computational and financial).

  4. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are presented. To assess the potential for geothermal resource development in Idaho, several kinds of data were obtained. These include information regarding institutional procedures for geothermal development, logistical procedures for utilization, energy needs and forecasted demands, and resource data. Area reports, data sheets, and scenarios were prepared that described possible geothermal development at individual sites. In preparing development projections, the objective was to base them on actual market potential, forecasted growth, and known or inferred resource conditions. To the extent possible, power-on-line dates and energy utilization estimates are realistic projections of the first events. Commercialization projections were based on the assumption that an aggressive development program will prove sufficient known and inferred resources to accomplish the projected event. This report is an estimate of probable energy developable under an aggressive exploration program and is considered extremely conservative. (MHR)

  5. Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme For Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sohini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has emerged as an important supplement to the modern wireless communication systems due to its wide range of applications. The recent researches are facing the various challenges of the sensor network more gracefully. However, energy efficiency has still remained a matter of concern for the researches. Meeting the countless security needs, timely data delivery and taking a quick action, efficient route selection and multi-path routing etc. can only be achieved at the cost of energy. Hierarchical routing is more useful in this regard. The proposed algorithm Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme (EACBRS aims at conserving energy with the help of hierarchical routing by calculating the optimum number of cluster heads for the network, selecting energy-efficient route to the sink and by offering congestion control. Simulation results prove that EACBRS performs better than existing hierarchical routing algorithms like Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and Energy Efficient Heterogeneous Clustered scheme for Wireless Sensor Network (EEHC.

  6. Energy Band Model Based on Effective Mass Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ariel, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an alternative method of deriving the energy band model using a definition of the effective mass and experimentally observed dependence of mass on energy. We use the model of the particle effective mass and extend it to anti-particles and particles with zero rest mass. As an example, we assume an often observed linear dependence of mass on energy and derive a generalized non-parabolic energy-momentum relation. The resulting non-parabolicity leads to velocity saturation at high particle energies. We apply the energy band model to free relativistic particles and carriers in solid state materials and obtain commonly used dispersion relations and experimentally confirmed effective masses. We apply the model to zero rest mass particles in graphene and propose using the definition of the effective mass for photons. Therefore, it appears that the new energy band model based on the effective mass approximation can be applied to the description of relativistic particles and carriers in sol...

  7. Energy: China to Complete Key Oil Bases Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China will complete the construction of its first four strategic oil reserves by the end of 2008. "The progress has been smooth and all the four bases will be completed by the year end," Zhang Guobao, administrator of the National Energy Administration (NEA), said after a press conference in Beijing in mid-August.

  8. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles: Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power s

  9. Design of Building Energy Autonomous Control System with the Intelligent Object Energy Chain Mechanism Based on Energy-IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangmin Park; Sanguk Park; Jinsung Byun; Yeong Yu; Sehyun Park

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies has enabled smart objects to communicate with each other, and various IoT methods and techniques have appeared accordingly. At this point in time, there is a growing need for big data-based energy-IoT technology that can reduce energy consumption. However, despite the emergence of these technologies for IoT, there is still a lack of control systems to surmount the energy efficiency problem of hyperconnected IoT applications. In this...

  10. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava-based ethanol as energy for transportation. Energy and GHG balances are calculated for a functional unit of 1 km of road transportation using life-cycle assessment and considering effects of land use change (LUC). Based on a case study in Vietnam, the results show that the energy input for and GHG emissions from ethanol production are 0.93 MJ and 34.95 g carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of ethanol respectively. The use of E5 and E10 as a substitute for gasoline results in energy savings, provided that their fuel consumption in terms of liter per kilometer of transportation is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. It will reduce GHG emissions, provided that the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 3.8% and 7.8% respectively. The quantitative effects depend on the efficiency in production and on the fuel efficiency of E5 and E10. The variations in results of energy input and GHG emissions in the ethanol production among studies are due to differences in coverage of effects of LUC, CO2 photosynthesis of cassava, yields of cassava, energy efficiency in farming, and by-product analyses. -- Highlights: ► Cassava-based ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 could save 1.4 MJ km−1 ► Ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 reduces a CO2e emission of 156 g km−1 ► We examined changes in fuel efficiency of blends affecting energy and GHG balances. ► LUC and change in soil management lead to a CO2e emission of 942 g L−1 of ethanol. ► LUC effects, energy inputs, yields, and by-products explain results among studies

  11. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail [European Commission, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport

    2016-04-15

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  12. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  13. Energy harvesting “3-D knitted spacer” based piezoelectric textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Soin, N.; Shah, T. H.; Siores, E.

    2016-07-01

    The piezoelectric effect in Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, was discovered over four decades ago and since then, significant work has been carried out aiming at the production of high p-phase fibres and their integration into fabric structures for energy harvesting. However, little work has been done in the area of production of “true piezoelectric fabric structures” based on flexible polymeric materials such as PVDF. In this work, we demonstrate “3-D knitted spacer” technology based all-fibre piezoelectric fabrics as power generators and energy harvesters. The knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consists of high p-phase (~80%) piezoelectric PVDF monofilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multifilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes. The novel and unique textile structure provides an output power density in the range of 1.105.10 gWcm-2 at applied impact pressures in the range of 0.02-0.10 MPa, thus providing significantly higher power outputs and efficiencies over the existing 2-D woven and nonwoven piezoelectric structures. The high energy efficiency, mechanical durability and comfort of the soft, flexible and all-fibre based power generator is highly attractive for a variety of potential applications such as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters charged from ambient environment or by human movement.

  14. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Energy savings in mobile broadband network based on load predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samulevicius, Saulius; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2012-01-01

    in wireless networks. To save energy in MBNs, one of the options is to turn off parts of the network equipment in areas where traffic falls below a specific predefined threshold. This paper looks at a methodology for identifying periods of the day when cells or sites carrying low traffic are candidates...... for being totally or partly switched off, given that the decrease in service quality can be controlled gracefully when the sites are switched off. Based on traffic data from an operational network, potential average energy savings of approximately 30% with some few low traffic cells/sites reaching up to 99...

  16. Dictionary-based image denoising for dual energy computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechlem, Korbinian; Allner, Sebastian; Mei, Kai; Pfeiffer, Franz; Noël, Peter B.

    2016-03-01

    Compared to conventional computed tomography (CT), dual energy CT allows for improved material decomposition by conducting measurements at two distinct energy spectra. Since radiation exposure is a major concern in clinical CT, there is a need for tools to reduce the noise level in images while preserving diagnostic information. One way to achieve this goal is the application of image-based denoising algorithms after an analytical reconstruction has been performed. We have developed a modified dictionary denoising algorithm for dual energy CT aimed at exploiting the high spatial correlation between between images obtained from different energy spectra. Both the low-and high energy image are partitioned into small patches which are subsequently normalized. Combined patches with improved signal-to-noise ratio are formed by a weighted addition of corresponding normalized patches from both images. Assuming that corresponding low-and high energy image patches are related by a linear transformation, the signal in both patches is added coherently while noise is neglected. Conventional dictionary denoising is then performed on the combined patches. Compared to conventional dictionary denoising and bilateral filtering, our algorithm achieved superior performance in terms of qualitative and quantitative image quality measures. We demonstrate, in simulation studies, that this approach can produce 2d-histograms of the high- and low-energy reconstruction which are characterized by significantly improved material features and separation. Moreover, in comparison to other approaches that attempt denoising without simultaneously using both energy signals, superior similarity to the ground truth can be found with our proposed algorithm.

  17. A Solution Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Smart Home Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Collotta; Giovanni Pau

    2015-01-01

    The research and the implementation of home automation are getting more popular because the Internet of Things holds promise for making homes smarter through wireless technologies. The installation of systems based on wireless networks can play a key role also in the extension of the smart grid towards smart homes, that can be deemed as one of the most important components of smart grids. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution for smart energy management in a home automation wireless netw...

  18. Optimal weight based on energy imbalance and utility maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal weight for both male and female using energy imbalance and utility maximization. Based on the difference of energy intake and expenditure, we develop a state equation that reveals the weight gain from this energy gap. We ​construct an objective function considering food consumption, eating habits and survival rate to measure utility. Through applying mathematical tools from optimal control methods and qualitative theory of differential equations, we obtain some results. For both male and female, the optimal weight is larger than the physiologically optimal weight calculated by the Body Mass Index (BMI). We also study the corresponding trajectories to steady state weight respectively. Depending on the value of a few parameters, the steady state can either be a saddle point with a monotonic trajectory or a focus with dampened oscillations.

  19. Microscopic positive-energy potential based on Gogny interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchon, G; Arellano, H F; Mau, N Vinh

    2014-01-01

    We present nucleon elastic scattering calculation based on Green's function formalism in the Random-Phase Approximation. For the first time, the Gogny effective interaction is used consistently throughout the whole calculation to account for the complex, non-local and energy-dependent optical potential. Effects of intermediate single-particle resonances are included and found to play a crucial role in the account for measured reaction cross section. Double counting of the particle-hole second-order contribution is carefully addressed. The resulting integro-differential Schr\\"odinger equation for the scattering process is solved without localization procedures. The method is applied to neutron and proton elastic scattering from $^{40}$Ca. A successful account for differential and integral cross sections, including analyzing powers, is obtained for incident energies up to 30 MeV. Discrepancies at higher energies are related to much too high volume integral of the real potential for large partial waves. Moreover...

  20. An energy-based beam hardening model in tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteele, E van de; Dyck, D van; Sijbers, J; Raman, E [Vision Lab, Physics Departement, University of Antwerp (RUCA) (Belgium)

    2002-12-07

    As a consequence of the polychromatic x-ray source, used in micro-computer tomography ({mu}CT) and in medical CT, the attenuation is no longer a linear function of absorber thickness. If this nonlinear beam hardening effect is not compensated, the reconstructed images will be corrupted by cupping artefacts. In this paper, a bimodal energy model for the detected energy spectrum is presented, which can be used for reduction of artefacts caused by beam hardening in well-specified conditions. Based on the combination of the spectrum of the source and the detector efficiency, the assumption is made that there are two dominant energies which can describe the system. The validity of the proposed model is examined by fitting the model to the experimental datapoints obtained on a microtomograph for different materials and source voltages.

  1. Energy-Based Collaborative Source Localization Using Acoustic Microsensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensor network source localization method based on acoustic energy measurements is presented. This method makes use of the characteristics that the acoustic energy decays inversely with respect to the square of distance from the source. By comparing energy readings measured at surrounding acoustic sensors, the source location during that time interval can be accurately estimated as the intersection of multiple hyperspheres. Theoretical bounds on the number of sensors required to yield unique solution are derived. Extensive simulations have been conducted to characterize the performance of this method under various parameter perturbations and noise conditions. Potential advantages of this approach include low intersensor communication requirement, robustness with respect to parameter perturbations and measurement noise, and low-complexity implementation.

  2. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, G. D.; Christian, J. E.; Mixon, W. R.; Jackson, W. L.

    1980-07-01

    The procedures and data sources used to develop an energy consumption and system cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total energy systems in the nonindustrial building market are described. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings; office buildings; retail stores; hotels and motels; schools; hospitals; and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system.

  3. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  4. Simulating the Fredkin Gate with Energy-Based P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leporati, Alberto; Zandron, Claudio; Mauri, Giancarlo; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2004-01-01

    Reversibility plays a fundamental role when the possibility to per- form computations with minimal energy dissipation is considered. Many pa- pers on reversible computation have appeared in literature: the most famous are certainly the work of Bennett on (universal) reversible Turing machines and the work of Fredkin and To®oli on conservative logic. The latter is based upon the Fredkin gate, a reversible and \\conservative" (according to a de¯nition given by Fredkin and To®ol...

  5. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    OpenAIRE

    Qiangmo Yu; Jin Yang; Xihai Yue; Aichao Yang; Jiangxin Zhao; Nian Zhao; Yumei Wen; Ping Li

    2015-01-01

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between...

  6. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhuang; Jun Yang; You Li; Longning Qi; Naser El-Sheimy

    2016-01-01

    Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM), channel-separate fingerprinting (FP), outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target’s location and the...

  7. PRICING OF EXOTIC ENERGY DERIVATIVES BASED ON ARITHMETIC SPOT MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    FRED ESPEN BENTH; RODWELL KUFAKUNESU

    2009-01-01

    Based on a non-Gaussian Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model for energy spot, we derive prices for Asian and spread options using Fourier techniques. The option prices are expressed in terms of the Fourier transform of the payoff function and the characteristic functions of the driving noises, being independent increment processes. In many relevant situations, these functions are explicitly available, and fast Fourier transform can be used for efficient numerical valuation. The arithmetic nature of our m...

  8. Energy and Throughput Optimization for Relay Based Heterogeneous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ouni, Anis; Saadani, Ahmed; Rivano, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    High data rate is a challenge for the next generation cellular networks. This objective needs a significant densification of relay nodes within macro cell. In the LTE-Advanced network, multi-hop relaying has been taken as a promising key technique to provide high throughput to the users and to improve the area coverage. Besides, minimizing the energy consumption and electromagnetic pollution is an economic challenge for the operators. This paper is focused on relay based heterogeneous cellula...

  9. Molecular partitioning based on the kinetic energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorizadeh, Siamak

    2016-05-01

    Molecular partitioning based on the kinetic energy density is performed to a number of chemical species, which show non-nuclear attractors (NNA) in their gradient maps of the electron density. It is found that NNAs are removed using this molecular partitioning and although the virial theorem is not valid for all of the basins obtained in the being used AIM, all of the atoms obtained using the new approach obey this theorem. A comparison is also made between some atomic topological parameters which are obtained from the new partitioning approach and those calculated based on the electron density partitioning.

  10. Sodium-based hydrides for thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Humphries, T. D.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating solar-thermal power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) represents an attractive alternative to conventional fossil fuels for base-load power generation. Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) is a well-known sodium-based complex metal hydride but, more recently, high-temperature sodium-based complex metal hydrides have been considered for TES. This review considers the current state of the art for NaH, NaMgH3- x F x , Na-based transition metal hydrides, NaBH4 and Na3AlH6 for TES and heat pumping applications. These metal hydrides have a number of advantages over other classes of heat storage materials such as high thermal energy storage capacity, low volume, relatively low cost and a wide range of operating temperatures (100 °C to more than 650 °C). Potential safety issues associated with the use of high-temperature sodium-based hydrides are also addressed.

  11. Task Classification Based Energy-Aware Consolidation in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeeSeok Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a cloud data center, in which the service provider supplies virtual machines (VMs on hosts or physical machines (PMs to its subscribers for computation in an on-demand fashion. For the cloud data center, we propose a task consolidation algorithm based on task classification (i.e., computation-intensive and data-intensive and resource utilization (e.g., CPU and RAM. Furthermore, we design a VM consolidation algorithm to balance task execution time and energy consumption without violating a predefined service level agreement (SLA. Unlike the existing research on VM consolidation or scheduling that applies none or single threshold schemes, we focus on a double threshold (upper and lower scheme, which is used for VM consolidation. More specifically, when a host operates with resource utilization below the lower threshold, all the VMs on the host will be scheduled to be migrated to other hosts and then the host will be powered down, while when a host operates with resource utilization above the upper threshold, a VM will be migrated to avoid using 100% of resource utilization. Based on experimental performance evaluations with real-world traces, we prove that our task classification based energy-aware consolidation algorithm (TCEA achieves a significant energy reduction without incurring predefined SLA violations.

  12. Evaluating Energy based DDOS Attacks using Cosmic FFP and Energy Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Senthil Mahesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to improve security and identify DDOS attacks. Security should be considered affront during software development as millions of dollars are lost due to security breaches in software. There are many kinds of security breaches and of these DDOS attacks plays a leading role and as such it is vital that new techniques be identified to combat this rising menace. In this study a new sizing techniques called energy Points are used to identify the energy based DDOS attacks.

  13. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS

  14. A Solution Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Smart Home Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Collotta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research and the implementation of home automation are getting more popular because the Internet of Things holds promise for making homes smarter through wireless technologies. The installation of systems based on wireless networks can play a key role also in the extension of the smart grid towards smart homes, that can be deemed as one of the most important components of smart grids. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution for smart energy management in a home automation wireless network. The approach, by using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE, introduces a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC in order to improve a Home Energy Management (HEM scheme, addressing the power load of standby appliances and their loads in different hours of the day. Since the consumer is involved in the choice of switching on/off of home appliances, the approach introduced in this work proposes a fuzzy-based solution in order to manage the consumer feedbacks. Simulation results show that the proposed solution is efficient in terms of reducing peak load demand, electricity consumption charges with an increase comfort level of consumers. The performance of the proposed BLE-based wireless network scenario are validated in terms of packet delivery ratio, delay, and jitter and are compared to IEEE 802.15.4 technology.

  15. Windpower 2000: The growing U.S. wind energy base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) has set forth the following wind energy industry objectives for the year 2000: (1) to achieve 10,000 MW cumulative, grid-connected wind power capacity in the United States; (2) to build a $4 billion domestic wind industry base capable of delivering at least 3,000 MW of turbine production per year; (3) to create tens of thousands of new, long-term, skilled jobs, primarily in the manufacturing sector; (4) to achieve levelized costs below four cents per kWh and capital costs 30 percent lower than current costs; (5) to make wind power a major renewable energy option in achieving the nation's' global climate change objectives; (6) to make the US wind power industry the world's technology leader and lowest-cost supplier. This paper will describe the industry's progress toward meeting these goals by presenting the milestones that have been achieved over the last year. In addition, the paper will discuss the Association's strategy for addressing remaining obstacles and moving wind energy into the status of a generally accepted utility technology and one of the lowest cost providers of bulk power for the 21st century

  16. Efficiency Enhancement of a Cantilever-Based Vibration Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Kubba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries’ stiffness (K, output open-circuit voltage (Vave, and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (εave that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm3, has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 μJ/cycle.

  17. Efficiency enhancement of a cantilever-based vibration energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubba, Ali E; Jiang, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries' stiffness (K), output open-circuit voltage (V(ave)), and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (ε(ave)) that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm3), has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 μJ/cycle). PMID:24366177

  18. Nuclear reactions video (knowledge base on low energy nuclear physics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRV (nuclear reactions video) is an open and permanently extended global system of management and graphical representation of nuclear data and video-graphic computer simulation of low energy nuclear dynamics. It consists of a complete and renewed nuclear database and well known theoretical models of low energy nuclear reactions altogether forming the 'low energy nuclear knowledge base'. The NRV solves two main problems: 1) fast and visualized obtaining and processing experimental data on nuclear structure and nuclear reactions; 2) possibility for any inexperienced user to analyze experimental data within reliable commonly used models of nuclear dynamics. The system is based on the realization of the following principal things: the net and code compatibility with the main existing nuclear databases; maximal simplicity in handling: extended menu, friendly graphical interface, hypertext description of the models, and so on; maximal visualization of input data, dynamics of studied processes and final results by means of real three-dimensional images, plots, tables and formulas and a three-dimensional animation. All the codes are composed as the real Windows applications and work under Windows 95/NT

  19. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  20. Optimization of an electret-based energy harvester

    CERN Document Server

    Boisseau, S; Sylvestre, A; 10.1088/0964-1726/19/7/075015

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to miniaturisation, it is today possible to imagine self-powered systems that use vibrations to produce their own electrical energy. Many energy-harvesting systems already exist. Some of them are based on the use of electrets: electrically charged dielectrics that can keep charges for years. This paper presents an optimisation of an existing system and proves that electret-based electrostatic energy scavengers can be excellent solutions to power microsystems even with low-level ambient vibrations. Thereby, it is possible to harvest up to 200\\muW with vibrations lower than 1G of acceleration (typically 50\\mumpp at 50Hz) using thin SiO2 electrets with an active surface of 1 cm^{2} and a mobile mass of 1g. This paper optimises such a system (geometric, electrostatic and mechanical parameters), using FEM (Finite Element Method) software (Comsol Multiphysics) and Matlab to compute the parameters and proves the importance of such an optimisation to build efficient systems. Finally, it shows that the use of e...

  1. Piezoelectric compliant mechanism energy harvesters under large base excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaokun; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2016-09-01

    A piezoelectric compliant mechanism (PCM) energy harvester is designed, modeled, and analyzed that consists of a polyvinylidene diflouoride, PVDF unimorph clamped at its base and attached to a compliant mechanism at its tip. The compliant hinge stiffness is carefully tuned to approach a low frequency first mode with an efficient (nearly quadratic) shape that provides a uniform strain distribution. A nonlinear model of the PCM energy harvester under large base excitation is derived to determine the maximum power that can be generated by the device. Experiments with a fabricated PCM energy harvester prototype show that the compliant mechanism introduces a stiffening effect and a much wider bandwidth than a benchmark proof mass cantilever design. The PCM bridge structure self-limits the displacement and maximum strain at large excitations compared with the proof mass cantilever, improving the device robustness. The PCM outperforms the cantilever in both average power and power-strain sensitivity at high accelerations due to the PCM axial stretching effect and its more uniform strain distribution.

  2. Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

  3. Perceptual Weights Based On Local Energy For Image Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Nagalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an image quality metric that can effectively measure the quality of an image that correlates well with human judgment on the appearance of the image. The present work adds a new dimension to the structural approach based full-reference image quality assessment for gray scale images. The proposed method assigns more weight to the distortions present in the visual regions of interest of the reference (original image than to the distortions present in the other regions of the image, referred to as perceptual weights. The perceptual features and their weights are computed based on the local energy modeling of the original image. The proposed model is validated using the image database provided by LIVE (Laboratory for Image & Video Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin based on the evaluation metrics as suggested in the video quality experts group (VQEG Phase I FR-TV test.

  4. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    Increasing concerns for the escalating issues activated by the effect of carbon dioxide emissions on the global climate from extensive use of fossil fuels and the limited amount of fossil resources has led to an in-depth search for alternative energy systems, primarily based on nuclear or renewable energy sources. Recent innovations in the production of more efficient devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured materials into electrochemical systems. The aforementioned nano-electrochemical energy systems hold particular promise for alternative energy transportation related technologies including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical supercapacitors. In each of these devices, nanostructured materials can be used to increase the surface area where the critical chemical reactions occur within the same volume and mass, thereby increasing the energy density, power density, electrical efficiency, and physical robustness of the system. Durable corrosion resistant carbon support materials for fuel cells have been designed by adding conductive low cost carbon materials with chemically robust ceramic materials. Since a strict control of the pore size is mandatory to optimize properties for improved performance, chemical activation agents have been utilized as porogens to tune surface areas, pore size distributions, and composition of carbon-based mesoporous materials. Through the use of evaporative self-assembly methods, both randomly disordered and surfactant-templated, ordered carbon-silica nanocomposites have been synthesized with controlled surface area, pore volume, and pore size ranging from 50-800 m2/g, 0.025-0.75 cm3/g, and 2-10 nm, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) ranging from 0.05-1.0 wt. % were added to the aforementioned carbon-silica nanocomposites, which provided an additional increase in surface area and improved conductivity. Initially, a conductivity value of 0.0667 S

  5. Intelligent Control of Battery Energy Storage for Multi-Agent Based Microgrid Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Soo Hong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids can be considered as controllable units from the utility point of view because the entities of microgrids such as distributed energy resources and controllable loads can effectively control the amount of power consumption or generation. Therefore, microgrids can make various contracts with utility companies such as demand response program or ancillary services. Another advantage of microgrids is to integrate renewable energy resources to low-voltage distribution networks. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs can effectively compensate the intermittent output of renewable energy resources. This paper presents intelligent control schemes for BESSs and autonomous energy management schemes of microgrids based on the concept of multi-agent systems. The proposed control scheme consists of two layers of decision-making procedures. In the bottom layer, intelligent agents decide the optimal operation strategies of individual microgrid entities such as BESSs, backup generators and loads. In the upper layer, the central microgrid coordinator (MGCC coordinates multiple agents so that the overall microgrid can match the load reduction requested by the grid operator. The proposed control scheme is applied to Korea Power Exchange’s Intelligent Demand Response Program.

  6. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen

    2012-05-01

    Maximizing the optical network unit’s (ONU) sleep time is an effective approach for achieving maximum energy conservation in green Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). While overlapping downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green EPONs under the limited service discipline and the upstream-based overlapped time window. Specifically, we first derive the expected mean packet delay, and then present a closed-form expression of the ONU sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream traffic delay re-quirement. With the proposed system model, we present a novel downstream bandwidth allocation scheme for energy conservation in green EPONs. Simulation results verify the proposed model and highlight the advantages of our scheme over conventional approaches.

  7. Expected energy-based restricted Boltzmann machine for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, S; Uchibe, E; Doya, K

    2015-04-01

    In classification tasks, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) have predominantly been used in the first stage, either as feature extractors or to provide initialization of neural networks. In this study, we propose a discriminative learning approach to provide a self-contained RBM method for classification, inspired by free-energy based function approximation (FE-RBM), originally proposed for reinforcement learning. For classification, the FE-RBM method computes the output for an input vector and a class vector by the negative free energy of an RBM. Learning is achieved by stochastic gradient-descent using a mean-squared error training objective. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that the performance and the robustness of FE-RBM function approximation can be improved by scaling the free energy by a constant that is related to the size of network. In this study, we propose that the learning performance of RBM function approximation can be further improved by computing the output by the negative expected energy (EE-RBM), instead of the negative free energy. To create a deep learning architecture, we stack several RBMs on top of each other. We also connect the class nodes to all hidden layers to try to improve the performance even further. We validate the classification performance of EE-RBM using the MNIST data set and the NORB data set, achieving competitive performance compared with other classifiers such as standard neural networks, deep belief networks, classification RBMs, and support vector machines. The purpose of using the NORB data set is to demonstrate that EE-RBM with binary input nodes can achieve high performance in the continuous input domain. PMID:25318375

  8. Biomass energy - Definitions, resources and transformation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy is today considered as a new renewable energy source, and thus, has entered a regulatory framework aiming at encouraging its development for CO2 pollution abatement. This book addresses the constraints, both natural and technological, of the exploitation of the biomass resource, and then the economical and regulatory aspects of this industry. This second edition provides a complement about the plants used and the new R and D progresses made in this domain. Content: 1 - Definitions and general considerations: natural organic products, regulatory and standardized definitions, energy aspects of biomass fuels; 2 - Resources: energy production dedicated crops, biomass by-products, biomass from wastes; 3 - Biomass to energy transformation processes: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, torrefaction, methanation, alcoholic fermentation, landfill biogas, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol synthesis, trans-esterification, synthetic natural gas production, bio-hydrogen production; 4 - Biofuels: solid fuels, solid automotive biofuels, gaseous biofuels, liquid biofuels, comparative efficiency; 5 - Situation of biomass energy: regulations, impact on non-energy purpose biomass, advantages and drawbacks

  9. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  10. Recent Progress on PZT Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Gyu Kang; Woo-Suk Jung; Chong-Yun Kang; Seok-Jin Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, fluids, vibrations, etc. In particular, piezoelectric energy harvesting, which uses a direct energy conversion from vibrations and mechanical deformation to the electrical energy, is a promising tec...

  11. Evidence-Based Model Calibration for Efficient Building Energy Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnolio, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Energy services play a growing role in the control of energy consumption and the improvement of energy efficiency in non-residential buildings. Most of the energy use analyses involved in the energy efficiency service process require on-field measurements and energy use analysis. Today, while detailed on-field measurements and energy counting stay generally expensive and time-consuming, energy simulations are increasingly cheaper due to the continuous improvement of computer speed. This work ...

  12. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    . This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  13. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    . This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  14. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  15. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-01

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  16. FEM Optimal Design of Wind Energy-based Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tudorache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the finite element based optimal design of a wind energybased heater. The proposed device ensures the conversion of the wind kinetic energy intoheat by means of Joule effect of eddy currents induced in the wall of a tubular stator due tothe rotating magnetic field produced by rotor permanent magnets. The transientelectromagnetic field problem associated to the operation of the device is solved using a2D finite element approach based on vector potential formulation. A simplified method forthe 2D heat transfer analysis of the device is also proposed. The influence of stator wallmaterial and thickness, number of poles, the airgap thickness and the geometricalparameters of the permanent magnets is analyzed in the aim of optimizing the studiedheater.

  17. Energy-based robust controller design for flexible spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuzhi Sam GE; Tong Heng LEE; Fan HONG; Cher Hiang GOH

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a class of non-model-based position controllers for a kind of flexible spacecraft. With the controllers, one can achieve not only the closed-loop stability of the original distributed parameter system, but also the asymptotic stability of the truncated system, which is obtained through representing the deflection of the appendage by an arbitrary finite number of flexible modes. The system dynamics are not explicitly involved in the controller design and stability proof. Instead, only a very basic system energy relationship of the flexible spacecraft is utilized. The controllers possess several remarkable advantages over the traditional model-based ones. Numerical simulations are carded out on a kind of spacecraft with one flexible appendage and satisfactory results are obtained.

  18. FEA based Dissipation Energy and Temperature Distribution of Rubber Bushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengui Zhanga ,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber bushings used in the vehicle or aerospace can reduce the noise and vibration and absorb the shocks. The heat accumulation in the rubber components is attributed to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of rubber and leads to degeneration of mechanical properties. The viscoelastic damping is treated as the major mechanism of dissipation energy, which is heat source of temperature rising in bushing. A finite element method is expanded from elastic structure to viscoelastic structure and computes the dissipation energy distribution in the rubber core. Based on that heat source, the temperature distribution of rubber bushing under radial harmonic excitation has been calculated using finite volume method. The frequency and amplitude effect on dissipation energy and temperature distribution are described. The radial dynamic testing is carried out and the temperature is recorded using thermal imager to evaluate the simulation. As complement, the dynamic torsional testing is also carried out explore the possible failure zone of rubber bushing under different types of loading.

  19. Semi-flexible bimetal-based thermal energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Boisseau, S; Monfray, S; Puscasu, O; Skotnicki, T; 10.1088/0964-1726/22/2/025021

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new semi-flexible device able to turn thermal gradients into electricity by using a curved bimetal coupled to an electret-based converter. In fact, a two-steps conversion is carried out: (i) a curved bimetal turns the thermal gradient into a mechanical oscillation that is then (ii) converted into electricity thanks to an electrostatic converter using electrets in Teflon (r). The semi-flexible and low cost design of these new energy converters pave the way to mass production over large areas of thermal energy harvesters. Raw output powers up to 13.46uW per device were reached on a hot source at 60{\\deg}C and forced convection. Then, a DC-to-DC flyback converter has been sized to turn the energy harvesters' raw output powers into a viable supply source for an electronic circuit (DC-3V). At the end, 10uW of directly usable output power were reached with 3 devices, which is compatible with Wireless Sensor Networks powering applications. Please cite as : S Boisseau et al 2013 Smart Mater. S...

  20. A DEPLHI BASED POWER MONITORING SOFTWARE DEVELOPED FOR ENERGY ANALYZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Serdar YILMAZ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Delphi based interface software developed for energy analyzers is presented. Transferring the electrical parameters which is read from the energy analyzer to the computer in real-time has been achieved by using the developed software. It is also possible to record the parameters such as current, voltage, power, harmonic distortion and etc in real-time and to illustrate these recorded parameters in comparison with each other and graphically. Presented software is developed for Merlin Gerin Powerlogic PM 800 power analyzers and also it is usable for different trademarks and models which use Modbus protocol. Proposed software permits intercommunication and observation between maximum 256 devices. Recorded data can be monitorized in table and graphic form for requested time and date intervals by the users. In the study, Borland Delphi v.7.0 is preferred due to flexible and fast. Developed software can be easily used for energy distribution automation and monitoring of the power flow and power quality and also it is a user friendly interface.

  1. Energy-Based Analysis of Ultrasonically Assisted Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Volkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of ultrasonically-assisted turning (UAT is a superposition of vibration of a cutting tool on its standard movement in conventional turning (CT. The former technique has several advantages compared with the latter, one of the main being a significant decrease in the level of cutting forces. In this paper the effects observed in UAT are analysed employing ideas of dynamic fracture mechanics. The active stage of loading duration depends heavily on ultrasonic frequency and the cutting speed; he application of the fracture criterion based on the notion of incubation time makes it possible to calculate a dependence of this duration on its threshold amplitude. An estimation of energy, necessary to create a threshold pulse in the material, is made by solving the contact Hertz problem. The obtained time dependence of energy has a marked minimum. Thus, the existence of energy-efficient loading duration is demonstrated. This explains the decrease in the cutting force resulting from superimposed ultrasonic vibration. The obtained results are in agreement with experiments on ultrasonic assisted machining of aluminium and Inconel 718 alloy.

  2. ENERGY AWARE NETWORK: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS BASED DECISION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  3. Bismuth pyrochlore-based thin films for dielectric energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.

    The drive towards the miniaturization of electronic devices has created a need for dielectric materials with large energy storage densities. These materials, which are used in capacitors, are a critical component in many electrical systems. Here, the development of dielectric energy storage materials for pulsed power applications, which require materials with the ability to accumulate a large amount of energy and then deliver it to the system rapidly, is explored. The amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored by a material is a function of the induced polarization and the dielectric breakdown strength of the material. An ideal energy storage dielectric would possess a high relative permittivity, high dielectric breakdown strength, and low loss tangent under high applied electric fields. The bismuth pyrochlores are a compositionally tunable family of materials that meet these requirements. Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate, were fabricated using a novel solution chemistry based upon the Pechini method. This solution preparation is advantageous because it avoids the use of teratogenic solvents, such as 2-methoxyethanol. Crystalline films fabricated using this solution chemistry had very small grains that were approximately 27 nm in lateral size and 35 nm through the film thickness. Impedance measurements found that the resistivity of the grain boundaries was two orders of magnitude higher than the resistivity of the grain interior. The presence of many resistive grain boundaries impeded conduction through the films, resulting in high breakdown strengths for these materials. In addition to high breakdown strengths, this family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities of between 55 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 5, for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 +/- 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum

  4. Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Approaches to Study GPCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute one of the most studied proteins leading to important discoveries and perspectives in terms of their biology and implication in physiology and pathophysiology. This is mostly linked to the remarkable advances in the development and application of the biophysical resonance energy transfer (RET)-based approaches, including bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BRET and FRET, respectively). Indeed, BRET and FRET have been extensively applied to study different aspects of GPCR functioning such as their activation and regulation either statically or dynamically, in real-time and intact cells. Consequently, our view on GPCRs has considerably changed opening new challenges for the study of GPCRs in their native tissues in the aim to get more knowledge on how these receptors control the biological responses. Moreover, the technological aspect of this field of research promises further developments for robust and reliable new RET-based assays that may be compatible with high-throughput screening as well as drug discovery programs.

  5. Combined Cycle Fatigue Investigation Based on Energy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalynenko Mykyta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a modified energy-principle based model of fatigue damage accumulation in high temperature alloys usually used in gas turbine engine under combined high cycle fatigue and low cycle fatigue (LCF/HCF loading conditions. Our model is based on the energy principle which includes a modified approximation formula that describes fatigue crack origin depending on the relative amplitude of stress intensity in the ranges of both high- and low-cycle fatigue under non-isothermal loading. Functional dependence that presents the influence of HCF mechanisms on a fatigue life of our structural material is gradual and it has not breaks of the curve that yields a possibility to rewrite the equation of the S-N curve with taking into account combined cycle fatigue loading. We used the same number of parameters as the initial model. Note, that new parameter interpretation gives clear physical picture. The proposed model is verified by comparing the computed results with the experimental data for one high temperature alloy GH4133.

  6. Miniature fiber optic sensor based on fluorescence energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, David L.; Schultz, Jerome S.

    1992-04-01

    Optical fiber biosensors based on fluorescence assays have several distinct advantages when measuring biological analytes such as metabolites, cofactors, toxins, etc. Not only are optical signals immune to electronic interferences, but the polychromatic nature of most fluorochemical assays provides more potentially useful data about the system being studied. One of the most common difficulties normally encountered with optical biosensors is the inability to routinely recalibrate the optical and electronic components of the system throughout the life of the sensor. With this in mind, we present an optical fiber assay system for glucose based on a homogeneous singlet/singlet energy transfer assay along with the electronic instrumentation built to support the sensor system. In the sensor probe, glucose concentrations are indirectly measured from the level of fluorescence quenching caused by the homogeneous competition assay between TRITC labeled concanavalin A (receptor) and FITC labeled Dextran (ligand). The FITC signal is used to indicate glucose concentrations and the TRITC signal is used for internal calibration. Data is also presented on a protein derivatization procedure that was used to prevent aggregation of the receptor protein in solution. Also, a molecular model is described for the singlet/singlet energy transfer interactions that can occur in a model system composed of a monovalent ligand (FITC labeled papain) and a monovalent receptor (TRITC labeled concanavalin A).

  7. Informatics-Based Energy Fitting Scheme for Correlation Energy at Complete Basis Set Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-09-30

    Energy fitting schemes based on informatics techniques using hierarchical basis sets with small cardinal numbers were numerically investigated to estimate correlation energies at the complete basis set limits. Numerical validations confirmed that the conventional two-point extrapolation models can be unified into a simple formula with optimal parameters obtained by the same test sets. The extrapolation model was extended to two-point fitting models by a relaxation of the relationship between the extrapolation coefficients or a change of the fitting formula. Furthermore, n-scheme fitting models were developed by the combinations of results calculated at several theory levels and basis sets to compensate for the deficiencies in the fitting model at one level of theory. Systematic assessments on the Gaussian-3X and Gaussian-2 sets revealed that the fitting models drastically reduced errors with equal or smaller computational effort. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27454327

  8. Crop based climate regimes for energy saving in greenhouse cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, O.

    2003-06-16

    Sustainability is one of the major aims in greenhouse horticulture. According to agreements between the Dutch grower association and the government, energy consumption and the use of chemical biocides have to be reduced. More advanced greenhouse technique is being developed to reach the target to decrease the energy efficiency-index by 65% between 1980 and 2010. However, this could also be achieved with existing technology by using more advanced climate regimes. The present thesis aimed at that, through designing and analysing climate regimes while employing existing climate control possibilities. Theoretical temperature and humidity regimes were designed to decrease energy consumption and a photosynthesis maximisation procedure was implemented to maximise growth. The basis for a crop gross photosynthesis model for control purposes was created. Crop photosynthesis models were evaluated at conditions expected to occur with more sustainable climate regimes. It was shown with experimental evidence that theoretical assumptions on the temperature - CO2 effects in a crop that are based on theoretically models scaling up leaf photosynthesis to the crop level are valid and that simplified existing models could be applied up to 28C. With higher temperatures new designs are needed and this can probably be achieved with an improved stomata-resistance model. The well known temperature integration principle was modified with two nested time-frames (24-hour and six days) and a temperature dose-response function. In a year round tomato cultivation, energy consumption was predicted to decrease with up to 9 % compared to regular temperature integration. The potential for energy saving with temperature integration is limited by humidity control when as usual fixed set points are maintained, because it counteracts temperature integration. Vents open at lower temperatures and heating is switched on at higher temperatures than required for optimal effects of temperature integration. A

  9. Automated bone removal in CT angiography : Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Marcel; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic

  10. Optimal Operation of Biomass Gasifier Based Hybrid Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, P.; Kumaravel, S.; Ashok, S.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the world on renewable energy sources is growing rapidly due to its availability and environment friendliness. However, the renewable energy influenced by natural conditions is being intermittent, it is difficult to accomplish stable energy supply only by one kind of renewable energy source. In order to achieve reliability, it is necessary to integrate two or more energy sources together in an optimal way as hybrid energy system. Optimal allocation of sources, unpredictable load ...

  11. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  12. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1985-06-01

    The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: (1) the exploratory technology development and testing (ETD) project and (2) the technology base research (TBR) project. The role of the TBR Project is to perform supporting research for the advanced battery systems under development by the ETD Project, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the TBR Project is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to industry and/or the ETD Project for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial, and management activities relevant to the TBR Project in CY 1984. General problem areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the assessment of fuel-cell technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: exploratory research, applied science research, and air systems research.

  13. Twisted Savonius turbine based marine current energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Md. Imtiaj

    The Ocean Network Seafloor Instrumentation (ONSFI) Project is a multidisciplinary research and development project that aims to design, fabricate and validate a proof-of-concept seafloor array of wireless marine sensors for use in monitoring seabed processes. The sensor pods, known as Seaformatics, will be powered by ocean bottom currents and will be able to communicate with each other and to the Internet through surface master units to facilitate observation of the ocean floor from the shore. This thesis explores the use of the twisted Savonius turbine as a means of converting the kinetic energy of the free flowing water into electrical energy for the pods. This will eliminate the need for battery replacement. A physical model of the turbine was constructed and tested in the Water Flume at the Marine Institute of Memorial University and in the Wind Tunnel in the Engineering Building at Memorial University. A mathematical model of the turbine was constructed in SolidWorks. This was tested in the Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD software FLOW-3D. Experimental results were compared with CFD results and the agreement was reasonable. A twisted Savonius turbine emulator was developed to test a dc-dc boost converter. A low cost microcontroller based MPPT algorithm was developed to obtain maximum power from the turbine. Overall the thesis shows that the twisted Savonius turbine can provide the power needed by the sensor pods. It also shows that CFD is a viable way to study the performance of the Savonius type of turbine.

  14. Energy Band Based Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is one of the widely used techniques to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks in environments where battery replacement of individual sensor nodes is not an option after their deployment. However, clustering overheads such as cluster formation, its size, cluster head selection rotation, directly affects the lifetime of WSN. This paper introduces and analyzes a new Single Hop Energy Band Based clustering protocol (EBBCP which tries to minimize the above said overheads resulting in a prolonged life for the WSN. EBBCP works on static clusters formed on the basis of energy band in the setup phase. The protocol reduces per round overhead of cluster formation which has been proved by the simulation result in MATLAB. The paper contains an in-depth analysis of the results obtained during simulation and compares EBBCP with LEACH. Unlike LEACH, EBBCP achieves evenly distributed Cluster Head throughout the target area. This protocol also produces evenly distributed dead nodes. EEBCP beats LEACH in total data packet received and produces better network life time. EBBCP uses the concept of grid node to eliminate the need of position finding system like GPS to estimating the transmission signal strength.

  15. FLYWHEEL BASED KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS (KERS INTEGRATED IN VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS MATHEWS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, many hybrid electric vehicles have been developed in order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels; unfortunately these vehicles require electrochemical batteries to store energy, with high costs as well as poor conversion efficiencies. By integrating flywheel hybrid systems, these drawbacks can be overcome and can potentially replace battery powered hybrid vehicles cost effectively. The paper will explain the engineering, mechanics of the flywheel system and it’s working in detail. Each component of the flywheel-based kineticenergy recovery system will also be described. The advantages of this technology over the electric hybrids will be elucidated carefully. The latest advancements in the field, the potential future and scope of the flywheelhybrid will be assessed.

  16. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  17. Electret-based cantilever energy harvester: design and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Boisseau, S; Sylvestre, A

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper the design, the optimization and the fabrication of an electret-based cantilever energy harvester. We develop the mechanical and the electrostatic equations of such a device and its implementation using Finite Elements (FEM) and Matlab in order to get an accurate model. This model is then used in an optimization process. A macroscopic prototype (3.2cm^{2}) was built with a silicon cantilever and a Teflon\\textregistered electret. Thanks to this prototype, we manage to harvest 17\\muW with ambient-type vibrations of 0.2g on a load of 210M{\\Omega}. The experimental results are consistent with simulation results.

  18. Nitramine-Based High Energy Propellant Compositions for Tank Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Six different RDX-based gun propellant compositions have been formulated and studied to select the most suitable composition for tank gun ammunition in terms of higher force constant at relatively lower flame temperature (T. Ballistic'performance of the compositions was evaluated on the basis of closed vessel test. JIea(energy was determined using a bomb calorimeter. Sensitivity, thermal characteristics, stability and mechanical properties of the compositions were studied for assessing their suitabilitY for application. The composition containing 65 per cent RDX and 28 per cent nitrocellulose was found to provide higher level of force constant at relatively lower T f ' reasonably good burning rate characteristics and mechanical properties.

  19. Recovery energy from ship propulsion system based on microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanoaia, F.; Nicorescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    All shipping companies are involved in the several management programs for increasing of efficiency of transportation on the sea. Optimal transportation is one of actual tendency in the world shipbuilding which requests a lot of human resources in design development respectively in construction of the ships. One direction with very good results is to use one part of propulsion energy for electrical power generating on board with multiple technical and economical advantages. Based on this, more resources in research and design are encouraged by development projects in order to increase the efficiency of described system. Even if, power-generating plant is one of classic ship mecatronics system, it must to be continuously perfected in the way of decreasing of specific fuel consumption as well in the increasing of the friableness and endurance.

  20. Current Source Converter Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir Kouro; Jing-ya DAI; Bin WU

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the installed capacity of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has triggered the development of more demanding grid codes and additional requirements on performance.In order to meet these requirements the industry trend has shifted to full-scale power converter interfaces in modern multi-megawatt WECS.As consequence,a wide variety of new power converter topologies and WECS configurations have been introduced in recent years.Among them,current source converter(CSC) based configurations have attracted attention due to a series of advantages like:simple structure,grid friendly waveforms,controllable power factor,and reliable grid short-circuit protection.This paper presents the latest developments in CSC interfaces for WECS and related technologies such as modulation methods,control schemes and grid code compatibility.

  1. Thermal energy harvesting and solar energy conversion utilizing carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Patrick T.

    This dissertation provides details of carbon-based nanomaterial fabrication for applications in energy harvesting and generation. As energy demands increase, and concerns about mankind's environmental impact increase, alternative methods of generating energy will be widely researched. Carbon-based nanomaterials may be effective in such applications as their fabrication is often inexpensive and they have highly desirable electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube thermal interfaces on gadolinium foils is described herein. Total thermal interface resistances of carbon nanotube coated gadolinium were measured using a one-dimensional reference calorimeter technique, and the effect of hydrogen embrittlement on the magnetic properties of gadolinium foils is discussed. The samples generated in this study were consistently measured with reduced total thermal interface resistances of 55-70% compared to bare gadolinium. Characterization of gadolinium foils in a cooling device called a magneto thermoelectric generator was also performed. A gadolinium shuttle drives the device as it transitions between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states. Reduced interface resistances from the carbon nanotube arrays led to increased shuttle frequency and effective heat transfer coefficients. Detailed theoretical derivations for electron emission during thermal and photo-excitation are provided for both three-dimensional and two-dimensional materials. The derived theories were fitted to experimental data from variable temperature photoemission studies of potassium-intercalated graphitic nanopetals. A work function reduction from approximately 4.5 eV to 2 -- 3 eV resulted from potassium intercalation and adsorption. While changes in the electron energy distribution shape and intensity were significant within 310 -- 680 K, potassium-intercalated graphitic petals demonstrate very high thermal stability after heating to nearly 1000 K. Boron

  2. An Agent-based Application to Enable Deregulated Energy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Private houses are more and more enabled with devices that can produce renewable energy, and the not so remote chance of selling the surplus energy makes them new players in the energy market. This market is likely to become deregulated since each energy home-producer can negotiate the energy price with consumers, typically by means of an auction; on the other hand, consumers can always rely on energy companies, even if their energy is more expensive. This scenario could lead to advantages fo...

  3. Energy and exergy performance investigation of transcritical CO2-based Rankine cycle powered by solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XinRong; LI XiaoJuan

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive performance evaluation of a solar assisted transcritical CO2-based Rankine cycle system is made with exergy analysis method.The actual thermal data taken from the all-day experiment of the system are utilized to determine energy transfer and the exergy destructions in each component of the system.In addition,a hypothetical carbon dioxide expansion turbine is introduced,then two thermodynamic models for solar transcritical carbon dioxide Rankine cycles with a throttling valve (experiment) and with an expansion turbine have been established with exergy analysis method.The obtained results clearly show that solar collector contributes the largest share to system irreversibility and entropy generation in the all-day working state,and the exergy improvement potential of solar collector is the maximum in the working state.So this component should be the optimization design focus to improve system exergy effectiveness.For the cycle with the turbine,the energy efficiency and the entropy generation are not much higher than the cycle with throttling valve,but the exergy efficiency of the cycle with turbine is twice of the cycle with throttling valve.It provides more guidance when the transcritical CO2-based Rankine system is in a large-scale solar application.

  4. Assessing Energy Security Using Indicator-Based Analysis: The Case of ASEAN Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kamonphorn Kanchana; Hironobu Unesaki

    2015-01-01

    Using indicator-based assessment, this study examines the energy security of nine Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries to see how it has evolved over the past 12 years and identifies a country-specific energy security context for each country. The assessment uses 42 energy security indicators, which can be separated into five components: overall energy balance, socio-economic aspect, domestic energy resources, overseas energy demands and resources, and diversificati...

  5. An energy flow analysis in a paper-based industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R. [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sambandam, M.T.; Rajakarunakaran, S. [Kalasalingam University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Krishnankoil (India); Hasanuzzaman, M. [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya, UM Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Devaraj, D. [Kalasalingam University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Krishnankoil (India); Islam, M.D. [The Petroleum Institute, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-10-15

    Industrial sector is the largest user of energy in India and many parts of the world. More than half of the total energy is used in industries to operate various energy-using machineries. Energy conservation is a cost-effective approach in any energy optimization program that can be implemented in industrial activities. Energy-intensive industries in developing economies offer significant energy-saving potential owing to the technology gap as well as lower operating efficiency. A detailed energy flow analysis was conducted in a paper carton manufacturing unit in India to quantify the energy-saving potential. The study revealed that the compressed air leakage is responsible for about 50% of the total energy loss. The specific electrical and thermal energy consumption was estimated and found to be 91.85 kWh/ton and 1,619 MJ/ton of biomass, respectively. Annual energy saving potential was found to be 5.9% of the total annual energy consumption. The cost of DG power is found to be 389% higher than the grid power. The share of self-generated DG power is estimated to be 41% of the total power consumed. Electrical energy intensity of the plant could be reduced by 6.36% implementing energy conservation measures proposed in this study. (orig.)

  6. Estimation of PV energy production based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, G.

    2015-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is an attractive source of power for systems without connection to power grid. Because of seasonal variations of solar radiation, design of such a power system requires careful analysis in order to provide required reliability. In this paper we present results of three-year measurements of experimental PV system located in Poland and based on polycrystalline silicon module. Irradiation values calculated from results of ground measurements have been compared with data from solar radiation databases employ calculations from of satellite observations. Good convergence level of both data sources has been shown, especially during summer. When satellite data from the same time period is available, yearly and monthly production of PV energy can be calculated with 2% and 5% accuracy, respectively. However, monthly production during winter seems to be overestimated, especially in January. Results of this work may be helpful in forecasting performance of similar PV systems in Central Europe and allow to make more precise forecasts of PV system performance than based only on tables with long time averaged values.

  7. Glycidyl Azide Polymer-based Enhanced Energy LOVA Gun Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Sanghavi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cyclotrimethylene trinitramine propellants with triacetin (TA-plasticisedcellulose acetate (CA and nitrocellulose (NC combination as binders were evaluated for lowvulnerable ammunition (LOVA. Triacetin was replaced by energetic plasticiser; glycidyl azidepolymer (GAP in increments to enhance the performance in terms of force constant . In additionto ballistics, parameters like vulnerability, mechanical and thermal properties of GAP-basedpropellants in comparison to those of TA-based propellants, were also determined. The studybrings out that the incorporation of 2-6 per cent GAP in place of TA resulted in the enhancementof force constant by 22-70 J/g and improved overall combustion characteristics. DSC revealedthat thermal decomposition of GAP-LOVA propellants evolved more energy than TA-LOVApropellants. GAP-based LOVA propellant similar to TA-plasticised LOVA propellant, was foundsuperior to NQ propellant in vulnerability tests as well as in hot fragment conductive ignition(HFCI studies. As regards mechanical properties, incorporation of GAP resulted in improvedcompression strength.

  8. Evaluation of wind electric energy based on martian wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Y.; Kurita, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since Mars is characterized by strong surface wind, electric power generation by the wind activity has been proposed as a possible power source for martian base station as well as that for exploration module (George James et al., 1999, Vimal Kumar et al., 2010). George and Vimal estimated total power as 19kW and 500W, which they conclude is sufficient value as a power source of small exploration module. These values seem comparable to that used in MER( 900Wh per day ). But their estimate largely depends on the model of wind velocity and reevaluation is necessary based on plausible wind model as well as more realistic assumptions about power generation. This study evaluates plausible range of available power by using surface wind model estimated by Viking Lander measurements. Meteorological package of Viking Lander measured wind velocity and its direction at 1.6m hight at every 60 min. for 200 sols. We estimate wind statistics by using Weibull distribution function and elevation offset. We calculate the wind energy by wind turbines as the integrated value of power produced in a Martian day, and compare with solar panel and nuclear battery under various conditions (Mars ground roughness, blade length, shape of wind turbine and rotor height from the ground). As a result of the calculations, we obtain reasonable amount of wind electricity (1000 Wh per day ), which can be used if we select proper locations and suitable wind turbine.

  9. Broadband magnetic levitation-based nonlinear energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammari, Abdullah; Doughty, Seth; Savage, Dustin; Weiss, Leland; Jaganathan, Arun; Bardaweel, Hamzeh

    2016-05-01

    In this work, development of a broadband nonlinear electromagnetic energy harvester is described. The energy harvester consists of a casing housing stationary magnets, a levitated magnet, oblique mechanical springs, and a coil. Magnetic and oblique springs introduce nonlinear behavior into the energy harvester. A mathematical model of the proposed device is developed and validated. The results show good agreement between model and experiment. The significance of adding oblique mechanical springs to the energy harvester design is investigated using the model simulation. The results from the model suggest that adding oblique springs to the energy harvester will improve the performance and increase the frequency bandwidth and amplitude response of the energy harvester.

  10. Predicting the Energy Output of Wind Farms Based on Weather Data: Important Variables and their Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Vladislavleva, Katya; Neumann, Frank; Wagner, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy plays an increasing role in the supply of energy world-wide. The energy output of a wind farm is highly dependent on the weather condition present at the wind farm. If the output can be predicted more accurately, energy suppliers can coordinate the collaborative production of different energy sources more efficiently to avoid costly overproductions. With this paper, we take a computer science perspective on energy prediction based on weather data and analyze the important parameters as well as their correlation on the energy output. To deal with the interaction of the different parameters we use symbolic regression based on the genetic programming tool DataModeler. Our studies are carried out on publicly available weather and energy data for a wind farm in Australia. We reveal the correlation of the different variables for the energy output. The model obtained for energy prediction gives a very reliable prediction of the energy output for newly given weather data.

  11. Using an Energy Performance Based Design-Build Process to Procure a Large Scale Low-Energy Building: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Shelton, D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper will review a procurement, acquisition, and contract process of a large-scale replicable net zero energy (ZEB) office building. The owners developed and implemented an energy performance based design-build process to procure a 220,000 ft2 office building with contractual requirements to meet demand side energy and LEED goals. We will outline the key procurement steps needed to ensure achievement of our energy efficiency and ZEB goals. The development of a clear and comprehensive Request for Proposals (RFP) that includes specific and measurable energy use intensity goals is critical to ensure energy goals are met in a cost effective manner. The RFP includes a contractual requirement to meet an absolute demand side energy use requirement of 25 kBtu/ft2, with specific calculation methods on what loads are included, how to normalize the energy goal based on increased space efficiency and data center allocation, specific plug loads and schedules, and calculation details on how to account for energy used from the campus hot and chilled water supply. Additional advantages of integrating energy requirements into this procurement process include leveraging the voluntary incentive program, which is a financial incentive based on how well the owner feels the design-build team is meeting the RFP goals.

  12. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    M A Islam; M. Hasanuzzaman; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for fu...

  13. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayagh, Hossein

    2014-01-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ≥25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating multiple stack building

  14. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayagh, Hossein [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ≥25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating

  15. Fuzzy Logic based Coordinated Control of Battery Energy Storage System and Dispatchable Distributed Generation for Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Chengshan;

    2015-01-01

    Microgrid is an efficient solution to integraterenewable energy sources (RES) into power systems. Inorder to deal with the intermittent characteristics of therenewable energy based distributed generation (DG) units,a fuzzy-logic based coordinated control strategy of thebattery energy storage system...

  16. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based routing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more reasonable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effectiveness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  17. Knowledge-based renewable energy and environmental technology and services.; En kunnskapsbasert fornybar energi- og miljoenaering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenfeld, Leo A.; Espelien, Anne

    2011-07-01

    This report presents a study of the Norwegian industry for renewable energy and environmental technology and services (abbreviated to the REETS-industry). The study is a part of the large research program 'A Knowledge based Norway' organized by the Norwegian School of Management. It is one of 14 industry studies that investigates how knowledge investments and knowledge management contributes to strengthen clusters of industrial activity in Norway. A primary research question in this report concerns whether the Norwegian REETS-industry has sufficient resources and cluster strengths to succeed in international markets and stay competitive over time. For the first time, we present statistics covering all firms in the REETS-industry in Norway. The report contains a thorough mapping of industry activities, in terms of turnover, value added, growth, access to financial capital and human capital, internationalization and last but not least cluster properties in the industry as well as its links to other industries in Norway and abroad. The industry consists of approximately 2200 companies with a total turnover of Nok 151 bn in 2009. Industry value added has grown by 15 percent per year over the last decade and reached Nok 60 bn in 2009. The REETS-industry is now the eighth largest industry in Norway.The REETS-industry contains a large variety of activities and technologies. Consequently, we have divided the industry into four main groups and 11 sub-segments. The main groups are: renewable energy production, environmental technology and services, waste and recycling and finally energy distribution and sales. Since activities are highly heterogeneous, knowledge activities and cluster configurations must be studied at a more detailed level. Norway is a European giant in terms of hydro power production, producing close to 20 percent of such energy in Europe. In Norway, this part of the industry provides 35 percent of the revenues. Consequently, we devote

  18. Annual Energy Consumption Forecasting Based on PSOCA-GRNN Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huiru Zhao; Sen Guo

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy consumption forecasting can provide reliable guidance for energy planners and policy makers, which can also recognize the economic and industrial development trends of a country. In this paper, a hybrid PSOCA-GRNN model was proposed for the annual energy consumption forecasting. The generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model was employed to forecast the annual energy consumption due to its good ability of dealing with the nonlinear problems. Meanwhile, the spread param...

  19. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplanis, Socrates; Kaplani, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structur...

  20. A Novel Web Service Based Home Energy Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    In the last years energy consumption in the home environments has increased considerably. There is an interest to provide users with means to reduce their energy consumption. Introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences might provide the necessary tools to reduce and optimize the energy consumption in home environments. The main element of HEMS is the home gateway. In this paper, a home gateway suitable for HEMS is presented. The home gateway proposed uses rules to ...

  1. The Study of Relationship and Strategy Between New Energy and Economic Development Based on Decoupling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yaping; Xu, Yang

    With the increasing pressure in energy conservation and emissions reduction, the new energy revolution in China is imminent. The implementation of electric energy substitution and cleaner alternatives is an important way to resolve the contradiction among economic growth, energy saving and emission reduction. This article demonstrates that China is in the second stage which energy consumption and GDP is increasing together with the reducing of energy consumption intensity based on the theory of decoupling. At the same time, new energy revolution needs to be realized through the increasing of the carbon productivity and the proportion of new energy.

  2. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  3. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  4. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  5. Energy intelligent buildings based on user activity : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Occupant presence and behaviour in buildings has been shown to have large impact on heating, cooling and ventilation demand, energy consumption of lighting and appliances, and building controls. Energy-unaware behaviour can add one-third to a building's designed energy performance. Consequently, use

  6. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  7. Optimal combination of energy storages for prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Siemer, Lars; Agert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources require measures to balance power generation and load at all times. The utilisation of storage devices and backup power plants is widely suggested for this purpose, whereas the best combination is still to be found. In this work, we present a modelling approach to systematically study scenarios of future power supply systems with a high share of electricity originating from wind and solar resources. By considering backup as a subordinate source of electricity with energy-only costs, the approach is independent of the actual full-load hours of the backup power plants. Applying the approach to multi-year meteorological data for Germany, cost-optimised combinations of storage devices and backup power are identified. We find that even in scenarios with significant excess generation capacities there is a need for storage devices or backup power plants with discharging power on the same order as the average load to balance the system at all times. F...

  8. Improvement of energy model based on cubic interpolation curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peipei; Li Xuemei; and Wei Yu

    2012-01-01

    In CAGD and CG, energy model is often used to control the curves and surfaces shape. In curve/surface modeling, we can get fair curve/surface by minimizing the energy of curve/surface. However, our research indicates that in some cases we can't get fair curves/surface using the current energy model. So an improved energy model is presented in this paper. Examples are also included to show that fair curves can be obtained using the improved energy model.

  9. Investment preferences for wood-based energy initiatives in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Francisco X. [Department of Forestry, School of Natural Resources, 203L Anheuser-Busch Natural Resources Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The forest sector is poised to become a major supplier of wood-based energy in the US. Prospects for growth in energy demand and higher prices can create opportunities for private investments in renewable energy industries. A conjoint analysis examined individuals' willingness to invest in wood-based energies following a random utility model. The study design included three investment attributes: annual returns on investment, type of investment, and location of investment. Three ordinal models that also included demographic and attitudinal characteristics indicate that wood-based energy is less preferred among potential investors compared to the stock market and solar/wind renewable energy investments. Expected returns and location of energy investments within the US are also major drivers of investment preferences. Favorable attitudes towards forestry and wood-based energy could enhance prospects for a greater number of potential investors. (author)

  10. A Digital Game-Based Learning System for Energy Education: An Energy COnservation PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chien, Kun Huang; Liu, Tzu Chien

    2012-01-01

    Energy education has been conducted to equip learners with relevant energy conservation knowledge for many years. However, learners seldom put the knowledge into practice and even have few ideas about how to reduce energy consumption. To this end, there is a need to address this issue to improve the efficiency of energy education. One of the…

  11. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an NREL assessment of Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to appraise the potential of achieving net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Pacific Command partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency at Hawaii military installations. DOE selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and hydrogen vehicle integration. This paper summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. The analysis shows that MCBH Kaneohe Bay has the potential to make significant progress toward becoming a net zero installation. Wind, solar photovoltaics, solar hot water, and hydrogen production were assessed, as well as energy efficiency technologies. Deploying wind turbines is the most cost-effective energy production measure. If the identified energy projects and savings measures are implemented, the base will achieve a 96% site Btu reduction and a 99% source Btu reduction. Using excess wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen for a fleet and fuel cells could significantly reduce energy use and potentially bring MCBH Kaneohe Bay to net zero. Further analysis with an environmental impact and interconnection study will need to be completed. By achieving net zero status, the base will set an example for other military installations, provide environmental benefits, reduce costs, increase energy security, and exceed its energy goals and mandates.

  12. Energy and Transmissibility in Nonlinear Viscous Base Isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athanasios A.; Manolis, George D.

    2016-09-01

    High damping rubber bearings (HDRB) are the most commonly used base isolators in buildings and are often combined with other systems, such as sliding bearings. Their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. At first, a physical process is suggested here to explain the empirical formula introduced by J.M. Kelly in 1991, where the dissipated energy of a HDRB under cyclic testing, at constant frequency, is proportional to the amplitude of the shear strain, raised to a power of approximately 1.50. This physical process is best described by non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, originally developed by F.H. Norton in 1929 to describe creep in steel at high-temperatures. The constitutive model used includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity, raised to a non-integer power. The identification of a three parameter Kelvin model, the simplest possible system with nonlinear viscosity, is also suggested here. Furthermore, a more advanced model with variable damping coefficient is implemented to better model in this complex mechanical process. Next, the assumption of strain-rate dependence in their rubber layers under cyclic loading is examined in order to best interpret experimental results on the transmission of motion between the upper and lower surfaces of HDRB. More specifically, the stress-relaxation phenomenon observed with time in HRDB can be reproduced numerically, only if the constitutive model includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity raised to a non-integer power, i. e., the Norton fluid previously mentioned. Thus, it becomes possible to compute the displacement transmissibility function between the top and bottom surfaces of HDRB base isolator systems and to draw engineering-type conclusions, relevant to their design under time-harmonic loads.

  13. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...... CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small single family house, an office building and an industrial building in three different geographical locations: Stockholm, Brussels, and Venice. The additional heat losses from heating systems can be 10...

  14. Mathematical Modelling-Based Energy System Operation Strategy Considering Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jun-Hyung; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-06-25

    Renewable energy resources are widely recognized as an alternative to environmentally harmful fossil fuels. More renewable energy technologies will need to penetrate into fossil fuel dominated energy systems to mitigate the globally witnessed climate changes and environmental pollutions. It is necessary to prepare for the potential problems with increased proportions of renewable energy in the energy system, to prevent higher costs and decreased reliability. Motivated by this need, this paper addresses the operation of an energy system with an energy storage system in the context of developing a decision-supporting framework.

  15. Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations......, and that energy fluctuations take place for integration intervals close to the stability limit. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization...

  16. Weather forecast-based optimization of integrated energy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit detailed weather forecast information in the operation of integrated energy systems, such as buildings and photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems. We first discuss how the use of traditional reactive operation strategies that neglect the future evolution of the ambient conditions can translate in high operating costs. To overcome this problem, we propose the use of a supervisory dynamic optimization strategy that can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The strategy is based on the solution of a receding-horizon stochastic dynamic optimization problem. This permits the direct incorporation of economic objectives, statistical forecast information, and operational constraints. To obtain the weather forecast information, we employ a state-of-the-art forecasting model initialized with real meteorological data. The statistical ambient information is obtained from a set of realizations generated by the weather model executed in an operational setting. We present proof-of-concept simulation studies to demonstrate that the proposed framework can lead to significant savings (more than 18% reduction) in operating costs.

  17. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms{sup −2}) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane. .

  18. Thermopower and activation energy of silver iodide based superionic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver iodide based glasses, 60Agl-20Ag sub 2 O-20B sub 2O sub 3, 6 Agl-20Ag sub 2 O-20 MoO sub 3 and 60Agl-20Ag sub 2O-20WO sub 3, all in the mol % ratio, were prepared by rapidly quenching the melts of the chemicals in a stainless steel container; kept in a liquid nitrogen bath. The glassy nature of the as-quenched materials was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical conductivity of the glasses was measured at various temperatures ranging from 30 to 70 degree C using an impedance bridge operating in the frequency range between 40 Hz to 100 kHz. The plot of In σT versus 1000/T for each glassy material obeys Arrhenius law and the activation energy obtained is between 0.2 to 0.3 eV. Thermopower measurement was also carried out in the same temperature range as the conductivity measurement to obtain the heat of transport

  19. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2015-04-01

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms-2) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane.

  20. Semiparametric energy-based models of systems exhibiting criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Jan; Tkacik, Gasper

    Over the last decade, several empirical studies have found evidence that many biological and natural systems exhibit critical fluctuations analogous to those observed during second-order phase transitions in equilibrium systems. In many cases, these fluctuations were shown to be equivalent to a thermodynamic version of Zipf's law-if the system is sufficiently large, then a log-log plot of the probability of a state vs. its rank yields a straight line with slope - 1 . Because the origin of critical fluctuations cannot be traced to a unique mechanism, it is important that data-driven phenomenological models of natural systems are flexible enough so as to easily capture any kind of criticality. Here we study a class of models with exactly this property. This class consists of energy-based models in which the exponential Boltzmann factor is replaced by an arbitrary nonlinear function. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method by modeling the spiking activity of a population of retinal neurons, and the distribution of light intensities in small patches of natural images. In light of recent work on models with hidden variables, the proposed method can separate interactions induced by an unknown fluctuating environment from interactions intrinsic to the system.

  1. Failure analysis of crush hammers based on damage fracture energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun-ping; ZHOU Hong-yi; BAI Zhan-wei; YIN Yi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    To prolong the life-span of crush hammers in the pyrite concentrate workplace of Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant of Chongqing Nantong Mining Ltd., we used a progressive damage constitutive model based on the ductile and shear damage fracture energy to analyze the hammer wear failure caused by the impact and abrasion on the hammer surface by pyrite, and carried out simulation analysis with the explicit algorithm on hammer leftovers from the plant during the process of coarser pyrite comminution. The simulation results are consistent with hammer wear failure caused by pyrite impact. Then we proposed corrective measures to prolong hammer life-span. Results of the production test in the Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant showed that non-clearance hammers can avoid wear erosion, and adding steel bonded tungsten carbides F3002 prolonged the hammer life-span. The effect of austenitic manganese steel work-hardening was not prominent. Therefore, the hammer failure was mainly caused by superficial abrasion instead of fatigue cracks appearing when grains acted on the hardening layer.

  2. Difference Energy Based Blind Image Watermarking Resisting to Geometrical Distortions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yanwei; LU Zhengding; LING Hefei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a blind image watermarking that can resist to rotation, scaling and translation (RST) attacks is proposed. Based on the spread spectrum, the watermark is modulated before embedding. The log-polar mapped discrete fourier transform (LPM-DFT) magnitude of a disk, a part of the origin image, constitutes the RST-invariant domain, where the origin of the LPM is the center of the disk and the sampling rates of the LPM are constant. After the middle frequency band of LPM-DFT magnitude, namely the watermark-embedding domain, is grouped according to the watermark length, the watermark is embedded by adjusting the difference between the two sub-region energy in each group. To improve the imperceptibility, the watermark-embedding domain is shuffled before embedding and the watermark is not embedded directly into the watermark-embedding domain. In watermark detection procedure, neither the original image nor any knowledge about the distortions is required. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is very robust against RST distortion and common image processing attacks.

  3. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangmo Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms−2 along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane.

  4. Energy efficiency in France (1990-2000). Report based on the ODYSSEE data base on energy efficiency indicators and the MURE data base on energy efficiency policy measures with the support from SAVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This report presents an analysis of energy efficiency trends in France on the basis of energy efficiency indicators extracted from the Odyssee data base, maintained and updated in the framework of the SAVE program. This analysis focuses on the period 1990-2000. It also examines the policies and measures implemented in the field of energy efficiency, with a focus on the years 2000-2001. The full list and description of the policy measures are presented in detail in an annex. They are extracted from the MURE data base updated within the SAVE program. (author)

  5. Design and Simulation of Dual Inverter Based Energy Storage Systems for Wind Energy Systems Using MATLAB/SIMULINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harika G,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design and simulation of dual inverter based Energy Storage Systems(ESS for wind energy systems. A dual inverter consists of MAIN inverter which is connected to grid side and an auxiliary inverter for which an energy storage system is interfaced. Typical grid connected wind energy systems includes wind turbine, PMSG, DC-DC converters, three phase dual inverter ,energy storage system and related power electronic devices. The detailed model of design and simulation of dual inverter based Wind energy system starts with wind turbine coupled PMSG which is connected to three phase diode rectifier and Boost converter which in-turn connected to a dual inverter which is used to deliver the wind energy to grid and also to store the energy in energy storage systems during surplus periods. Also Short term power fluctuations are mitigated and harmonics are reduced. Maximum Power point Tracking (MPPT method, Energy storage system interfacing is also studied. The overall system model is designed and simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  6. Research on the Energy Consumption Evaluation and Energy Saving Technical Reconstruction of Centrifugal Pump System Based on Actual Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Yin; Shouqi Yuan; Tang Yue; Yuan Jianping

    2013-01-01

    A new method for calculating the operational efficiency of a pumping station has been developed based on the integral principle and operation rules of the pump flow rate. To determine the energy saving space of a pumping system and to reflect the relationship between supply and demand, a new method for evaluating the energy consumption rate of a pump system has been developed based on the principle of an inverter-controlled water supply with varying pressures. These methods have been applied ...

  7. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM, channel-separate fingerprinting (FP, outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target’s location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy. The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of <2.56 m at 90% of the time with dense deployment of BLE beacons (1 beacon per 9 m, which performs 35.82% better than <3.99 m from the Propagation Model (PM + EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than <3.04 m from the FP + EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m, the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of <3.88 m at

  8. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Yang, Jun; Li, You; Qi, Longning; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM), channel-separate fingerprinting (FP), outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target's location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy) with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy). The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of <2.56 m at 90% of the time with dense deployment of BLE beacons (1 beacon per 9 m), which performs 35.82% better than <3.99 m from the Propagation Model (PM) + EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than <3.04 m from the FP + EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m), the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of <3.88 m at 90% of the

  9. Improved Clustered Routing Algorithm Based on Distance and Energy in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dejun; Meng, Bo; Shaomin JIN

    2013-01-01

    Since the energy supply of a sensor node is limited, energy optimization should be considered as the key objective when studying the wireless sensor networks (WSN). Facing these challenges, clustering is one of the methods used to manage network energy consumption efficiently, and plays an important role in prolonging network lifetime and reducing energy consumption. The improved clustered routing algorithm based on distance and energy is proposed, which efficient improve the rate of data agg...

  10. Competitive advantage of German renewable energy firms in Russsia: An empirical study based on Porter's diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dögl, Corinna; Holtbrügge, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the competitive advantage of German renewable energy firms in Russia. Based on Porter's diamond model of competitiveness, we examine the demand for renewable energy in Russia and German firms' ability to meet this demand. While the overall demand for renewable energy in Russia is still low, the study reveals formidable opportunities in the fields of biomass, solar and wind energy. Our findings are meant to address managers in the renewable energy industry and to aid poli...

  11. International Data Base for the U.S. Renewable Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1986-05-01

    The International Data Base for the US Renewable Energy Industry was developed to provide the US renewable energy industry with background data for identifying and analyzing promising foreign market opportunities for their products and services. Specifically, the data base provides the following information for 161 developed and developing countries: (1) General Country Data--consisting of general energy indicators; (2) Energy Demand Data--covering commercial primary energy consumption; (3) Energy Resource Data--identifying annual average insolation, wind power, and river flow data; (4) Power System Data--indicating a wide range of electrical parameters; and (5) Business Data--including currency and credit worthiness data.

  12. Energy Based Feature Extraction for Classification of Respiratory Signals Using Modified Threshold Based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.BHAVANI SANKAR,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we carried out a detailed study of various features of respiratory signal. Respiratory signals contains potentially precise information that could assist clinicians in making appropriate and timely decisions during sleeping disorder and labour. The extraction and detection of the sleep apnea from composite abdominal signals with powerful and advance methodologies is becoming a very important requirement in apnea patient monitoring. The method we proposed in this work is based on the extraction of four main features of respiratory signal. The automatic signal classification starts by extracting signal features from 30 seconds respiratory data through autoregressive modeling (AR and other techniques. Four features are: signal energy, zero crossing frequency, dominant frequency estimated by AR and strength of dominant frequency based on AR. These features are then compared to threshold values and introduced to a series of conditions to determine the signal category for each specific epoch.

  13. Energy Aware OLSR-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wardi

    2012-01-01

    OLSR is a well-known proactive routing protocol designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). OLSR adopts a concept of an MPR mechanism where only mobile nodes selected as MPR nodes can retransmit broadcast packets received from other mobile nodes. Although OLSR reduces the number of broadcast packets, MPR nodes consume more energy than other mobile nodes. Since mobile nodes in MANETs are powered by battery with limited energy, energy efficiency is a critical issue in designing a routing prot...

  14. Economic Aspects of Fuel Cell-Based Stationary Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sevencan, Suat

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that human activity has an important impact on climate. Constantly increasing energy demand is one of the biggest causes of climate change. The fifth assessment report of the Inter-governmental panel on climate change states that decarbonisation of electricity generation is a key component of climate change mitigation. Increased awareness of this fact and escalating concerns around energy security has brought public attention to the energy industry, especially sustainable power ...

  15. Research on Energy-Saving-Based Cloud Computing Scheduling Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Cai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing applies virtualization technology to integrate the existing software and hardware resources, uses the international network to offer all kinds of services for avoiding the energy consumption caused by the idle energy and reaching to the maximum resource utilization efficiency. Therefore, reducing energy consumption and operation cost without influencing the system efficiency is an important issue in terms of the cloud service supplier. The research proposes a scheduling module on the basis of the executing deadline. The paper schedules the requested work and improves the executing work number up to the maximum for consuming the minimum energy during the execution.

  16. A Rule Based Energy Management System of Experimental Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and efficient rule based energy management system for battery and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS used in electric vehicles is presented. The objective of the proposed energy management system is to focus on exploiting the supercapacitor characteristics and on increasing the battery lifetime and system efficiency. The role of the energy management system is to yield battery reference current, which is subsequently used by the controller of the DC/DC converter. First, a current controller is designed to realize load current distribution between battery and supercapacitor. Then a voltage controller is designed to ensure the supercapacitor SOC to fluctuate within a preset reasonable variation range. Finally, a commercial experimental platform is developed to verify the proposed control strategy. In addition, the energy efficiency and the cost analysis of the hybrid system are carried out based on the experimental results to explore the most cost-effective tradeoff.

  17. Scenario-based roadmapping assessing nuclear technology development paths for future nuclear energy system scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy may play a significant role in a future sustainable energy mix. The transition from today's nuclear energy system towards a future more sustainable nuclear energy system will be dictated by technology availability, energy market competitiveness and capability to achieve sustainability through the nuclear fuel cycle. Various scenarios have been investigated worldwide each with a diverse set of assumptions on the timing and characteristics of new nuclear energy systems. Scenario-based roadmapping combines the dynamic scenario-analysis of nuclear energy systems' futures with the technology roadmap information published and analysed in various technology assessment reports though integrated within the nuclear technology roadmap Nuclear-Roadmap.net. The advantages of this combination is to allow mutual improvement of scenario analysis and nuclear technology roadmapping providing a higher degree of confidence in the assessment of nuclear energy system futures. This paper provides a description of scenario-based roadmapping based on DANESS and Nuclear-Roadmap.net. (author)

  18. Energy transmission modes based on Tabu search and particle swarm hybrid optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI xiang; CUI Ji-feng; QI Jian-xun; YANG Shang-dong

    2007-01-01

    In China, economic centers are far from energy storage bases, so it is significant to select a proper energy transferring mode to improve the efficiency of energy usage, To solve this problem, an optimal allocation model based on energy transfer mode was proposed after objective function for optimizing energy using efficiency Was established, and then, a new Tabu search and power transmission was gained.Based on the above discussion, some proposals were put forward for optimal allocation of energy transfer modes in China. By comparing other three traditional methodsthat are based on regional price differences. freight rates and annual cost witll the proposed method, the result indicates that the economic efficiency of the energy transfer Can be enhanced by 3.14%, 5.78% and 6.01%, respectively.

  19. A Centralized Energy Efficient Distance Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit D. Gawade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN typically consists of a large number of low cost wireless sensor nodes which collect and send various messages to a base station (BS. WSN nodes are small battery powered devices having limited energy resources. Replacement of such energy resources is not easy for thousands of nodes as they are inaccessible to users after their deployment. This generates a requirement of energy efficient routing protocol for increasing network lifetime while minimizing energy consumption. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is a widely used classic clustering algorithm in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Distance (CEED based routing protocol to evenly distribute energy dissipation among all sensor nodes. We calculate optimum number of cluster heads based on LEACH’s energy dissipation model. We propose a distributed cluster head selection algorithm based on dissipated energy of a node and its distance to BS. Moreover, we extend our protocol by multihop routing scheme to reduce energy dissipated by nodes located far away from base station. The performance of CEED is compared with other protocols such as LEACH and LEACH with Distance Based Thresholds (LEACH-DT. Simulation results show that CEED is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols. Also it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the other protocols.

  20. SMS- based Recharge Protocol for Prepaid Energy Billing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Omijeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A prepaid energy metering system enables power utilities to collect energy bills from the consumers’ prior to the usage of power by delivering only as much as what has been paid for. In Nigeria, the current prepaid meters use the keypad technology or smart card for their energy re-loading or recharging. This poses some challenges because the consumers have to travel a long distance to the utility company, waste a lot of time and energy before getting his/her energy meter activated when out of energy credit. In this paper, an SMS-recharge system for prepaid meter is proposed whereby consumers at the comfort of their homes, without stress or waste of energy or time, can recharge/activate their meters via SMS without the use of keypad by sending a 12-digit Pin number via SMS to the utility company. The aim of this paper is to model an intelligent billing system and develop an SMS protocol for the recharge scheme. This work contains the methodology and developed SMS protocol-link between the GSM modem (M20 and the Microcontroller (PIC 18F2550 for this process .The entire billing process is designed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink environments. Results obtained are very satisfactory. When fully implemented in Nigeria, revenue generation in the power sector will greatly increase as more sales of energy vouchers will be made.

  1. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, Le L.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava

  2. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  3. A Novel Web Service Based Home Energy Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    In the last years energy consumption in the home environments has increased considerably. There is an interest to provide users with means to reduce their energy consumption. Introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences might provide the necessary tools to reduce and...... optimize the energy consumption in home environments. The main element of HEMS is the home gateway. In this paper, a home gateway suitable for HEMS is presented. The home gateway proposed uses rules to implement the home energy management system. The rules can be downloaded though web services from a rule...... server. Furthermore, web services are used to provide modularity to the home gateway by enabling the deployment of the different logical components into different devices, if necessary....

  4. Allocation of Energy Use in the Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol System and Its Use in Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; YU Sui-ran; FANG Fang; DAI Du; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese government is developing biomass ethanol as one of its automobile fuels for energy security and environmental improvement reasons. The energy efficiency of the biomass-based fuel ethanol is critical issue. To investigate the energy use in the three biomass-base ethanol fuel systems, energy content approach, Market value approach and Product displacement approach methods were used to allocate the energy use based on life cycle energy assessment. The results shows that the net energy of corn based, wheat based, and cassava-based ethanol fuel are 12543MJ, 10299MJ and 13112MJ when get one ton biomassbased ethanol, respectively, and they do produce positive net energy.

  5. Simulation-based life cycle assessment of energy efficiency of biomass-based ethanol fuel from different feedstocks in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interests in biomass-based fuel ethanol (BFE) have been re-boosted due to oil shortage and environmental deterioration. Biomass-based fuel ethanol is renewable and, apparently, environmentally friendly. Biomass-based E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) is a promising conventional gasoline substitute, because vehicle engines require no modifications to run on E10 and vehicle warranties are unaffected. This paper presented life cycle assessments (LCAs) of energy efficiency of wheat-based E10 from central China, corn-based E10 from northeast China, and cassava-based E10 from southwest China. The respective energy flow-based evaluation model of wheat-, corn-, and cassava-based E10 was built based on data from pilot BFE plants. Monte Carlo method is applied to deal with the uncertain parameters and input and output variables of the evaluation model because of its wide application and easy development of statistical dispersion of calculated quantities. According to the assessment results, the average energy input/output ratio of wheat-based fuel ethanol (WFE), corn-based fuel ethanol (CFE), and cassava-based fuel ethanol (KFE) is 0.70, 0.75, and 0.54, respectively, and biomass-based E10 vehicle can have less fossil energy demand than gasoline-fueled ones.

  6. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  7. Modeling mechanical energy storage in springs based on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modeling study of the potential for storing energy in the elastic deformation of springs comprised of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. Analytic models were generated to estimate the ideal achievable energy density in CNTs subject to axial tension, compression, bending and torsion, taking into account limiting mechanisms such as the strength of individual CNTs, the onset of buckling, and the packing density limitations of CNT groupings. The stored energy density in CNT springs is predicted to be highest under tensile loading, with maximum values more than three orders of magnitude greater than the energy density of steel springs, and approximately eight times greater than the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. Densely packed bundles of precisely aligned, small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes are identified as the best structure for high performance springs. The conceptual design and modeling of a portable electric power source that stores energy in a CNT spring are presented as tools for studying the potential performance of a system for generating electricity from the CNTs' stored mechanical energy.

  8. Efficiency Mode of Energy Management based on Optimal Flight Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-xiao

    2016-07-01

    One new method of searching the optimal flight path in target function is put forward, which is applied to energy section for reentry flight vehicle, and the optimal flight path in which the energy is managed to decline rapidly, is settled by this design. The research for energy management is meaningful for engineering, it can also improve the applicability and flexibility for vehicle. The angle-of-attack and the bank angle are used to regulate energy and range at unpowered reentry flight as control variables. Firstly, the angle-of-attack section for minimum lift-to-drag ratio is ensured by the relation of range and lift-to-drag ratio. Secondly, build the secure boundary for flight corridor by restrictions in flight. Thirdly, the D-e section is optimized for energy expending in corridor by the influencing rule of the D-e section and range. Finally, compare this design method with the traditional Pseudo-spectral method. Moreover, energy-managing is achieved by cooperating lateral motion, and the optimized D-e section is tracked to prove the practicability of programming flight path with energy management.

  9. Net energy balance of molasses based ethanol. The case of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates life cycle energy analysis of molasses based ethanol (MOE) in Nepal. Net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and energy yield ratio are used to evaluate the energy balance of MOE in Nepal. Total energy requirements in sugarcane farming, cane milling and ethanol conversion processes are estimated and energy allocation is made between co-products (molasses and sugar) as per their market prices. The result shows negative NEV (-13.05 MJ/L), positive NREV (18.36 MJ/L) and energy yield ratio (7.47). The higher positive value of NREV and energy yield ratio reveal that a low amount of fossil fuels are required to produce 1 L of MOE. However, negative NEV reveals that the total energy consumption (both fossil and renewables) to produce the ethanol is higher than its final energy content. Nevertheless, the renewable energy contribution amounts to 91.7% of total energy requirements. The effect of the increased price of molasses and reduced energy consumption in the sugarcane milling and ethanol conversion are found to be significant in determining the energy values and yield ratio of MOE. In addition, there are clear measures that can be taken to improve efficiency along the production chain. Finally, energy security, scarcity of hard currency for importing fossil fuels and opportunities for regional development are also strong reasons for considering local renewable energy options in developing countries. (author)

  10. Net energy balance of molasses based ethanol. The case of Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatiwada, Dilip [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Nepal Bureau of Standards and Metrology (NBSM), Ministry of Industry, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu (Nepal); Silveira, Semida [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    This paper evaluates life cycle energy analysis of molasses based ethanol (MOE) in Nepal. Net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and energy yield ratio are used to evaluate the energy balance of MOE in Nepal. Total energy requirements in sugarcane farming, cane milling and ethanol conversion processes are estimated and energy allocation is made between co-products (molasses and sugar) as per their market prices. The result shows negative NEV (-13.05 MJ/L), positive NREV (18.36 MJ/L) and energy yield ratio (7.47). The higher positive value of NREV and energy yield ratio reveal that a low amount of fossil fuels are required to produce 1 L of MOE. However, negative NEV reveals that the total energy consumption (both fossil and renewables) to produce the ethanol is higher than its final energy content. Nevertheless, the renewable energy contribution amounts to 91.7% of total energy requirements. The effect of the increased price of molasses and reduced energy consumption in the sugarcane milling and ethanol conversion are found to be significant in determining the energy values and yield ratio of MOE. In addition, there are clear measures that can be taken to improve efficiency along the production chain. Finally, energy security, scarcity of hard currency for importing fossil fuels and opportunities for regional development are also strong reasons for considering local renewable energy options in developing countries. (author)

  11. A Monte Carlo simulation study of the effect of energy windows in computed tomography images based on an energy-resolved photon counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-08-01

    The energy-resolved photon counting detector provides the spectral information that can be used to generate images. The novel imaging methods, including the K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging, are based on the energy-resolved photon counting detector and can be realized by using various energy windows or energy bins. The location and width of the energy windows or energy bins are important because these techniques generate an image using the spectral information defined by the energy windows or energy bins. In this study, the reconstructed images acquired with K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of energy windows or energy bins was investigated with respect to the contrast, coefficient-of-variation (COV) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The three images were compared with respect to the CNR. We modeled the x-ray computed tomography system based on the CdTe energy-resolved photon counting detector and polymethylmethacrylate phantom, which have iodine, gadolinium and blood. To acquire K-edge images, the lower energy thresholds were fixed at K-edge absorption energy of iodine and gadolinium and the energy window widths were increased from 1 to 25 bins. The energy weighting factors optimized for iodine, gadolinium and blood were calculated from 5, 10, 15, 19 and 33 energy bins. We assigned the calculated energy weighting factors to the images acquired at each energy bin. In K-edge images, the contrast and COV decreased, when the energy window width was increased. The CNR increased as a function of the energy window width and decreased above the specific energy window width. When the number of energy bins was increased from 5 to 15, the contrast increased in the projection-based energy weighting images. There is a little difference in the contrast, when the number of energy bin is

  12. Towards constraint-based aggregation of energy flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto;

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of energy flexibilities enables individual producers and/or consumers with small loads to directly participate in the emerging energy markets. On the other hand, aggregation of such flexibilities might also create problems to the operation of the electrical grid. In this paper, we...... present the problem of aggregating energy flexibilities taking into account grid capacity limitations and introduce a heuristic aggregation technique. We show through an experimental setup that our proposed technique, compared to a baseline approach, not only leads to a valid unit commitment result...... that respects the grid constraint, but it also improves the quality of the result....

  13. Sustainable energy systems: limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  14. A novel energy mapping approach for CT-based attenuation correction in PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teimourian, B.; Ay, M. R.; Zafarghandi, M. Shamsaie; Ghafarian, P.; Ghadiri, H.; Zaidi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is arguably the most accurate energy mapping technique in CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) implemented on hybrid PET/CT systems. However, this approach is not attractive for clinical use owing to increased patient dose. The authors propose a novel energy mapping

  15. Carbon nanotube macrofilm-based nanocomposite electrodes for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zeyuan

    Finding new electrode materials for energy conversion and storage devices have been the focus of recent research in the fields of science and engineering. Suffering from poor electronic conductivity, chemical and mechanical stability, active electrode materials are usually coupled with different carbon nanostructured materials to form nanocomposite electrodes, showing promising electrochemical performance. Among the carbon nanostructured materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) macrofilms draw great attention owing to their extraordinary properties, such as a large specific surface area, exceptionally high conductivity, porous structure, flexibility, mechanical robustness, and adhesion. They could effectively enhance the electrochemical performance of the incorporated active materials in the nanocomposites. In this dissertation, CNT macrofilm-based nanocomposites are investigated for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and electrocatalysts of fuel cells. The progressive research developed various nanocomposites from cathode materials to anode materials followed by a general nanocomposite solution due to the unique adhesive property of the fragmented CNT macrofilms. The in-situ synthesis strategy are explored to in-situ deposit unlithiated cathode materials V2O5 and lithiated cathode materials LiMn2O4 nanocrystals in the matrix of the CNT macrofilms as nanocomposites to be paired with metallic lithium in half cells. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the CNT macrofilms after purification can enhance the association with the active materials to enable the facilitated transport of solvated ions to the electrolyte/electrode interfaces and increase the diffusion kinetics, consequently enhancing the battery performance in terms of high specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. It is also significant to demonstrate a reliable, low-cost, and effective route to synthesize the family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co

  16. Carbon nanotube macrofilm-based nanocomposite electrodes for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zeyuan

    Finding new electrode materials for energy conversion and storage devices have been the focus of recent research in the fields of science and engineering. Suffering from poor electronic conductivity, chemical and mechanical stability, active electrode materials are usually coupled with different carbon nanostructured materials to form nanocomposite electrodes, showing promising electrochemical performance. Among the carbon nanostructured materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) macrofilms draw great attention owing to their extraordinary properties, such as a large specific surface area, exceptionally high conductivity, porous structure, flexibility, mechanical robustness, and adhesion. They could effectively enhance the electrochemical performance of the incorporated active materials in the nanocomposites. In this dissertation, CNT macrofilm-based nanocomposites are investigated for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and electrocatalysts of fuel cells. The progressive research developed various nanocomposites from cathode materials to anode materials followed by a general nanocomposite solution due to the unique adhesive property of the fragmented CNT macrofilms. The in-situ synthesis strategy are explored to in-situ deposit unlithiated cathode materials V2O5 and lithiated cathode materials LiMn2O4 nanocrystals in the matrix of the CNT macrofilms as nanocomposites to be paired with metallic lithium in half cells. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the CNT macrofilms after purification can enhance the association with the active materials to enable the facilitated transport of solvated ions to the electrolyte/electrode interfaces and increase the diffusion kinetics, consequently enhancing the battery performance in terms of high specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. It is also significant to demonstrate a reliable, low-cost, and effective route to synthesize the family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co

  17. Base force element method of complementary energy principle for large rotation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yijiang Peng; Yinghua Liu

    2009-01-01

    Using the concept of the base forces, a new finite element method (base force element method, BFEM) based on the complementary energy principle is presented for accurate modeling of structures with large displacements and large rotations. First, the complementary energy of an element is described by taking the base forces as state variables, and is then separated into deformation and rotation parts for the case of large deformation. Second, the control equations of the BFEM based on the complementary energy principle are derived using the Lagrange multiplier method. Nonlinear procedure of the BFEM is then developed. Finally, several examples are analyzed to illustrate the reliability and accuracy of the BFEM.

  18. Teaching a Model-based Climatology Using Energy Balance Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, David

    1981-01-01

    After outlining the difficulties of teaching climatology within an undergraduate geography curriculum, the author describes and evaluates the use of a computer assisted simulation to model surface energy balance and the effects of land use changes on local climate. (AM)

  19. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  20. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  1. Nanosynthesis of Iron Based Material for Green Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeminde, Alec W.

    In this work, nanosynthesis of multiple iron-based materials are explored to further their use in green renewable-energy applications. First, the nanosynthesis of the abundant, non-toxic semi-conductor Iron Disulfide (Iron Pyrite, Fool's Gold, FeS2) is investigated. Within these studies, it became possible to tune the shape of the FeS2 nanoparticles easily by modifying injection temperatures and iron precursors. From here, the growth mechanisms of the different shapes were elucidated by examining different time points within the synthesis. It was discovered that the FeS2 did not grow by Ostwald Ripening, but instead by Oriented Attachment. Knowing this, it was possible to not only further the shapes of FeS2 nanoparticles, but also manipulate the size and crystallinity. Focus was then shifted to creating larger micron sized FeS2 crystals. Larger crystals where achieved by a unique FeS nanowire precursor followed by sulfurization. The dominant crystal surface of these crystals could be regulated simply by the time and temperature of the sulfurization. Second, synthetic control of magnetic nanoparticles was examined. A novel synthesis of Iron Palladium (FePd) made possible by interdiffusion of iron into palladium nanocores was identified. Furthermore, a shell of Iron oxide (Fe2O3) could facilely be grown on the FePd nanoparticles, generating a FePd/Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticle. These FePd/Fe2O3 core/shell particles provided an excellent foundation to create an L10- FePd/α-Fe exchange-coupled nanocomposite that exhibited improved magnetic properties compared to its single phase FePd counterpart. However, the stabilizing ligand used within this FePd synthesis doped into the final nanoparticles, degraded the magnetic properties. iii To overcome the dopant ligand problem, a novel nanoalloy synthetic strategy of Metal Redox was developed. The Metal Redox strategy utilized the inherent reducing power of zero-valent metal sources to create a vast sampling of metal

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC BASES OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lisjutchenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian agricultural production at current stage is very energy intensive. At the cost of agricultural production overall cost of energy resources is growing: in 2000 was 36.5 billion rubles, 2008 - 92 billion rubles, 2009 - 110.6 billion rubles, and in 2010 rose to 119.8 billion rubles, or increased by 3.3 times. The analysis of consumption of the main energy sources for the period from 1990 to 2010 showed a decrease in general and the specific consumption of diesel fuel, gasoline and electricity by 5-7 times. Reducing energy consumption is explained as a forced saving resources because of lack of funds for the acquisition and implementation of agricultural enterprises of energy and resource saving measures (resource-saving technologies in the production process, motor fuel, biofuels and alternative energy sources. To solve this problem State and business in a matter of priority should be to build an effective system of innovation development for agriculture, promote the participation of agricultural science and education system in this process, modernize the domestic agricultural machinery, engineering and technology infrastructure.

  3. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplanis, S., E-mail: kaplanis@teipat.gr; Kaplani, E. [R.E.S. Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece M. Alexandrou 1, Koukouli 26 334, Patra (Greece)

    2015-12-31

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine.

  4. Solar Energy Campaign. 2008 Norwegian student-based web campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Scott

    2009-07-01

    Student research campaigns (forskningskampanjer) have been an annual event in connection to Research Days (Forskningsdagene) since 2003 in Norway. The campaigns invite students from all over the country to participate in a common scientific research event, always connected to a special environmentally related theme - for example Air Quality in the Classroom (2003), Pollution along Roads (2004), Bacteria in Drinking Water (2005), and The Rain Check (2006). The year 2008, as with previous years, was overshadowed by the topic of climate change, and the specific role of humans. The research campaign theme for 2008 fit well into this focus: the potential benefits of solar energy as an alternative energy source. The campaign also was aligned with the Research Days theme of alternative energy sources and technologies. The campaign included the hands-on activity of assembling a solar panel and taking measurements with the device to determine efficiency, as well as a questionnaire to record the results and ask deeper questions regarding alternative energy and climate change. The results gained from data analysis of the campaign show that students were able to gain maximum efficient solar power from the devices they constructed, which gave them a solid understanding of solar power technology. Analysis of the campaign questionnaire in regards to the activity shows that students believe that solar energy should be better utilized as an energy source in Norway. (Also in Norwegian OR 24/2009). (Author)

  5. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine

  6. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine.

  7. A local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiguo; Feng, Li; Jia, Lili; Gu, Xin; Yu, Dongxiao

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes' energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol), the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime. PMID:25479330

  8. A Local Energy Consumption Prediction-Based Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguo Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a fundamental and effective technique for utilizing sensor nodes’ energy and extending the network lifetime for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering protocol, LECP-CP (local energy consumption prediction-based clustering protocol, the core of which includes a novel cluster head election algorithm and an inter-cluster communication routing tree construction algorithm, both based on the predicted local energy consumption ratio of nodes. We also provide a more accurate and realistic cluster radius to minimize the energy consumption of the entire network. The global energy consumption can be optimized by the optimization of the local energy consumption, and the energy consumption among nodes can be balanced well. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that LECP-CP has high efficiency of energy utilization, good scalability and significant improvement in the network lifetime.

  9. Economic, energy and environmental evaluations of biomass-based fuel ethanol projects based on life cycle assessment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the research of Monte Carlo simulation-based Economic, Energy and Environmental (3E) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the three Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol (BFE) projects in China. Our research includes both theoretical study and case study. In the theoretical study part, 3E LCA models are structured, 3E Index Functions are defined and the Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to address uncertainties in BFE life cycle analysis. In the case study part, projects of Wheat-based Fuel Ethanol (WFE) in Central China, Corn-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Northeast China, and Cassava-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Southwest China are evaluated from the aspects of economic viability and investment risks, energy efficiency and airborne emissions. The life cycle economy assessment shows that KFE project in Guangxi is viable, while CFE and WFE projects are not without government's subsidies. Energy efficiency assessment results show that WFE, CFE and KFE projects all have positive Net Energy Values. Emissions results show that the corn-based E10 (a blend of 10% gasoline and 90% ethanol by volume), wheat-based E10 and cassava-base E10 have less CO2 and VOC life cycle emissions than conventional gasoline, but wheat-based E10 and cassava-based E10 can generate more emissions of CO, CH4, N2O, NOx, SO2, PM10 and corn-based E10 can has more emissions of CH4, N2O, NOx, SO, PM10.

  10. Cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED).

  11. Energy analysis of the cryogenic CO2 capture process based on Stirling coolers

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chunfeng; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Shuhong

    2014-01-01

    In the existing coal-fired power plants, the energy penalty associated with CO2 capture process is an important challenge. For this reason, energy analysis has been widely used as a powerful tool to optimize the capture efficiency and reduce energy consumption. In our previous work, a Stirling cooler based cryogenic CO2 capture system was outlined. Process simulation and energy analysis of the system were undertaken in this research. The whole CO2 capture process is composed of three sections...

  12. TBEE: Tier Based Energy Efficient Protocol Providing Sink and Source Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Siddhartha Chauhan; Lalit Awasthi

    2011-01-01

    In resource constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) it is important to utilize energy efficiently. Data dissemination is mainly responsible for the consumption of energy in sensor nodes (SNs). The data dissemination protocols for WSNs should reduce the energy consumption of the SNs. Sink and source mobility is the major challenge for data dissemination protocols. In this paper, a Tier based Energy Efficient protocol (TBEE) providing sink and source mobility in WSNs has been proposed. TBEE...

  13. Fuzzy-Logic-Based Energy Optimized Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Haifeng Jiang; Yanjing Sun; Renke Sun; Hongli Xu

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor nodes are usually powered by batteries and deployed in unmanned outdoors or dangerous regions. So, constrained energy is a prominent feature for wireless sensor networks. Since the radio transceiver typically consumes more energies than any other hardware component on a sensor node, it is of great importance to design energy optimized routing algorithm to prolong network lifetime. In this work, based on analysis of energy consumption for data transceiver, single-hop forwarding...

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENT HIERARCHICAL CLUSTER-BASED ROUTING FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Shideh Sadat Shirazi; Aboulfazl Torqi Haqiqat

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient routing algorithm based on hierarchical clustering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs).This algorithm decreases the energy consumption of nodes and helps to increase the lifetime of sensor networks. To achieve this goal, this research network is divided into 4segments that lead to uniform energy consumption among sensor nodes. We also propose a multi-step clustering method to send and receive data from nodes to the base station. The s...

  15. An Energy Consumption Optimized Clustering Algorithm for Radar Sensor Networks Based on an Ant Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Jiang; Wei Zang; Chenglin Zhao; Jiong Shi

    2010-01-01

    We optimize the cluster structure to solve problems such as the uneven energy consumption of the radar sensor nodes and random cluster head selection in the traditional clustering routing algorithm. According to the defined cost function for clusters, we present the clustering algorithm which is based on radio-free space path loss. In addition, we propose the energy and distance pheromones based on the residual energy and aggregation of the radar sensor nodes. According to bionic heuristic a...

  16. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based rout- ing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more equitable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effective- ness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  17. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  18. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs—An empirical analysis based on energy audit data from Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper empirically investigates factors driving the adoption of energy-efficiency measures by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Our analyses are based on cross-sectional data from SMEs which participated in a German energy audit program between 2008 and 2010. In general, our findings appear robust to alternative model specifications and are consistent with the theoretical and still scarce empirical literature on barriers to energy-efficiency in SMEs. More specifically, high investment costs, which are captured by subjective and objective proxies, appear to impede the adoption of energy-efficiency measures, even if these measures are deemed profitable. Similarly, we find that lack of capital slows the adoption of energy-efficiency measures, primarily for larger investments. Hence, investment subsidies or soft loans (for larger investments) may help accelerating the diffusion of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs. Other barriers were not found to be statistically significant. Finally, our findings provide evidence that the quality of energy audits affects the adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Hence, effective regulation should involve quality standards for energy audits, templates for audit reports or mandatory monitoring of energy audits. - Highlights: ► We empirically analyze barriers to the adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs. ► We focus on firms participating in the German energy audit program for SMEs. ► The program overcomes information related barriers. ► High investment costs still impede the adoption even for profitable measures. ► Low audit quality also impedes the adoption of profitable measures.

  19. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.R.

    1979-04-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Alaska including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, base and development status, institutional factors, economics, population and market, and development potential. (MHR)

  20. The network-based energy management system for convenience stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, An-Ping; Hsu, Pau-Lo [Department of Electrical and Control Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsiue Road, Hsinchu City 310 (China)

    2008-07-01

    Convenience stores generally consume energy higher than other retailing merchants. As the problem of energy shortage becomes more serious during summer, almost all convenience stores sign a contract with power plants, which provides for fines if demand limiting occurs in Taiwan and many other countries. Therefore, a reliable and effective method to reduce their utility consumption is required for modern business and industry. This research integrates the remote sensors, the control network, and the embedded system technologies to construct a distributed energy management control system for dedicated convenience stores. Energy consumption can thus be reasonably managed with demand limits by measuring and analyzing the power consumption sources in four major subsystems of convenience stores, namely, (1) air-conditioning, (2) lighting, (3) heating, and (4) refrigeration. By applying the proposed demand prediction and control method, the demand limiting condition can be properly predicted, and the possible peak load can thus be eliminated via the network control mechanism. Moreover, by integrating the LonWork fieldbus and the WinCE operating system (OS), the proposed system has been successfully applied to a convenience store. The experimental results indicate that the proposed distributed energy management system suitably predicts the peak loading condition and successfully prevents its occurrence by switching the air-conditioning system without affecting the indoor temperature regulation. (author)

  1. Community-based assessment and planning of energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Decentralized Solar Energy Technology Assessment Program (DSETAP) is discussed. In this program four communities were involved in an assessment of the compatibility of diverse conservation and renewable energy-supply technologies and community values and goals and in community planning for the implementation of compatible energy demand and supply alternatives. The approach taken by these communities has several basic components, including: (1) recruiting and organizing for the assessment planning process; (2) collection and analysis of data related to community energy use and indigenous renewable-energy resources; (3) creation and maintenance of a community education and information program; (4) development of policies favorable to the development of preferred community futures; and (5) development of implementation or action strategies. How these components were carried out by the four communities in the DSETAP is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to a number of important issues which were raised during the course of the DSETAP, including the role of public participation, group decision-making techniques, the role of technical information in citizen and group decision-making, and linkages between assessment planning and the relevant policy process.

  2. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  3. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  4. Possibilities and implications of an energy supply based on renewable energy resources; Moeglichkeiten und Implikationen der Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Till; Haerdtlein, Marlies; Kruck, Christoph; Eltrop, Ludger [Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The use of renewable energy by municipalities has grown dynamically over the past years, with heat and electricity being delivered to single buildings, large residential units or entire housing or industrial estates. Renewable energy resources play an important role in the achievement of climate protection goals, development of local and regional value creation potential and increasing security of supply. Using the Scharnhauser Park as an example and based on model calculations the present article examines possibilities of using renewable energy and their implications for a new housing estate.

  5. The energy ratio mapping algorithm: a tool to improve the energy-based detection of odontocete echolocation clicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Holger; Mellinger, David K

    2011-04-01

    The energy ratio mapping algorithm (ERMA) was developed to improve the performance of energy-based detection of odontocete echolocation clicks, especially for application in environments with limited computational power and energy such as acoustic gliders. ERMA systematically evaluates many frequency bands for energy ratio-based detection of echolocation clicks produced by a target species in the presence of the species mix in a given geographic area. To evaluate the performance of ERMA, a Teager-Kaiser energy operator was applied to the series of energy ratios as derived by ERMA. A noise-adaptive threshold was then applied to the Teager-Kaiser function to identify clicks in data sets. The method was tested for detecting clicks of Blainville's beaked whales while rejecting echolocation clicks of Risso's dolphins and pilot whales. Results showed that the ERMA-based detector correctly identified 81.6% of the beaked whale clicks in an extended evaluation data set. Average false-positive detection rate was 6.3% (3.4% for Risso's dolphins and 2.9% for pilot whales). PMID:21476637

  6. Opportunities and barriers for a crop-based energy sector in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupfel, Ellen Joanne

    This study investigates the existing opportunities and barriers for expanding the crop-based energy sector in Ontario. The investigation takes place at a time when growing concerns about sustainability---environmental, social, and economic---are encouraging the exploration of alternatives to energy systems based on fossil fuels, and concerns around the future viability of rural communities are making agriculturally-based and rural-based energy production systems attractive to many. To explore opportunities and barriers for the crop-based energy sector, this thesis addresses the question: What is the political-economic context within which the crop-based energy sector operates in Ontario? Taking an institutional approach, the study involved 26 interviews with individuals whose organizations influence Ontario's crop-based energy sector (that includes the biofuels ethanol and biodiesel), developed a model outlining relationships between the crop-based energy sector and other sectors of the economy, as well as the state, and implemented a survey of Ontario Members of Provincial Parliament's perspectives on biofuels. This research examines the balance of power of knowledge, production, security, finance, and technology for Ontario's crop-based energy sector. The overall balance of power currently rests with the petroleum sector. Through force field analysis, the study also identifies the key opportunities and barriers for the growth and development of the biofuels sector. These opportunities include climate change and rural development agendas, and the barriers include the petroleum sector, cost of production, and some sectors of the state. A few overarching conclusions emerge from this research: (1) Change in Ontario's crop-based energy sector is driven foremost by political and economic forces; (2) Climate change is the most significant driving force for the development and expansion of Ontario's crop-based energy sector; (3) Production cost and resistance from the

  7. GA -based energy management optimization for grid-connected photovoltaic system without battery storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization of energy management for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems without battery storage. The major objective of this work is to minimize energy cost by maximizing objective function of GA considering both energy consumption and generation. In objective function calculation, PV module output power obtained by model of PV modules and previous power recordings from the PV system were employed. In the system, some electrical appliances and lights are in the energy consumption side and photovoltaic energy source connected to the grid is in the energy generation side. A simulation study was implemented to obtain energy cost savings using GA optimization in a commercial building. Due to the cost of the batteries, PV system is implemented without battery storage. Therefore, by adapting fluctuating PV energy generation with the time -flexible loads , an effort was aimed to develop a smart -grid strategy. Key words: energy management , PV system, genetic algorithms, optimization, load scheduling

  8. Energy Efficiency: An Experiential-Based Energy Unit for Youth Ages 13-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Myken D.; Webster, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Not all 16 year olds can buy hybrid cars to help save gas emissions, but they can learn new, easy ways to save energy. Youth are more likely to develop a greater sense of positive impact on the environment if they learn easy and creative ways to use energy more efficiently at a young age. Through the use of practical applications, youth can begin…

  9. Advanced material separation technique based on dual energy CT scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyatin, Alexander A.; Natarajan, Anusha; Zou, Yu

    2009-02-01

    We propose a method for material separation using dual energy data. Our method is suitable to separation of three or more materials. In this work we describe our method and show results of numerical simulation and with real dual-energy data of a head phantom. The proposed method of constructing the material separation map consists of the following steps: Data-domain dual energy decomposition - Vector plot - Density plot - Clustering - Color assignment. Density plots are introduced to allow automatic cluster separation. We use special image processing methods, including Gaussian decomposition, to improve the accuracy of material separation. We also propose using the HSL color model for better visualization and to bring a new dimension in material separation display. We study applications of bone removal and virtual contrast removal. Evaluation shows improved accuracy compared to standard methods.

  10. The quantum mechanics based on a general kinetic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Schrodinger equation with a general kinetic energy operator. The conservation law is proved and the probability continuity equation is deducted in a general sense. Examples with a Hermitian kinetic energy operator include the standard Schrodinger equation, the relativistic Schrodinger equation, the fractional Schrodinger equation, the Dirac equation, and the deformed Schrodinger equation. We reveal that the Klein-Gordon equation has a hidden non-Hermitian kinetic energy operator. The probability continuity equation with sources indicates that there exists a different way of probability transportation, which is probability teleportation. An average formula is deducted from the relativistic Schrodinger equation, the Dirac equation, and the K-G equation.

  11. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  12. Thermal energy storage. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-09-01

    The cited reports of federally-funded research concern thermal energy storage. The citations cover the design of equipment, performance evaluation, theory, materials used, and experimental design. This updated bibliography contains 240 citations, 128 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  13. Sustainable energy systems: limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This th

  14. Prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive demand side energy optimization in cyber physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Wang, Xue; Wu, Jiangwei; Liu, Youda

    2014-05-01

    Cyber physical systems(CPS) recently emerge as a new technology which can provide promising approaches to demand side management(DSM), an important capability in industrial power systems. Meanwhile, the manufacturing center is a typical industrial power subsystem with dozens of high energy consumption devices which have complex physical dynamics. DSM, integrated with CPS, is an effective methodology for solving energy optimization problems in manufacturing center. This paper presents a prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive energy optimization method for demand side management in cyber physical systems. To gain prior knowledge of DSM operating results, a sparse Bayesian learning based componential forecasting method is introduced to predict 24-hour electric load levels for specific industrial areas in China. From this data, a pricing strategy is designed based on short-term load forecasting results. To minimize total energy costs while guaranteeing manufacturing center service quality, an adaptive demand side energy optimization algorithm is presented. The proposed scheme is tested in a machining center energy optimization experiment. An AMI sensing system is then used to measure the demand side energy consumption of the manufacturing center. Based on the data collected from the sensing system, the load prediction-based energy optimization scheme is implemented. By employing both the PSO and the CPSO method, the problem of DSM in the manufacturing center is solved. The results of the experiment show the self-adaptive CPSO energy optimization method enhances optimization by 5% compared with the traditional PSO optimization method.

  15. Profiting from negawatts: Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Schottenfeldg. 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: julia.steinberger@uni-klu.ac.at; Niel, Johan van [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); CREIDD, University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Bourg, Dominique [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required.

  16. Profiting from negawatts. Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Schottenfeldg. 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria); van Niel, Johan [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); CREIDD, University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Bourg, Dominique [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required. (author)

  17. Increase the Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector by Implementing the Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Letitia-Maria Rof; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the increasing performances as result of implementation stages of the ActivityBased Costing in the companies operating in the energy sector in Romania. There are presented some aspects of the usefulness of applying the Activity-Based Costing in the energy sector and the advantages it offers compared to traditional costing. There are also outlined the steps for applying the Activity-Based Costing and its implementation in the largest hydropower producer in Romania. The ...

  18. Associations - Communities - Residents. Building together a citizen-based project of renewable energies - Methodological guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide first outlines the challenges and stakes of citizen-based renewable energies: example of a necessary energy transition in Brittany, interest of a local production of renewable energies, examples in other European countries, and emergence of a citizen-based energy movement in France. The second part presents the four main phases of such a project (diagnosis, development, construction, and exploitation), the main issues to be addressed, and the main steps of a citizen-based renewable energy project (technical, legal and financial, and citizen-related aspects during the different phases). The third part describes how to elaborate a citizen-based project: by addressing the project dimensions, by defining a legal specification, by performing a provisional business model, by choosing an appropriate legal structure, by creating a project company, and by mobilizing local actors). The last part addresses how to finance the project: by building up own funds, by asking banks for support, and by citizen participation to investment

  19. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-22

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  20. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  1. Energy Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenn Toft, Jakob; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based accelerators are very suitable to implement application-specific processors using uncommon operations or number systems. In this work, we design FPGA-based accelerators for two financial computations with different characteristics and we compare the ac...

  2. Forward modeling to improve seismic reflection energy of a protective coal seam based on Zoeppritz equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Wen-peng; DONG Shou-hua; LI Yang

    2008-01-01

    In seismic exploration for coal, seismic waves are very difficult to transmit downward because of high velocity protec-tive layers, making the reflection information very hard to receive above ground. Based on the Snell law and the Zoeppritz equation, we studied the relationship between the incidence angle and reflection seismic wave energy using a forward model of level media. The result shows that the seismic wave energy has a sudden increase at the critical angle. Based on the energy propagation rule, using big offset to receive the seismic wave energy under a protective layer can effectively reduce its protection effect.

  3. Optimal ''image-based'' weighting for energy-resolved CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates a method of reconstructing images from energy-resolved CT data with negligible beam-hardening artifacts and improved contrast-to-nosie ratio (CNR) compared to conventional energy-weighting methods. Conceptually, the investigated method first reconstructs separate images from each energy bin. The final image is a linear combination of the energy-bin images, with the weights chosen to maximize the CNR in the final image. The optimal weight of a particular energy-bin image is derived to be proportional to the contrast-to-noise-variance ratio in that image. The investigated weighting method is referred to as ''image-based'' weighting, although, as will be described, the weights can be calculated and the energy-bin data combined prior to reconstruction. The performance of optimal image-based energy weighting with respect to CNR and beam-hardening artifacts was investigated through simulations and compared to that of energy integrating, photon counting, and previously studied optimal ''projection-based'' energy weighting. Two acquisitions were simulated: dedicated breast CT and a conventional thorax scan. The energy-resolving detector was simulated with five energy bins. Four methods of estimating the optimal weights were investigated, including task-specific and task-independent methods and methods that require a single reconstruction versus multiple reconstructions. Results demonstrated that optimal image-based weighting improved the CNR compared to energy-integrating weighting by factors of 1.15-1.6 depending on the task. Compared to photon-counting weighting, the CNR improvement ranged from 1.0 to 1.3. The CNR improvement factors were comparable to those of projection-based optimal energy weighting. The beam-hardening cupping artifact increased from 5.2% for energy-integrating weighting to 12.8% for optimal projection-based weighting, while optimal image-based weighting reduced the cupping to 0

  4. Optimization of energy systems based on Evolutionary and Social metaphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Frangopoulos, Christos A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 157 73 Zografou (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Optimization problems that arise in energy systems design often have several features that hinder the use of many optimization techniques. These optimization problems have non-continuous mixed variable definition domains, are heavily constrained, are multimodal (i.e. have many local optima) and, foremost, the functions used to define the engineering optimization problem are often computationally intensive. Three methods are tested here: (a) a Struggle Genetic Algorithm (StrGA), (b) a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA), and (c) a PSOA with Struggle Selection (PSOStr). The last is a hybrid of the evolutionary StrGA and the socially inspired PSOA. They are tested in four purely mathematical and three energy systems thermoeconomic optimization problems. All of the methods solved successfully all the problems. The PSOStr, however, outperformed the other methods in terms of both solution accuracy and computational cost (i.e. function evaluations). (author)

  5. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study 'Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems' are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  6. Coordinating energy allocation and process performance using an agent-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umair, Aisha; Clausen, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    arises when the energy resources demanded by the process domain are either lesser or greater than the resources allocated in the energy domain. This situation may lead to suboptimal process performance and inefficient usage of energy. Solving this allocation problem requires a coordination and control...... mechanism that can balance allocation and demand. In this paper, we propose a novel agent-based software system for solving cooperative control problems. The system produces a Pareto-optimal energy allocation for the process domain while striving to achieve a group objective for balancing the individual......Energy efficient systems are receiving worldwide attention in response to the negative effects of global warming. Energy efficient systems are concerned with allocation of adequate resources in the energy domain to meet the energy demand in the process domain. In allocation, a balancing problem...

  7. ENERGY AWARE NETWORK: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS BASED DECISION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari; Murthy, Hema A.

    2011-01-01

    A Network Management System (NMS) plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to ...

  8. Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme For Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Sohini

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has emerged as an important supplement to the modern wireless communication systems due to its wide range of applications. The recent researches are facing the various challenges of the sensor network more gracefully. However, energy efficiency has still remained a matter of concern for the researches. Meeting the countless security needs, timely data delivery and taking a quick action, efficient route selection and multi-path routing etc. can only be achieved at...

  9. Energy Sector Experience of Output-Based Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development goals (SDGs) placed access to basic services at the center of international development in 2016-2030. Out of 17 goals, five address the access of poor people to basic services: to health in SDG3, to education in SDG4, and SDG5, to water and sanitation in SDG6, to energy in SDG7, and to urban services in SDG11. The mutually reinforcing relationship between electricit...

  10. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER ...

  11. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago L. Romanelli; Marcos Milan; Rafael Cesar Tieppo

    2012-01-01

    Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environm...

  12. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)

  13. Laptop energy-saving opportunities based on user behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.E. Jr; Hung, D.L. [College of Engineering, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Wei, B.W.Y. [Academic Affairs Division, Chico State University, Kendall Hall 106, Chico, CA 95929 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    In order to improve the energy efficiency of laptop use and design, it is important to gain knowledge of how laptops are being used in real-world settings. However, the current workload studies have focused on computer-usage patterns of business users, but not those of consumer users. As part of the Green project at ABC University, a pilot study was undertaken to develop and test software tools and methods for monitoring the laptop computer usage of 13 college students for a period of 1 month. This paper describes such tools and methods for monitoring and collecting laptop usage data. It also illustrates how the collected data can be analyzed to obtain high-impact energy usage patterns, which include long idle periods, excessive use of the AC power source, and high backlight levels. These identified high-impact usage patterns, if confirmed by our subsequent study, offer valuable user behavioral insights to advance more energy-efficient laptop use and design.

  14. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar; G Rodrigues; U K Rao; C P Safvan; D Kanjilal; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion beams ranging from a few keV to a few MeV for research in materials sciences, atomic and molecular physics is described. One of the important features of this facility is the availability of relatively large currents of multiply charged positive ions from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source placed entirely on a high voltage platform. All the electronic and vacuum systems related to the ECR source including 10 GHz ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter, high voltage power supplies for extractor and Einzel lens are placed on a high voltage platform. All the equipments are controlled using a personal computer at ground potential through optical fibers for high voltage isolation. Some of the experimental facilities available are also described.

  15. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF ENERGY SYSTEM BASED ON COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Shiming; GU Peiliang

    2004-01-01

    Complex adaptive system (CAS) is a kind of complex system in natural and artificial systems. In this paper, the theory of complex adaptive system is introduced at first. Considering the characteristic of energy system, it can be regarded as a complex adaptive system. After the evolutionary law is analysed, the energy complex system model is established based on CAS and application tool SWARM, which is a simulation software platform. The model differs from the models as well as methods developed before. As an application, China's energy system is simulated with the model established above.China's future total energy demand in the future, energy structure and related in fiuence on environment are presented.

  16. Analysis of energy consumption in lowland rice-based cropping system of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chee Wan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient energy is needed in the right form and at the right time for adequate crop production. One way to optimize energy consumption in agriculture is to determine the efficiency of methods and techniques used. With the current increase in world population, energy consumption needs effective planning. That is, the input elements need to be identified in order to prescribe the most efficient methods for controlling them. This study was undertaken in order to determine the direct and indirect energy consumption of field operations in a lowland rice production system of Malaysia. Field time, fuel and other energy requirements were measured for the tillage, planting, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting operations performed. Energy analysis carried out revealed the highest average operational energy consumption was for tillage (1747.33 MJ ha-1 which accounted for about 48.6% of the total operational energy consumption (3595.87 MJ ha-1, followed by harvesting (1171.44 MJ ha-1, 32.6% and planting (562.91 MJ ha-1, 15.7%. Fertilizing and pesticide spraying did not make any significant contributions to the operational energy consumption. Based on energy sources, fuel was the main consumer of direct energy with 2717.82 MJha-1 (22.2%, and fertilizer recording the highest indirect energy consumption of 7721.03 MJha-1 (63.2%. Human labour, pesticides, seeds and indirect energy for machinery use had marginal importance, contributing only 0.2%, 0.6%, 6.8% and 6.9%, respectively to the total energy consumption (12225.97 MJha-1. Average grain yield was 6470.8 kg ha-1, representing energy output of 108321.75 MJha-1, that is, 96095.78 MJ net energy gain or 8.86 MJ output per MJ input. Energy input per kilogram grain yield was 1.89 MJkg-1. The results of the study indicate energy gain in the lowland rice production system of Malaysia.

  17. Base pairing in RNA structures: A computational analysis of structural aspects and interaction energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purshotam Sharma; Abhijit Mitra; Sitansh Sharma; Harjinder Singh

    2007-09-01

    The base pairing patterns in RNA structures are more versatile and completely different as compared to DNA. We present here results of ab-initio studies of structures and interaction energies of eight selected RNA base pairs reported in literature. Interaction energies, including BSSE correction, of hydrogen added crystal geometries of base pairs have been calculated at the HF/6-31G∗∗ level. The structures and interaction energies of the base pairs in the crystal geometry are compared with those obtained after optimization of the base pairs. We find that the base pairs become more planar on full optimization. No change in the hydrogen bonding pattern is seen. It is expected that the inclusion of appropriate considerations of many of these aspects of RNA base pairing would significantly improve the accuracy of RNA secondary structure prediction.

  18. Advances in graphene-based semiconductor photocatalysts for solar energy conversion: fundamentals and materials engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-08-01

    Graphene-based semiconductor photocatalysis has been regarded as a promising technology for solar energy storage and conversion. In this review, we summarized recent developments of graphene-based photocatalysts, including preparation of graphene-based photocatalysts, typical key advances in the understanding of graphene functions for photocatalytic activity enhancement and methodologies to regulate the electron transfer efficiency in graphene-based composite photocatalysts, by which we hope to offer enriched information to harvest the utmost fascinating properties of graphene as a platform to construct efficient graphene-based composite photocatalysts for solar-to-energy conversion.

  19. An Extended Energy Consumption Analysis of Reputation-based Trust Management Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is one of the most important parameters for evaluation of a scheme proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs because of their resource constraint nature. Comprehensive comparative analysis of proposed reputation-based trust management schemes of WSNs from this perspective is currently not available in the literature. In this paper, we have presented a theoretical and simulation based energy consumption analysis and evaluation of three state-of-the-art reputation-based trust management schemes of WSNs. Results show that the GTMS scheme consume less energy as compared with the RFSN and PLUS schemes.

  20. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Idaho, including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, lease and development status, institutional factors, legal aspects, population and market, and development. (MHR)

  1. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  2. A Distance-Based Energy Aware Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency and balancing is one of the primary challenges for wireless sensor networks (WSNs since the tiny sensor nodes cannot be easily recharged once they are deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing algorithms or protocols have been proposed with techniques like clustering, data aggregation and location tracking etc. However, many of them aim to minimize parameters like total energy consumption, latency etc., which cause hotspot nodes and partitioned network due to the overuse of certain nodes. In this paper, a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing (DEAR algorithm is proposed to ensure energy efficiency and energy balancing based on theoretical analysis of different energy and traffic models. During the routing process, we consider individual distance as the primary parameter in order to adjust and equalize the energy consumption among involved sensors. The residual energy is also considered as a secondary factor. In this way, all the intermediate nodes will consume their energy at similar rate, which maximizes network lifetime. Simulation results show that the DEAR algorithm can reduce and balance the energy consumption for all sensor nodes so network lifetime is greatly prolonged compared to other routing algorithms.

  3. A Distance-based Energy Aware Routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Kim, Jeong-Uk; Shu, Lei; Niu, Yu; Lee, Sungyoung

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency and balancing is one of the primary challenges for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) since the tiny sensor nodes cannot be easily recharged once they are deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing algorithms or protocols have been proposed with techniques like clustering, data aggregation and location tracking etc. However, many of them aim to minimize parameters like total energy consumption, latency etc., which cause hotspot nodes and partitioned network due to the overuse of certain nodes. In this paper, a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing (DEAR) algorithm is proposed to ensure energy efficiency and energy balancing based on theoretical analysis of different energy and traffic models. During the routing process, we consider individual distance as the primary parameter in order to adjust and equalize the energy consumption among involved sensors. The residual energy is also considered as a secondary factor. In this way, all the intermediate nodes will consume their energy at similar rate, which maximizes network lifetime. Simulation results show that the DEAR algorithm can reduce and balance the energy consumption for all sensor nodes so network lifetime is greatly prolonged compared to other routing algorithms. PMID:22163422

  4. Multi-energy CT based on a prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao; Yu, Hengyong; Osher, Stanley; Wang, Ge

    2011-11-01

    We propose a compressive sensing approach for multi-energy computed tomography (CT), namely the prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM). To further compress the multi-energy image for allowing the reconstruction with fewer CT data and less radiation dose, the PRISM models a multi-energy image as the superposition of a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix (with row dimension in space and column dimension in energy), where the low-rank matrix corresponds to the stationary background over energy that has a low matrix rank, and the sparse matrix represents the rest of distinct spectral features that are often sparse. Distinct from previous methods, the PRISM utilizes the generalized rank, e.g., the matrix rank of tight-frame transform of a multi-energy image, which offers a way to characterize the multi-level and multi-filtered image coherence across the energy spectrum. Besides, the energy-dependent intensity information can be incorporated into the PRISM in terms of the spectral curves for base materials, with which the restoration of the multi-energy image becomes the reconstruction of the energy-independent material composition matrix. In other words, the PRISM utilizes prior knowledge on the generalized rank and sparsity of a multi-energy image, and intensity/spectral characteristics of base materials. Furthermore, we develop an accurate and fast split Bregman method for the PRISM and demonstrate the superior performance of the PRISM relative to several competing methods in simulations. PMID:22223929

  5. Multi-energy CT based on a prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a compressive sensing approach for multi-energy computed tomography (CT), namely the prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM). To further compress the multi-energy image for allowing the reconstruction with fewer CT data and less radiation dose, the PRISM models a multi-energy image as the superposition of a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix (with row dimension in space and column dimension in energy), where the low-rank matrix corresponds to the stationary background over energy that has a low matrix rank, and the sparse matrix represents the rest of distinct spectral features that are often sparse. Distinct from previous methods, the PRISM utilizes the generalized rank, e.g., the matrix rank of tight-frame transform of a multi-energy image, which offers a way to characterize the multi-level and multi-filtered image coherence across the energy spectrum. Besides, the energy-dependent intensity information can be incorporated into the PRISM in terms of the spectral curves for base materials, with which the restoration of the multi-energy image becomes the reconstruction of the energy-independent material composition matrix. In other words, the PRISM utilizes prior knowledge on the generalized rank and sparsity of a multi-energy image, and intensity/spectral characteristics of base materials. Furthermore, we develop an accurate and fast split Bregman method for the PRISM and demonstrate the superior performance of the PRISM relative to several competing methods in simulations. (papers)

  6. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn Remco

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is continuously discharged, a high current will cause it to provide less energy until the end of its lifetime than a lower current. This effect is termed the rate-capacity effect. On the other hand, duri...

  7. Design of Socket Based on Intelligent Control and Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Feng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart home is one of the main applications of internet of things, and it will realize the intellectualization of household. Smart socket is part of the smart home, which can be controlled remotely by power supplied, monitor utilization condition, communication network and other functions. This article mainly introduces the intelligent electrical outlet of each hardware modules; software part mainly analyzes the socket’s communication mechanism, and the electricity consumption of collected power statistics through diagrams to feedback through wireless communication. Things achieved in an environment of communication between the user and the smart power outlet timely feedback to the user, so as to achieve energy-saving purposes.

  8. Chatter Suppression with Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration Based on Energy Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-xiang; E Shamoto; T Moriwaki

    2005-01-01

    A new method is proposed to suppress chatter, in which the ultrasonic elliptical vibration is added on the cutting tool edge. It results in the fact that the rake face of tool is separated from the chip and the direction of the frictional force between the rake face and the chip is reversed in each cycle of elliptical vibration cutting. The experimental investigations show that the chatter can be suppressed effectively by adding ultrasonic elliptical vibration on the cutting tool edge. In order to make clear the reason of chatter suppression, the mechanism of chatter suppression is analyzed theoretically from the viewpoint of energy.

  9. The Design of the LED Display based on Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei; Bai Xuefeng; Li Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    The development of solar energy and the LED display, the superiority of the combination of them and software design of the system are discussed in this paper. Hardware design and software design are the key elements of this paper. Solar control circuit, LED display control circuit, etc are described, charge and discharge of the battery and output of the battery is controlled by STC89C52 SCM. The design of software provides driver to the related hardware circuit. The result of the experiment h...

  10. Synthesis of Schiff Bases via Environmentally Benign and Energy-Efficient Greener Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Arshi Naqvi; Mohd. Shahnawaaz; Arikatla V. Rao; Daya S. Seth; Sharma, Nawal K.

    2009-01-01

    Non classical methods (water based reaction, microwave and grindstone chemistry) were used for the preparation of Schiff bases from 3-chloro-4-fluoro aniline and several benzaldehydes. The key raw materials were allowed to react in water, under microwave irradiation and grindstone. These methodologies constitute an energy-efficient and environmentally benign greener chemistry version of the classical condensation reactions for Schiff bases formation.

  11. Military Base Off-Taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, J.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper surveys DOD installations that could have an increased potential interest in the purchase of energy from renewable energy projects on tribal lands. Identification of likely purchasers of renewable energy is a first step in the energy project development process, and this paper aims to identify likely electricity customers that tribal commercial-scale projects could serve. This white paper builds on a geospatial analysis completed in November 2012 identifying 53 reservations within 10 miles of military bases (DOE 2012). This analysis builds on those findings by further refining the list of potential opportunity sites to 15 reservations (Table ES-1), based on five additional factors: 1) The potential renewable resources required to meet the installation energy loads; 2) Proximity to transmission lines; 3) Military installation energy demand; 4) State electricity prices; 5) Local policy and regulatory environment.

  12. Location Based Throughput Maximization Routing in Energy Constrained Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sumathy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless Ad-hoc network, power consumption becomes an important issue due to limited battery power. One of the reasons for energy expenditure in this network is irregularly distributed node pattern, which impose large interference range in certain area. To maximize the lifetime of ad-hoc mobile network, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed and the over all transmission range of each node must be minimized. Our protocol, Location based throughput maximization routing in energy constrained Ad-hoc network finds routing paths, which maximize the lifetime of individual nodes and minimize the total transmission energy consumption. The life of the entire network is increased and the network throughput is also increased. The reliability of the path is also increased. Location based energy constrained routing finds the distance between the nodes. Based on the distance the transmission power required is calculated and dynamically reduces the total transmission energy.

  13. Heat pump-based geothermal energy. Technical and economic study. The costs of heat-pump-based geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at identifying the financial basis on which actors of a geothermal project for heating, cooling and hot water production can rely. It also aims at describing the three main technical solutions for very-low-energy geothermal: horizontal sensors, vertical probes, and geothermal doublets on aquifer. After a presentation of the adopted methodology and of the different economic, thermal and technical hypotheses, the respective costs of these technical solutions are assessed and a comparison between these systems and conventional energies is reported. The economic study is performed for different markets: individual housing, collective housing, and office building. Different aspects of each operation are studied: underground works (drilling) and surface equipment (heat pump and support). Investment, maintenance and operational costs are analysed

  14. Nano-based PCMs for building energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Thermal storage using phase change materials (PCMs) is seen as a viable method for improving the energy efficiency of buildings. PCMs have been used in building applications in various forms PCM slurries in heat exchangers, macro- or microencapsulated PCMs in building envelopes, bulk PCM for modulating photovoltaic temperatures, etc. In the last decade a new class of PCMs, called nano-enhanced PCM (or nanoPCM), has been extensively investigated with the goal of improving the heat transfer and thermal storage properties of PCMs. NanoPCMs can primarily be categorized as nano-encapsulated PCMs and nanoparticle-PCM composites. The former are nano-sized capsules in which the PCM forms the core and is surrounded by a high-conductivity membrane or shell. The latter consist of PCM supported within nanostructures or nanoparticles dispersed in PCMs. This article reviews the current state of nanoPCM synthesis and characterization of their heat transfer and thermal storage properties. Further, a critical review of nanoPCM applications and their potential energy benefits is performed. Nano-enhanced PCMs exhibit higher thermal conductivities than regular PCM. However, whether the higher conductivity is desirable in all applications and if the property enhancements are worth the cost and effort needed to create nanoPCMs are questions that still need to be answered.

  15. Technology Base Research Project for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    The US DOE's Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an electrochemical energy storage program, which includes R D on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The general R D areas addressed by the project include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The TBR Project is divided into three major project elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each project element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area. 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic energy conversion using thermally based spectral shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, David M.; Lenert, Andrej; Chan, Walker R.; Bhatia, Bikram; Celanović, Ivan; Soljačić, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-06-01

    Solar thermophotovoltaic devices have the potential to enhance the performance of solar energy harvesting by converting broadband sunlight to narrow-band thermal radiation tuned for a photovoltaic cell. A direct comparison of the operation of a photovoltaic with and without a spectral converter is the most critical indicator of the promise of this technology. Here, we demonstrate enhanced device performance through the suppression of 80% of unconvertible photons by pairing a one-dimensional photonic crystal selective emitter with a tandem plasma–interference optical filter. We measured a solar-to-electrical conversion rate of 6.8%, exceeding the performance of the photovoltaic cell alone. The device operates more efficiently while reducing the heat generation rates in the photovoltaic cell by a factor of two at matching output power densities. We determined the theoretical limits, and discuss the implications of surpassing the Shockley–Queisser limit. Improving the performance of an unaltered photovoltaic cell provides an important framework for the design of high-efficiency solar energy converters.

  17. Laplacian-based generalized gradient approximations for the exchange energy

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, Antonio C

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that in the gradient expansion approximation to density functional theory (DFT) the gradient and Laplacian of the density make interchangeable contributions to the exchange correlation (XC) energy. This is an arbitrary "gauge" freedom for building DFT models, normally used to eliminate the Laplacian from the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level of DFT development. We explore the implications of keeping the Laplacian at this level of DFT, to develop a model that fits the known behavior of the XC hole, which can only be described as a system average in conventional GGA. We generate a family of exchange models that obey the same constraints as conventional GGA's, but which in addition have a finite-valued potential at the atomic nucleus unlike GGA's. These are tested against exact densities and exchange potentials for small atoms, and for constraints chosen to reproduce the SOGGA and the APBE variants of the GGA. The model reliably reproduces exchange energies of closed shell atoms, on...

  18. Optimal hop position-based minimum energy routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Geethu; A.V. Babu

    2015-01-01

    Development of energy-efficient routing protocols is a major concern in the design of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) since UASN nodes are typically powered by batteries, which are difficult to replace or recharge in aquatic environments. This study proposes an optimal hop position-based energy-efficient routing protocol for UASNs. Initially, the authors present an analytical model to compute the total energy consumption in a multi-hop UASN for deep water scenario, taking into acc...

  19. An Energy-Efficient Multipath Routing Algorithm Based on Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mengjun Tong; Yangli Chen; Fangxiang Chen; Xiaoping Wu; Guozhong Shou

    2015-01-01

    An energy-efficient ACO-based multipath routing algorithm (EAMR) is proposed for energy-constrained wireless sensor networks. EAMR is a hybrid multipath algorithm, which is reactive in path discovery and proactive in route maintenance. EAMR has improvement and innovation in the ant packet structure, pheromone update formula, pheromone update mode, and the mechanism of multipath. Average energy consumption and congestion of path make pheromone update formula more reasonable. Incremental pherom...

  20. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . PMID:25327755

  1. On a Flywheel-Based Regenerative Braking System for Regenerative Energy Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Tai-Ran

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a unique flywheel-based regenerative energy recovery, storage and release system developed at the author's laboratory. It can recover and store regenerative energy produced by braking a motion generator with intermittent rotary velocity such as the rotor of a wind turbogenerator subject to intermittent intake wind and the axels of electric and hybrid gas-electric vehicles during frequent coasting and braking. Releasing of the stored regenerative energy in the flywheel is c...

  2. Compressible Data Fusion Based on Minimum Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Chang

    2014-01-01

    Data fusion problem is one of the research hotspots in wireless sensor network. Aiming at the shortage of excessive energy consumption in existing fusion method, a data fusion program is proposed based on minimum energy consumption according to the theory of compressive sensing. This paper first analyzes the impact of different fusion modes on data collection performance, considers the impact of routing and mixed Compressive Sensing (CS) fusion on energy optimization, models the data fusion p...

  3. Energy Efficiency Maximization Based on Cooperative sensing in Cognitive Relay Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yaolian Song; Guangzeng Feng; Xuanhui Xi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency maximization problem of cognitive radio systems. We propose to study energy efficiency of cognitive relay transmission scheme based on cooperative spectrum sensing, since empirical studies have shown that optimal sensing time and transmit power are key factors for energy efficiency maximization. We design a method that simultaneously considers the parameters of spectrum sensing time and transmit power. Finally, we conduct deep experiments wh...

  4. GIS-Based Planning and Modeling for Renewable Energy: Challenges and Future Research Avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Resch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the face of the broad political call for an “energy turnaround”, we are currently witnessing three essential trends with regard to energy infrastructure planning, energy generation and storage: from planned production towards fluctuating production on the basis of renewable energy sources, from centralized generation towards decentralized generation and from expensive energy carriers towards cost-free energy carriers. These changes necessitate considerable modifications of the energy infrastructure. Even though most of these modifications are inherently motivated by geospatial questions and challenges, the integration of energy system models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS is still in its infancy. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of previous approaches in using GIS in renewable energy-related projects, extracts distinct challenges from these previous efforts and, finally, defines a set of core future research avenues for GIS-based energy infrastructure planning with a focus on the use of renewable energy. These future research avenues comprise the availability base data and their “geospatial awareness”, the development of a generic and unified data model, the usage of volunteered geographic information (VGI and crowdsourced data in analysis processes, the integration of 3D building models and 3D data analysis, the incorporation of network topologies into GIS, the harmonization of the heterogeneous views on aggregation issues in the fields of energy and GIS, fine-grained energy demand estimation from freely-available data sources, decentralized storage facility planning, the investigation of GIS-based public participation mechanisms, the transition from purely structural to operational planning, data privacy aspects and, finally, the development of a new dynamic power market design.

  5. Assessment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systemsfor nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads P.;

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB.These systems...... entail production of electricity and usable thermal energy (heat and/or cooling) to cover the energy demands of residential buildings, high energy efficiency levels and proximity of the energy source to the building. The concept of cogeneration is not new but the interest in smallscale cogeneration...... technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...

  6. Assesment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systems for nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB. These systems...... entail production of electricity and usable thermal energy (heat and/or cooling) to cover the energy demands of residential buildings, high energy efficiency levels and proximity of the energy source to the building. The concept of cogeneration is not new but the interest in small scale cogeneration...... technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...

  7. FEMAN: Fuzzy-Based Energy Management System for Green Houses Using Hybrid Grid Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Chehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has designated the year 2012 as the international year of sustainable energy. Today, we are seeing a rise in global awareness of energy consumption and environmental problems. Many nations have launched different programs to reduce the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings to seek lower-carbon energy solutions. We are talking about the future green and smart houses. The subject of smart/green houses is not one of “why,” but rather “how,” specifically: “how making the future house more energy efficient.” The use of the renewable energy, the technology and the services could help us to answer this question. Intelligent home energy management is an approach to build centralized systems that deliver application functionality as services to end-consumer applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smart and robust controller for house energy consumption with maximizing the use of solar energy and reducing the impact on the power grid while satisfying the energy demand of house appliances. We proposed a fuzzy-based energy management controller in order to reduce the consumed energy of the building while respecting a fixed comfort.

  8. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  9. Improving the Accuracy of Software-Based Energy Analysis for Residential Buildings (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.

    2011-09-01

    This presentation describes the basic components of software-based energy analysis for residential buildings, explores the concepts of 'error' and 'accuracy' when analysis predictions are compared to measured data, and explains how NREL is working to continuously improve the accuracy of energy analysis methods.

  10. Use of sampling based correction for non-radioactivity X-ray energy calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Cheng; WEI Yong-Bo; JIANG Da-Zhen

    2005-01-01

    As the requirement of non-radioactivity measurement has increased in recent years, various energy calibration methods applied in portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers have been developed. In this paper, a sampling based correction energy calibration has been discussed. In this method both history information and current state of the instrument are considered and relative high precision and reliability can be obtained.

  11. Prospect of Coal Based IGCC to Meet the Clean Energy Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamruzzaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a country is nearly proportional to the average per person energy consumption rate, which is very low in our country. However, the rate of average energy consumption is increasing day by day throughout the world. With increasing the production of energy, the problem of environment pollution from the power generation sources and energy efficiency becomes more imperative. Coal is the major source of primary energy of the world, however, the energy efficiency of coal based power plant is low, and also it significantly polluted the environment. Therefore, to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the pollution from coal based power plant is an important issue to discuss. In this paper, the primary reserves of energy throughout the world are discussed. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC is a latest technology used to improve the performance of coal based power plant. The process of IGCC and the present condition of IGCC throughout the world is discussed. Finally the advantages of IGCC and necessity of moving towards IGCC from convention coal based power plant is discussed in terms of cost, efficiency and environmental issues.

  12. Energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based maintenance of machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Bouwens, F.; Vullers, R.; Petré, F.; Devos, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an energy-autonomous wireless vibration sensor for condition-based monitoring of machinery. Such technology plays an increasingly important role in modern manufacturing industry. In this work, energy harvesting is realized by resorting to a custom designed the

  13. Use of GIS-based site-specific nitrogen management for improving energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) is a significant energy component of in support of crop production but it can be highly variable within fields. To our knowledge, no efforts have been made to employ GIS-based site-specific N management (SSNM) to assess and improve energy costs and efficiency. We examine recent SSNM ca...

  14. Decisions on Energy Demand Response Option Contracts in Smart Grids Based on Activity-Based Costing and Stochastic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred J. Hildreth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids enable a two-way energy demand response capability through which a utility company offers its industrial customers various call options for energy load curtailment. If a customer has the capability to accurately determine whether to accept an offer or not, then in the case of accepting an offer, the customer can earn both an option premium to participate, and a strike price for load curtailments if requested. However, today most manufacturing companies lack the capability to make the correct contract decisions for given offers. This paper proposes a novel decision model based on activity-based costing (ABC and stochastic programming, developed to accurately evaluate the impact of load curtailments and determine as to whether or not to accept an energy load curtailment offer. The proposed model specifically targets state-transition flexible and Quality-of-Service (QoS flexible energy use activities to reduce the peak energy demand rate. An illustrative example with the proposed decision model under a call-option based energy demand response scenario is presented. As shown from the example results, the proposed decision model can be used with emerging smart grid opportunities to provide a competitive advantage to the manufacturing industry.

  15. Qingtongxia Aluminum Carrying Out Off-site Renovation in Ningdong Energy & Chemical Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Recently,the off-site renovation project of Qingtongxia Aluminum commenced the con- struction in Linhe General Industrial Park of Ningdong Energy & Chemical Base,symboliz- ing a concrete step of Qingtongxia Aluminum

  16. Flexible Graphene-based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    Develop prototype graphene-based reversible energy storage devices that are flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, and that can be easily attached to spacesuits, rovers, landers, and equipment used in space.

  17. Vibration based structural health monitoring in fibre reinforced composites employing the modal strain energy method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijevaar, T.H.; Loendersloot, R.; Warnet, L.L.; Boer, de A.; Akkerman, R.

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of a vibration based damage identification method is shown. The Modal Strain Energy method is applied to a T-joint structure. Both finite element analysis and experimental validation of an undamaged and delaminated structure are presented.

  18. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  19. GDI based full adders for energy efficient arithmetic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Shoba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Addition is a vital arithmetic operation and acts as a building block for synthesizing all other operations. A high-performance adder is one of the key components in the design of application specific integrated circuits. In this paper, three low power full adders are designed with full swing AND, OR and XOR gates to alleviate threshold voltage problem which is commonly encountered in Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic. This problem usually does not allow the full adder circuits to operate without additional inverters. However, the three full adders are successfully realized using full swing gates with the significant improvement in their performance. The performance of the proposed designs is compared with the other full adder designs, namely CMOS, CPL, hybrid and GDI through SPICE simulations using 45 nm technology models. Simulation results reveal that proposed designs have lower energy consumption among all the conventional designs taken for comparison.

  20. Vibration energy harvesting with aluminum nitride-based piezoelectric devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the measurement results of piezoelectric energy harvesters with aluminum nitride (AlN) as a piezoelectric material. AlN was chosen for its material properties and for its well-known sputter deposition process. For AlN devices a high optimum load resistance is required, which is favorable due to the high resulting voltage level. The output power harvested from mechanical vibrations has been measured on micromachined harvesters with different geometries. The resonance frequencies ranged from 200 up to 1200 Hz. The packaged devices had limited output powers and quality factors due to air damping caused by the package. A maximum output power of 60 µW has been measured on an unpackaged device at an acceleration of 2.0 g and at a resonance frequency of 572 Hz. The package of the harvester requires special attention, since air damping can significantly decrease the maximum power output

  1. Optimal energy window selection of a CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su-Jin [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, A. Ram [Laboratory animal center, OSONG Medical Innovation Foundation, Chunguk 363-951 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul 133-792 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yun Young [Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul 133-792 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Min [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung, E-mail: hjk1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-11

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has desirable characteristics such as superior energy resolution, but data acquisition for SPECT imaging has been widely performed with a conventional energy window. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal energy window settings for technetium-99 m ({sup 99m}Tc) and thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), the most commonly used isotopes in SPECT imaging, using CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy. We experimentally investigated quantitative measurements with respect to primary count rate, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and scatter fraction (SF) within various energy window settings using Triumph X-SPECT. The two ways of energy window settings were considered: an on-peak window and an off-peak window. In the on-peak window setting, energy centers were set on the photopeaks. In the off-peak window setting, the ratios of energy differences between the photopeak from the lower- and higher-threshold varied from 4:6 to 3:7. In addition, the energy-window width for {sup 99m}Tc varied from 5% to 20%, and that for {sup 201}Tl varied from 10% to 30%. The results of this study enabled us to determine the optimal energy windows for each isotope in terms of primary count rate, CNR, and SF. We selected the optimal energy window that increases the primary count rate and CNR while decreasing SF. For {sup 99m}Tc SPECT imaging, the energy window of 138–145 keV with a 5% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was determined to be the optimal energy window. For {sup 201}Tl SPECT imaging, the energy window of 64–85 keV with a 30% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal energy window. Our results demonstrated that the proper energy window should be carefully chosen based on quantitative measurements in order to take advantage of desirable characteristics of CZT-based small-animal SPECT. These results provided valuable reference information for the

  2. 77 FR 6108 - Accent Energy Midwest II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Accent Energy Midwest II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Accent Energy Midwest II LLC's application for market-based...

  3. 76 FR 9347 - Coyote Canyon Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coyote Canyon Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Coyote Canyon Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 76 FR 15306 - Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Aspen Merchant Energy LP's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  5. 77 FR 27767 - Galaxy Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Galaxy Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Galaxy Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 75 FR 70743 - Seneca Energy, II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Seneca Energy, II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding Seneca Energy, II LLC's application for market-based...

  7. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate...

  8. 78 FR 75561 - Astral Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astral Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Astral Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  10. 75 FR 59260 - HOP Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission HOP Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of HOP Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority,...

  11. 75 FR 44788 - Spark Energy, L.P.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Spark Energy, L.P.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Spark Energy, L.P.'s application for market-based...

  12. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based...

  13. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Hess Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  14. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  15. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based...

  16. 76 FR 26283 - Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Blue Chip Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  17. 78 FR 18582 - FM Energy Scheduling, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FM Energy Scheduling, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of FM Energy Scheduling, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  18. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  19. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based...

  1. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  2. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate...

  3. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  5. 77 FR 35375 - Duke Energy Miami Fort, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Duke Energy Miami Fort, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Duke Energy Miami Fort, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  6. 75 FR 59259 - Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Turner Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  7. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  8. A general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency: its implications for diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Doux, John D; Conley, Buford R

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency. Life represents an emergent property of energy. The earth receives energy from cosmic sources such as the sun. Biologic life can be characterized by the conversion of available energy into complex systems. Direct energy converters such as photosynthetic microorganisms and plants transform light energy into high-energy phosphate bonds that fuel biochemical work. Indirect converters such as herbivores and carnivores predominantly feed off the food chain supplied by these direct converters. Improving energy efficiency confers competitive advantage in the contest among organisms for energy. We introduce a term, return on energy (ROE), as a measure of energy efficiency. We define ROE as a ratio of the amount of energy acquired by a system to the amount of energy consumed to generate that gain. Life-death cycling represents a tactic to sample the environment for innovations that allow increases in ROE to develop over generations rather than an individual lifespan. However, the variation-selection strategem of Darwinian evolution may define a particular tactic rather than an overarching biological paradigm. A theory of evolution based on competition for energy and driven by improvements in ROE both encompasses prior notions of evolution and portends post-Darwinian mechanisms. Such processes may involve the exchange of non-genetic traits that improve ROE, as exemplified by cognitive adaptations or memes. Under these circumstances, indefinite persistence may become favored over life-death cycling, as increases in ROE may then occur more efficiently within a single lifespan rather than over multiple generations. The key to this transition may involve novel methods to address the promotion of health and cognitive plasticity. We describe the implications of this theory for human diseases. PMID:16122878

  9. Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru; Kah Phooi Seng; Li-Minn Ang; Wai Chong Chia

    2013-01-01

    The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR) algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose thre...

  10. Exploiting Market-Based Mechanisms to Meet Utilities' Energy Efficiency Obligations

    OpenAIRE

    Sinton, Jonathan; de Wit, Joeri

    2014-01-01

    Electric utilities are key actors in the quest to induce large-scale energy savings among end users. But often it is not enough simply to mandate utilities to achieve a specific target. Three new market-based mechanisms are available for utilities to use in promoting energy efficiency. Historically, mechanisms of demand-side management may be classified as regulatory, policy-based, market-...

  11. A Vibration-Based MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester and Power Conditioning Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Yu; Jielin Zhou; Licheng Deng; Zhiyu Wen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) piezoelectric power generator array for vibration energy harvesting. A complete design flow of the vibration-based energy harvester using the finite element method (FEM) is proposed. The modal analysis is selected to calculate the resonant frequency of the harvester, and harmonic analysis is performed to investigate the influence of the geometric parameters on the output voltage. Based on simulation results, a MEMS Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)...

  12. Bulk Material Based Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W S; Magnin, W; Wang, N; Hayes, M; O' Flynn, B; O' Mathuna, C, E-mail: wensi.wang@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    The trend towards smart building and modern manufacturing demands ubiquitous sensing in the foreseeable future. Self-powered Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are essential for such applications. This paper describes bulk material based thermoelectric generator (TEG) design and implementation for WSN. A 20cm{sup 2} Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} based TEG was created with optimized configuration and generates 2.7mW in typical condition. A novel load matching method is used to maximize the power output. The implemented power management module delivers 651{mu}W to WSN in 50 deg. C. With average power consumption of Tyndall WSN measured at 72{mu}W, feasibility of utilizing bulk material TEG to power WSN is demonstrated.

  13. State energy price system. Volume II: data base development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Sherman, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1982-06-01

    This volume documents the entire data development process in sufficient detail to permit critical assessment of the data base. However, since a methodological discussion is included in Chapter 3 of Volume I, it is not repeated here. The data base development process was conducted in a fuel-by-fuel fashion, following the general sequence of electricity, natural gas, coal, distillate fuel, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene, jet fuel, residual fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas. For each of the fuels, a detailed data source review was conducted, which included a preliminary screening against criteria set up for this purpose. After this first screening, the data sources that met most of the review criteria were evaluated in more detail. If one data source met all the criteria, that data source was recommended for use, with minimal change or imputation. If there were substantial gaps in the available data series, then alternative imputation procedures were developed and compared, and recommendations were formulated. This entire procedure was then documented in a draft working paper for review and discussion. To the extent reasonable and practical, comments from the formal EIA reviews were then incorporated into the final recommendations and the data base was developed.

  14. Energy and greenhouse gas balance of decentralized energy supply systems based on organic agricultural biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Kimming, Marie

    2011-01-01

    More and more farms apply organic production methods to reduce their environmental impact, but currently even organic farms are mainly using fossil fuels. Technologies available today or in the near future make it possible to produce heat, electricity and fuels from agricultural residues or woody biomass. The agricultural sector can thereby contribute to the fulfillment of climate goals and energy security without reducing the output of food products. The thesis describes and assesses possibl...

  15. Complex networks-based energy-efficient evolution model for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on complex networks theory, we present two self-organized energy-efficient models for wireless sensor networks in this paper. The first model constructs the wireless sensor networks according to the connectivity and remaining energy of each sensor node, thus it can produce scale-free networks which have a performance of random error tolerance. In the second model, we not only consider the remaining energy, but also introduce the constraint of links to each node. This model can make the energy consumption of the whole network more balanced. Finally, we present the numerical experiments of the two models.

  16. Energy Conservation and CO2 Emission Reduction Using Cogeneration Based on Gas Microturbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Khalili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily increasing propagation of environmental pollutants, such as CO2 as the most prevailing greenhouse gas, has resulted in global warming and climate changes in the past decades. Therefore, essentiality of the optimum utilization of limited sources of energy which in turn leads to emission abatement in energy conversion process is being widely under consideration. Cogeneration, regarding energy conservation and efficiency enhancement, is known to be a noticeable and overriding strategy in substantiation of energy consumption management goal. This study deals with performance evaluation of a microturbine-based cogeneration plant and its effects on efficiency and environmental aspects by using a simulator code.

  17. vNet Zero Energy for Radio Base Stations- Balearic Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabater, Pere; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Pol, Andreu Moia;

    2016-01-01

    based on coal and fossil fuels which is not an environmentally sustainable scenario. The aim of this study is to identify the processes that would reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, designing a target scenario featuring "zero CO2 emissions" and "100% renewable energies" in RBS....... The energy costs, CO2 emissions and data traffic data used for the study are generated by a sample of RBS from the Balearic Islands. The results are shown in terms of energy performance for a normal and net zero emissions scenarios....

  18. An Energy- Aware Routing Protocol Based on Effective Transmission in Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linfeng; YANG Zongkai; CHENG Wenqing; DU Xu

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize the energy consumption in the discovery of the routing path, this paper introduces a novel concept of effective transmission (ET) that ensures each forwarding node is not only farther from the source node, but also nearer to the destination node with respect to its sender.An energy-aware routing protocol based on ET is proposed.It enables the energy consumption for each hop to be the least for the transmission. The simulation results show the routing protocol is effective in the performance of energy consumption comparing with some other routing protocols.

  19. Energy Efficient Multicast through Acknowledgment based TPC in Adhoc Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    SANGAVI.S; P. S. Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    The existing energy-aware routing algorithms in ad hoc networks, select a path with a large number of small-distance hops. But such a formulation based solely on the energy spent in a single transmission is misleading —the proper scheme should include the total energy (including that expended for any retransmissions necessary) spent in reliably delivering the packet to its final destination. Our main idea is to find a new routing scheme which is capable of including delay, energy, as well as ...

  20. Energy Efficiency Maximization Based on Cooperative sensing in Cognitive Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolian Song

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency maximization problem of cognitive radio systems. We propose to study energy efficiency of cognitive relay transmission scheme based on cooperative spectrum sensing, since empirical studies have shown that optimal sensing time and transmit power are key factors for energy efficiency maximization. We design a method that simultaneously considers the parameters of spectrum sensing time and transmit power. Finally, we conduct deep experiments which show that our proposed approach can significantly improve the throughput and energy efficiency than the non-cooperative spectrum sensing method.

  1. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  2. Towards a Microscopic Reaction Description Based on Energy Density Functionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, G A; DIetrich, F S; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Dupuis, M; Terasaki, J; Engel, J

    2011-09-26

    A microscopic calculation of reaction cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all particle-hole excitations in the target and one-nucleon pickup channels. The particle-hole states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and subsequently to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. Target excitations for {sup 40,48}Ca, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 144}Sm were described in a random-phase framework using a Skyrme functional. Reaction cross sections obtained agree very well with experimental data and predictions of a state-of-the-art fitted optical potential. Couplings between inelastic states were found to be negligible, while the pickup channels contribute significantly. The effect of resonances from higher-order channels was assessed. Elastic angular distributions were also calculated within the same method, achieving good agreement with experimental data. For the first time observed absorptions are completely accounted for by explicit channel coupling, for incident energies between 10 and 70 MeV, with consistent angular distribution results.

  3. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  4. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Landrum, D. B.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an approach in which a magnetized target plasma is compressed inertially by an imploding material wall. A high energy plasma liner may be used to produce the required implosion. The plasma liner is formed by the merging of a number of high momentum plasma jets converging towards the center of a sphere where two compact toroids have been introduced. Preliminary 3-D hydrodynamics modeling results using the SPHINX code of Los Alamos National Laboratory have been very encouraging and confirm earlier theoretical expectations. The concept appears ready for experimental exploration and plans for doing so are being pursued. In this talk, we explore conceptually how this innovative fusion approach could be packaged for space propulsion for interplanetary travel. We discuss the generally generic components of a baseline propulsion concept including the fusion engine, high velocity plasma accelerators, generators of compact toroids using conical theta pinches, magnetic nozzle, neutron absorption blanket, tritium reprocessing system, shock absorber, magnetohydrodynamic generator, capacitor pulsed power system, thermal management system, and micrometeorite shields.

  5. A review of solar energy based heat and power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Bühler, Fabian; Andreasen, Jesper Graa;

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy based technologies has attracted increased interest in recent times in order to satisfy the various energy demands of our society. This paper presents a thorough review of the open literature on solar energy based heat and power plants. In order to limit the scope......) a biomass burner, and (5) an organic Rankine cycle. The various cases are compared on the basis of economic profitability and environmental performance. The results from the case studies indicate that it is economically and environmentally beneficial to invest in both small and large capacity solar...

  6. VO2-based Thermochromic and Nanothermochromic Materials for Energy-Efficient Windows : Computational and Experimental Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    VO2-based films are thermochromic and exhibit high or low infrared transmittance when the temperature is below or above a critical temperature. The thermochromic switching is passive and reversible, and therefore VO2 based films are promising for energy-efficient window appli­cations. However the practicaluse of VO2 for energy-efficient windows has long been hampered by low luminous transmittance and low solar energy transmittance modulation. The main goal of this dissertation work is to address ...

  7. Energy use of the land and water based industries; Uppdrag energikartlaeggning av de areella naeringarna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengaard, Linn; Persson, Tobias; Hoegberg, Martina; Einarson, Elin; Gustafsson, Christel; Karlsson, Stefan; Bengtsberg, Rickard; Rehnfeldt, Laila

    2010-02-15

    The report presents a review of energy use within the land- and water-based industries. A number of proposals are reported on technical measures for energy efficiency and measures for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases that can be implemented in each sector. Instruments which may act to promote the implementation of measures is also reported. As the work with examining the energy use progressed, it became clear that the existing statistics and knowledge base was insufficient to produce a satisfactory quantitative analysis of the socio-economic and financial consequences of the measures proposed. These deficiencies are identified in the report

  8. Energy efficiency of electric pulse installation based on a high-current plasma accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanenkov I.I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of electric pulse installation based on a high-current plasma accelerator was investigated. A series of experiments with different central electrodes was carried out. The system based on carbon electrodes has a greater value of the charge energy conversion into the energy of arc discharge and the less discharge current level in comparison with other electrode systems. The power consumption value for producing 1 gram of powdered product was estimated and it was found this value is comparable to the work of the LED light bulb for 1 hour.

  9. Modeling of a PVDF based gesture controller using energy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkinburg, Kyle R.; Washington, Gregory N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the concept of a PVDF based gesture controller is introduced and accompanied by a supporting model derived using Hamilton's principle. The model incorporates strain contributions from two loading situations: beam subject to transverse loading and axial loading. The prototype gesture controller is comprised of a compression sleeve with a spatially shaded PVDF element situated above the extensor muscles of the right forearm. The goal of the gesture controller, at this stage, is to be able to measure and discern forearm muscle activity for three distinct hand gestures. In this study the system was modeled and simulated. Test data was then collected for each hand gesture and compared to simulations.

  10. Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program. Technical Reference Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of the program is to develop current technical and cost information for nuclear and comparison electric power generating stations. Purpose of this Technical Reference Book is to provide the current technical design bases for each of the technical data models updated in the Sixth Update (1983). It contains a set of detailed system design descriptions for these technical data models, which are supplemented with engineering drawings. The system design descriptions reflect regulatory and industry practice and experience for nuclear and coal-fired power generating stations that are current for January 1, 1983

  11. A general end point free energy calculation method based on microscopic configurational space coarse-graining

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Free energy is arguably the most important thermodynamic property for physical systems. Despite the fact that free energy is a state function, presently available rigorous methodologies, such as those based on thermodynamic integration (TI) or non-equilibrium work (NEW) analysis, involve energetic calculations on path(s) connecting the starting and the end macrostates. Meanwhile, presently widely utilized approximate end-point free energy methods lack rigorous treatment of conformational variation within end macrostates, and are consequently not sufficiently reliable. Here we present an alternative and rigorous end point free energy calculation formulation based on microscopic configurational space coarse graining, where the configurational space of a high dimensional system is divided into a large number of sufficiently fine and uniform elements, which were termed conformers. It was found that change of free energy is essentially decided by change of the number of conformers, with an error term that accounts...

  12. Automatic Generation Control Strategy Based on Balance of Daily Electric Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic generation control strategy based on balance of daily total electric energy is put forward. It makes the balance between actual total generated energy controlled by automatic generation system and planned total energy on base of area control error, and makes the actual 24-hour active power load curve to approach the planned load curve. The generated energy is corrected by velocity weighting factor so that it conducts dynamic regulation and reaches the speed of response. Homologous strategy is used according to the real-time data in the operation of automatic generation control. Results of simulation are perfect and power energy compensation control with ideal effect can be achieved in the particular duration.

  13. Solution-Processed Two-Dimensional Metal Dichalcogenide-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiehong; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The development of renewable energy storage and conversion devices is one of the most promising ways to address the current energy crisis, along with the global environmental concern. The exploration of suitable active materials is the key factor for the construction of highly efficient, highly stable, low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage and conversion devices. The ability to prepare two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenide (MDC) nanosheets and their functional composites in high yield and large scale via various solution-based methods in recent years has inspired great research interests in their utilization for renewable energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we will summarize the recent advances of solution-processed 2D MDCs and their hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion applications, including rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, electrocatalytic hydrogen generation and solar cells. Moreover, based on the current progress, we will also give some personal insights on the existing challenges and future research directions in this promising field.

  14. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Jason S. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Grace, Robert C. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Rickerson, Wilson H. [Meister Consultants Group, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  15. Definition of nearly zero-energy building requirements based on a large building sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the recast of the Energy Performance Building Directive, Member States must give an exact definition for nearly zero-energy buildings to be introduced from 2018/2020. The requirement system stipulating the sustainable development of the building sector is usually based on the analysis of a few reference buildings, combining energy efficiency measures and HVAC systems. The risk of this method is that depending on the assumptions either the requirements do not provide sufficient incentives for energy saving measures and renewables or the requirements cannot be fulfilled with rational solutions in many cases. Our method is based on the artificial generation of a large building sample, where the buildings are defined by geometric and other parameters. Due to the large number of combinations, the effect of many variables appear in the results, with the deviations reflecting the sensitivity of the energy balance. The requirements are set based on some fundamental considerations and the statistical analysis of the sample. The method is demonstrated on the example of setting the requirements for residential buildings in Hungary. The proposed requirements are validated against the common European targets. The suggested method is suitable for developing building energy regulation threshold values, certification schemes or benchmarking values. - Highlights: • We analyse the European nearly zero-energy building definition. • We present a method for setting requirements based on a large building sample. • We demonstrate the method for residential buildings in Hungary. • We compare the results with the European targets

  16. Research on Energy Saving Method for IDC CRAC System based on Prediction of Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Amid the information era, energy consumption of IDC Computer Room Air Conditioning (CRAC system is becoming increasingly serious. Thus there is growing concern over energy saving and consumption reduction. Based on the analysis of the energy saving application of the air conditioning system in the present computer room, a new energy saving method of the IDC CRAC system, which presents energy saving decision based on the prediction of temperature, is proposed. Its principle is the collection of CPU utilization reflected the change of equipment working load, the temperature in hot spots and cold area. Then, to build a BP Neural Network model, taking the working load and the temperature in hot spots for the actual input, taking the temperature in a cold area for actual output. The BP Neural Network model can predict the temperature in hot spots of the next, when a set of real-time data into the model. Choosing a reasonable and effective decision-making scheme of the air conditioning system can realize energy saving control. Preliminary simulation results show, through the establishment of BP network model obtain approximation error of training samples and the prediction error of testing samples, both to highlight the advantages of the model. Finally, the distribution of temperature change about CRAC system whole day obtained by simulation shows that the proposed energy-saving method can reduce the energy consumption of IDC, fully embodies the effect of energy saving.

  17. Magnetic levitation-based electromagnetic energy harvesting: a semi-analytical non-linear model for energy transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Simões, José A O; Pascoal, Ricardo; Torrão, João; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic levitation has been used to implement low-cost and maintenance-free electromagnetic energy harvesting. The ability of levitation-based harvesting systems to operate autonomously for long periods of time makes them well-suited for self-powering a broad range of technologies. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is presented of a harvester configuration that utilizes the motion of a levitated hard-magnetic element to generate electrical power. A semi-analytical, non-linear model is introduced that enables accurate and efficient analysis of energy transduction. The model predicts the transient and steady-state response of the harvester a function of its motion (amplitude and frequency) and load impedance. Very good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment with energy errors lower than 14.15% (mean absolute percentage error of 6.02%) and cross-correlations higher than 86%. The model provides unique insight into fundamental mechanisms of energy transduction and enables the geometric optimization of harvesters prior to fabrication and the rational design of intelligent energy harvesters. PMID:26725842

  18. Magnetic levitation-based electromagnetic energy harvesting: a semi-analytical non-linear model for energy transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P.; Ferreira, Jorge A. F.; Simões, José A. O.; Pascoal, Ricardo; Torrão, João; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic levitation has been used to implement low-cost and maintenance-free electromagnetic energy harvesting. The ability of levitation-based harvesting systems to operate autonomously for long periods of time makes them well-suited for self-powering a broad range of technologies. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is presented of a harvester configuration that utilizes the motion of a levitated hard-magnetic element to generate electrical power. A semi-analytical, non-linear model is introduced that enables accurate and efficient analysis of energy transduction. The model predicts the transient and steady-state response of the harvester a function of its motion (amplitude and frequency) and load impedance. Very good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment with energy errors lower than 14.15% (mean absolute percentage error of 6.02%) and cross-correlations higher than 86%. The model provides unique insight into fundamental mechanisms of energy transduction and enables the geometric optimization of harvesters prior to fabrication and the rational design of intelligent energy harvesters.

  19. Magnetic levitation-based electromagnetic energy harvesting: a semi-analytical non-linear model for energy transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Simões, José A O; Pascoal, Ricardo; Torrão, João; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P

    2016-01-04

    Magnetic levitation has been used to implement low-cost and maintenance-free electromagnetic energy harvesting. The ability of levitation-based harvesting systems to operate autonomously for long periods of time makes them well-suited for self-powering a broad range of technologies. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is presented of a harvester configuration that utilizes the motion of a levitated hard-magnetic element to generate electrical power. A semi-analytical, non-linear model is introduced that enables accurate and efficient analysis of energy transduction. The model predicts the transient and steady-state response of the harvester a function of its motion (amplitude and frequency) and load impedance. Very good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment with energy errors lower than 14.15% (mean absolute percentage error of 6.02%) and cross-correlations higher than 86%. The model provides unique insight into fundamental mechanisms of energy transduction and enables the geometric optimization of harvesters prior to fabrication and the rational design of intelligent energy harvesters.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated energy system based on compressed air energy storage (CAES) system and Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An integrated energy system based on CAES and Kalina cycle is proposed. • The design and modeling of the CAES–KCS6 system are laid out. • The energy analysis and exergy analysis of the proposed system are carried out. • A parametric analysis is conducted to examine their effect on system performance. - Abstract: High penetration of renewable power sources into power system leads to significant challenge in balancing of power generation and consumption due to the highly erratic nature of renewable energies. Integrating the energy storage system (ESS) with power system can weaken these negative effects effectively. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) system as one of the grid-scale ESS technologies has grown rapidly in the past few years. However, the temperature of exhaust from low pressure turbine during discharge process is still high enough to utilize. An integrated energy system consisting of a CAES system and a Kalina cycle system 6 (KCS6) is proposed to recover this waste heat. The thermodynamic analyses including energy analysis and exergy analysis are evaluated by using steady-state mathematical model and thermodynamic laws. The second law efficiency of the proposed CAES–KCS6 system can be improved nearly 4% compared to that of the single conventional CAES system. Meanwhile, the parametric analysis is also carried out to evaluate the effects of some key parameters on system performance, such as the turbine inlet temperature (TIT), inlet pressure of low pressure turbine and the air storage cavern temperature. Results show that all of these parameters have positive effect on system exergy efficiency