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Sample records for bio mineral hydroxyapatite

  1. Retention of albumin labelled with I-125 in the bio mineral hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Bugarin C, A.; Monroy G, F.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of materials for the health in the entire world, especially of the odontological and traumatological sectors make every time to be but studied the hydroxyapatite (HAP) and their biocompatibility with the alive beings. The hydroxyapatite is considered as one of the inorganic exchangers by excellence, for what the fixation of ions and molecules have been widely studied and at the moment it is one of the materials of greater acceptance like implant. The surface of the material of implant is in intimate contact with the live tissue and its biocompatibility is determined in great measure by those surface properties of the bio material, which have a direct effect in the cellular response of the material. After administering the implant, the proteins are immediately adsorbed in the surface of the bio mineral. Specifically, the proteins of the blood are considered as key pieces to determine the acceptance of implants in alive beings. The adsorption of proteins it depends on the physicochemical properties of the material as well as of the environment composition. The surface properties of the HAP are relevant in the adsorption mechanisms of the proteins. In this work, it is reported the adsorption of the labelled with I-125 albumin protein and in function of two important physicochemical parameters: the pH value of the of the solution and the chemical nature of the solution; to see the influence of this last, its were studied three electrolytes NaF, NaCl and NaH 2 PO 4 . The existence of the active sites of hydroxyapatite surface, it is key piece in the interpretation of the fixation of the albumin protein in function also of their acid-base properties. (Author)

  2. Coating of Bio-mimetic Minerals-Substituted Hydroxyapatite on Surgical Grade Stainless Steel 316L by Electrophoretic Deposition for Hard tissue Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Dharman; Rajan, Mariappan

    2018-02-01

    Third-era bio-implant materials intend to empower particular live cell reactions at the atomic level, these materials represented with a resorbable and biocompatibility that bodies recuperate once they have been embedded. Necessitate to decrease expenses in public health services has required the utilization of surgical grade stainless steel (SS 316L) as the most inexpensive choice for orthodontic and orthopaedic implants. 316L SS is one of the broadly used implant biomaterials in orthodontic and orthopaedic surgeries. Yet, frequently those discharge for toxic metal ions is confirm from the implants and hence a second surgery is required will remove those implant material. One approach to managing the discharge of toxic metal ions is to coat the implant substance with bio-mimetic minerals in hydroxyapatite (HA). Bio-mimetic minerals such as magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), also zinc (Zn) were revealed with animate bone growth furthermore restrain bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. The present work deals with the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for multi minerals substituted hydroxyapatite (M-HA) on the surface treated 316L SS under distinctive temperatures (27°C, (room temperature), 60 and 80°C). The resultant coatings were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM-EDX, adhesion strength and leach out analysis.

  3. Retention of albumin labelled with I-125 in the bio mineral hydroxyapatite; Retencion de albumina marcada con I-125 en el biomineral hidroxiapatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Bugarin C, A. [UAZ, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Monroy G, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The demands of materials for the health in the entire world, especially of the odontological and traumatological sectors make every time to be but studied the hydroxyapatite (HAP) and their biocompatibility with the alive beings. The hydroxyapatite is considered as one of the inorganic exchangers by excellence, for what the fixation of ions and molecules have been widely studied and at the moment it is one of the materials of greater acceptance like implant. The surface of the material of implant is in intimate contact with the live tissue and its biocompatibility is determined in great measure by those surface properties of the bio material, which have a direct effect in the cellular response of the material. After administering the implant, the proteins are immediately adsorbed in the surface of the bio mineral. Specifically, the proteins of the blood are considered as key pieces to determine the acceptance of implants in alive beings. The adsorption of proteins it depends on the physicochemical properties of the material as well as of the environment composition. The surface properties of the HAP are relevant in the adsorption mechanisms of the proteins. In this work, it is reported the adsorption of the labelled with I-125 albumin protein and in function of two important physicochemical parameters: the pH value of the of the solution and the chemical nature of the solution; to see the influence of this last, its were studied three electrolytes NaF, NaCl and NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The existence of the active sites of hydroxyapatite surface, it is key piece in the interpretation of the fixation of the albumin protein in function also of their acid-base properties. (Author)

  4. Saturation of the hydroxyapatite mineral phase using radioactive fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores de la Torre, J.A.; Badillo A, V.E.; Lopez D, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    With the purpose of knowing the Anion exchange capacity (CIA) of the hydroxyapatite mineral phase, marketed by BIO-RAD, becomes necessary to saturate the surface of the mineral with an anion specie that possesses a strong affinity by this solid as it is the case of the fluorine. Moreover it takes advantage that offers the radioactive tracer technique, using the radioactive isotope of the fluorine, 18 F, produced in the cyclotron of the UNAM. This saturation is obtained in terms of the quantity of retained fluorine (mmol/ 100 g) in the synthetic hydroxyapatite in function of the concentration of the solution of NaF that oscillates from 0.7 M up to 0.16 M to fixed values of pH of 9.2. Those results demonstrate that to this fixed pH value the saturation of the surface of the hydroxyapatite is achieved in approximately 30 mmol/ 100 g, using important concentrations of NaF that correspond to 0.14 M from now on. This result demonstrates the high capacity of the solid considered to retain considerable quantities of fluorine even to basic pH values. (Author)

  5. Saturation of the hydroxyapatite mineral phase using radioactive fluorine; Saturacion de la fase mineral hidroxiapatita utilizando fluor radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores de la Torre, J.A.; Badillo A, V.E. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Lopez D, F.A. [Unidad PET Ciclotron, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.f. (Mexico)]. e-mail: ebadillo@cantera.reduaz.mx

    2005-07-01

    With the purpose of knowing the Anion exchange capacity (CIA) of the hydroxyapatite mineral phase, marketed by BIO-RAD, becomes necessary to saturate the surface of the mineral with an anion specie that possesses a strong affinity by this solid as it is the case of the fluorine. Moreover it takes advantage that offers the radioactive tracer technique, using the radioactive isotope of the fluorine, {sup 18}F, produced in the cyclotron of the UNAM. This saturation is obtained in terms of the quantity of retained fluorine (mmol/ 100 g) in the synthetic hydroxyapatite in function of the concentration of the solution of NaF that oscillates from 0.7 M up to 0.16 M to fixed values of pH of 9.2. Those results demonstrate that to this fixed pH value the saturation of the surface of the hydroxyapatite is achieved in approximately 30 mmol/ 100 g, using important concentrations of NaF that correspond to 0.14 M from now on. This result demonstrates the high capacity of the solid considered to retain considerable quantities of fluorine even to basic pH values. (Author)

  6. Sulfobetaine as a zwitterionic mediator for 3D hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingsheng; Song, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Both positively and negatively charged residues play pivotal roles in recruiting precursor ions or ion clusters, and lowering interfacial energy in natural biomineralization process. Synergistic utilization of opposite charges, however, has rarely been implemented in the design of cytocompatible synthetic scaffolds promoting hydroxyapatite (HA)-mineralization and osteointegration. We report the use of cytocompatible zwitterionic sulfobetaine ligands to enable 3-dimensional in vitro mineralization of HA across covalently crosslinked hydrogels. The overall charge-neutral zwitterionic hydrogel effectively recruited oppositely charged precursor ions while overcame excessive swelling exhibited by anionic and cationic hydrogels under physiological conditions, resulting in denser and structurally well-integrated mineralized composites. Further controls over the size, content, and spatial distribution of the mineral domains within the zwitterionic hydrogel are accomplished by facile adjustments of hydrogel crosslinking densities and the supersaturation rate governing heterogeneous mineral nucleation and growth. These findings should inspire many creative uses of zwitterionic polymers and polymer coatings for skeletal tissue repair and regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of amino acids in hydroxyapatite mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Polar and charged amino acids (AAs) are heavily expressed in non-collagenous proteins (NCPs), and are involved in hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization in bone. Here, we review what is known on the effect of single AAs on HA precipitation. Negatively charged AAs, such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid (Glu) and phosphoserine are largely expressed in NCPs and play a critical role in controlling HA nucleation and growth. Positively charged ones such as arginine (Arg) or lysine (Lys) are heavily involved in HA nucleation within extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. Glu, Arg and Lys intake can also increase bone mineral density by stimulating growth hormone production. In vitro studies suggest that the role of AAs in controlling HA precipitation is affected by their mobility. While dissolved AAs are able to inhibit HA precipitation and growth by chelating Ca2+ and PO43− ions or binding to nuclei of calcium phosphate and preventing their further growth, AAs bound to surfaces can promote HA precipitation by attracting Ca2+ and PO43− ions and increasing the local supersaturation. Overall, the effect of AAs on HA precipitation is worth being investigated more, especially under conditions closer to the physiological ones, where the presence of other factors such as collagen, mineralization inhibitors, and cells heavily influences HA precipitation. A deeper understanding of the role of AAs in HA mineralization will increase our fundamental knowledge related to bone formation, and could lead to new therapies to improve bone regeneration in damaged tissues or cure pathological diseases caused by excessive mineralization in tissues such as cartilage, blood vessels and cardiac valves. PMID:27707904

  8. Novel bio-composite of hydroxyapatite reinforced polyamide and polyethylene: Composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Yi; Li Yubao; Li Jidong; Zhang Xiang; Liao Hongbing; Wang Yuanyuan; Yang Weihu

    2007-01-01

    A new bio-composite of hydroxyapatite reinforced polyamide 66 and high density polyethylene was prepared using melt mixing in a co-rotation twin screw extruder. Two series of composites with different composition were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy, mechanical testing, water absorption and infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the change of composition influenced significantly the properties of the composites by different mechanism. Polyethylene mixing with polyamide matrix induced different microstructure and adjusted water absorption and manufacturability. Hydrogen bonding between hydroxyapatite and the polar groups of polyamide improved the adhesion of interface

  9. Study of the fission products fixation in the hydroxyapatite mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano R, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this research work, sorption properties of hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions were studied using Na + and K + ion behavior. In addition, the fission products 99 Tc and 107 Pd uptake was studied to determine their sorption mechanisms on hydroxyapatite. This research was conducted in two stages. The first stage aimed to identify surface reactive sites of hydroxyapatite surface. This surface study was performed by the radiotracer method using 24 Na and 42 K radionuclides and applying the ion-exchange theory. It provides evidence in terms of the saturation curves of individual behaviour of the Na + and K + cations. Hydroxyapatite reactive sites were identified and quantified from the results and application of the ion-exchange model: a mono-functional site of 0.28 mmol g -1 for the sodium hydroxylate form and a dipr otic site with two saturation curves of 0.14 mmol g -1 each, for the sodium phosphate form. In a second stage, the sorption of fission products, Tc and Pd, on hydroxyapatite was studied. This sorption was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients obtained with equivalent radiotracers: 99m Tc and 109 Pd. Tc presented a low sorption affinity on hydroxyapatite in aqueous medium 0.02 M NaH 2 PO 4 and the results also show that Tc is not sorbed from perchlorate medium (0.01 M Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 ). Sorption behaviour of Pd(II) on hydroxyapatite was studied for different experimental conditions, with parameter such as: ph, aqueous medium (0.01 M NaClO 4 , 0.01 M and 0.025 M Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 , and 0.02 M NaH 2 PO 4 ), the solid solution ratio (10, 4 and 0.020 g/L), and the palladium concentration were studied. Pd sorption was complete at solid-solution ratios 10 and 4 g/L. A strong sorption affinity of hydroxyapatite for palladium was obtained at solid-solution ratio 0.020 g/L. In the interpretation of the results it was considered the aqueous chemistry of palladium, solid dissolution, as well as the existence of reactive sites at the hydroxyapatite surface. The

  10. Simultaneous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated soils by hybrid bio-nanocomposites of fungal hyphae and nano-hydroxyapatites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Liang, Lifen; Yang, Weichun; Shi, Wei; Tong, Yunping; Chai, Liyuan; Gao, Shikang; Liao, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Self-aggregation of bulk nano-hydroxyapatites (n-HAPs) undermines their immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals in the contaminated soils. Here, the low-cost, easily obtained, and environment-friendly filamentous fungi have been introduced for the bio-matrices of the hybrid bio-nanocomposites to potentially solve such problem of n-HAPs. According to SEM, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR analyses, n-HAPs were successfully coated onto the fungal hyphae and their self-aggregation was improved. The immobilization efficiencies of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils by the bio-nanocomposites were individually one to four times of that by n-HAPs or the fungal hyphae. Moreover, the Aspergillus niger-based bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) was superior to the Penicillium Chrysogenum F1-based bio-nanocomposite (PCHP) in immobilization of Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils. In addition, the results of XRD showed that one of the potential mechanisms of metal immobilization by the hybrid bio-nanocomposites was dissolution of n-HAPs followed by precipitation of new metal phosphate minerals. Our results suggest that the hybrid bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) can be recognized as a promising soil amendment candidate for effective remediation on the soils simultaneously contaminated by Cd and Pb.

  11. Significance, mechanisms and environmental implications of microbial bio-mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzerara, K.; Miot, J.; Morin, G.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Skouri-Panet, F.; Ferard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms can mediate the formation of minerals by a process called bio-mineralization. This process offers an efficient way to sequester inorganic pollutants within relatively stable solid phases. Here we review some of the main mechanisms involved in the mediation of mineral precipitation by microorganisms. This includes supersaturation caused by metabolic activity, the triggering of nucleation by production of more or less specific organic molecules, and the impact of mineral growth. While these processes have been widely studied in the laboratory, assessment of their importance in the environment is more difficult. We illustrate this difficulty using a case study on an As-contaminated acid mine drainage located in the South of France (Carnoules, Gard). In particular, we explore the potential relationships that might exist between microbial diversity and mineral precipitation. The present review, far from being exhaustive, highlights some recent advances in the field of bio-mineralogy and provides non-specialists an introduction to some of the main approaches and some questions that remain unanswered. (authors)

  12. In vitro study of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan–gelatin composites for bio-applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R. Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the in vitro properties of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan–gelatin composite materials. In vitro behavior was performed in simulated body fluid (SBF to verify the formation of apatite layer onto the composite surfaces. The in vitro data proved the deposition of calcium and phosphorus ions onto hydroxyapatite /polymeric composite surfaces especially those containing high concentrations of polymer content. The degradation of the composites decreased with increase in the polymeric matrix content and highly decreased in the presence of citric acid (CA, especially these composites which contain 30% polymeric content. The water absorption of the composites increased with increase in the polymeric content and highly increased with CA addition. The Fourier transformed infrared reflectance (FT-IR and scanning electron microscope (SEM for the composites confirmed the formation of bone-like apatite layer on the composite surfaces, especially those containing high content of polymers (30% with 0.2 M of CA. These promising composites have suitable properties for bio-applications such as bone grafting and bone tissue engineering applications in the future.

  13. Bio-mimetic mineralization potential of collagen hydrolysate obtained from chromium tanned leather waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Pradipta; Madhu, S.; Chandra Babu, N.K.; Shanthi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics serve as an alternative to autogenous-free bone grafting by virtue of their excellent biocompatibility. However, chemically synthesized HA lacks the strong load-bearing capacity as required by bone. The bio-mimetic growth of HA crystals on collagen surface provides a feasible solution for synthesizing bone substitutes with the desired properties. This study deals with the utilization of the collagen hydrolysate recovered from leather waste as a substrate for promoting HA crystal growth. Bio-mimetic growth of HA was induced by subjecting the hydrolysate to various mineralization conditions. Parameters that would have a direct effect on crystal growth were varied to determine the optimal conditions necessary. Maximum mineralization was achieved with a combination of 10 mM of CaCl 2 , 5 mM of Na 2 HPO 4 , 100 mM of NaCl and 0.575% glutaraldehyde at a pH of 7.4. The metal–protein interactions leading to formation of HA were identified through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The crystal dimensions were determined to be in the nanoscale range by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size and crystallinity of bio-mimetically grown HA indicate that hydrolysate from leather waste can be used as an ideal alternative substrate for bone growth. - Highlights: • Collagen hydrolysate, extracted from leather industry waste is subjected to biomineralization. • Optimal conditions required for HA growth are identified. • FTIR studies reveal higher Ca−COO − and low C−N stretch with higher HA formation. • AFM and SEM studies reveal nanometer ranged HA crystals

  14. Biologically inspired growth of hydroxyapatite crystals on bio-organics-defined scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chunrong, E-mail: milkhoney3@163.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Li, Yuli; Nan, Kaihui [Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Petal-like crystals were observed to form on the surface of the BG/COL/ChS scaffolds. Highlights: ► Porous scaffolds were prepared using bioglass, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. ► Highly oriented HA crystals were grown on scaffolds using simulated body fluids ► The microstructure and orientation of HA were explained by molecular configuration. - Abstract: Several bio-organics-defined composite scaffolds were prepared using 58s-bioglass (BG), collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS). These scaffolds possess highly porous structure. X-ray diffraction of these scaffolds strongly indicated that hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals formed on their surfaces in simulated body fluids within 3 d, and similar formation process of crystals could be obtained on BG/Col and BG/Col/ChS scaffolds. The morphology and structure of the crystals were further examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained indicate that an apatite with petal-like structure similar to that found on BG/Col scaffolds can be produced on BG/Col/ChS scaffolds through biomimetic synthesis, while that on BG/ChS scaffolds took place differently. The differences could be explained by self-assembly processes and the different macromolecular configurations of the Col and ChS fibrils which self-assemble spontaneously into their fibers. On the other hand, the bio-organics-defined composites have good cell biocompability. The results may be applicable to develop tailored biomaterials for peculiar bone substitute.

  15. Biologically inspired growth of hydroxyapatite crystals on bio-organics-defined scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chunrong; Li, Yuli; Nan, Kaihui

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Petal-like crystals were observed to form on the surface of the BG/COL/ChS scaffolds. Highlights: ► Porous scaffolds were prepared using bioglass, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. ► Highly oriented HA crystals were grown on scaffolds using simulated body fluids ► The microstructure and orientation of HA were explained by molecular configuration. - Abstract: Several bio-organics-defined composite scaffolds were prepared using 58s-bioglass (BG), collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS). These scaffolds possess highly porous structure. X-ray diffraction of these scaffolds strongly indicated that hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals formed on their surfaces in simulated body fluids within 3 d, and similar formation process of crystals could be obtained on BG/Col and BG/Col/ChS scaffolds. The morphology and structure of the crystals were further examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained indicate that an apatite with petal-like structure similar to that found on BG/Col scaffolds can be produced on BG/Col/ChS scaffolds through biomimetic synthesis, while that on BG/ChS scaffolds took place differently. The differences could be explained by self-assembly processes and the different macromolecular configurations of the Col and ChS fibrils which self-assemble spontaneously into their fibers. On the other hand, the bio-organics-defined composites have good cell biocompability. The results may be applicable to develop tailored biomaterials for peculiar bone substitute

  16. Heterogeneous and self-organizing mineralization of bone matrix promoted by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, G; Cristofaro, F; Pani, G; Fratini, M; Pascucci, B; Corsetto, P A; Weinhausen, B; Cedola, A; Rizzo, A M; Visai, L; Rea, G

    2017-11-16

    The mineralization process is crucial to the load-bearing characteristics of the bone extracellular matrix. In this work, we have studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of mineral deposition by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiating toward osteoblasts promoted by the presence of exogenous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. At the molecular level, the added nanoparticles positively modulated the expression of bone-specific markers and enhanced calcified matrix deposition during osteogenic differentiation. The nucleation, growth and spatial arrangement of newly deposited hydroxyapatite nanocrystals have been evaluated using scanning micro X-ray diffraction and scanning micro X-ray fluorescence. As leading results, we have found the emergence of a complex scenario where the spatial organization and temporal evolution of the process exhibit heterogeneous and self-organizing dynamics. At the same time the possibility of controlling the differentiation kinetics, through the addition of synthetic nanoparticles, paves the way to empower the generation of more structured bone scaffolds in tissue engineering and to design new drugs in regenerative medicine.

  17. Graphene oxide/oxidized carbon nanofiber/mineralized hydroxyapatite based hybrid composite for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, N.; Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Sundramoorthy, Ashok K.

    2017-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP), a multi-mineral substituted calcium phosphate is the main mineral component of tooth enamel and bone, has become an important biomaterial for biomedical applications. However, as-synthesized HAP has poor mechanical properties and inferior wear resistance, so it is not suitable to use in bone tissue engineering applications. We report the successful incorporation of oxidized carbon nanofibers (O-CNF) and graphene oxide (GO) into the mineralized hydroxyapatite (M-HAP) which showed excellent mechanical and biological properties. GO improved the high mechanical strength and corrosion protection of the substrate in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and promoted the viability of osteoblasts MG63 cells. As-prepared M-HAP/O-CNF/GO composite showed materials characteristics that similar to natural bone (M-HAP) with high mechanical strength. The resultant M-HAP/O-CNF/GO composite was characterized out by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The mechanical strength of the material was determined by Vicker’s micro-hardness method and it was found that M-HAP/O-CNF/GO (468  ±  4 Hv) composite has superior mechanical properties than M-HAP (330  ±  3 Hv) and M-HAP/GO (425  ±  5 Hv) samples. In addition, antibacterial activity of the composite was studied against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the cell viability of the composite was observed in vitro against osteoblast cells. All these studies confirmed that the M-HAP/O-CNF/GO composite can be considered as potential candidate for dental and orthopedic applications.

  18. Thermal and ultrasonic influence in the formation of nanometer scale hydroxyapatite bio-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinern, GJE; Brundavanam, R; Le, X Thi; Djordjevic, S; Prokic, M; Fawcett, D

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a widely used biocompatible ceramic in many biomedical applications and devices. Currently nanometer-scale forms of HAP are being intensely investigated due to their close similarity to the inorganic mineral component of the natural bone matrix. In this study nano-HAP was prepared via a wet precipitation method using Ca(NO3)2 and KH2PO4 as the main reactants and NH4OH as the precipitator under ultrasonic irradiation. The Ca/P ratio was set at 1.67 and the pH was maintained at 9 during the synthesis process. The influence of the thermal treatment was investigated by using two thermal treatment processes to produce ultrafine nano-HAP powders. In the first heat treatment, a conventional radiant tube furnace was used to produce nano-particles with an average size of approximately 30 nm in diameter, while the second thermal treatment used a microwave-based technique to produce particles with an average diameter of 36 nm. The crystalline structure and morphology of all nanoparticle powders produced were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Both thermal techniques effectively produced ultrafine powders with similar crystalline structure, morphology and particle sizes. PMID:22114473

  19. Characterization and Mineralization of Strontium Doped Nano Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang WANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pure nano hydroxyapatite (nHA and strontium doped nano hydroxyapatite (Sr-nHA, Sr/(Ca+Sr =10% were prepared by a one-step method which mainly used the principle of homogeneous phase co-precipitation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed that the intensity of absorption was decreased with Sr doping. X-ray diffraction (XRD showed that special peak position of Sr-nHA shifted to a smaller 2θ angle compared with the pure nHA. Both the pure nHA (39.46±11.19nm in length and 15.90±3.65 nm in width and Sr-nHA (32.95±10.21 nm in length and 13.18±3.18 nm in width samples showed a tiny nano-rod feature. Moreover, Tc4 (Ti-6Al-4V rods (1 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length coated with pure nHA or Sr-nHA were prepared by high-energy plasma spraying. Elements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, oxygen (O and Sr were detected on the Sr-nHA coating surface by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS. XRD result also indicates the chemical composition almost did not change significantly after spraying. By immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF, in vitro mineralization ability was estimated and the superficial coats were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD. The results showed that Sr-nHA spraying surface has a better mineralization ability than the pure nHA coating. Therefore, the synthesized Sr-nHA would have potential for biological prostheses and other implantable materials.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.17254

  20. Bio resorbability of the modified hydroxyapatite in Tris-HCL buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanova, O A; Izmailov, R R; Ghyngazov, S A

    2016-01-01

    The solubility of carbonated hydroxyapatite powders and granulated carbonated hydroxyapatite produced from the synovial biofluid model solution has been studied. The kinetic characteristics of dissolution were determined. It was found that the solubility of carbonated hydroxyapatite is higher as compared to that of hydroxyapatite. The impact of the organic matrix on the rate of sample dissolution was revealed. For HA-gelatin composites, as the gelatin concentration grows, the dissolution rate becomes greater, and a sample of 6.0 g / L concentration has higher resorbability. The results of the research can be used to study the kinetics of dissolution and the biocompatibility of ceramic materials for medicine, namely for reconstructive surgery, dentistry, and development of drug delivery systems. (paper)

  1. In vitro biological performance of minerals substituted hydroxyapatite coating by pulsed electrodeposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopi, Dhanaraj, E-mail: dhanaraj_gopi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Karthika, Arumugam; Nithiya, Subramani [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Kavitha, Louis [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-03-01

    The present study deals with the optimization of minerals (Sr, Mg and Zn) substituted hydroxyapatite coatings (M-HAP) at different pulse on and off time (1 s, 2 s, 3 s and 4 s) by pulsed electrodeposition method. The formation of M-HAP coating was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction studies (XRD). The morphological features and the content of Sr, Mg and Zn ions in M-HAP coated Ti–6Al–4V were investigated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The electrochemical studies were performed for M-HAP coated Ti–6Al–4V in simulated body fluid which exhibited better corrosion resistance at the prolonged pulse off time. The in vitro cell adhesion test revealed that the M-HAP coating is found appropriate for the formation of new cell growth which proves the enhanced biocompatible nature of the coating. Thus the M-HAP coating will serve as a potential candidate in orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • We successfully achieved minerals substituted HAP coatings on Ti alloy by PED method. • The M-HAP coated Ti alloy exhibited better bioresistivity in SBF. • The as-coated sample showed antimicrobial activity and better cell viability. • The in vitro test displayed the formation of new cell growth. • The M-HAP coating can serve as a better candidate in orthopedic applications.

  2. Mechanical and morphological characterization of a bio-nanocomposite hydroxyapatite / polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Sabina da Memoria Cardoso de; Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares; Zavaglia, Cecilia Amelia de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biocompatible polymers and hydroxyapatite are wide acceptance as bone grafts, the composition, structure and similarity to natural bone and also due to the properties functional, such as surface and mechanical strength. This work there was the making of a bionanocomposite, using nanostructured hydroxyapatite interconnected by polyurethane, generated from the actions of poly(vinylalcohol) and toluene isocyanate HDT. The formation kinetics was monitored by the bionanocomposite spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared FTIR. The material showed good properties both mechanical and morphology. (author)

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanorods for Rapid Formation of Bone-Like Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, Tran Thanh; Nga, Nguyen Kim; Giang, Luu Truong; Huy, Tran Quang; Tuan, Phan Nguyen Minh; Binh, Bui Thi Thanh

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an excellent biomaterial for bone repair and regeneration. The biological functions of HAp particles, such as biomineralization, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation, can be enhanced when their size is reduced to the nanoscale. In this work, HAp nanoparticles were synthesized by the hydrothermal technique with addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). These particles were also characterized, and their size controlled by modifying the CTAB concentration and hydrothermal duration. The results show that most HAp nanoparticles were rod-like in shape, exhibiting the most uniform and smallest size (mean diameter and length of 39 nm and 125 nm, respectively) at optimal conditions of 0.64 g CTAB and hydrothermal duration of 12 h. Moreover, good biomineralization capability of the HAp nanorods was confirmed through in vitro tests in simulated body fluid. A bone-like mineral layer of synthesized HAp nanorods formed rapidly after 7 days. This study shows that highly bioactive HAp nanorods can be easily prepared by the hydrothermal method, being a potential nanomaterial for bone regeneration.

  4. Comparison of 3D-Printed Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Scaffolds Functionalized with Tricalcium Phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, Bio-Oss, or Decellularized Bone Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Ethan; Rindone, Alexandra; Dorafshar, Amir; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)-printing facilitates rapid, custom manufacturing of bone scaffolds with a wide range of material choices. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for 3D-printing bioactive (i.e., osteo-inductive) scaffolds for use in bone regeneration applications. In this study, we 3D-printed porous poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) process and functionalized them with mineral additives that have been widely used commercially and clinically: tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), Bio-Oss (BO), or decellularized bone matrix (DCB). We assessed the "print quality" of the composite scaffolds and found that the print quality of PCL-TCP, PCL-BO, and PCL-DCB measured ∼0.7 and was statistically lower than PCL and PCL-HA scaffolds (∼0.8). We found that the incorporation of mineral particles did not significantly decrease the compressive modulus of the graft, which was on the order of 260 MPa for solid blocks and ranged from 32 to 83 MPa for porous scaffolds. Raman spectroscopy revealed the surfaces of the scaffolds maintained the chemical profile of their dopants following the printing process. We evaluated the osteo-inductive properties of each scaffold composite by culturing adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and assessing their differentiation into osteoblasts. The calcium content (normalized to DNA) increased significantly in PCL-TCP (p  0.05). Collagen 1 expression was 10-fold greater than PCL in PCL-BO and PCL-DCB (p < 0.05) and osteocalcin expression was 10-fold greater in PCL-BO and PCL-DCB (p < 0.05) as measured by quantitative-real time-polymerase chain reaction. This study suggests that PCL-BO and PCL-DCB hybrid material may be advantageous for bone healing applications over PCL-HA or PCL-TCP blends.

  5. Bio-Corrosion Behavior of Ceramic Coatings Containing Hydroxyapatite on Mg-Zn-Ca Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yan Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic coatings containing hydroxyapatite (HA were fabricated on a biodegradable Mg66Zn29Ca5 magnesium alloy through micro-arc oxidation by adding HA particles into the electrolytes. The phase composition and surface morphology of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, respectively. Electrochemical experiments and immersion tests were performed in Hank’s solution at 37 °C to measure the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Blood compatibility was evaluated by in vitro blood platelet adhesion tests and static water contact angle measurement. The results show that the typical ceramic coatings with a porous structure were prepared on the magnesium alloy surface with the main phases of MgO and MgSiO3 and a small amount of Mg3(PO42 and HA. The optimal surface morphology appeared at HA concentration of 0.4 g/L. The electrochemical experiments and immersion tests reveal a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of the ceramic coatings containing HA compared with the coatings without HA or bare Mg66Zn29Ca5 magnesium alloy. The static water contact angle of the HA-containing ceramic coatings is 18.7°, which is lower than that of the coatings without HA (40.1°. The in vitro blood platelet adhesion tests indicate that the HA-containing ceramic coatings possess improved blood compatibility compared with the coatings without HA. Utilizing HA-containing ceramic coatings may be an effective way to improve the surface biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  6. The surface-active bio oil solution in sulfured copper mineral benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Brossard

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active bio-oil (SABO solutions, prepared from vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil with a phenol-to-levoglucosan mass ratio of 4.8, was compared to pine-oil (PO as foaming agent in the process of flotation of sulfured copper minerals. With the aid of 2³ factorial designs, regression models were obtained for % Cu in flotation concentrate (L Cu and % Cu recovery (R, as functions of foaming agent-to-Cu mineral, collector-to-Cu mineral mass ratio and liquid-to-solid ratio (v/w. Experimental designs composed of a saturated design in its first half and a fold over design in its second half allowed to study the influence of flotation conditions on L Cu and R when SABO was the foaming agent. The factors selected were: particle size; pulp pH; flotation time; initial Cu content in the mineral (mineral type; liquid-to-solid ratio and finally SABO-to-mineral and collector-to-mineral mass ratio. Within the chosen experimental region only pulp pH affected significantly both responses. It is shown that high pulp pH, in the presence of minerals rich in Cu content leads to a significant increase in L Cu and R. Although SABO to mineral mass ratio is high compared to PO, it is considered that an optimization study on pulp pH should reduce this difference making SABO an attractive alternative to PO and a way to widen the field of applications of pyrolysis products.

  7. Response of Human Osteoblast to n-HA/PEEK—Quantitative Proteomic Study of Bio-effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Xiaochen; Wei, Jie; Ji, Jianguo; Yang, Shu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-03-01

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK. Results from quantitative proteomic analysis showed that the most enriched categories in the up-regulated proteins were related to calcium ion processes and associated functions while the most enriched categories in the down-regulated proteins were related to RNA process. This enhanced our understanding to the molecular mechanism of the promotion of the cell adhesion and differentiation with the inhibition of the cell proliferation on n-HA/PEEK composite. It also exhibited that although the calcium ion level of incubate environment hadn’t increased, merely the calcium fixed on the surface of material had influence to intracellular calcium related processes, which was also reflect by the higher intracellular Ca2+ concentration of n-HA/PEEK. This study could lead to more comprehensive cognition to the versatile biocompatibility of composite materials. It further proves that proteomics is useful in new bio-effect discovery.

  8. Response of Human Osteoblast to n-HA/PEEK—Quantitative Proteomic Study of Bio-effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Xiaochen; Wei, Jie; Ji, Jianguo; Yang, Shu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK. Results from quantitative proteomic analysis showed that the most enriched categories in the up-regulated proteins were related to calcium ion processes and associated functions while the most enriched categories in the down-regulated proteins were related to RNA process. This enhanced our understanding to the molecular mechanism of the promotion of the cell adhesion and differentiation with the inhibition of the cell proliferation on n-HA/PEEK composite. It also exhibited that although the calcium ion level of incubate environment hadn’t increased, merely the calcium fixed on the surface of material had influence to intracellular calcium related processes, which was also reflect by the higher intracellular Ca2+ concentration of n-HA/PEEK. This study could lead to more comprehensive cognition to the versatile biocompatibility of composite materials. It further proves that proteomics is useful in new bio-effect discovery. PMID:26956660

  9. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  10. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on hydroxyapatite-mineralized poly(lactic acid) nanofiber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Fu-Chen [Department of Health Developing and Health Marketing, Kainan University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@thu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taiwan (China); Lai, Wen-Fu T., E-mail: Laitw@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Electrospun fiber sheets with various orientations (random, partially aligned, and aligned) and smooth and roughened casted membranes were prepared. Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals were in situ formed on these material surfaces via immersion in 10 × simulated body fluid solution. The size and morphology of the resulting fibers were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the fibers ranged from 225 ± 25 to 1050 ± 150 nm depending on the electrospinning parameters. Biological experiment results show that human adipose-derived stem cells exhibit different adhesion and osteogenic differentiation on the three types of fiber. The cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were best on the aligned fibers. Similar results were found for phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) aligned fibers mineralized with HA crystals provide a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation and thus have great potential in the tissue engineering field. - Highlights: • hADSCs show higher adhesion and proliferation on HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets than those of the control membranes. • HA-mineralized fiber groups greatly improve cell growth and increase FAK and p-FAK expressions. • HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets present higher ALP and OC activity through the study periods. • Electrospun PLA fiber mineralized with HA provides a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. • A simple immersion of electrospun fibers in 10 × SBF are a potential matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Bio-based polyurethane for tissue engineering applications: How hydroxyapatite nanoparticles influence the structure, thermal and biological behavior of polyurethane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Laís P; Santos, Maria Elizabeth M Dos; Jardini, André L; Bastos, Gilmara N T; Dias, Carmen G B T; Webster, Thomas J; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2017-01-01

    In this work, thermoset polyurethane composites were prepared by the addition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using the reactants polyol polyether and an aliphatic diisocyanate. The polyol employed in this study was extracted from the Euterpe oleracea Mart. seeds from the Amazon Region of Brazil. The influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the structure and morphology of the composites was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and biological properties were studied by in vitro and in vivo studies. It was found that the addition of HA nanoparticles promoted fibroblast adhesion while in vivo investigations with histology confirmed that the composites promoted connective tissue adherence and did not induce inflammation. In this manner, this study supports the further investigation of bio-based, polyurethane/hydroxyapatite composites as biocompatible scaffolds for numerous tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted

    2014-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on cereal phytase that are particular relevant for improving mineral and phosphate bio-availability. Phytases can initiate the hydrolysis of phytate, the main storage form of phosphate in cereals and the major anti-nutritional factor...... for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...... wheat, barley and rye whereas non-Triticeae cereals such as maize and rice have very little MGPA. Recent studies have determined the evolutionary relationships of phytases in Triticeae and non-Triticeae and highlighted the importance of the purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhys). In the Triticeae...

  13. Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants chemistry and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As the field of tribology has evolved, the lubrication industry is also progressing at an extraordinary rate. Updating the author's bestselling publication, Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids, this book features the contributions of over 60 specialists, ten new chapters, and a new title to reflect the evolving nature of the field: Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology. The book contains chapters on all major lubricant fluids used in a wide range of applications. For each type of lubricant, the authors discuss the historical develo

  14. Hydrogels from Amorphous Calcium Carbonate and Polyacrylic Acid: Bio-Inspired Materials for "Mineral Plastics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengtong; Mao, Li-Bo; Lei, Zhouyue; Yu, Shu-Hong; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-09-19

    Given increasing environmental issues due to the large usage of non-biodegradable plastics based on petroleum, new plastic materials, which are economic, environmentally friendly, and recyclable are in high demand. One feasible strategy is the bio-inspired synthesis of mineral-based hybrid materials. Herein we report a facile route for an amorphous CaCO3 (ACC)-based hydrogel consisting of very small ACC nanoparticles physically cross-linked by poly(acrylic acid). The hydrogel is shapeable, stretchable, and self-healable. Upon drying, the hydrogel forms free-standing, rigid, and transparent objects with remarkable mechanical performance. By swelling in water, the material can completely recover the initial hydrogel state. As a matrix, thermochromism can also be easily introduced. The present hybrid hydrogel may represent a new class of plastic materials, the "mineral plastics". © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The enhancing of Au-Ag-Te content in tellurium-bearing ore mineral by bio-oxidation-leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, PyeongMan; Kim, HyunSoo; Myung, EunJi; Kim, YoonJung; Lee, YongBum; Park*, CheonYoung

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the content of valuable metals such as Au-Ag-Te in tellurium-bearing minerals by bio-oxidation-leaching. It was confirmed that pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena were produced together with tellurium-bearing minerals including hessite, sylvanite and tellurobismuthite from ore minerals and concentrates through microscopic observation and SEM/EDS analysis. In a bio-oxidation-leaching experiment, with regard to Au, Ag, Te, Cu and Fe, the changes in the amount of leaching and the content of leaching residues were compared and analyzed with each other depending on the adaptation of an indigenous microbe identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. As a result of the experiment, the Au-Ag-Te content in tellurium-bearing ore mineral was enhanced in the order of physical oxidation leaching, physical/non-adaptive bio-oxidation-leaching and physical/adaptive biological leaching. It suggests that the bio-oxidation-leaching using microbes adapted in tellurium-bearing ore mineral can be used as a pre-treatment and a main process in a recovery process of valuable metals. "This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education(NRF-2013R1A1A2004898)"

  16. Construction of a fluorescent nanostructured chitosan-hydroxyapatite scaffold by nanocrystallon induced biomimetic mineralization and its cell biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guancong; Zheng, Lin; Zhao, Hongshi; Miao, Junying; Sun, Chunhui; Liu, Hong; Huang, Zhen; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jiyang; Tao, Xutang

    2011-05-01

    Biomaterial surfaces and their nanostructures can significantly influence cell growth and viability. Thus, manipulating surface characteristics of scaffolds can be a potential strategy to control cell functions for stem cell tissue engineering. In this study, in order to construct a hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated genipin-chitosan conjugation scaffold (HGCCS) with a well-defined HAp nanostructured surface, we have developed a simple and controllable approach that allows construction of a two-level, three-dimensional (3D) networked structure to provide sufficient calcium source and achieve desired mechanical function and mass transport (permeability and diffusion) properties. Using a nontoxic cross-linker (genipin) and a nanocrystallon induced biomimetic mineralization method, we first assembled a layer of HAp network-like nanostructure on a 3D porous chitosan-based framework. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis confirm that the continuous network-like nanostructure on the channel surface of the HGCCS is composed of crystalline HAp. Compressive testing demonstrated that the strength of the HGCCS is apparently enhanced because of the strong cross-linking of genipin and the resulting reinforcement of the HAp nanonetwork. The fluorescence properties of genipin-chitosan conjugation for convenient monitoring of the 3D porous scaffold biodegradability and cell localization in the scaffold was specifically explored using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Furthermore, through scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and immunofluorescence measurements of F-actin, we found that the HAp network-like nanostructure on the surface of the HGCCS can influence the morphology and integrin-mediated cytoskeleton organization of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Based on cell proliferation assays, rat BMSCs tend to have higher viability on HGCCS in vitro. The results of this study suggest that

  17. Bio-mineralization and potential biogeochemical processes in bauxite deposits: genetic and ore quality significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskou, Magdalini; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The Parnassos-Ghiona bauxite deposit in Greece of karst type is the 11th largest bauxite producer in the world. The mineralogical, major and trace-element contents and δ18O, δ12C, δ34S isotopic compositions of bauxite ores from this deposit and associated limestone provide valuable evidence for their origin and biogeochemical processes resulting in the beneficiation of low grade bauxite ores. The organic matter as thin coal layers, overlying the bauxite deposits, within limestone itself (negative δ12C isotopic values) and the negative δ34S values in sulfides within bauxite ores point to the existence of the appropriate circumstances for Fe bio-leaching and bio-mineralization. Furthermore, a consortium of microorganisms of varying morphological forms (filament-like and spherical to lenticular at an average size of 2 μm), either as fossils or presently living and producing enzymes, is a powerful factor to catalyze the redox reactions, expedite the rates of metal extraction and provide alternative pathways for metal leaching processes resulting in the beneficiation of bauxite ore.

  18. Metallurgical behavior of fine fractions of copper sulfide minerals in a combined process of modified flotation and agitated bio leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, J. P.; Ipinza, J.; Collao, N.; Ahlborn, G.

    2007-01-01

    The metallurgical behaviour of fine fraction of copper sulfide minerals of Compania Minera Quebrada Blanca S. A. was studied by concentration through flotation in aqueous media modified by alcohol followed by bio leaching of the concentrates. By using a 1% v/v of methanol, the metallurgical recovery of copper reaches 88%, while the iron recovery was 43%, the weight recovery was 18%, which indicates a high selectivity. these concentrates were then bio leached with and without nutrient medium, reaching 80% of copper recovery after 10 and 17 days, respectively. then, it is possible to conclude that this concentration-bio leaching metallurgical process is a promising route for copper recovery from the fine fraction of sulfide minerals. (Author) 24 refs

  19. Mineralization of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is initiated segmentally in the form of hydroxyapatite crystal accretions in the notochord sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou; Kryvi, Harald; Grotmol, Sindre; Wargelius, Anna; Krossøy, Christel; Epple, Mattias; Neues, Frank; Furmanek, Tomasz; Totland, Geir K

    2013-08-01

    We performed a sequential morphological and molecular biological study of the development of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Mineralization starts in separate bony elements which fuse to form complete segmental rings within the notochord sheath. The nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in both the lamellar type II collagen matrix of the notochord sheath and the lamellar type I collagen matrix derived from the sclerotome, were highly similar. In both matrices the hydroxyapatite crystals nucleate and accrete on the surface of the collagen fibrils rather than inside the fibrils, a process that may be controlled by a template imposed by the collagen fibrils. Apatite crystal growth starts with the formation of small plate-like structures, about 5 nm thick, that gradually grow and aggregate to form extensive multi-branched crystal arborizations, resembling dendritic growth. The hydroxyapatite crystals are always oriented parallel to the long axis of the collagen fibrils, and the lamellar collagen matrices provide oriented support for crystal growth. We demonstrate here for the first time by means of synchroton radiation based on X-ray diffraction that the chordacentra contain hydroxyapatite. We employed quantitative real-time PCR to study the expression of key signalling molecule transcripts expressed in the cellular core of the notochord. The results indicate that the notochord not only produces and maintains the notochord sheath but also expresses factors known to regulate skeletogenesis: sonic hedgehog (shh), indian hedgehog homolog b (ihhb), parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (pth1r) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (tgfb1). In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the process of vertebral body development in teleost fishes, which is initially orchestrated by the notochord. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  20. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.M., E-mail: mmahmoudradwan@yahoo.com [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Hamid, H.K. [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, A.F. [The Holding Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (EGYVAC) (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C{sub 2}S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C{sub 2}S (27–30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 °C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7–15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C{sub 2}S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way. - Highlights: • The dissolution and hydration of β-C{sub 2}S and TCP/HAp in distilled water and saline solution were studied. • TCP/HAp did not show mechanical strength, while β-C{sub 2}S showed good mechanical strength. • The use of saline solution did enhances the dissolution & hydration rate. • An increase in pH values was detected when using saline solution. • Both materials showed a moderate cytotoxicity in no significant way.

  1. Study of the fission products fixation in the hydroxyapatite mineral; Estudio de la fijacion de productos de fision en el mineral hidroxiapatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano R, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    In this research work, sorption properties of hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions were studied using Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ion behavior. In addition, the fission products {sup 99}Tc and {sup 107}Pd uptake was studied to determine their sorption mechanisms on hydroxyapatite. This research was conducted in two stages. The first stage aimed to identify surface reactive sites of hydroxyapatite surface. This surface study was performed by the radiotracer method using {sup 24}Na and {sup 42}K radionuclides and applying the ion-exchange theory. It provides evidence in terms of the saturation curves of individual behaviour of the Na{sup +} and K{sup +} cations. Hydroxyapatite reactive sites were identified and quantified from the results and application of the ion-exchange model: a mono-functional site of 0.28 mmol g{sup -1} for the sodium hydroxylate form and a dipr otic site with two saturation curves of 0.14 mmol g{sup -1} each, for the sodium phosphate form. In a second stage, the sorption of fission products, Tc and Pd, on hydroxyapatite was studied. This sorption was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients obtained with equivalent radiotracers: {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 109}Pd. Tc presented a low sorption affinity on hydroxyapatite in aqueous medium 0.02 M NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and the results also show that Tc is not sorbed from perchlorate medium (0.01 M Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}). Sorption behaviour of Pd(II) on hydroxyapatite was studied for different experimental conditions, with parameter such as: ph, aqueous medium (0.01 M NaClO{sub 4}, 0.01 M and 0.025 M Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, and 0.02 M NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), the solid solution ratio (10, 4 and 0.020 g/L), and the palladium concentration were studied. Pd sorption was complete at solid-solution ratios 10 and 4 g/L. A strong sorption affinity of hydroxyapatite for palladium was obtained at solid-solution ratio 0.020 g/L. In the interpretation of the results it was considered the aqueous chemistry of palladium

  2. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2014-08-01

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  3. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: gbvila@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  4. Experimental Measurements of Journal Bearing Friction Using Mineral, Synthetic, and Bio-Based Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis G. Nikolakopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of many industrial and naval applications is becoming increasingly important. Journal bearings are crucial components related with the reliable, safe and environmentally friendly operation of rotating machinery in many applications, e.g., in hydroplants, ships, power generation stations. The maintenance activities in certain cases also have considerable environmental impact. Fortunately, it is relatively easy to reduce the impact by changing the way lubricants are being used. Selecting the proper lubricant is important to sharply reduce long-term costs. The best-fit product selection can mean longer lubricant life, reduced machine wear, reduced incipient power losses and improved safety. Suitable basestocks and additives reduce environmental impact. In this paper, three types of lubricants are used in order to examine their effects on the tribological behavior of journal bearings. A mineral oil, a synthetic oil and a bio-based lubricant are experimentally and analytically examined for several configurations of load and journal rotational velocity. The friction forces and the hydrodynamic friction coefficients are calculated and compared. This investigation can assist the correct choice of lubricant in journal bearings with minimized environmental footprint.

  5. Improvement in grade of minerals using simultaneous Bio-oxidation of invisible gold concentrate and deep-sea manganese crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, EunJi; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Cheon Young

    2016-04-01

    Many sulfides of metal such as galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite, are semiconductors. When two kinds of such minerals contact each other in an electrolyte, a galvanic couple, where the mineral of lower rest potential as anode, and that of higher rest potential as cathode forms. Manganese dioxide is also a semiconductor with much higher rest potential than all sulfides mentioned above, so that a galvanic couple in which both the minerals would dissolve simultaneously can form, when it contacts with any of the sulfides. The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in grade of minerals using the simultaneous bio-oxidation of deep-sea manganese crust and invisible gold concentrate. The samples(deep-sea manganese crust and invisible gold concentrate) were characterized by chemical and XRD analysis. The primary components of the invisible gold concentrate was pyrite and quartz and the deep-sea manganese crust was amorphous material, as detected using XRD. The result of chemical analysis showed that Au, Ag, Te contents in the invisible gold concentrate 130.2, 954.1 and 1,043.6 mg/kg, respectively. and that Mn, Ni, Co contents in the deep-sea manganese crust 19,501.5, 151.9, 400.4 mg/kg, respectively. In order to increase the bacteria's tolerance of heavy metals, the bacteria using bio-oxidation experiments were repeatedly subcultured in an Cu adaptation-medium containing of 382.98 mg/l for 20 periods of 21 days. The improvement in grade of samples of in present adapted bacteria condition was greater than another conditions(control and in present non-adapted bacteria). The Au-Ag-Te contents in the invisible gold concentrate was enhanced in the order of physical oxidation, simultaneous/non-adaptive bio-oxidation, adaptive/bio-oxidation, simultaneous/adaptive bio-oxidation. If the bacteria is adapted to heavy metal ions and an optimization of conditions is found in future bio-oxidation-leaching processes. Acknowledgment : "This research was supported

  6. Affinity of hydroxyapatite by radionuclides parent/child in 188Re/188W generator for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera D, A. A.; Badillo A, V.; Badillo A, V. E.; Monroy G, F.

    2009-10-01

    To assess the feasibility of using apatites as matrices of 188 W/ 188 Re generator is essential to obtain the distribution coefficients as much of parent radionuclide as child radionuclide in apatite, that is to say to know their affinity for the solid. It was selected the mineral species more representative as adsorbent, the hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 it is known for its great capacity of ions retention and by presenting a large affinity for anionic species in their surface. In this paper we use a synthetic hydroxyapatite marketed by Bio-Rad. This paper presents the preliminary results regarding the affinity of hydroxyapatite for the anionic species tungstates (WO 4 2- ) and perrhenates (ReO 4 - in EDTA, as background electrolyte expressed as distribution coefficients between two immiscible phases obtained with the help of radioactive tracers 187 W and 188 Re respectively. The retention measures of these ions, traces show that Bio-Gel hydroxyapatite presents moderate values of distribution coefficients for anionic species of W(Vi) in EDTA 0.01 mol/L that are in the range p H 5 to 6.5; the parent radionuclide of generator 188 Re/ 188 W is fixed but not enough to consider it a good absorbent. By contrast, the fixation of perrhenate ions is virtually wiped as may be easily removed from a hydroxyapatite column packed with a saline solution. The influence of this saline solution in the removal of perrhenate ions is null practically. (Author)

  7. Hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings demonstrate poor adhesion and poor mechanical integrity. We have developed hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon bilayer film. The diamondlike carbon interlayer serves to prevent metal ion release and improve adhesion of the hydroxyapatite film. These films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation, and microscratch adhesion testing. Based on the results of this study, hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon bilayers demonstrate promise for use in several orthopedic implants

  8. Hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Roger J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)]. E-mail: roger.narayan@mse.gatech.edu

    2005-05-15

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings demonstrate poor adhesion and poor mechanical integrity. We have developed hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon bilayer film. The diamondlike carbon interlayer serves to prevent metal ion release and improve adhesion of the hydroxyapatite film. These films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation, and microscratch adhesion testing. Based on the results of this study, hydroxyapatite-diamondlike carbon bilayers demonstrate promise for use in several orthopedic implants.

  9. The use of mineral crystals as bio-markers in the search for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E. S.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that minerals resulting from biologically controlled mineralization processes be utilized as biomarkers because of their favorable qualities. Universal signatures of life (biomarkers) are discussed in terms of their terrestrial forms and hypothetical Martian counterparts including organics, suites of specific inorganic and organic compounds, and isotopic ratios. It is emphasized that minerals produced under biologic control have morphological and isotopic compositions that are not found in their abiotic counterparts. Other biomarkers are not necessarily indicative of biological origin and are therefore unreliable resources for scientific study. Mineral crystals are also stable over long geological periods, and the minerals from Martian fluvial features can therefore be employed to search for fossils and biomarkers of early biological activity.

  10. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  11. Mechanical and morphological characterization of a bio-nanocomposite hydroxyapatite / polyurethane; Caracterizacao mecanica e morfologica de um bionanocomposito hidroxiapatita/poliuretano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Sabina da Memoria Cardoso de, E-mail: sabina_memoria@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Zavaglia, Cecilia Amelia de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    Nanocomposites based on biocompatible polymers and hydroxyapatite are wide acceptance as bone grafts, the composition, structure and similarity to natural bone and also due to the properties functional, such as surface and mechanical strength. This work there was the making of a bionanocomposite, using nanostructured hydroxyapatite interconnected by polyurethane, generated from the actions of poly(vinylalcohol) and toluene isocyanate HDT. The formation kinetics was monitored by the bionanocomposite spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared FTIR. The material showed good properties both mechanical and morphology. (author)

  12. The synthesis, characterization and in vivo study of mineral substituted hydroxyapatite for prospective bone tissue rejuvenation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Dharman; Rajan, Mariappan; Munusamy, Murugan A; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Kumar, S Suresh

    2017-11-01

    Minerals substituted apatite (M-HA) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation of minerals and phosphate reactants in choline chloride-Thiourea (ChCl-TU) deep eutectic solvent (DESs) as a facile and green way approach. After preparation of nanoparticles (F-M-HA (F=Fresh solvent)), the DESs was recovered productively and reprocess for the preparation of R-M-HA nanoparticles (R=Recycle solvent).The functional groups, phase, surface texture and the elemental composition of the M-HA nanoparticles were evaluated by advance characterization methods. The physicochemical results of the current work authoritative the successful uses of the novel (ChCl-TU) DESs as eco-friendly recuperate and give the medium for the preparation of M-HA nanoparticles. Moreover, the as-synthesized both M-HA nanoparticles exhibit excellent biocompatibility, consisting of cell co-cultivation and cell adhesion, in vivo according to surgical implantation of Wistar rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bio- and mineral acid leaching of rare earth elements from synthetic phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Antonick, P.; Fujita, Y.; Reed, D. W.; Riman, R.; Eslamimanesh, A.; Das, G.; Anderko, A.; Wu, L.; Shivaramaiah, R.; Navrotsky, A.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to many clean energy technologies. However, the lack of U.S. domestic production and the reliance on imported REE put U.S. energy security at risk. Consequently development of new sources is of strategic interest. Global phosphate deposits contain 27 million tons of REE and 38% of these REE end up in phosphogypsum (PG) waste during phosphate fertilizer production. Recovering REE from PG is a first step toward a trash-to-treasure transformation. We studied the leaching of REE from synthetic PG samples containing Y, Nd, or Eu using a suite of lixiviants including spent medium from the growth of the bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans ("biolixiviant"), gluconic acid, common mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric), and water. Synthetic PG was used to facilitate the comparison of the different lixiviants; real PG waste is extremely heterogeneous. Gluconic acid was the predominant identified organic acid in the biolixiviant. The leaching efficiency of the acidic lixiviants at the same pH (2.1) or molar concentration as gluconic acid in the biolixiviant (220 mM) were compared and rationalized by thermodynamic simulation using the mixed-solvent electrolyte model. Initial results indicate that the biolixiviant was more effective at leaching the REE than the mineral acids at pH 2.1. At 220 mM acid concentrations, sulfuric acid was the most effective, followed by the biolixiviant. Interestingly, for a given lixiviant, the leaching behavior of the REE differed. This study provides insight into the definition of an efficient lixiviant for leaching REE from phosphate fertilizer production waste.

  14. Macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics by solid freeform fabrication: towards custom implants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richter, PW

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available structure that would be impossible to make by conventional manufacturing methods. Application of this technology to the manufacture of macro porous hydroxyapatite bio ceramics for bone substitute applications is discussed. A new design is described...

  15. Removal of metals from industrial wastewater and urban runoff by mineral and bio-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Harshita; Leiviskä, Tiina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Tanskanen, Juha

    2018-03-01

    The study was performed to evaluate chemically modified biosorbents, hydrochloric acid treated peat (HCl-P) and citric acid treated sawdust (Citric acid-SD) for their metal removal capacity from dilute industrial wastewater and urban runoff and compare their efficiency with that of commercially available mineral sorbents (AQM PalPower M10 and AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite). Batch and column experiments were conducted using real water samples to assess the sorbents' metal sorption capacity. AQM PalPower M10 (consisting mainly of magnesium, iron and silicon oxides) exhibited excellent Zn removal from both industrial wastewater and spiked runoff water samples even at low dosages (0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively). The high degree of Zn removal was associated with the release of hydroxyl ions from the sorbent and subsequent precipitation of zinc hydroxide. The biosorbents removed Ni and Cr better than AQM PalPower M10 from industrial wastewater and performed well in removing Cr and Cu from spiked runoff water, although at higher dosages (0.3-0.75 g/L). The main mechanism of sorption by biosorbents was ion exchange. The sorbents required a short contact time to reach equilibrium (15-30 min) in both tested water samples. AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite was the worst performing sorbent, leaching Zn into both industrial and runoff water and Ni into runoff water. Column tests revealed that both HCl-P and AQM PalPower M10 were able to remove metals, although some leaching was witnessed, especially As from AQM PalPower M10. The low hydraulic conductivity observed for HCl-P may restrict the possibilities of using such small particle size peat material in a filter-type passive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  17. In situ annealing of hydroxyapatite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Shevon; Haluska, Michael; Narayan, Roger J.; Snyder, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Unfortunately, problems with adhesion, poor mechanical integrity, and incomplete bone ingrowth limit the use of many conventional hydroxyapatite surfaces. In this work, we have developed a novel technique to produce crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films involving pulsed laser deposition and postdeposition annealing. Hydroxyapatite films were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Si (100) using pulsed laser deposition, and annealed within a high temperature X-ray diffraction system. The transformation from amorphous to crystalline hydroxyapatite was observed at 340 deg. C. Mechanical and adhesive properties were examined using nanoindentation and scratch adhesion testing, respectively. Nanohardness and Young's modulus values of 3.48 and 91.24 GPa were realized in unannealed hydroxyapatite films. Unannealed and 350 deg. C annealed hydroxyapatite films exhibited excellent adhesion to Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates. We anticipate that the adhesion and biological properties of crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films may be enhanced by further consideration of deposition and annealing parameters

  18. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  19. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  20. Valorization of Bone Waste of Saudi Arabia by Synthesizing Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef

    2018-05-09

    At present, hydroxyapatite is being frequently used for diverse biomedical applications as it possesses excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and non-immunogenic characteristics. The aim of the present work was to recycle bone waste for synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to be used as bone extracellular matrix. For this reason, we for the first time utilized bio-waste of cow bones of Albaha city. The residual bones were utilized for the extraction of natural bone precursor hydroxyapatite. A facile scientific technique has been used to synthesize hydroxyapatite nanoparticles through calcinations of wasted cow bones without further supplementation of chemicals/compounds. The obtained hydroxyapatite powder was ascertained using physicochemical techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, and EDX. These analyses clearly show that hydroxyapatite from native cow bone wastes is biologically and physicochemically comparable to standard hydroxyapatite, commonly used for biomedical functions. The cell viability and proliferation over the prepared hydroxyapatite was confirmed with CCk-8 colorimetric assay. The morphology of the cells growing over the nano-hydroxyapatite shows that natural hydroxyapatite promotes cellular attachment and proliferation. Hence, the as-prepared nano-hydroxyapatite can be considered as cost-effective source of bone precursor hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Taking into account the projected demand for reliable bone implants, the present research work suggested using environment friendly methods to convert waste of Albaha city into nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Therefore, besides being an initial step towards accomplishment of projected demands of bone implants in Saudi Arabia, our study will also help in reducing the environmental burden by recycling of bone wastes of Albaha city.

  1. Crystal structure details of La- and Bi-substituted hydroxyapatites: Evidence for LaO+ and BiO+ with a very short metal–oxygen bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazin, Pavel E.; Pogosova, Mariam A.; Trusov, Lev A.; Kolesnik, Irina V.; Magdysyuk, Oxana V.; Dinnebier, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Crystal structures of substituted apatites with general formula Ca 10−x M x (PO 4 ) 6 (OH 1−δ ) 2−x O x , where M=La, Bi, 0≤x<2, were refined using high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Individual positions for Ca 2+ and M 3+ -ions localized near Ca2-site were determined. The M 3+ -ion was found shifted toward the hexagonal channel center with respect to the Ca 2+ -ion, forming very short bond with the intrachannel O 2− , while leaving considerably longer distances to other oxygen atoms, which suggested the existence of a MO + ion. Distinct bands of stretching M–O modes were observed in the Raman and FT-IR spectra of the compounds. The bond lengths for BiO + and LaO + were estimated to be 2.05(1) and 2.09(1) Å correspondingly. The latter was almost 0.3 Å lower than the shortest La–O bond in La 2 O 3 . The realization of such a strong lanthanide–oxygen bond in a crystal lattice could provide a very high axial ligand field and might be implemented to develop high-energy-barrier single-molecule magnets as well as to tune properties of lanthanide-based luminophores. - Graphical abstract: A fragment of the La-for-Ca substituted apatite crystal structure focusing on the La–O bond. - Highlights: • Individual positions in the apatite crystal lattice for a doping atom (La, Bi) and Ca. • The doping atom shifts toward the center of the hexagonal channel. • BiO + and LaO + with estimated short bond lengths of 2.05 and 2.09 Å respectively.

  2. On the assessment of hydroxyapatite fluoridation by means of Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, M.; Valiente, M.; Lacharmoise, P. D.; Reparaz, J. S.; Goni, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main mineral component of bones and teeth. Fluorapatite, a bioceramic that can be obtained from hydroxyapatite by chemical substitution of the hydroxide ions with fluoride, exhibits lower mineral solubility and larger mechanical strength. Despite the widespread use of fluoride against caries, a reliable technique for unambiguous assessment of fluoridation in in vitro tests is still lacking. Here we present a method to probe fluorapatite formation in fluoridated hydroxyapatite by combining Raman scattering with thermal annealing. In synthetic minerals, we found that effectively fluoride substituted hydroxyapatite transforms into fluorapatite only after heat treatment, due to the high activation energy for this first order phase transition.

  3. On the assessment of hydroxyapatite fluoridation by means of Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, M.; Lacharmoise, P. D.; Reparaz, J. S.; Goñi, A. R.; Valiente, M.

    2010-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main mineral component of bones and teeth. Fluorapatite, a bioceramic that can be obtained from hydroxyapatite by chemical substitution of the hydroxide ions with fluoride, exhibits lower mineral solubility and larger mechanical strength. Despite the widespread use of fluoride against caries, a reliable technique for unambiguous assessment of fluoridation in in vitro tests is still lacking. Here we present a method to probe fluorapatite formation in fluoridated hydroxyapatite by combining Raman scattering with thermal annealing. In synthetic minerals, we found that effectively fluoride substituted hydroxyapatite transforms into fluorapatite only after heat treatment, due to the high activation energy for this first order phase transition.

  4. Metallurgical behavior of fine fractions of copper sulfide minerals in a combined process of modified flotation and agitated bio leaching; Respuesta metalurgica de fracciones finas de minerales sulfurados de cobre en un proceso combinado de flotacion modificada y biolixiviacion agitada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, J. P.; Ipinza, J.; Collao, N.; Ahlborn, G.

    2007-07-01

    The metallurgical behaviour of fine fraction of copper sulfide minerals of Compania Minera Quebrada Blanca S. A. was studied by concentration through flotation in aqueous media modified by alcohol followed by bio leaching of the concentrates. By using a 1% v/v of methanol, the metallurgical recovery of copper reaches 88%, while the iron recovery was 43%, the weight recovery was 18%, which indicates a high selectivity. these concentrates were then bio leached with and without nutrient medium, reaching 80% of copper recovery after 10 and 17 days, respectively. then, it is possible to conclude that this concentration-bio leaching metallurgical process is a promising route for copper recovery from the fine fraction of sulfide minerals. (Author) 24 refs.

  5. Development of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl alcohol bionanocomposite for prosthesis implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, V.; Pabi, S. K.; Chowdhury, S. K. Roy

    2018-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has similar structural and chemical properties of natural bone mineral and hence widely used as a bone replacement substitute. Natural bone consists of hydroxyapatite and collagen. For mimicking the natural, in the present work, a sintered porous hydroxyapatite component has been vacuum impregnated with Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which has better properties like biocompatibility, biodegradability and water- solubility. Hydroxyapatite powders have been made into nanosize to reduce the melting point and hence the sintering temperature. In the present investigation high energy ball mill is used to produce nano-hydroxyapatite powders in bulk quantity by optimizing the milling parameters using stainless steel grinding media. Pellets of 10 mm diameter have been produced from nano- hydroxyapatite powders under different uniaxial compaction pressures. The pellets have been sintered to form porous compacts. The vacuum impregnation of sintered pallets with PVA solution of different strength has been done to find the optimum impregnation condition. Microhardness, compressive strength, wear loss and haemocompatibility of hydroxyapatite ceramics have been studied before and after impregnation of PVA. The nano- hydroxyapatite/PVA composites have superior mechanical properties and reduced wear loss than the non-impregnated porous nano-hydroxyapatite ceramics.

  6. Laser-Sintered Constructs with Bio-inspired Porosity and Surface Micro/Nano-Roughness Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Cohen, David J; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-12-01

    Direct metal laser sintering can produce porous Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic and dental implants. The process requires reduced resources and time and can provide greater structural control than machine manufacturing. Implants in bone are colonized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into osteoblasts and contribute to osseointegration. This study examined osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization of human MSCs cultured on laser-sintered Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity and at different time scales. 2D solid disks and low, medium and high porosity (LP, MP, and HP) 3D constructs based on a human trabecular bone template were laser sintered from Ti-6Al-4V powder and further processed to have micro- and nanoscale roughness. hMSCs exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation and local factor production on all 3D porous constructs compared to 2D surfaces, which was sustained for 9 days without use of exogenous factors. hMSCs cultured for 8 weeks on MP constructs in osteogenic medium (OM), OM supplemented with BMP2 or collagen-coated MP constructs in OM exhibited bone-like extracellular matrix mineralization. Use of bio-inspired porosity for the 3D architecture of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs beyond surface roughness alone. This study suggests that a 3D architecture may enhance the osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants in vivo.

  7. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from biogenic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Laonapakul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp is a major component of human bone, teeth and hard tissue. It is one of only a few bioactive materials. Since HAp is the most widely used ceramic biomaterial, various techniques have been developed to synthesize HAp. In recent years, the use of natural biogenic structures and materials for medical proposes has been motivated by limitations in producing synthetic materials. This article mainly focuses on the use of biogenic wastes to prepare HAp. These include bio-wastes, marine corals, eggshells, seashells and bio-membranes. In the present review, useful information about HAp preparation methodologies has been summarized for further research and development.

  8. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  9. Effect of osteogenesis imperfecta mutations in tropocollagen molecule on strength of biomimetic tropocollagen-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Devendra K.; Tomar, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder that affects cellular synthesis of Type-I collagen fibrils and causes extreme bone fragility. This study reports the effects of OI mutations in Tropocollagen (TC) molecules on strength of model Tropocollagen-Hydroxyapatite biomaterials with two different mineral [hydroxyapatite (HAP)] distributions using three dimensional atomistic simulations. Results show that the effect of TC mutations on the strength of TC-HAP biomaterials is insignificant. Instead, change in mineral distribution showed significant impact on the overall strength of TC-HAP biomaterials. Study suggests that TC mutations manifest themselves by changing the mineral distribution during hydroxyapatite growth and nucleation period.

  10. Bioactivity and mineralization of hydroxyapatite with bioglass as sintering aid and bioceramics with Na3Ca6(PO4)5 and Ca5(PO4)2SiO4 in a silicate matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirkiran, Hande; Mohandas, Arunesh; Dohi, Motokazi; Fuentes, Alonso; Nguyen, Kytai; Aswath, Pranesh

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite and Bioglass-45S5 were sintered together creating new ceramic compositions that yielded increased apatite deposition and osteoblast differentiation and proliferation in vitro compared to hydroxyapatite. The sintered products characterized by X-ray diffraction, revealed hydroxyapatite as the main phase when small quantities (1, 2.5 and 5 wt.%) of bioglass was added. Bioglass behaved as a sintering aid with β-TCP (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ) being the minor phase. The amount of β-TCP increased with the amount of bioglass added. In compositions with larger additions of bioglass (10 and 25 wt.%), new phases with compositions of calcium phosphate silicate (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 2 SiO 4 ) and sodium calcium phosphate (Na 3 Ca 6 (PO 4 ) 5 ) were formed respectively within amorphous silicate matrices. In vitro cell culture studies of the ceramic compositions were examined using bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC). Cell proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts were determined by Pico Green DNA assays and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, respectively. All hydroxyapatite-bioglass co-sintered ceramics exhibited larger cell proliferation compared to pure hydroxyapatite samples. After 6 days in cell culture, the ceramic with Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 SiO 4 in a silicate matrix formed by reacting hydroxyapatite with 10 wt.% bioglass exhibited the maximum proliferation of the BMSC's. The ALP activity was found to be largest in the ceramic with Na 3 Ca 6 (PO 4 ) 5 embedded in a silicate matrix synthesized by reacting hydroxyapatite with 25 wt.% bioglass.

  11. Detection of hydroxyapatite in calcified cardiovascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Sam; Morrisett, Joel D; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method for selective detection of the calcific (hydroxyapatite) component in human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and in calcified cardiovascular tissues ex vivo. This method uses a novel optical molecular imaging contrast dye, Cy-HABP-19, to target calcified cells and tissues. A peptide that mimics the binding affinity of osteocalcin was used to label hydroxyapatite in vitro and ex vivo. Morphological changes in vascular smooth muscle cells were evaluated at an early stage of the mineralization process induced by extrinsic stimuli, osteogenic factors and a magnetic suspension cell culture. Hydroxyapatite components were detected in monolayers of these cells in the presence of osteogenic factors and a magnetic suspension environment. Atherosclerotic plaque contains multiple components including lipidic, fibrotic, thrombotic, and calcific materials. Using optical imaging and the Cy-HABP-19 molecular imaging probe, we demonstrated that hydroxyapatite components could be selectively distinguished from various calcium salts in human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and in calcified cardiovascular tissues, carotid endarterectomy samples and aortic valves, ex vivo. Hydroxyapatite deposits in cardiovascular tissues were selectively detected in the early stage of the calcification process using our Cy-HABP-19 probe. This new probe makes it possible to study the earliest events associated with vascular hydroxyapatite deposition at the cellular and molecular levels. This target-selective molecular imaging probe approach holds high potential for revealing early pathophysiological changes, leading to progression, regression, or stabilization of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The biodegradation of hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, E; Wolf, E; Kauschke, E; Bienengräber, V; Bayerlein, T; Gedrange, T; Proff, P

    2006-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics are widely used for bone reconstruction. They are osteoconductive and serve as structural scaffolds for the deposition of new bone. Generally, scaffold materials should be degradable as they affect the mechanical properties of the reconstructed bone negatively. Degradation by osteoclasts during the bone remodelling process is desirable but often does not take place. In the current study we analysed by light microscopy the degradation of two granular HA implants in critically sized defects in the mandibula of Goettingen mini-pigs five weeks after implantation. Bio-Oss consists of sintered bovine bone and NanoBone is a synthetic HA produced in a sol-gel process in the presence of SiO2. We found that both biomaterials were degraded by osteoclasts with ruffled borders and acid phosphatase activity. The osteoclasts created resorption lacunae and resorptive trails and contained mineral particles. Frequently, resorption surfaces were in direct contact with bone formative surfaces on one granule. Granules, especially of NanoBone, were also covered by osteoclasts if located in vascularised connective tissue distant from bone tissue. However, this usually occurred without the creation of resorption lacunae. The former defect margins consisted of newly formed bone often without remnants of bone substitutes. Our results show that the degradation of both biomaterials corresponds to the natural bone degradation processes and suggest the possibility of complete resorption during bone remodelling.

  13. Synthetic Hydroxyapatite as a Biomimetic Oral Care Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Joachim; Epple, Matthias

    Human tooth enamel consists mostly of minerals, primarily hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, and thus synthetic hydroxyapatite can be used as a biomimetic oral care agent. This review describes the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from a chemist's perspective and provides an overview of its current use in oral care, with a focus on dentin hypersensitivity, caries, biofilm management, erosion, and enamel lesions. Reviews and original research papers published in English and German were included. The efficiency of synthetic hydroxyapatite in occluding open dentin tubules, resulting in a protection for sensitive teeth, has been well documented in a number of clinical studies. The first corresponding studies on caries, biofilm management and erosion have provided evidence for a positive effect of hydroxyapatite either as a main or synergistic agent in oral care products. However, more in situ and in vivo studies are needed due to the complexity of the oral milieu and to further clarify existing results. Due to its biocompatibility and similarity to biologically formed hydroxyapatite in natural tooth enamel, synthetic hydroxyapatite is a promising biomimetic oral care ingredient that may extend the scope of preventive dentistry.

  14. Mechanical, dielectric and surface analysis of hydroxyapatite doped anions for implantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen, S.; Kumar, A. Ruban

    2018-04-01

    Calcium Phosphate has broad applications in field of medicine and in tissue engineering. In that hydroxyapatite is one of the calcium phosphate similar to bone and teeth mineral phase. The aim of this paper is to improve mechanical property of hydroxyapatite which has less mechanical strength by doping of ions. The ions increase its strength which can be used in various medical applications. Surface property of hydroxyapatite and electrical property of ion doped hydroxyapatite analyzed and shown that it can be used in implantations, coatings.

  15. In situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile chemical precipitation method is reported for effective in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. Display Omitted Highlights: ► It is a facile and effective method for deposition of HA on GR nanosheets. ► It avoids the use of harmful reducing agents like hydrazine, NaBH 4 etc. ► GR nanosheets were produced using bio-compatible, ethylenediamine. ► The graphitic structure of synthesized GR nanosheets was high ordered. ► The ratio of Ca to P in HA was 1.64, which is close to ratio in natural bone. -- Abstract: Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. These characterization techniques revealed the successful grafting of hydroxyapatite over well exfoliated graphene nanosheets without destroying their structure.

  16. In situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelgund, Gururaj M. [Department of Chemistry, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, TX 77446 (United States); Oki, Aderemi, E-mail: aroki@pvamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, TX 77446 (United States); Luo, Zhiping [Microscopy and Imaging Center and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile chemical precipitation method is reported for effective in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. Display Omitted Highlights: ► It is a facile and effective method for deposition of HA on GR nanosheets. ► It avoids the use of harmful reducing agents like hydrazine, NaBH{sub 4} etc. ► GR nanosheets were produced using bio-compatible, ethylenediamine. ► The graphitic structure of synthesized GR nanosheets was high ordered. ► The ratio of Ca to P in HA was 1.64, which is close to ratio in natural bone. -- Abstract: Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. These characterization techniques revealed the successful grafting of hydroxyapatite over well exfoliated graphene nanosheets without destroying their structure.

  17. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Murillo L; Saeki, Margarida J.; Telling, Mark T. F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis...

  18. Hydroxyapatite nanorods: soft-template synthesis, characterization and preliminary in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Kim; Leoni, Matteo; Maniglio, Devid; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanorods are excellent candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, hydroxyapatite nanorods resembling bone minerals were produced by using soft-template method with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Composite hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films were prepared to evaluate the prepared hydroxyapatite nanorods in terms of cell affinity. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed that aspect ratio and film surface roughness play a vital role in controlling adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cell line MG 63. The hydroxyapatite nanorods with aspect ratios in the range of 5.94-7 were found to possess distinctive properties, with the corresponding hydroxyapatite/poly(D, L)lactic acid films promoting cellular confluence and a fast formation of collagen fibers as early as after 7 days of culture.

  19. Ribose mediated crosslinking of collagen-hydroxyapatite hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration using biomimetic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Gopal Shankar; Gostynska, Natalia; Campodoni, Elisabetta; Dapporto, Massimiliano; Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Tampieri, Anna; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio; Sprio, Simone; Sandri, Monica

    2017-08-01

    This study explores for the first time the application of ribose as a highly biocompatible agent for the crosslinking of hybrid mineralized constructs, obtained by bio-inspired mineralization of self-assembling Type I collagen matrix with magnesium-doped-hydroxyapatite nanophase, towards a biomimetic mineralized 3D scaffolds (MgHA/Coll) with excellent compositional and structural mimicry of bone tissue. To this aim, two different crosslinking mechanisms in terms of pre-ribose glycation (before freeze drying) and post-ribose glycation (after freeze drying) were investigated. The obtained results explicate that with controlled freeze-drying, highly anisotropic porous structures with opportune macro-micro porosity are obtained. The physical-chemical features of the scaffolds characterized by XRD, FTIR, ICP and TGA demonstrated structural mimicry analogous to the native bone. The influence of ribose greatly assisted in decreasing solubility and increased enzymatic resistivity of the scaffolds. In addition, enhanced mechanical behaviour in response to compressive forces was achieved. Preliminary cell culture experiments reported good cytocompatibility with extensive cell adhesion, proliferation and colonization. Overall, scaffolds developed by pre-ribose glycation process are preferred, as the related crosslinking technique is more facile and robust to obtain functional scaffolds. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated that ribose crosslinking is cost-effective, safe and functionally effective. This study also offers new insights and opportunities in developing promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation of lanthanides through hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    With the objective of obtaining from an independent way to each one of the lanthanides 151 Pm, 161 Tb, 166 Ho and 177 Lu free of carrier and with high specific activities starting from the indirect irradiation via, it intends in this work to determine the viability of separation of the couples Nd/Pm, Dy/Ho, Gd/Tb and Yb/Lu, by means of ion exchange column chromatography, using hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorite like absorbent material in complexing media. It is important to mention that have registered separation studies among lanthanides of the heavy group with those of the slight group, using the same mass and, in comparison with this work, quantities different from the father were used and of the son, also, that the separation studies were carried out among neighboring lanthanides. In this investigation, it was determined the effect that its have the complexing media: KSCN, sodium tartrate, sodium citrate, EDTA and aluminon, their pH and concentration, in the adsorption of the lanthanides in both minerals, in order to determine the chromatographic conditions for separation of the couples Nd/Pm, Dy/Ho, Gd/Tb and Yb/Lu. The work consists of five chapters, in the first one they are presented a theoretical introduction of the characteristics more important of the lanthanides, the hydroxyapatite and the fluorite; in the second, it is deepened in the ion exchange, as well as the two techniques (XRD and High Vacuum Electron Microscopy) to make the characterization of LnCI 3 (Ln = Nd, Gd, Dy or Yb) synthesized. The third chapter, it describes the methodology continued in our experimental work; in the room, its are presented the obtained results of the static and dynamic method to determine the viability of separation of neighboring lanthanides; and finally, the five chapter shows the conclusions. In this study, it is concludes that the separation among neighboring lanthanides cannot be carried out in the minerals and used media; because practically these lanthanides

  1. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica, as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Draenert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP and biogenic silica (bio-silica have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation. In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer.

  2. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP) and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica), as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C.; Feng, Qingling; Draenert, Florian; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s) of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP) and biogenic silica (bio-silica) have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation). In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer. PMID:23528950

  3. Affinity of hydroxyapatite by radionuclides parent/child in {sup 188}Re/{sup 188}W generator for radiotherapy; Afinidad de la hidroxiapatita por los radionuclidos padre/hijo en el generador {sup 188}Re/{sup 188}W para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera D, A. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Campus Universitario Siglo XXI, Ejido La Escondida, Carretera a Guadalajara Km. 6 (Mexico); Badillo A, V. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela 98068, Zacatecas (Mexico); Badillo A, V. E.; Monroy G, F. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: ana_carrera7@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    To assess the feasibility of using apatites as matrices of {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator is essential to obtain the distribution coefficients as much of parent radionuclide as child radionuclide in apatite, that is to say to know their affinity for the solid. It was selected the mineral species more representative as adsorbent, the hydroxyapatite Ca{sub 10} (PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} it is known for its great capacity of ions retention and by presenting a large affinity for anionic species in their surface. In this paper we use a synthetic hydroxyapatite marketed by Bio-Rad. This paper presents the preliminary results regarding the affinity of hydroxyapatite for the anionic species tungstates (WO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and perrhenates (ReO{sub 4}{sup -} in EDTA, as background electrolyte expressed as distribution coefficients between two immiscible phases obtained with the help of radioactive tracers {sup 187}W and {sup 188}Re respectively. The retention measures of these ions, traces show that Bio-Gel hydroxyapatite presents moderate values of distribution coefficients for anionic species of W(Vi) in EDTA 0.01 mol/L that are in the range p H 5 to 6.5; the parent radionuclide of generator {sup 188}Re/{sup 188}W is fixed but not enough to consider it a good absorbent. By contrast, the fixation of perrhenate ions is virtually wiped as may be easily removed from a hydroxyapatite column packed with a saline solution. The influence of this saline solution in the removal of perrhenate ions is null practically. (Author)

  4. [Investigation of a new highly porous hydroxyapatite matrix for obliterating open mastoid cavities - application in guinea pigs bulla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punke, C; Zehlicke, T; Boltze, C; Pau, H W

    2009-04-01

    Many different techniques for obliterating open mastoid cavity have been described. The results after the application of alloplastic materials like Hydroxyapatite and Tricalciumphosphate were poor due to long-lasting resorption. Extrusion of those materials has been described. We investigated the applicability of a new high-porosity ceramic for obliterating large open mastoid cavities and tested it in an animal model (bulla of guinea pig). A highly porous matrix (NanoBone) bone-inductor fabricated in a sol-gel-technique was administered unilaterally into the opened bullae of 30 guinea pigs. In each animal the opposite bulla was filled with Bio-Oss, a bone substitute consisting of a portion of mineral bovine bone. Histological evaluations were performed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 12 weeks after the implantation. After the initial phase with an inflammatory reaction creating a loose granulation tissue, we observed the formation of trabeculare bone within the fourth week in both groups. From the fifth week on we found osteoclasts on the surface of NanoBone and Bio-Oss with consecutive degradation of both materials. In our animal model study we found beneficial properties of the used bone-inductors NanoBone and Bio-Oss for obliterating open mastoid cavities.

  5. Bone-Like Hydroxyapatite Formation in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Anatoly T.; Larionov, Peter M.; Ivanova, Alexandra S.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Chernyavskiy, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the mechanism of mineralization, when hydroxyapatite (HAP) is formed in blood plasma. These observations were substantiated by in vitro simulation of HAP crystallization in the plasma of healthy adults in a controllable quasi-physiological environment (T = 37°C, pH = 7.4) and at concentrations of dissolved Ca…

  6. Electrospun Hydroxyapatite-Containing Chitosan Nanofibers Crosslinked with Genipin for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohbergh, Michael E.; Katsman, Anna; Botta, Gregory P.; Lazarovici, Phillip; Schauer, Caroline L.; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Lelkes, Peter I.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of large bone defects remains problematic in orthopedic and craniofacial clinical practice. Autografts are limited in supply and are associated with donor site morbidity while other materials show poor integration with the host’s own bone. This lack of integration is often due to the absence of periosteum, the outer layer of bone that contains osteoprogenitor cells and is critical for the growth and remodeling of bone tissue. In this study we developed a one-step platform to electrospin nanofibrous scaffolds from chitosan, which also contain hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and are crosslinked with genipin. We hypothesized that the resulting composite scaffolds represent a microenvironment that emulates the physical, mineralized structure and mechanical properties of non-weight bearing bone extracellular matrix while promoting osteoblast differentiation and maturation similar to the periosteum. The ultrastructure and physicochemical properties of the scaffolds were studied using scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. The average fiber diameters of the electrospun scaffolds were 227±154 nm as spun, and increased to 335±119 nm after crosslinking with genipin. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of characteristic features of hydroxyapatite in the composite chitosan fibers. The Young’s modulus of the composite fibrous scaffolds was 142±13 MPa, which is similar to that of the natural periosteum. Both pure chitosan scaffolds and composite hydroxyapatite-containing chitosan scaffolds supported adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mouse 7F2 osteoblast-like cells. Expression and enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early osteogenic marker, were higher in cells cultured on the composite scaffolds as compared to pure chitosan scaffolds, reaching a significant, 2.4 fold, difference by day 14 (phydroxyapatite

  7. Different properties exhibited on the two typical crystal faces of hydroxyapatite in a simulated body environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagio, T; Iwai, K; Tanase, T; Akiyama, J; Asai, S

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a main mineral constituent of hard tissues and is extensively used as a biomaterial in the medical field. Hydroxyapatite exhibits anisotropic chemical properties on its two typical crystal faces, the a-face and c-face, due to its hexagonal crystal structure. In polycrystalline bodies, such anisotropy can be enhanced by controlling the crystal orientation. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals that constitute long bones also form a crystal oriented structure. Therefore, clarification of the difference between the properties of a-face and c-face in hydroxyapatite using in vitro experiments is useful to understand the structure and function of actual hard tissues. Hydroxyapatite ceramics with controlled crystal orientation were prepared by a slip casting method under application of a magnetic field. The fabricated hydroxyapatite ceramics had surfaces consisting mainly of a-face, or otherwise c-face hydroxyapatite. These hydroxyapatite ceramics were immersed into simulated body fluids to investigate the difference in bioactivity. The precipitation behavior observed on the surface of each hydroxyapatite ceramic was different. The thickness of the precipitate was increased and formed earlier on the HAp c-face compared to that on the a-face.

  8. Different properties exhibited on the two typical crystal faces of hydroxyapatite in a simulated body environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagio, T; Iwai, K [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Tanase, T [Toho Gas Corporation, 19-18 Sakurada-cho, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, 456-8511 (Japan); Akiyama, J [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institute of Natural Sciences, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Asai, S [Innovation Plaza Tokai Japan Science and Technology Agency, 23-1 Ahara-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya, 457-0063 (Japan)], E-mail: hagio.takeshi@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a main mineral constituent of hard tissues and is extensively used as a biomaterial in the medical field. Hydroxyapatite exhibits anisotropic chemical properties on its two typical crystal faces, the a-face and c-face, due to its hexagonal crystal structure. In polycrystalline bodies, such anisotropy can be enhanced by controlling the crystal orientation. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals that constitute long bones also form a crystal oriented structure. Therefore, clarification of the difference between the properties of a-face and c-face in hydroxyapatite using in vitro experiments is useful to understand the structure and function of actual hard tissues. Hydroxyapatite ceramics with controlled crystal orientation were prepared by a slip casting method under application of a magnetic field. The fabricated hydroxyapatite ceramics had surfaces consisting mainly of a-face, or otherwise c-face hydroxyapatite. These hydroxyapatite ceramics were immersed into simulated body fluids to investigate the difference in bioactivity. The precipitation behavior observed on the surface of each hydroxyapatite ceramic was different. The thickness of the precipitate was increased and formed earlier on the HAp c-face compared to that on the a-face.

  9. Accurate Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite Bone Models with Porous Scaffold Structures by Using Stereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu

    2011-01-01

    Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.

  10. Accurate Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite Bone Models with Porous Scaffold Structures by Using Stereolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Chiaki; Tasaki, Satoko; Kirihara, Soshu, E-mail: c-maeda@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki City, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Computer graphic models of bioscaffolds with four-coordinate lattice structures of solid rods in artificial bones were designed by using a computer aided design. The scaffold models composed of acryl resin with hydroxyapatite particles at 45vol. % were fabricated by using stereolithography of a computer aided manufacturing. After dewaxing and sintering heat treatment processes, the ceramics scaffold models with four-coordinate lattices and fine hydroxyapatite microstructures were obtained successfully. By using a computer aided analysis, it was found that bio-fluids could flow extensively inside the sintered scaffolds. This result shows that the lattice structures will realize appropriate bio-fluid circulations and promote regenerations of new bones.

  11. Microwave annealing for preparation of crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adams, D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA) is widely preferred as the bio- material coating of choice in both dental and ortho- paedic implants due to its favourable osteo-conductive and bioactive properties [1]. Sol–gel synthesis of HA offers a viable alternative to the high... viable option because it is performed in air. Microwave heating differs fundamentally from conventional heating in that heat energy is generated from within the material instead of originating from D. Adams (&) Department of Physics, University...

  12. Hydroxyapatite synthesis using EDTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nak Heon; Kim, Soon Je; Song, Seung Han; Choi, Sang mun; Choi, Sik Young; Kim, Youn Jung

    2013-01-01

    Bone comprises structure of body and is consisted of inorganic substances. It exists in an organic structure in the body. Even though it is firm and has self healing mechanism, it can be damaged by trauma, cancer, or bone diseases. Allograft can be an alternative solution for autologous bone graft. Hydroxyapatite(Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), an excellent candidate for allograft, can be applied to bone defect area. There are several methods to produce hydroxyapatite, however economical cost and time consuming make the production difficult. In this study we synthesized the hydroxyapatite with Ethyenediamine tetraacetic acid. Freeze Dried Bone Allograft(Hans Biomed) was used to be a control group. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was a rod shape, white powdery type substance with 2 ~ 5 μm length and 0.5 ~ 1 μm width. X-ray diffraction showed the highest sharp peak at 32° and high peaks at 25.8°, 39.8°, 46.8°, 49.5°, and 64.0° indicating a similar substance to the freeze Dried Bone Allograft. 3 days after the cell growth of synthesized hydroxyapatite showed 1.5 fold more than the Bone Allograft. Cellular and media alkaline phosphate activity increased similar to the bone alloagraft. In this study we came up with a new method to produce the hydroxyapatite. It is a convenient method that can be held in room temperature and low pressure. Also the the product can be manufactured in large quantity. It can be also transformed into scaffold structure which will perform a stronger configuration. The manufacturing method will help the bony defect patients and make future medical products. PMID:23714942

  13. Hydroxyapatite synthesis using EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nak Heon; Kim, Soon Je; Song, Seung Han; Choi, Sang mun; Choi, Sik Young; Kim, Youn Jung

    2013-05-01

    Bone comprises structure of the body and consisted of inorganic substances. It exists in an organic structure in the body. Even though it is firm and has self-healing mechanism, it can be damaged by trauma, cancer, or bone diseases. Allograft can be an alternative solution for autologous bone graft. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), an excellent candidate for allograft, can be applied to bone defect area. There are several methods to produce hydroxyapatite; however, economical cost and being time consuming make the production difficult. In this study, we synthesized hydroxyapatite with EDTA. Freeze-dried bone allograft (Hans Biomed) was used as the control group. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was a rod-shaped, white powdery substance with 2- to 5-μm length and 0.5- to 1-μm width. X-ray diffraction showed the highest sharp peak at 32°C and high peaks at 25.8°C, 39.8°C, 46.8°C, 49.5°C, and 64.0°C, indicating a similar substance to the freeze-dried bone allograft. After 3 days, the cell growth of synthesized hydroxyapatite showed 1.5-fold more than did the bone allograft. Cellular and media alkaline phosphate activity increased similar to the bone allograft. In this study, we came up with a new method to produce the hydroxyapatite. It is a convenient method that can be held in room temperature and low pressure. Also, the product can be manufactured in large quantity. It can be also transformed into scaffold structure, which will perform a stronger configuration. The manufacturing method will help the bony defect patients and make future medical products.

  14. Hydroxyapatite: Vibrational spectra and monoclinic to hexagonal phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepko, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-02-01

    Fundamental studies of biomaterials are necessary to deepen our understanding of their degradation and to develop cure for related illnesses. Biomineral hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is the main mineral constituent of mammal bone, and its synthetic analogues are used in biomedical applications. The mineral can be found in either hexagonal or monoclinic form. The transformation between these two phases is poorly understood, but knowing its mechanism may be critical to reversing processes in bone related to aging. Using density functional theory, we investigate the mechanisms of the phase transformation and estimate the transition temperature to be 680 K in fair agreement with the experimental temperature of 470 K. We also report the heat capacity of hydroxyapatite and a peculiarity in its phonon dispersion that might allow for non-destructive measurements of the crystal composition with applications in preventive medical screening for bone mineral loss.

  15. Synthesis and release of trace elements from hollow and porous hydroxyapatite spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Schwenke, Almut; Engqvist, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    It is known that organic species regulate fabrication of hierarchical biological forms via solution methods. However, in this study, we observed that the presence of inorganic ions plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite formation. We present a mineralization method to prepare ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with a hierarchical structure that is free of organic surfactants and biological additives. Porous and hollow strontium-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized via controlling the concentration of strontium ions in a calcium and phosphate buffer solution. Similarly, fluoride and silicon-doped hydroxyapatite spheres were synthesized. While spherical particle formation was attainable at low and high temperature for Sr-doped hydroxyapatite, it was only possible at high temperature in the F/Si-doped system. The presence of inorganic ions not only plays an important role in the formation and regulation of biological spherical hydroxyapatite, but also could introduce pharmaceutical effects as a result of trace element release. Such ion release results showed a sustained release with pH responsive behavior, and significantly influenced the hydroxyapatite re-precipitation. These ion-doped hydroxyapatite spheres with hollow and porous structure could have promising applications as bone/tooth materials, drug delivery systems, and chromatography supports.

  16. Characterization and inhibitive study of gel-grown hydroxyapatite crystals at physiological temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Bharat; Joshi, Mihir; Vaidya, Ashok

    2008-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is very useful for various biomedical applications, due to its chemical similarity with mineralized bone of human. Hydroxyapatite is also responsible for arthropathy (joint disease). In the present study, the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals was carried out by using single-diffusion gel growth technique in silica hydro gel media, at physiological temperature. The growth of hydroxyapatite crystals under slow and controlled environment in gel medium can be simulated in a simple manner to the growth in human body. The crystals, formed in the Liesegang rings, were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR and dielectric study. The diffusion study is also carried out for the hydroxyapatite crystals using the moving boundary model. The inhibitive influence of various Ayurvedic medicinal plant extracts such as Boswellia serrata gum resin , Tribulus terrestris fruits, Rotula aquatica roots, Boerhaavia diffusa roots and Commiphora wightii, on the growth of hydroxyapatite was studied. Roots of R. aquatica and B. diffusa show some inhibition of the hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro. This preclinical study will be helpful to design the therapy for prevention of hydroxyapatite-based ailments.

  17. The TL and OSL study of hydroxyapatites for dosimetric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Marcus A. Vallim de

    2009-01-01

    The hydroxyapatite, the principal mineral component of the bone and tooth enamel, is one of the dosimetric materials that has distinguished itself in the high dose and accidents dosimetry, as well as in the dating, for the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) technique. For this reason, the hydroxyapatite could also be used as Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter in the dosimetry of high doses and accidents, and also in the archaeological and geological dating. This work presents a brief study of the TL and OSL behaviour of the B type synthetic carbonated hydroxyapatite, observing the possibility to use this material in TL and OSL dosimetry. The samples were irradiated to a dose of 100 Gy and 1000 Gy, and the TL and OSL measurements were obtained by the RISOE TL/OSL reader, model TL/OSL-DA-15B. The first results demonstrate the presence of three peaks in the TL glow curve in the temperatures of 100 deg C, 150 deg C and 280 deg C. The synthetic carbonated hydroxyapatite also presents an OSL signal when the sample is stimulated with blue light and a small OSL signal for stimulation with infrared light (IR). These results indicate the possibility of this synthetic carbonated hydroxyapatite to be used as dose indicator material using the TL and OSL techniques. (author)

  18. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.; Fayyaz, M.; Iqbal, W.; Irfan, M.; Alam, S.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15 percentage Sr2+ into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results. (author)

  19. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N; Fayyaz, M; Iqbal, W; Irfan, M; Alam, S

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15% Sr 2 + into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results

  20. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, N.; Fayyaz, M.; Iqbal, W.; Irfan, M.; Alam, S.

    2014-06-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15% Sr2+ into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results.

  1. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  2. Synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite nanorods in liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Dias Palombino de Campos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, carried out in systems formed from surfactant, oil and water, have resulted in materials with promising possibilities for application. The calcium phosphate particles were synthesized using two different liquid crystals, formed from RenexTM, cyclohexane and a salts solution. The morphology of the nanoparticles synthesized in the liquid crystals is similar to that of hydroxyapatite particles that form bone mineral, where collagen fibers connect these particles so as to form a composite. Therefore, the synthesis of calcium phosphate nanoparticles in the systems used in this work can advance current understanding of mineralization processes that result in the formation of bone mineral.

  3. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  4. Sterilisation effect study on granular hydroxyapatite (HA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidu, M.F.; Mashita, M.; Khadijah, K.; Fazan, F.; Khalid, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a calcium phosphate bio ceramic that has been shown by many authors to be biocompatible with bioactive properties. It is widely accepted as the best synthetic material available for surgical use as a bone graft substitute. HA granules produced by Amerce-SIRIM from local materials underwent 5 types of sterilisation techniques with different ageing periods. Samples were tested for chemical and phase composition and microbial contamination before and after being sterilised. From the microbiological tests done, none of the unsterilised positive control yielded a positive culture. Results from X-Ray diffraction studies found that all the sterilisation techniques did not chemically degrade or structurally change the HA granules significantly. (Author)

  5. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektessabi, A. M.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α, Al 2O 3+α) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxyapatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate.

  6. Evaluación de la mineralización de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Evaluation of mineralization rates of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los biosólidos procedentes del tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales tienen alto potencial de aplicación agrícola por sus contenidos de materia orgánica y nutrientes. En esta investigación se evaluó la mineralización de los biosólidos provenientes de la Planta de tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Cañaveralejo, Cali- Colombia, mediante el ajuste de modelos de regresión; se realizó el seguimiento del contenido de NH4+, NO3- y NO2- durante 126 días para tres tipos de biosólidos: deshidratado, secado térmicamente y alcalinizado, los cuales fueron aplicados a un suelo Vertic Endoaquepts en dosis de 35.4, 36.4 y 54.5 t ha-1 respectivamente. Para el ajuste de las curvas de regresión, se consideraron los modelos simple exponencial, doble exponencial, hiperbólico, parabólico y algunos modelos estadísticos regulares. Los resultados mostraron que el modelo parabólico propuesto por Broadbent presentó el mejor ajuste para describir el proceso de mineralización del suelo evaluado; el modelo exponencial de Stanford & Smith, se mostró como una segunda opción de modelación, permitiendo corroborar el incremento del nitrógeno orgánico N0 cuando se realiza la aplicación de los biosólidos y el incremento de la mineralización con relación al tratamiento testigo.The biosolids from wastewater Treatment plants have high potential of agricultural application due to the contents of organic matter and nutrients. The mineralization of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo Wastewater Treatment Plant, Cali-Colombia, was evaluated by fitting regression models. The content of NH4+, NO3- and NO2- were monitored during 126 days for three types of biosolids: dehydrated, thermally dried and alkalinized, which were applied to a Vertic Endoaquepts soil using doses of 35.4, 36.4 and 54.5 t ha-1 respectively. To adjust the regression curves, the models used were: simple exponential, double exponential, hyperbolic, parabolic and some regular statistical

  7. Effects of hydroxyapatite nanostructure on channel surface of porcine acellular dermal matrix scaffold on cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaohua Ge,1 Ning Zhao,1 Lu Wang,1 Hong Liu,2 Pishan Yang11Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Department of Periodontology, Shandong University; 2State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: A new nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated porcine acellular dermal matrix (HAp-PADM was fabricated by a biomimetic mineralization method. Human periodontal ligament stem cells were seeded on HAp-PADM and the effects of this scaffold on cell shape, cytoskeleton organization, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation were examined. Periodontal ligament stem cells cultured on HAp-PADM exhibited different cell shape when compared with those on pure PADM. Moreover, HAp-PADM promoted cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity significantly. Based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the expression of bone-related markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, osteopontin (OPN, and osteocalcin (OCN upregulated in the HAp-PADM scaffold. The enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells on the HAp-PADM scaffold was proposed based on the research results. The results of this study highlight the micro-nano, two-level, three-dimensional HAp-PADM composite as a promising scaffold for periodontal tissue engineering.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, scaffold, nanostructure, proliferation, differentiation, tissue engineering

  8. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite in the presence of biologically significant molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Evans, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    In bone mineralization non-collagenous phosphoproteins containing polycarboxylate sequences are thought to control crystal nucleation and to subsequently modify crystal growth. Invertebrate calcified tissues may also contain significant amounts of phosphoserine and/or acidic amino acid residues together with chitin (a polysaccharide). The present study investigated the effect of synthetic phosphorylated compounds as well as monomeric/polymeric carboxylic acid compounds on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) under conditions of physiological pH, temperature and ionic strength. Poly-L-sodium aspartate was found to have the greatest inhibitory effect; only octacalcium phosphate (a known precursor of hydroxyapatite) could be detected in the presence of this polymer. Resultant minerals showed a variety of aggregation states. The biomimetically formed calcium phosphate minerals were identified and characterised by a variety of analytical thechniques, including laser Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, a series of experiments were performed to induce the formation of HAp on biogenic substrates, such as chitin and its derivatives, chitosan, reconstituted chitin and phosphorylated chitin. Granular aggregates of hydroxyapatite could be induced to form directly on phosphorylated chitin surfaces, but not on other biogenically-derived substrates. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  9. Carbonate hydroxyapatite and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, L T; Long, B D; Othman, R

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the chemical composition, solubility, and physical and mechanical properties of carbonate hydroxyapatite (CO3Ap) and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (Si-CO3Ap) which have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier......(3-)) site and also entered simultaneously into the hydroxyapatite structure. The Si-substituted CO3Ap reduced the powder crystallinity and promoted ion release which resulted in a better solubility compared to that of Si-free CO3Ap. The mean particle size of Si-CO3Ap was much finer than that of CO3Ap...

  10. The effect of carbonate on neptunium sorption by hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.C.; Holt, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , is a common mineral, the main inorganic compound in bone and exhibits strong sorptive properties for many radionuclides. It has been widely studied and proposed as a backfill material for nuclear waste repositories. Neptunium is one the radionuclides sorbed by hydroxyapatite. Neptunium is of particular importance to nuclear waste repository performance because of its relatively high aqueous solubility, high mobility in the environment and long half-life. In this work, we report on the effects of carbonate on sorption of neptunium by hydroxyapatite. Batch sorption and desorption studies for neptunium were performed as a function of carbonate concentration in water using a synthetic hydroxyapatite. The results indicate even low concentrations of carbonate significantly reduce neptunium sorption and enhance desorption. The data were fit to several simple isotherm equations with the Langmuir equation giving the best results. The results of the work are discussed with respect to nuclear waste repository performance. (authors)

  11. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  12. MRI of orbital hydroxyapatite implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanders, A.E.; De Potter P.; Rao, V.M.; Tom, B.M.; Shields, C.L.; Shields, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Our aim was to use MRI for the postsurgical assessment of a new form of integrated orbital implant composed of a porous calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite substrate. We studied ten patients 24-74 years of age who underwent enucleation and implantation of a hydroxyapatite ball; 5-13 months after surgery, each patient was examined by spin-echo MRI, with fat suppression and gadolinium enhancement. Fibrovascular ingrowth was demonstrated in all ten patients as areas of enhancement at the periphery of the hydroxyapatite sphere that extended to the center to a variable degree. The radiologist should aware of the MRI appearances of the coralline hydroxyapatite orbital implant since it is now widely used following enucleation. MRI is a useful means to determine successful incorporation of the substrate into the orbital tissues. The normal pattern of contrast enhancement should not be mistaken for recurrent tumor or infection. (orig.)

  13. Synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorinated hydroxyapatite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorinated hydroxyapatite; nanocrystalline; microwave synthesis; dissolution. ... HA by the presence of other ions such as carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, etc. ... Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and laser Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Sorption of fission nuclides on model milk components. I. Sorption of radiostrontium on hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Kopunec, R.; Matel, L.; Macasek, F.; Kristin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 is a mineral widely spread in nature as a main constituent of phosphate rocks, and also as the major inorganic component of bones and teeth. It was found that sorption process occurs by an ion exchange reaction mechanism between strontium ions in solution and calcium ions in apatite. Ca 2+ → Sr 2+ substitution in hydroxyapatite is important since it explains the mechanism of incorporation of beta-active Sr-90 of atomic debris into the human skeletal system. The strontium uptake at 100 grad C is done by adsorption and diffusion while at 25 grad C it is done by the process of adsorption only. The hydroxyapatite was prepared from aqueous solutions and characterized by standard analytical methods. Some samples of hydroxyapatite were modified by heating after its precipitation from aqueous solution. The sample obtained had characteristics of well crystallized stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. Also, commercial hydroxy-apatites were used. Sorption of strontium ions on synthetic hydroxyapatite was examined using batch method and sorption depends on the method of preparation of hydroxyapatite. In generally, sorption of strontium decreases with the increase in the particle size of hydroxyapatite and decreases with the increase in the pH ( hydroxyapatite surface is amphoteric and acts as a buffer in a wide pH range). The sorption of strontium increases with the increase in [Sr 2+ ] or [Ca 2+ ] in solution to ∼ 10 -5 mol · dm -3 for the hydroxyapatite prepared by heating. The experimental data for sorption of strontium has been fitted with Langmuir-adsorption isotherm. (authors)

  15. First principles study of hydroxyapatite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepko, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2013-07-01

    The biomineral hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the main mineral constituent of mammal bone. We report a theoretical investigation of the HA surface. We identify the low energy surface orientations and stoichiometry under a variety of chemical environments. The surface most stable in the physiologically relevant OH-rich environment is the OH-terminated (1000) surface. We calculate the work function of HA and relate it to the surface composition. For the lowest energy OH-terminated surface we find the work function of 5.1 eV, in close agreement with the experimentally reported range of 4.7 eV-5.1 eV [V. S. Bystrov, E. Paramonova, Y. Dekhtyar, A. Katashev, A. Karlov, N. Polyaka, A. V. Bystrova, A. Patmalnieks, and A. L. Kholkin, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 065302 (2011), 10.1088/0953-8984/23/6/065302].

  16. Study on removal effect and mechanism of uranium by hydroxyapatite and natural apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaofeng; Chen Diyun; Tu Guoqing; Huang Xiaozhui

    2014-01-01

    By the static experiments, the effects of reaction time, pH value, initial concentration of uranium, dosage of apatite on adsorption of hydroxyapatite and natural apatite for uranium were studied respectively. The adsorption process was analyzed by thermodynamics and kinetics, and the adsorption mechanism was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The results of hydroxyapatite show that the removal capacity of uranium increases with the initial concentration of uranium, and the adsorption rate of hydroxyapatite on UO_2"2"+ reaches 85%, when the pH value is 4 to 5 and dosage of hydroxyapatite is 0.75 g. The results of natural apatite show that the removal capacity of uranium increases with the initial concentration of uranium, and the adsorption rate of natural apatite on UO_2"2"+ is up to 80%, when the pH value is 3 and dosage of hydroxyapatite is l.0 g. Similarly, at 120 minutes both of the removal reactions by hydroxyapatite and natural apatite substantially reach equilibrium. Moreover, both of the reactions by hydroxyapatite and natural apatite are in line with quasi secondary dynamics equation, and follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Infrared spectra indicate that the removal of hydroxyapatite for uranium depends on the complexation of phosphate, which is almost the same as that of natural apatite. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that hydroxyapatite has the composition and structure of pure material, whereas the natural apatite is mainly composed of Ca_5H_2(PO_4)_3F and Ca_8H_2(PO_4)_6H_2O. In addition, scanning electron microscope demonstrates that hydroxyapatite has the appearance of spherical with a hole and the hole has a cavity containing a large amount of floc, while the surface becomes smooth and pores are closed after removal of uranium, which is due to the adsorption of UO_2"2"+ leading a link between molecules on hydroxyapatite surface. But for natural apatite, it depicts the angular mineral shape

  17. Design of polymer-biopolymer-hydroxyapatite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Through molecular control of interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra

    In this dissertation, novel biomaterials are designed for bone biomaterials and bone tissue engineering applications. Novel biomaterials of hydroxyapatite with synthetic and natural polymers have been fabricated using a combination of processing routes. Initially, we investigated hydroxyapatite-polycaprolactone-polyacrylic acid composites and observed that minimal interfacial interactions between polymer and mineral led to inadequate improvement in the mechanical properties. Bioactivity experiments on these composites showed that the presence of functional groups, such as carboxylate groups, influence bioactivity of the composites. We have developed and investigated composites of hydroxyapatite with chitosan and polygalacturonic acid (PgA). Chitosan and PgA are biocompatible, biodegradable, and also electrostatically complementary to each other. This strategy led to significant improvement in mechanical properties of new composites. The nanostructure analysis using atomic force microscopy revealed a multilevel organization in these composites. Enhancement in mechanical response was attributed to stronger interfaces due to strong electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged chitosan and PgA. Further analysis using the Rietveld method showed that biopolymers have marked impact on hydroxyapatite crystal growth and also on its crystal structure. Significant changes were observed in the lattice parameters of hydroxyapatite synthesized by following biomineralization method (organics mediated mineralization). For scaffold preparation, chitosan and PgA were mixed first, and then, nano-hydroxyapatite was added. Oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, such as chitosan and PgA, spontaneously form complex upon mixing. The poly-electrolyte complex exists as nano-sized particles. Chitosan/PgA scaffolds with and without hydroxyapatite were prepared by the freeze drying method. By controlling the rate of cooling and concentration, we have produced both fibrous and sheet

  18. The Bio-accessibility of Synthetic Fe-Organo Complexes in Subsurface Soil with Elevated Temperature: a Proxy for the Vulnerability of Mineral Associated Carbon to Warming Rachel C. Porras, Peter S. Nico, and Margaret Torn Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, R. C.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, subsurface soils (>30 cm) represent an important reservoir of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the vulnerability of this deep SOC and, in particular mineral-associated SOC, to warming, and its potential to amplify the effects of climate change is highly uncertain. To gain insight into the bio-accessibility and temperature sensitivity of mineral-associated organic C, we conducted a series of incubations using soils collected from three depths (0-10, 50-60, and 80-90 cm) under coniferous forest. The soils are moderately acidic (mean pH=6.5) sandy, mixed, mesic Ultic Haploxeralfs. To understand how mechanisms controlling SOC bio-accessibilty or temperature sensitivity differ with depth and with the properties of Fe-organo complexes (i.e.,degree of crystallinity, amount of reactive surface area, or surface saturation), we used a 13C labeled glucose substrate to prepare synthetic Fe-organo complexes spanning a range of crystallinity and mineral surface saturation. The synthetic Fe-organo complexes were then added to soil from three depths. The soils containing the 13C labeled Fe-organo adduct were incubated at two temperatures (ambient and +4°C) and respired 13CO2 was measured and used to estimate flux rates. Differences in measured 13CO2 fluxes as a function of depth, surface loading, and mineral properties are discussed in terms of their implications for the temperature sensitivity of mineral protected organic carbon in subsurface soils.

  19. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boskey, Adele L.; Christensen, Brian; Taleb, Hayat; Sørensen, Esben S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thrombin-cleaved fragments of milk-osteopontin effect hydroxyapatite formation differently. ► N- and C-terminal fragments promoted hydroxyapatite formation and growth. ► A central fragment inhibited hydroxyapatite formation and growth. ► Binding to collagen or hydroxyapatite seed crystals modified these effects. -- Abstract: The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral crystallite formation and growth depending on the extent of phosphorylation. We hypothesized that different regions of full-length OPN would also have distinct effects on the mineralization process. Thrombin fragmentation of milk OPN (mOPN) was used to test this hypothesis. Three fragments were tested in a de novo HA formation assay; an N-terminal fragment (aa 1–147), a central fragment (aa 148–204) denoted SKK-fragment and a C-terminal fragment (aa 205–262). Compared to intact mOPN the C- and N-terminal fragments behaved comparably, promoting HA formation and growth, but the central SKK-fragment acted as a mineralization inhibitor. In a seeded growth experiment all fragments inhibited mineral proliferation, but the SKK-fragment was the most effective inhibitor. These effects, seen in HA-formation and seeded growth assays in a gelatin gel system and in a pH-stat experiment were lost when the protein or fragments were dephosphorylated. Effects of the fully phosphorylated protein and fragments were also altered in the presence of fibrillar collagen. The diverse effects can be explained in terms of the intrinsically disordered nature of OPN and its fragments which enable them to interact with their multiple partners.

  20. Harnessing the bio-mineralization ability of urease producing Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae EMB19 for remediation of heavy metal cadmium (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Naik, S N; Khare, S K

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, urease positive Serratia marcescens (NCIM2919) and Enterobacter cloacae EMB19 (MTCC10649) were individually evaluated for remediation of cadmium (II) using ureolysis-induced calcium carbonate precipitation. Both the cultures were observed to efficiently remove cadmium from the media through co-precipitation of Cd (II) and Ca (II). S. marcescens and E. cloacae EMB19, respectively showed 96 and 98% removal of initial 5.0 mg L -1 soluble Cd (II) from the urea and CaCl 2 laden media at 96 h of incubation period. At higher Cd (II) concentrations of 10 and 15 mg L -1 , cadmium removal efficiency was much higher in case of E. cloacae EMB19 compared to S. marcescens. In-vitro cadmium (II) remediation study using urease containing cell-free culture supernatant of S. marcescens and E. cloacae EMB19 showed respective 98 and 53% removal of initial 50 mg L -1  Cd (II) from the reaction mixtures in co-presence of Ca (II). While in sole presence of Cd (II), only 16 and 8% removal of Cd (II) were detected for S. marcescens and E. cloacae EMB19, respectively. The elemental analysis of the co-precipitated mineral products using Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) clearly showed the prevalence of Ca and Cd ions. The morphology Cd-Ca composites formed with respect to both the cultures were observed to be of different shape and size as revealed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Entire study hence comes out with a sustainable bioremediation option which could be effectively used to tackle Cd (II) or other heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Raman spectra of human dentin mineral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuda, H; Ruben, J; Arends, J

    Human dentin mineral has been investigated by using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Fluorescence and thermal problems were largely avoided by preparing dentin samples by grinding and ultrasonic agitation in acetone. The Raman spectral features were consistent with those of impure hydroxyapatite containing

  2. Biocomposite scaffolds for bone regeneration: Role of chitosan and hydroxyapatite within poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate on mechanical properties and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Qin, Xiaohong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-11-01

    Bio-engineered scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is an exploding area of research mainly because they can satisfy the essential demands and current challenges in bone replacement therapies, by imitating the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native bone. We fabricated bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds with a blend of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV), chitosan (CTS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) during this study. Morphological evaluation confirmed the fiber diameters of PHBV, PHBV/CTS (90:10), PHBV/CTS/HA4 (85.5:9.5:5) and PHBV/CTS/HA8 (81:9:10) as 405 ± 74 nm, 334 ± 82 nm, 316 ± 103 nm and 256 ± 110 nm, respectively. The PHBV/CTS/HA4 and PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffolds were capable of enduring the long term culture of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) with ultimate tensile strength of 3.55 ± 0.22 MPa and 4.19 ± 0.19 MPa, respectively. The proliferation of osteoblasts on PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffold was found 34.10% higher than that on PHBV scaffold on day 20. Cell maturation identified by alkaline phosphatase activity on day 20 was significantly higher on PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffold than that on PHBV scaffold. The cells on PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffold also acquired higher mineral deposition (25.79%) than the mineral deposition on PHBV scaffold by day 20, confirmed by EDX analysis. Based on the results, we concluded that the electrospun PHBV/CTS/HA8 scaffolds hold great potential to promote the regeneration of bone tissue due to the synergistic effect of chitosan and HA, whereby chitosan provided cell recognition sites while HA acted as a chelating agent for organizing the apatite-like mineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions between dodecyl phosphates and hydroxyapatite or tooth enamel: relevance to inhibition of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Siân B; Barbour, Michele E; Shellis, R Peter; Rees, Gareth D

    2014-05-01

    Tooth surface modification is a potential method of preventing dental erosion, a form of excessive tooth wear facilitated by softening of tooth surfaces through the direct action of acids, mainly of dietary origin. We have previously shown that dodecyl phosphates (DPs) effectively inhibit dissolution of native surfaces of hydroxyapatite (the type mineral for dental enamel) and show good substantivity. However, adsorbed saliva also inhibits dissolution and DPs did not augment this effect, which suggests that DPs and saliva interact at the hydroxyapatite surface. In the present study the adsorption and desorption of potassium and sodium dodecyl phosphates or sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to hydroxyapatite and human tooth enamel powder, both native and pre-treated with saliva, were studied by high performance liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry. Thermo gravimetric analysis was used to analyse residual saliva and surfactant on the substrates. Both DPs showed a higher affinity than SDS for both hydroxyapatite and enamel, and little DP was desorbed by washing with water. SDS was readily desorbed from hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the phosphate head group is essential for strong binding to this substrate. However, SDS was not desorbed from enamel, so that this substrate has surface properties different from those of hydroxyapatite. The presence of a salivary coating had little or no effect on adsorption of the DPs, but treatment with DPs partly desorbed saliva; this could account for the failure of DPs to increase the dissolution inhibition due to adsorbed saliva. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of some essential amino acids with synthesized poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Rhilassi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the release of two essential amino acids, l-lysine and dl-leucine, previously adsorbed onto poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite of Ca/P = 1.59, synthesis by precipitation methods. The composition of the calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA is chemically and structurally similar to the bone mineral. Their surface reactivity is indeed linked to the existence of hydrated surface particles (HPO42- and Ca2+. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is relatively slow. The adsorption rate reached approximately 70%, but the release rate did not exceed 12%. The chemical composition of solution has an influence on the release processes. The presence of phosphate ions favored the release of amino acids, while the calcium ions inhibited it. Also, the release process is slightly influenced by Ra (ml/mg ratio and incubation temperature of the medium. The charged –COO− and NH3+ of amino acids are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of hydroxyapatite, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups –COO− of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the hydroxyapatite. dl-Leucine (non-polar and l-Lysine (polar–basic interact with the hydroxyapatite surface in the zwitterionic and cationic forms, respectively. The study of interactions between amino acids and hydroxyapatite is carried out in vitro by using UV–vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  5. Bio energy: Bio fuel - Properties and Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Martinsen, Arnold Kyrre; Sandberg, Eiliv; Fladset, Per Olav; Kjerschow, Einar; Teslo, Einar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 3 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Definitions and properties, (2) Bio fuel from the forest, (3) Processed bio fuel - briquettes, pellets and powder, (4) Bio fuel from agriculture, (5) Bio fuel from agro industry, (6) Bio fuel from lakes and sea, (7) Bio fuel from aquaculture, (8) Bio fuel from wastes and (9) Hydrogen as a fuel. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway. The chapter on energy from the forest includes products from the timber and sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry, furniture factories etc. Among agricultural sources are straw, energy forests, vegetable oil, bio ethanol, manure

  6. Synthesis of calcium hydrogen phosphate and hydroxyapatite coating on SS316 substrate through pulsed electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Rajib, E-mail: rajibju4@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Sengupta, Srijan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Saha, Partha [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-12-01

    The orthopaedic implants for human body are generally made of different biomaterials like stainless steels or Ti based alloys. However, it has been found that from surface properties point of view, none of these materials is attractive for fast tissue or cell growth on the surface of implant. This is one of the most important criteria to assure quick bonding between implant and body tissues vis-à-vis minimum recovery time for the patient. Keeping in view of the above facts, this work involves the pulsed electro-deposition coating of biocompatible hydroxyapatite and its group compounds from a diluted bath of calcium and phosphate salt at various current densities over the biomaterial sheet of SS316. SEM study confirms different morphologies of the coatings at different current densities. Characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction, SEM with EDX and FTIR have been used to confirm the phase and percentage quantity of hydroxyapatite compound in the depositions. This coating can serve as a medium for faster tissue growth over the metallic implants. - Highlights: • Composite coatings of CaHPO{sub 4} and hydroxyapatite for biomedical application through pulsed electro-deposition. • Achieved optimum phase composition in view of crystallinity of both the phases. • Overall coating crystallinity of around 70% in view better bio compatibility. • In cyclic voltammetry it is observed that the deposition reaction is completely irreversible. • The deposited coating consists of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite similar to human bone; which exhibits better bio-compatibility.

  7. Novel synthesis and characterization of an AB-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Iain R; Bonfield, William

    2002-03-15

    A novel synthesis route has been developed to produce a high-purity mixed AB-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) with a carbonate content that is comparable to the type and level observed in bone mineral. This method involves the aqueous precipitation in the presence of carbonate ions in solution of a calcium phosphate apatite with a Ca/P molar ratio greater than the stoichiometric value of 1.67 for hydroxyapatite (HA). The resulting calcium-rich carbonate-apatite is sintered/heat-treated in a carbon dioxide atmosphere to produce a single-phase, crystalline carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite. In contrast to previous methods for producing B- or AB-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatites, no sodium or ammonium ions, which would be present in the reaction mixture from the sodium or ammonium carbonates commonly used as a source of carbonate ions, were present in the final product. The chemical and phase compositions of the carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, respectively, and the level and nature of the carbonate substitution were studied using C-H-N analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The carbonate substitution improves the densification of hydroxyapatite and reduces the sintering temperature required to achieve near-full density by approximately 200 degrees C compared to stoichiometric HA. Initial studies have shown that these carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatites have improved mechanical and biologic properties compared to stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 59: 697-708, 2002

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite gel and its application as scaffold aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Leonardo Ribeiro; d` Ávila, Marcos Akira; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge Mendes; Zavaglia, Cecília Amélia de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel process is a technique used to synthesize materials from colloidal suspensions and, therefore, is suitable for preparing materials in the nanoscale. In this work hydroxyapatite was used due to its known properties in tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is a bioactive ceramic which is found in the mineral phase of bone tissue and is known for its great potential in tissue engineering applications. For this reason, this material can be applied as particle aggregates o...

  9. Bio fertilizer Application in a Fertigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Latiffah Noordin; Hoe, P.C.K.

    2011-01-01

    Bio fertilizers contain live beneficial microorganisms that provide nutrients and other benefits to crops. At present, bio fertilizers can be found in solid and liquid forms. Liquid bio fertilizer can be one of the alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Liquid bio fertilizer is produced through culturing of microorganisms that are known to have specific capabilities in helping plant growth. However, application of bio fertilizers in the form of solution is more tedious than that of solid bio fertilizers, which can be applied directly to plants, whereas the liquid form requires several stages of preparation before it can be applied to crops. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, a study on the distribution of liquid bio fertilizers to crops through the fertigation system has been conducted. In Malaysia, this study has not been conducted in depth, since the present fertigation system is associated to delivery of solubilised mineral fertilizers. This paper discusses the application of liquid bio fertilizers through a fertigation system. Discussions cover technical aspects of bio fertilizer preparation and its application via the said system. Tomato plant was used as test crop to determine the capability and efficiency of bio fertilizer application through the fertigation system. (author)

  10. REE interactions with hydroxyapatite. Formation of secondary solid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, F.; Pablo, J. de; Bruno, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Lighter rare earth elements (REE) commonly occur in nature as the phosphate mineral monazite, while the heavier REE and Yttrium occur as the phosphate mineral xenotime, which has a similar composition, but different coordination environment of the cation. The geochemical behaviour of REE is mainly controlled by their interactions with phosphate minerals such as hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, which is a very common phosphate phase in subsurface environments. Furthermore, is a material considered to be used in a High Level Nuclear Waste repository due to its high capacity in the retention of radionuclides. The objective of this work has been to study the reaction mechanisms and thermodynamics of the interaction of La(III) and Yb(III) with hydroxyapatite as a model for general Ln(III) and Ac(III) behaviour. The surface interaction of La(III) and Yb(III) with synthetic hydroxyapatite has been investigated in batch experiments with low REE 3+ initial concentrations in constant 0.1 M NaClO 4 , at room temperature and in N 2 (g) atmosphere to avoid carbonate complex formation. The initial kinetic experiments indicated that a short contact time is needed to reach equilibrium ( 4 .nH 2 O, where a 0.83 4 .nH 2 O with 1.78 4 medium and under N 2 (g) atmosphere. The experimental data indicate that the solubility equilibria is mainly controlled by the aqueous species REE 3+ until approximately pH=5 where the formation of aqueous complexes of the form REEHPO 4 + , REEPO 4 and REE(PO 4 ) 2 3- must be considered. (authors)

  11. [Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite to glass ionomer cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ya-Bing; Zang, Guang-Xiang; Sun, Hong-Chen; Wang, Cheng-Kun

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the mechanical character, microleakage and mineralizing potential of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP)-added glass ionomer cement(GIC). 8% nano-HAP were incorporated into GIC as composite, and pure GIC as control. Both types of material were used to make 20 cylinders respectively in order to detect three-point flexural strength and compressive strength. Class V cavities were prepared in 120 molars extracted for orthodontic treatment, then were filled by two kinds of material. The microleakage at the composite-dentine interface was observed with confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) after stained with 1% rhodamin-B-isothiocyanate for 24 hours. Class V cavities were prepared in the molars of 4 healthy dogs, filled with composite, and the same molars in the other side were filled with GIC as control. The teeth were extracted to observe the mineralizing property with polarimetric microscope in 8 weeks after filling. Three-point flexural strength and compressive of nano-HAP-added GIC were increased compared with pure GIC (P nano-HAP-added GIC, while there was no hydroxyapatite crystals formed at the interface of tooth and pure GIC. 8% nano-HAP-added GIC can tightly fill tooth and have mineralizing potential, and can be used as liner or filling material for prevention.

  12. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Song, Jie [Shrewsbury, MA; Lee, Seung-Wuk [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  13. Bioactivity and mineralization of hydroxyapatite with bioglass as sintering aid and bioceramics with Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} and Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} in a silicate matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkiran, Hande [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Mohandas, Arunesh; Dohi, Motokazi; Fuentes, Alonso; Nguyen, Kytai [Bioengineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Aswath, Pranesh, E-mail: aswath@uta.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2010-01-30

    Hydroxyapatite and Bioglass-45S5 were sintered together creating new ceramic compositions that yielded increased apatite deposition and osteoblast differentiation and proliferation in vitro compared to hydroxyapatite. The sintered products characterized by X-ray diffraction, revealed hydroxyapatite as the main phase when small quantities (1, 2.5 and 5 wt.%) of bioglass was added. Bioglass behaved as a sintering aid with {beta}-TCP (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) being the minor phase. The amount of {beta}-TCP increased with the amount of bioglass added. In compositions with larger additions of bioglass (10 and 25 wt.%), new phases with compositions of calcium phosphate silicate (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and sodium calcium phosphate (Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5}) were formed respectively within amorphous silicate matrices. In vitro cell culture studies of the ceramic compositions were examined using bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC). Cell proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts were determined by Pico Green DNA assays and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, respectively. All hydroxyapatite-bioglass co-sintered ceramics exhibited larger cell proliferation compared to pure hydroxyapatite samples. After 6 days in cell culture, the ceramic with Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}SiO{sub 4} in a silicate matrix formed by reacting hydroxyapatite with 10 wt.% bioglass exhibited the maximum proliferation of the BMSC's. The ALP activity was found to be largest in the ceramic with Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} embedded in a silicate matrix synthesized by reacting hydroxyapatite with 25 wt.% bioglass.

  14. Determination of Microstructural Parameters of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Mechanical Alloying Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughehdoust, Sedigheh; Manafi, Sahebali

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues. HA can support bone ingrowth and osseointegration when used in orthopaedic, dental and maxillofacial applications. In this research, HA nanostructure was synthesized by mechanical alloying method. Phase development, particle size and morphology of HA were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, zetasizer instrument, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. XRD pattern has been used to determination of the microstructural parameters (crystallite size, lattice parameters and crystallinity percent) by Williamson-Hall equation, Nelson-Riley method and calculating the areas under the peaks, respectively. The crystallite size and particle size of HA powders were in nanometric scales. SEM images showed that some parts of HA particles have agglomerates. The ratio of lattice parameters of synthetic hydroxyapatite (c/a = 0.73) was determined in this study is the same as natural hydroxyapatite structure.

  15. Experimental studies on a new highly porous hydroxyapatite matrix for obliterating open mastoid cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punke, Christoph; Zehlicke, Thorsten; Boltze, Carsten; Pau, Hans Wilhelm

    2008-09-01

    In an initial preliminary study, the applicability of a new high-porosity hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic for obliterating large open mastoid cavities was proven and tested in an animal model (bulla of guinea pig). Experimental study. NanoBone, a highly porous matrix consisting of 76% hydroxyl apatite and 24% silicone dioxide fabricated in a sol-gel technique, was administered unilaterally into the opened bullae of 30 guinea pigs. In each animal, the opposite bulla was filled with Bio-Oss, a bone substitute consisting of a portion of mineral bovine bone. Histologic evaluations were performed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 12 weeks after the implantation. After an initial phase in which the ceramic granules were surrounded by inflammatory cells (1-2 wk), there were increasing signs of vascularization. Osteoneogenesis and-at the same time-resorption of the HA ceramic were observed after the third week. No major difference in comparison to the bovine bone material could be found. Our results confirm the favorable qualities of the new ceramic reported in association with current maxillofacial literature. Conventional HA granules used for mastoid obliteration to date often showed problems with prolonged inflammatory reactions and, finally, extrusions. In contrast to those ceramics, the new material seems to induce more osteoneogenesis and undergoes early resorption probably due to its high porosity. Overall, it is similar to the bovine bone substance tested on the opposite ear in each animal. Further clinical studies may reveal whether NanoBone can be an adequate material for obliterating open mastoid cavities in patients.

  16. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ektessabi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α , Al 2 O 3+α ) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxy-apatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate. (orig.)

  17. Effect of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Integration in a Rabbit Tibial Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Chul-Hong; Ahn, Hee-Bae; Rho, Mee-Sook; Jeong, Min-Ho; Sun, Sang-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) and then characterize its effect on bone integration in a rabbit tibial defect model. The bone formation with different designs of HA was compared and the bony integration of several graft materials was investigated qualitatively by radiologic and histologic study. Methods Ten rabbits were included in this study; two holes were drilled bilaterally across the near cortex and the four holes in each rabbit were divided into four treatment groups (HAP, hydroxyapatite powder; HAC, hydroxyapatite cylinder; HA/TCP, hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate cylinder, and titanium cylinder). The volume of bone ingrowth and the change of bone mineral density were statistically calculated by computed tomography five times for each treatment group at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after grafting. Histologic analysis was performed at 8 weeks after grafting. Results The HAP group showed the most pronounced effect on the bone ingrowth surface area, which seen at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after graft (p 0.05). On histological examination, the HAP group revealed well-recovered cortical bone, but the bone was irregularly thickened and haphazardly admixed with powder. The HAC group showed similar histological features to those of the HA/TCP group; the cortical surface of the newly developed bone was smooth and the bone matrix on the surface of the cylinder was regularly arranged. Conclusions We concluded that both the hydroxyapatite powder and cylinder models investigated in our study may be suitable as a bone substitute in the rabbit tibial defect model, but their characteristic properties are quite different. In contrast to hydroxyapatite powder, which showed better results for the bone ingrowth surface, the hydroxyapatite cylinder showed better results for the sustained morphology. PMID:20514266

  18. Sequestration of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals by Hydroxyapatite Doped with Fe, Cu and Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.B. Helean; R.C. Moore

    2005-01-01

    Apatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (F,OH,Cl) (P6 3 /m, Z=2), is the most abundant phosphate mineral on Earth. The end-member hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH (P2 1 /b), is the primary mineral component in bones and teeth and tends to scavenge and sequester heavy metals in the human body. Hydroxyapatite has also been shown to be effective at sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals in certain natural systems (Dybowska et al., 2004). Hydroxyapatite has been the focus of many laboratory studies and is utilized for environmental remediation of contaminated sites (Moore et al., 2002). The crystal structure of apatite tolerates a great deal of distortion caused by extensive chemical substitutions. Metal cations (e.g. REE, actinides, K, Na, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Cd, Fe) substitute for Ca, and oxyanions (e.g. AsO 4 3- , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , SiO 4 4- , CrO 4 2- ) replace PO 4 3- through a series of coupled substitutions that preserve electroneutrality. Owing to the ability of apatite to incorporate ''impurities'' (including actinides) gives rise to its proposed use as a waste form for radionuclides. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that hydroxyapatite has a strong affinity for U, Pu, Np, Sr and Tc reduced from pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) by SnCl 2 (Moore et al., 2002). Based on these earlier promising results, an investigation was initiated into the use of apatite-type materials doped with aliovalent cations including Fe, Cu and Sn as Tc-scavengers. Synthetic Fe and Cu-doped hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by precipitation of Ca, from Ca-acetate, and P, from ammonium phosphate. The Fe and Cu were introduced as chlorides into the Ca-acetate solution. Stannous chloride was used as a reducing agent and was apparently incorporated into the crystal structures of the hydroxyapatite samples in small, as yet undetermined quantities

  19. Ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite as a bone graft material: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S R; Passi, D; Singh, P; Bhuibhar, A

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of dental, craniofacial and orthopedic defects with bone graft substitutes has shown promising result achieving almost complete bone regeneration depending on product resorption similar to human bone's physicochemical and crystallographic characteristics. Among these, non-ceramic and ceramic hydroxyapatite being the main inorganic salt of bone is the most studied calcium phosphate material in clinical practices ever since 1970s and non-ceramic since 1985. Its "chemical similarity" with the mineralized phase of biologic bone makes it unique. Hydroxyapatite as an excellent carrier of osteoinductive growth factors and osteogenic cell populations is also useful as drug delivery vehicle regardless of its density. Porous ceramic and non-ceramic hydroxyapatite is osteoconductive, biocompatible and very inert. The need for bone graft material keeps on increasing with increased age of the population and the increased conditions of trauma. Recent advances in genetic engineering and doping techniques have made it possible to use non-ceramic hydroxyapatite in larger non-ceramic crystals and cluster forms as a successful bone graft substitute to treat various types of bone defects. In this paper we have mentioned some recently studied properties of hydroxyapatite and its various uses through a brief review of the literatures available to date.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a nanostructured matrix hydroxyapatite ceramic bone reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, P.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Silva, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The nanostructured ceramics have been shown promise as biomaterials for bone reconstruction. Among calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite Ca/P ratio = 1.67 mol stands out because of its crystallographic similarity with the mineral bone phase and biocompatibility. This work was based on synthesis and characterization of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite for use in reconstituting bone tissue. The synthesis method for obtaining the bioceramic powder occurred at process of dissolution/precipitation, involving CaO solid/liquid and phosphoric acid required for forming the composition of Ca/P = 1.67 mole. The material recovered from the synthesis was calcined at 900 ° C/2h, providing the hydroxyapatite powder nanometer. This was subjected to mechanical fragmentation process in mill attritor, providing a hydroxyapatite with modified surface morphology. The results presented relate to morphological characterization studies (SEM), mineralogical (XRD), chemical (FTIR) and particle size distribution, using the laser particle size analysis method. Such results showed the formation of hydroxyapatite phase and morphology satisfactory for use in reconstituting bone tissue

  1. New nano-hydroxyapatite in bone defect regeneration: A histological study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasiewicz-Ross, Paweł; Hadzik, Jakub; Seeliger, Julia; Kozak, Karol; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Gerber, Hanna; Dominiak, Marzena; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2017-09-01

    Many types of bone substitute materials are available on the market. Researchers are refining new bone substitutes to make them comparable to autologous grafting materials in treatment of bone defects. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the osseoconductive potential and bone defect regeneration in rat calvaria bone defects treated with new synthetic nano-hydroxyapatite. The study was performed on 30 rats divided into 5 equal groups. New preproduction of experimental nano-hydroxyapatite material by NanoSynHap (Poznań, Poland) was tested and compared with commercially available materials. Five mm critical size defects were created and filled with the following bone grafting materials: 1) Geistlich Bio-Oss ® ; 2) nano-hydroxyapatite+β-TCP; 3) nano-hydroxyapatite; 4) nano-hydroxyapatite+collagen membrane. The last group served as controls without any augmentation. Bone samples from calvaria were harvested for histological and micro-ct evaluation after 8 weeks. New bone formation was observed in all groups. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an amount of regenerated bone between 34.2 and 44.4% in treated bone defects, whereas only 13.0% regenerated bone was found in controls. Interestingly, in group 3, no significant particles of the nano-HA material were found. In contrast, residual bone substitute material could be detected in all other test groups. Micro-CT study confirmed the results of the histological examinations. The new nano-hydroxyapatite provides comparable results to other grafts in the field of bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [Biomimetic mineralization of rod-like cellulose nano-whiskers and spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ping; Wang, Xuan; Cui, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Li-ping

    2012-05-01

    Cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite was prepared with biomimetic mineralization using rod-like cellulose nano-whiskers as template. The cellulose nano-whiskers and cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (SEM-EDXA). Variation and distribution of carbon, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus in the composites were studied. The morphologies and growth mechanism of nano-hydroxyapatite were analyzed. The results showed that nano-hydroxyapatite was formed on the surface of cellulose nano-whiskers; the carbon-oxygen ratio of cellulose nano-whiskers and cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite was 1.81 and 1.54, respectively; the calcium-phosphorus ratio of the composite was 1.70. The nucleation of nano-hydroxyapatite was around the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nano-whiskers. It is suggested that there is coordination between the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nano-whiskers and calcium ions of nano-hydroxyapatite. The nano-hydroxyapatite can distribute in the matrix of cellulose nano-whiskers. From the atomic force microscope (AFM) images, we can see that the diameter of the spherical nano-hydroxyapatite particles was about 20 nm.

  3. Crystallization of modified hydroxyapatite on titanium implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanova, O A; Izmailov, R R; Zaits, A V; Ghyngazov, S A

    2016-01-01

    Carbonated-hydroxyapatite (CHA) and Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) precipitation have been synthesized from the model bioliquid solutions (synovial fluid and SBF). It is found that all the samples synthesized from the model solutions are single-phase and represent hydroxyapatite. The crystallization of the modified hydroxyapatite on alloys of different composition, roughness and subjected to different treatment techniques was investigated. Irradiation of the titanium substrates with the deposited biomimetic coating can facilitate further growth of the crystal and regeneration of the surface. (paper)

  4. Thermoluminescent study of the hydroxyapatite irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.; Hernandez A, M.; Gonzalez, P.R.; Rodriguez L, V.

    2002-01-01

    Recently in dosimetry, it has been common to use bones and teeth for detecting and measuring radiation. However it has been observed that the efficiency of detection depends on the consistency of these tissues. Since the hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] is the main mineral component of the bones and teeth, it has been suggested as material for detecting and measuring of radiations, quantifying the free radicals produced by radiation. In this work a study about the thermoluminescent properties (Tl) induced by radiation in the synthetic hydroxyapatite obtained by hydrothermal method is presented. The results have shown that this mineral presents a Tl signal whose curve contains two maximums located around 150 and 250 C degrees, respectively. Likewise, a linear behavior of the Tl signal of function of dose in the interval 10-100 Gy was observed. These results are important since that they open the possibility to use biomaterials in the dosimetric area, when they only were used for grafting in the biomedical area. (Author)

  5. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  6. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of different hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, G.T.; Santos, M.V.B.; Barreto, H.M.; Osorio, L.R.; Osajima, J.A.; Silva Filho, E.C. da

    2014-01-01

    Among the applications of ceramics in the technological context, hydroxyapatite (HAp) stands out in the scientific community due to chemical biocompatibility and molecular similarity to the structures of bone and dental tissues. Such features are added to the antimicrobial properties that this brings. This work aimed at the synthesis of hydroxyapatite by two different routes, hydrothermal (HD HAp) and co-precipitation (CP HAp), as well as verification of the antimicrobial properties of these through direct contact of the powders synthesized tests with Staphylococcus aureus (SA10) and Escherichia coli (EC7) bacteria. The materials was characterized by XRD, Raman and TEM, and Antimicrobial tests showed inhibitory efficacy of 97% and 9.5% of CP HAp for SA10 and EC7, respectively. The HD HAp had inhibitory effect of 95% and 0% for EC7 and SA10, respectively. The inhibitory effect on SA10 is based on the hydrophilicity that the material possesses. (author)

  8. Production of hydroxyapatite from waste mussel shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Mark I; Barakat, Haneen; Patterson, Darrell Alec, E-mail: mark.jones@auckland.ac.nz [Department Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand Private Bag 92019, Auckland Mail Centre, Auckland, 1142 (New Zealand)

    2011-10-29

    This work describes the formation of Hydroxyaptite, Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, from waste mussel shells from the New Zealand aquaculture industry. The raw shells are first calcined to produce lime (CaO) and then reacted in a purpose built reactor to form the Hydroxyapatite (HA) in a low temperature batch process. The calcination was studied in terms of the effects of temperature, heating rate, holding time, nitrogen flow rate and particle size. The crystals formed in the batch reactor were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Optimised conditions in the calcination stage resulted in powder with around 95% conversion to lime. The as-produced HA showed poor crystallinity and the presence of impurities, although both of these features were improved by a suitable post heat treatment process. The post treated material showed good crystallinity and was comparable to commercially produced material. Preliminary biocompatibility experiments showed that the HA stimulated cell growth and promoted mineralization. The production of HA from mussel shells in a room temperature, ambient pressure process is not only a sustainable use of waste material, but also from an industrial point of view the process has considerable potential for reducing costs associated with both starting materials and energy.

  9. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  10. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Boziki Xavier do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA as bone substitute materials. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group. After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. Results: The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05. We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039 in both groups. Conclusion: The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes.

  11. Towards bio monitoring of toxic (lead) and essential elements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards bio monitoring of toxic (lead) and essential elements in whole blood from ... Objectives: Minerals such as zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, and magnesium are essential for normal human development ... One study on the interaction of.

  12. Biomimetic synthesis of hierarchical crystalline hydroxyapatite fibers in large-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Chaogang; Ge, Suxiang; Huang, Baojun; Bo, Yingying [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan Province 461000 (China); Zhang, Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zhengzhi9999@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan Province 461000 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Crystalline hierarchical hydroxyapatite (HAp) fibers are synthesized. ► We employ a biomimetic route by using cotton cloth as a natural bio-template. ► We study the effects of pH, ultrasonic cleaning time, and calcination temperature. ► We obtain an optimized reaction condition. ► This is a low cost method for production of hierarchical HAp fibers. -- Abstract: Crystalline hierarchical hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, HAp)] fibers were successfully synthesized via a biomimetic route by using cotton cloth as a natural bio-template. The effects of pH value, aging time, ultrasonic cleaning time, and calcination temperature on the purity and morphology of the resulting hydroxyapatite (HAp) were monitored by scanning election microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectrophotometer (IR) to obtain an optimized reaction condition, namely, pH 9, ultrasonic cleaning for 1 min, aging for 24 h, and calcination at 600 °C for 4 h. We found that the natural cellulose could not only control the morphology of HAp but also lower its phase transformation temperature. The impact of this method lies in its low cost and successful production of large-scale patterning of three-dimensional hierarchical HAp fibers.

  13. Biomimetic synthesis of hierarchical crystalline hydroxyapatite fibers in large-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Chaogang; Ge, Suxiang; Huang, Baojun; Bo, Yingying; Zhang, Di; Zheng, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Crystalline hierarchical hydroxyapatite (HAp) fibers are synthesized. ► We employ a biomimetic route by using cotton cloth as a natural bio-template. ► We study the effects of pH, ultrasonic cleaning time, and calcination temperature. ► We obtain an optimized reaction condition. ► This is a low cost method for production of hierarchical HAp fibers. -- Abstract: Crystalline hierarchical hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , HAp)] fibers were successfully synthesized via a biomimetic route by using cotton cloth as a natural bio-template. The effects of pH value, aging time, ultrasonic cleaning time, and calcination temperature on the purity and morphology of the resulting hydroxyapatite (HAp) were monitored by scanning election microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectrophotometer (IR) to obtain an optimized reaction condition, namely, pH 9, ultrasonic cleaning for 1 min, aging for 24 h, and calcination at 600 °C for 4 h. We found that the natural cellulose could not only control the morphology of HAp but also lower its phase transformation temperature. The impact of this method lies in its low cost and successful production of large-scale patterning of three-dimensional hierarchical HAp fibers.

  14. Characterization of hydroxyapatite coating by pulse laser deposition technique on stainless steel 316 L by varying laser energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, Himanshu; Singh, Gurbhinder; Agrawal, Khelendra; Prakash, Satya; Agarwal, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite coating was successfully deposited on stainless steel substrate by pulse laser deposition at different energy levels (i.e. 300 mJ and 500 mJ, respectively). ► Variation in laser energy affects the surface characteristic of hydroxyapatite coating (particle size, surface roughness, uniformity, Ca/P ratio). ► Laser energy between 300 mJ and 500 mJ is the optimal choice for obtaining ideal Ca/P ratio. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite is an attractive biomaterial mainly used in bone and tooth implants because it closely resembles human tooth and bone mineral and has proven to be biologically compatible with these tissues. In spite of this advantage of hydroxyapatite it has also certain limitation like inferior mechanical properties which do not make it suitable for long term load bearing applications; hence a lot of research is going on in the development of hydroxyapatite coating over various metallic implants. These metallic implants have good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is to deposit hydroxyapatite coating over stainless steel grade 316 L by pulse laser deposition technique by varying laser energy. To know the effect of this variation, the coatings were than characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, finite emission-scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  15. Production and analysis of hydroxyapatite from Australian corals via hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Russell, J.; Ben-Nissan, B.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1970s it is well known that if a biocompatible ceramic prosthesis with appropriate interconnected pores is used, growth of hard and soft tissue into the surface pores will be observed. A very strong attachment and hence the resultant mechanical and chemical bond to the existing surrounding tissue will be produced. Current artificial eyes although widely used encounter various problems due to the their motility and fail to deliver natural movement. They also cause sagging of the lids due to unsupported weight of the prosthesis. It is expected that application of a porous bioceramic such as the hydroxyapatite can generate good bonding to the tissue and hence a life-like eye movement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and related calcium phosphates have been studied for many years as implant materials, due to their similarity with the mineral phase of bone. From the point of view of biocompatibility, HAp seems to be the most suitable ceramic material for tissue replacement implants. Hydroxyapatite ceramics do not exhibit any cytoxic effects. It shows excellent biocompatibility with hard and soft tissues. Moreover, HAp can directly bond to the bone. Various preparation methods for HAp including the hydrothermal method have been used. The hydrothermal method was first used for hydroxyapatite formation directly from corals in 1974 by Roy and Linnehan. Complete replacement of aragonite by phosphatic material was achieved under 270degC and 103MPa using the hydrothermal process. This process has the disadvantage that the hydrothermal treatment must be carried out at a relatively high temperature under very high pressure. In 1996, HAp derived from Indian coral using hydrothermal process was developed by Sivakumar et al. However, the resultant material was in the form of a powder. Australia has rich variety of corals. Their application for implants have been studied very little. In this study, Australian corals selected were used for hydroxyapatite conversion. A new hydrothermal

  16. Characteristics of porous zirconia coated with hydroxyapatite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, porous hydroxyapatite bodies are mechanically weak and brittle, which makes shaping and implantation difficult. One way to solve this problem is to introduce a strong porous network onto which hydroxyapatite coating is applied. In this study, porous zirconia and alumina-added zirconia ceramics were prepared ...

  17. Characterization of x-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance: Effects of sintering time and temperature on bovine hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusrini, Eny; Sontang, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of a hydroxyapatite produced by the sintering of bovine bone were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), electron spin resonance (ESR), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). A bovine bone powder was sintered at different temperatures ranging from 500 to 1400 °C. The influences of post-irradiation storage on the radiation ESR response of the bovine bone powder before and after sintering were also studied. The results indicate that the sintered bovine bone powder contained hydroxyapatite. Diffraction patterns were sharp and clear based on the (211), (300), and (202) reflections corresponding to bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA), which confirmed the phase purity and high crystalline grade of the BHA produced. The PXRD profile of BHA was dependent on sintering temperatures and times. The molecular formula of BHA was determined by Rietveld analysis showed a similar structure and composition to calcium hydroxyapatite in hexagonal P6 3 /m space group a=b=9.435 Å and c=6.895 Å. ESR data showed that the sintering process can decrease the number of free radicals in BHA; it also revealed that the number of free radicals is constant during long storage periods (75 days). The sintering technique described in this study may be used to extract hydroxyapatite from biowaste bovine bone, leading to its application as a bone filler. - Highlights: ► Natural hydroxyapatite was produced from the bio-wasting bovine bones by sintering method. ► PXRD profile of BHA is dependent on the different temperatures and times in sintering process. ► ESR data is useful to study the typical of free radicals formed in the samples after irradiation. ► Stability and physicochemical properties of BHA is dependent on the different storage times. ► Technique is able to be used to find the natural hydroxyapatite applicable for bone filler.

  18. Carbon nanotubes/pectin/minerals substituted apatite nanocomposite depositions on anodized titanium for hard tissue implant: In vivo biological performance"†

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraj, Dharman; Rajan, Mariappan; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Higuchi, Akon; Suresh Kumar, S.

    2017-01-01

    A surface deposition approach enveloping the use of biocompatible trace components and strengthening materials will affect the physicochemical and osseointegration properties of nanocomposite deposited implants. The current work is aimed at the development of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNT)/Pectin (P)/mineralized hydroxyapatite (M-HA) ((f-CNT/P/M-HA)) nanocomposite depositions by electrophoretic deposition on anodized titanium (TiO_2) implant. The capacity of f-CNT manages the cost of mechanical strength, while pectin (extracted from pomegranate peel) and minerals (strontium, magnesium, and zinc) enhance the biocompatibility of the HA deposition was investigate utilizing different methods. The functional and morphological analyses were done by FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX and TEM. The mechanical depiction results show improved adherence quality for the nanocomposite deposition. Additionally, an enhanced viability of osteoblast cells (MG63 (HOS)) was monitored in vitro on the f-CNT/P/M-HA nanocomposite deposition. The capacity of the nanocomposite deposited TiO_2 implant to encourage bone development was assessed in vivo. Hence, the as-synthesized nanocomposite deposited TiO_2 that joins the comfort osteoconductivity of mineralized hydroxyapatite, pectin collectively with the compressive strength of f-CNT can have numerous uses in orthopaedics since it could enhance implant fixation in human bone. - Highlights: • Successful development of CNTs–Pectin reinforced M-HA nanocomposite coating on TiO_2 by electrodeposition. • The success of nanocomposite coatings was evidenced with FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX, and TEM. • Nanocomposite coating on TiO_2 is bio-resistive, better candidate for implant applications. • The fabricate nanocomposite coatings showed good biocompatibility and no adverse effect from in vitro and in vivo tests.

  19. Carbon nanotubes/pectin/minerals substituted apatite nanocomposite depositions on anodized titanium for hard tissue implant: In vivo biological performance{sup †}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaraj, Dharman [Biomaterials in Medicinal Chemistry Lab, Department of Natural Products Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Rajan, Mariappan, E-mail: rajanm153@gmail.com [Biomaterials in Medicinal Chemistry Lab, Department of Natural Products Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Munusamy, Murugan A.; Alarfaj, Abdullah A. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Higuchi, Akon [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhong-li, Taoyuan, 32001 Taiwan (China); Suresh Kumar, S. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2017-06-15

    A surface deposition approach enveloping the use of biocompatible trace components and strengthening materials will affect the physicochemical and osseointegration properties of nanocomposite deposited implants. The current work is aimed at the development of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNT)/Pectin (P)/mineralized hydroxyapatite (M-HA) ((f-CNT/P/M-HA)) nanocomposite depositions by electrophoretic deposition on anodized titanium (TiO{sub 2}) implant. The capacity of f-CNT manages the cost of mechanical strength, while pectin (extracted from pomegranate peel) and minerals (strontium, magnesium, and zinc) enhance the biocompatibility of the HA deposition was investigate utilizing different methods. The functional and morphological analyses were done by FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX and TEM. The mechanical depiction results show improved adherence quality for the nanocomposite deposition. Additionally, an enhanced viability of osteoblast cells (MG63 (HOS)) was monitored in vitro on the f-CNT/P/M-HA nanocomposite deposition. The capacity of the nanocomposite deposited TiO{sub 2} implant to encourage bone development was assessed in vivo. Hence, the as-synthesized nanocomposite deposited TiO{sub 2} that joins the comfort osteoconductivity of mineralized hydroxyapatite, pectin collectively with the compressive strength of f-CNT can have numerous uses in orthopaedics since it could enhance implant fixation in human bone. - Highlights: • Successful development of CNTs–Pectin reinforced M-HA nanocomposite coating on TiO{sub 2} by electrodeposition. • The success of nanocomposite coatings was evidenced with FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX, and TEM. • Nanocomposite coating on TiO{sub 2} is bio-resistive, better candidate for implant applications. • The fabricate nanocomposite coatings showed good biocompatibility and no adverse effect from in vitro and in vivo tests.

  20. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- . The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite gel and its application as scaffold aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a technique used to synthesize materials from colloidal suspensions and, therefore, is suitable for preparing materials in the nanoscale. In this work hydroxyapatite was used due to its known properties in tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO46(OH2 is a bioactive ceramic which is found in the mineral phase of bone tissue and is known for its great potential in tissue engineering applications. For this reason, this material can be applied as particle aggregates on ceramic slurry, coating or film on materials with a poorer biological response than hydroxyapatite. In this work, hydroxyapatite gel was obtained by the sol-gel process and applied as nanoparticle aggregation in the mixture of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate to form a ceramic slurry. This process is the polymer foam replication technique used to produce scaffolds, which are used in tissue engineering. For HA gel characterization it was used enviromental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The crystallite size was calculated from XRD data using the Scherrer equation. The nanoparticles size before firing was approximately 5nm. The crystallite size calculated after calcination was approximately 63 nm. The EELS results showed that calcium phosphate was obtained before firing. After HA gel calcination at 500 ºC the XRD results showed hydroxyapatite with a small content of beta-TCP. The scaffolds obtained by polymer foam replication technique showed a morphology with adequate porosity for tissue engineering.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles for application in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Jordanna Fernandes; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes; Cristovan, F.H.; Tada, Dayane Batista

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) have research attention because are material that exhibit biocompatibility with bone mineral phase of human body is great interest in the scientific community. Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, due biocompatibility and osteo inducibility [1-3]. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated hydroxyapatite surface. TEM images showed HA nanoparticles presented a well defined nanorod shapes and narrow size distributions with dimensions (width and length) around of 5 nm and 50 nm decorated with silver nanoparticles of spherical shape about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. These nanoparticles The cell viability of the HA and HA/Ag was analyzed by reduction of the tetrazolium salt (MTT test). Embryonic mouse fibroblast cells were grown in the presence of nanoparticles for a total period of 96 hours. Analyses were made in 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h. The suspensions at the end of each period were analyzed in spectrophotometer. The 24h experiments were the most conclusive, with the silver presence in the HA, there is an increased in cellular proliferation. The results demonstrated that the HA/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  3. Mechanical response and multilevel structure of biomimetic hydroxyapatite/polygalacturonic/chitosan nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana S.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Mohanty, Bedabibhas

    2008-01-01

    Using an in situ mineralization process that is biomimetic we have synthesized new nanocomposites of chitosan/hydroxyapatite in 50-50 ratio(ChiHAP50), polygalacturonic acid/hydroxyapatite in 50-50 ratio (PgAHAP50) and Chitosan/hydroxyapatite/Polygalacturonic acid (ChiPgAHAP50). Polygalacturonic acid (PgA) is electrostatically complementary to chitosan, and thus is expected to provide stronger interfacial interactions and improve mechanical response. Atomic force imaging of fractured and polished surfaces suggests a multilevel organization in the hydroxyapatite/biopolymer nanocomposite. The AFM images of ChiPgAHAP50 nanocomposite display presence of chitosan rich and polygalacturonic rich domains. These chitosan rich and PgA rich domains are made of smaller globular shaped particles in which, hydroxyapatite nano-particles are embedded in the biopolymer matrix. The average size of the hydroxyapatite particles in PgAHAP50, ChiHAP50 and ChiPgAHAP50 were found to be 25, 42 and 34 nm respectively. The elastic moduli determined from nanoindentation of PgAHAP50, ChiHAP50 and ChiPgAHAP50 composites are 29.81, 17.56 and 23.62 GPa respectively. Hardness values of the three composites in the same order were found to be 1.56, 0.65 and 1.14 GPa respectively. Macro-mechanical tests showed significant enhancement in elastic moduli, strain to failure and compressive strength of ChiPgAHAP50 composites over ChiHAP50 and PgAHAP50

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles for application in biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Jordanna Fernandes; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: fernandes.jordanna9@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil); Cristovan, F.H.; Tada, Dayane Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) have research attention because are material that exhibit biocompatibility with bone mineral phase of human body is great interest in the scientific community. Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, due biocompatibility and osteo inducibility [1-3]. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated hydroxyapatite surface. TEM images showed HA nanoparticles presented a well defined nanorod shapes and narrow size distributions with dimensions (width and length) around of 5 nm and 50 nm decorated with silver nanoparticles of spherical shape about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. These nanoparticles The cell viability of the HA and HA/Ag was analyzed by reduction of the tetrazolium salt (MTT test). Embryonic mouse fibroblast cells were grown in the presence of nanoparticles for a total period of 96 hours. Analyses were made in 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h. The suspensions at the end of each period were analyzed in spectrophotometer. The 24h experiments were the most conclusive, with the silver presence in the HA, there is an increased in cellular proliferation. The results demonstrated that the HA/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  5. Bioactive polyurethane implants with hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhnova, R.; Kebuladze, I.; Galatenko, N. [NAS Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Dept. of Polymers of Medical Appointment

    2001-07-01

    Biologically active polyurethane compositions for plastic of bone defects that contain bioceramic - hydroxyapatite (HAP) and immunomodulator - levamisole (LEV) were designed. The influence of the biologically active fillers in structure polyurethane compositions on their physical and chemical properties in condition in vivo by method of Equilibrium Swelling, method of IR-spectroscopy, roentgen-structural analysis was studied. The introduce in structure of the biodegraded polymeric matrix of HAP is established to promote accumulation of the inorganic component of bone tissue in vivo which is being by basis of the bone formation in regenerating tissue. (orig.)

  6. Adaptive Bone Remodeling of the Femoral Bone After Tumor Resection Arthroplasty With an Uncemented Proximally Hydroxyapatite-Coated Stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel R.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    -fluted 125-mm uncemented press-fit titanium alloy stem with hydroxyapatite coating of the proximal part of the stem. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) were done postoperatively and after 3, 6, and 12 mo in the part of the femur bone containing the Global Modular Replacement System stem using...... of 8%-9% during the first postoperative year was seen along the femoral stem, but in the bone containing the hydroxyapatite-coated part of the stem, the decrease in BMD was 14%, thus indicating that stress shielding of this part of the bone may play a role for the adaptive bone remodeling....

  7. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da; Campos, J.B. de

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  8. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, J.B. de, E-mail: josericardo@r-crio.com, E-mail: louro@ime.eb.br, E-mail: andrea@r-crio.com, E-mail: brantjose@gmail.com, E-mail: marceloprado@ime.eb.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  9. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite.

  10. 3D silicon doped hydroxyapatite scaffolds decorated with Elastin-like Recombinamers for bone regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Mercedes; García, Ana; Girotti, Alessandra; Alonso, Matilde; Rodríguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; González-Vázquez, Arlyng; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth; Buján, Julia; García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Vallet-Regí, María

    2016-11-01

    The current study reports on the manufacturing by rapid prototyping technique of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on silicon substituted hydroxyapatite with Elastin-like Recombinamers (ELRs) functionalized surfaces. Silicon doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA), with Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 5.7 (SiO 4 ) 0.3 (OH) 1.7 h 0.3 nominal formula, was surface functionalized with two different types of polymers designed by genetic engineering: ELR-RGD that contain cell attachment specific sequences and ELR-SN A 15/RGD with both hydroxyapatite and cells domains that interact with the inorganic phase and with the cells, respectively. These hybrid materials were subjected to in vitro assays in order to clarify if the ELRs coating improved the well-known biocompatible and bone regeneration properties of calcium phosphates materials. The in vitro tests showed that there was a total and homogeneous colonization of the 3D scaffolds by Bone marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (BMSCs). In addition, the BMSCs were viable and able to proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts. Bone tissue engineering is an area of increasing interest because its main applications are directly related to the rising life expectancy of the population, which promotes higher rates of several bone pathologies, so innovative strategies are needed for bone tissue regeneration therapies. Here we use the rapid prototyping technology to allow moulding ceramic 3D scaffolds and we use different bio-polymers for the functionalization of their surfaces in order to enhance the biological response. Combining the ceramic material (silicon doped hydroxyapatite, Si-HA) and the Elastin like Recombinamers (ELRs) polymers with the presence of the integrin-mediate adhesion domain alone or in combination with SNA15 peptide that possess high affinity for hydroxyapatite, provided an improved Bone marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (BMSCs) differentiation into osteoblastic linkage. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier

  11. Nanocomposite bone scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Johannes; Lu, Lichun; Runge, M Brett; Zeng, Heng; Yaszemski, Michael J; Dadsetan, Mahrokh

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, development of an osteoconductive construct that integrates with host tissue remains a challenge. In this work, the effect of bone-like minerals on maturation of pre-osteoblast cells was investigated using polymer-mineral scaffolds composed of poly(propylene fumarate)-co-poly(caprolactone) (PPF-co-PCL) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA). The HA of varying concentrations was added to an injectable formulation of PPF-co-PCL and the change in thermal and mechanical properties of the scaffolds was evaluated. No change in onset of degradation temperature was observed due to the addition of HA, however compressive and tensile moduli of copolymer changed significantly when HA amounts were increased in composite formulation. The change in mechanical properties of copolymer was found to correlate well to HA concentration in the constructs. Electron microscopy revealed mineral nucleation and a change in surface morphology and the presence of calcium and phosphate on surfaces was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. To characterize the effect of mineral on attachment and maturation of pre-osteoblasts, W20-17 cells were seeded on HA/copolymer composites. We demonstrated that cells attached more to the surface of HA containing copolymers and their proliferation rate was significantly increased. Thus, these findings suggest that HA/PPF-co-PCL composite scaffolds are capable of inducing maturation of pre-osteoblasts and have the potential for use as scaffold in bone tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bio energocentrum

    OpenAIRE

    Vitoulová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Bakalářská práce byla zpracována jako projekt pro provedení stavby na základě ateliérové práce z 2. semestru. Areál Bio energocentrum, Modřice u Brna je komplexem čtyř vzájemně propojených budov dělených podle jejich funkcí – Budova pro veřejnost, produkční skleník, objekt pro zaměstnance, zařízení pro výrobu bioplynu. Konstrukční systém objektu je materiálově ze železobetonu, oceli a dřeva. Ideou urbanistického a architektonického řešení je jednoduchost tvarů, funkčnost a výstižnost záměru. ...

  13. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kolmas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  14. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  15. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Comparative Study of Quantitative Assessment of Bone Mineral Density of Mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Kyl; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duk

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the bone mineral densities measured at mandibular premolar area by copper-equivalent image and hydroxyapatite phantom with those measured at radius by dual energy absorptiometry and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Digital system with slide scanner, copper-equivalent image, and hydroxyapatite phantom. For experiment, intraoral radiograms of 15 normal subjects ranged from 20 years old to 67 old were taken with copper-step wedge at mandibular premolar area and bone mineral densities calculated by conversion equation to bone mineral density of hydroxyapatite were compared with those measured at radius distal 1/3 area by Hologic QDR-1000. Obtained results as follows: 1) The conversion equation was Y=5.97X-0.25 and its determination coefficient was 0.9967. The coefficient of variation in the measurement of copper-equivalent value ranged from 4% to 8% and showed high reproducibility. 2) The coefficient of variation in the measurement of bone mineral density by the equation ranged from 7% to 8% and showed high reproducibility. 3) The bone mineral densities ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 g/cm 2 at mandibular premolar area. 4) The correlation coefficient between bone mineral densities at mandibular premolar area and those at radius distal 1/3 area was 0.8965. As summary, digital image analyzing system using copper-equivalent image and hydroxyapatite phantom appeared to be clinically useful to measure the bone mineral density at dental area.

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorinated hydroxyapatite by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The biological hydroxyapatite in the human bone and tooth is of nanosize and ... The crystal size and morphology of the nanopowders were examined by X-ray powder diffraction .... tal growth along the c axis of HA crystalline structure. The.

  18. Substituted hydroxyapatites for biomedical applications: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2015), s. 9203-9231 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bioapatite * calcium phosphate * hydroxyapatite * substitution Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2015

  19. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Red'kin, N. A.; Frolov, O. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm-1 ((PO4)3- (ν1) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm-1 ((CO3)2-(ν1) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy.

  20. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, P E; Timchenko, E V; Pisareva, E V; Vlasov, M Yu; Red’kin, N A; Frolov, O O

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm -1 ((PO 4 ) 3- (ν 1 ) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm -1 ((CO 3 ) 2- (ν 1 ) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy. (paper)

  1. Influence of the zinc and manganese doping on the kinetics of resorption of a hydroxyapatite implant and study on matrix effects in the used P.I.X.E. nuclear method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallot, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this work we study hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with zinc or manganese and the compound of 75% hydroxyapatite, 25% tricalcic phosphate. The ceramics were implanted in the cortical femur of sheep. The global evolution of mineral concentrations in the implants with the time after implantation was studied by neutronic radioactivation. We studied matrix effects in P.I.X.E. (Particles Induced X-rays Emission) with Alpha parameter method. By measurements at two different energies, we determine a correction factor of the slowing down of incident protons and of the X rays absorption in matrix. So, the P.I.X.E. analysis allow us a scanning of mineral concentrations at the bone-implant interface at different time after implantation. The transformation of the hydroxyapatite matrix has been studied by X-rays by X-rays diffraction. (author)

  2. In Vitro Osteogenic and Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eTeti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages.Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering.

  3. Ion exchange of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Adsorption of strontium ions on synthetic hydroxyapatite was examined using both batch and column methods. The apatite was prepared from aqueous solutions and characterized by standard analytical methods. The sample obtained had characteristics of well crystallized stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The experimental data for sorption of strontium can be very well fitted with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. It was found that sorption occurs by an ion exchange reaction between strontium ions in solution and calcium ions in apatite. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Influence of the zinc and manganese doping on the kinetics of resorption of a hydroxyapatite implant and study on matrix effects in the used P.I.X.E. nuclear method; Influence du dopage en zinc et en manganese sur la cinetique de resorption d`un implant d`hydroxyapatite et etude des effets de matrice dans la methode nucleaire P.I.X.E. utilisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallot, E.

    1997-01-16

    In this work we study hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with zinc or manganese and the compound of 75% hydroxyapatite, 25% tricalcic phosphate. The ceramics were implanted in the cortical femur of sheep. The global evolution of mineral concentrations in the implants with the time after implantation was studied by neutronic radioactivation. We studied matrix effects in P.I.X.E. (Particles Induced X-rays Emission) with Alpha parameter method. By measurements at two different energies, we determine a correction factor of the slowing down of incident protons and of the X rays absorption in matrix. So, the P.I.X.E. analysis allow us a scanning of mineral concentrations at the bone-implant interface at different time after implantation. The transformation of the hydroxyapatite matrix has been studied by X-rays by X-rays diffraction. (author).

  5. Synthesis and study of the synthetic hydroxyapatite doped with aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.; Smirnov, V.; Antonova, O.; Konovalov, A.; Fomina, A.; Komlev, V. S.; Barinov, S.; Rodionov, A.; Gafurov, M.; Orlinskii, S.

    2018-05-01

    Powders of synthetic hydroxyapatite doped with aluminium (Al) ions in concentrations 0 and 20 mol. % were synthesized by the precipitation method from the nitrate solutions and investigated by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (AES-ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas absorption and conventional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). It is shown that for the chosen synthesis route an introduction of Al provokes formation of highly anisotropic phase, leads to the decrease in the crystallinity while no significant changes in the EPR spectra of the radiation-induced defects is observed. The results could be used for understanding the structural transformations with Al doping of the mineralized materials for geological and biomedical applications.

  6. Ab initio elastic properties and tensile strength of crystalline hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, W Y; Rulis, Paul; Misra, A

    2009-10-01

    We report elastic constant calculation and a "theoretical" tensile experiment on stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystal using an ab initio technique. These results compare favorably with a variety of measured data. Theoretical tensile experiments are performed on the orthorhombic cell of HAP for both uniaxial and biaxial loading. The results show considerable anisotropy in the stress-strain behavior. It is shown that the failure behavior of the perfect HAP crystal is brittle for tension along the z-axis with a maximum stress of 9.6 GPa at 10% strain. Biaxial failure envelopes from six "theoretical" loading tests show a highly anisotropic pattern. Structural analysis of the crystal under various stages of tensile strain reveals that the deformation behavior manifests itself mainly in the rotation of the PO(4) tetrahedron with concomitant movements of both the columnar and axial Ca ions. These results are discussed in the context of mechanical properties of bioceramic composites relevant to mineralized tissues.

  7. Facial skeletal augmentation using hydroxyapatite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, M L; Costantino, P D; Friedman, C D; Chow, L C

    1993-02-01

    This study investigates the use of a new calcium phosphate cement, which sets to solid, microporous hydroxyapatite, for facial bone augmentation. In six dogs, the supraorbital ridges were augmented bilaterally with this hydroxyapatite cement. On one side, the hydroxyapatite cement was placed directly onto the bone within a subperiosteal pocket. On the opposite side, the cement was contained within a collagen membrane tubule and then inserted into a subperiosteal pocket. The use of collagen tubules facilitated easy, precise placement of the cement. All implants maintained their original augmented height throughout the duration of the study. They were well tolerated without extrusion or migration, and there was no significant sustained inflammatory response. Histologic studies, performed at 3, 6, and 9 months revealed that when the cement was placed directly onto bone, progressive replacement of the implant by bone (osseointegration of the hydroxyapatite with the underlying bone) without a loss of volume was observed. In contrast, when the cement-collagen tubule combination was inserted, primarily a fibrous union was noted. Despite such fibrous union, the hydroxyapatite-collagen implant solidly bonded to the underlying bone, and no implant resorption was observed. Hydroxyapatite cement can be used successfully for the experimental augmentation of the craniofacial skeleton and may be applicable for such uses in humans.

  8. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  9. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  10. Synthesis of chitosan/hydroxyapatite membranes coated with hydroxycarbonate apatite for guided tissue regeneration purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Alexandre Felix [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, DEMa, UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Almeida Filho, Edson de, E-mail: edsonafilho@yahoo.com.br [University Estadual Paulista, Department of Physical Chemistry - IQ, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Silva Rigo, Eliana Cristina da [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Basic Science - FZEA-ZAB, Pirassununga, SP (Brazil); Ortega Boschi, Anselmo [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, DEMa, UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    Chitosan, which is a non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible biopolymer, has been widely researched for several applications in the field of biomaterials. Calcium phosphate ceramics stand out among the so-called bioceramics for their absence of local or systemic toxicity, their non-response to foreign bodies or inflammations, and their apparent ability to bond to the host tissue. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most important bioceramics because it is the main component of the mineral phase of bone. The aim of this work was to produce chitosan membranes coated with hydroxyapatite using the modified biomimetic method. Membranes were synthesized from a solution containing 2% of chitosan in acetic acid (weight/volume) via the solvent evaporation method. Specimens were immersed in a sodium silicate solution and then in a 1.5 SBF (simulated body fluid) solution. The crystallinity of the HA formed over the membranes was correlated to the use of the nucleation agent (the sodium silicate solution itself). Coated membranes were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy - SEM, X-ray diffraction - XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - FTIR. The results indicate a homogeneous coating covering the entire surface of the membrane and the production of a semi-crystalline hydroxyapatite layer similar to the mineral phase of human bone.

  11. Separation of lanthanides through hydroxyapatite; Separacion de lantanidos mediante hidroxiapatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, F.G

    2006-07-01

    With the objective of obtaining from an independent way to each one of the lanthanides {sup 151} Pm, {sup 161} Tb, {sup 166} Ho and {sup 177} Lu free of carrier and with high specific activities starting from the indirect irradiation via, it intends in this work to determine the viability of separation of the couples Nd/Pm, Dy/Ho, Gd/Tb and Yb/Lu, by means of ion exchange column chromatography, using hydroxyapatite (HAp) and fluorite like absorbent material in complexing media. It is important to mention that have registered separation studies among lanthanides of the heavy group with those of the slight group, using the same mass and, in comparison with this work, quantities different from the father were used and of the son, also, that the separation studies were carried out among neighboring lanthanides. In this investigation, it was determined the effect that its have the complexing media: KSCN, sodium tartrate, sodium citrate, EDTA and aluminon, their pH and concentration, in the adsorption of the lanthanides in both minerals, in order to determine the chromatographic conditions for separation of the couples Nd/Pm, Dy/Ho, Gd/Tb and Yb/Lu. The work consists of five chapters, in the first one they are presented a theoretical introduction of the characteristics more important of the lanthanides, the hydroxyapatite and the fluorite; in the second, it is deepened in the ion exchange, as well as the two techniques (XRD and High Vacuum Electron Microscopy) to make the characterization of LnCI{sub 3} (Ln = Nd, Gd, Dy or Yb) synthesized. The third chapter, it describes the methodology continued in our experimental work; in the room, its are presented the obtained results of the static and dynamic method to determine the viability of separation of neighboring lanthanides; and finally, the five chapter shows the conclusions. In this study, it is concludes that the separation among neighboring lanthanides cannot be carried out in the minerals and used media; because

  12. Electrospinning of calcium carbonate fibers and their conversion to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Santala, Eero; Heikkilä, Mikko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) fibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by annealing. Solutions consisting of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) dissolved in ethanol or 2-methoxyethanol were used for the fiber preparation. By varying the precursor concentrations in the electrospinning solutions CaCO 3 fibers with average diameters from 140 to 290 nm were obtained. After calcination the fibers were identified as calcite by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The calcination process was studied in detail with high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initially weak fiber-to-substrate adhesion was improved by adding a strengthening CaCO 3 layer by spin or dip coating Ca(NO 3 ) 2 /PVP precursor solution on the CaCO 3 fibers followed by annealing of the gel formed inside the fiber layer. The CaCO 3 fibers were converted to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) fibers by treatment in a dilute phosphate solution. The resulting hydroxyapatite had a plate-like crystal structure with resemblance to bone mineral. The calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite fibers are interesting materials for bone scaffolds and bioactive coatings. - Highlights: • Calcium carbonate fibers were prepared by electrospinning. • The electrospun fibers crystallized to calcite upon calcination at 500 °C. • Spin and dip coating methods were used to improve the adhesion of the CaCO 3 fibers. • The CaCO 3 fibers were converted to hydroxyapatite by treatment in phosphate solution. • The hydroxyapatite fibers consisted of plate-like nanocrystals

  13. Electrospinning of calcium carbonate fibers and their conversion to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, Jani, E-mail: jani.holopainen@helsinki.fi; Santala, Eero; Heikkilä, Mikko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) fibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by annealing. Solutions consisting of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) dissolved in ethanol or 2-methoxyethanol were used for the fiber preparation. By varying the precursor concentrations in the electrospinning solutions CaCO{sub 3} fibers with average diameters from 140 to 290 nm were obtained. After calcination the fibers were identified as calcite by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The calcination process was studied in detail with high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initially weak fiber-to-substrate adhesion was improved by adding a strengthening CaCO{sub 3} layer by spin or dip coating Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/PVP precursor solution on the CaCO{sub 3} fibers followed by annealing of the gel formed inside the fiber layer. The CaCO{sub 3} fibers were converted to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) fibers by treatment in a dilute phosphate solution. The resulting hydroxyapatite had a plate-like crystal structure with resemblance to bone mineral. The calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite fibers are interesting materials for bone scaffolds and bioactive coatings. - Highlights: • Calcium carbonate fibers were prepared by electrospinning. • The electrospun fibers crystallized to calcite upon calcination at 500 °C. • Spin and dip coating methods were used to improve the adhesion of the CaCO{sub 3} fibers. • The CaCO{sub 3} fibers were converted to hydroxyapatite by treatment in phosphate solution. • The hydroxyapatite fibers consisted of plate-like nanocrystals.

  14. Formation of nano-hydroxyapatite crystal in situ in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junjie; Zhu Dunwan; Yin Jianwei; Liu Yuxi; Yao Fanglian; Yao Kangde

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/polysaccharide composites have been widely used in bone tissue engineering due to their chemical similarity to natural bone. Polymer matrix-mediated synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite is one of the simplest models for biomimetic. In this article, the nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-pectin (nHCP) composites were prepared through in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) network. The formation processes of nHCP were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The interactions between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC networks were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The morphology and structure of nHA crystal were characterized by XRD and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Results suggested that the interfacial interactions between nano-hydroxyapatite crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC network assist the site specific nucleation and growth of nHA nanoparticles. The nHA crystals grow along the c-axis. In this process, pH value is the main factor to control the nucleation and growth of nHA crystal in chitosan-pectin PEC networks, because both the interactions' strength between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin and diffusion rate of inorganic ions depend on the pH value of the reaction system. Apart from the pH value, the chitosan/pectin ratio and [Ca 2+ ] also take important effects on the formation of nHA crystal. An effective way to control the size of nHA crystal is to adjust the content of pectin and [Ca 2+ ]. It is interesting that the Zeta potential of nHCP composites is about - 30 mV when the chitosan/pectin ratio ≤ 1:1, and the dispersion solution of nHCP composites has higher stability, which provides the possibility to prepare 3D porous scaffolds with nHCP for bone tissue engineering.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/Fullerenol Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Aleksandar; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Seke, Mariana; Jovic, Danica; Uskokovic, Dragan; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2015-02-01

    Fullerenols are polyhydroxylated, water soluble derivatives of fullerene C60, with potential application in medicine as diagnostic agents, antioxidants or nano drug carriers. This paper describes synthesis and physical characterization of a new nanocomposite hydroxyapatite/fullerenol. Surface of the nanocomposite hydroxyapatite/fullerenol is inhomogeneous with the diameter of the particles in the range from 100 nm to 350 nm. The ζ potential of this nanocomposite is ten times lower when compared to hydroxyapatite. Surface phosphate groups of hydroxyapatite are prone to forming hydrogen bonds, when in close contact with hydroxyl groups, which could lead to formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyapatite and hydroxyl groups of fullerenol. The surface of hydroxyapatite particles (-2.5 mV) was modified by fullerenol particles, as confirmed by the obtained ζ potential value of the nanocomposite biomaterial hydroxyapatite/fullerenol (-25.0 mV). Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, Fullerenol, Nanocomposite, Surface Analysis.

  16. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony.

  17. Water-Soluble Cellulose Derivatives Are Sustainable Additives for Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cellulose-based polyelectrolytes on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization is described. Three cellulose derivatives, a polyanion, a polycation, and a polyzwitterion were used as additives. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy show that, depending on the composition of the starting solution, hydroxyapatite or brushite precipitates form. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy also show that significant amounts of nitrate ions are incorporated in the precipitates. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the Ca/P ratio varies throughout the samples and resembles that of other bioinspired calcium phosphate hybrid materials. Elemental analysis shows that the carbon (i.e., polymer contents reach 10% in some samples, clearly illustrating the formation of a true hybrid material. Overall, the data indicate that a higher polymer concentration in the reaction mixture favors the formation of polymer-enriched materials, while lower polymer concentrations or high precursor concentrations favor the formation of products that are closely related to the control samples precipitated in the absence of polymer. The results thus highlight the potential of (water-soluble cellulose derivatives for the synthesis and design of bioinspired and bio-based hybrid materials.

  18. Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Film Containing Re-Doped MoS₂ Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Hila; Feldman, Yishay; Rosentsveig, Rita; Pinkas, Iddo; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat; Moshkovich, Alexey; Perfilyev, Vladislav; Rapoport, Lev; Tenne, Reshef

    2018-02-26

    Films combining hydroxyapatite (HA) with minute amounts (ca. 1 weight %) of (rhenium doped) fullerene-like MoS₂ (IF) nanoparticles were deposited onto porous titanium substrate through electrophoretic process (EPD). The films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM analysis showed relatively uniform coatings of the HA + IF on the titanium substrate. Chemical composition analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of the coatings revealed the presence of calcium phosphate minerals like hydroxyapatite, as a majority phase. Tribological tests were undertaken showing that the IF nanoparticles endow the HA film very low friction and wear characteristics. Such films could be of interest for various medical technologies. Means for improving the adhesion of the film to the underlying substrate and its fracture toughness, without compromising its biocompatibility are discussed at the end.

  19. Electrospun Nanocomposite Materials, A Novel Synergy of Polyurethane and Bovine Derived Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Y.; Sahin, A.; Sunulu, A.; Aydogdu, M. O.; Altun, E.; Oktar, F. N.; Ekren, N.; Gunduz, O.

    2017-04-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a synthetic polymer that is used for construction of scaffold in tissue engineering applications in order to obtain desirable mechanical, physical and chemical properties like elasticity and durability. Bovine derived hydroxyapatite (BHAp) is a ceramic based natural polymer that is used as the most preferred implant material in orthopedics and dentistry due to their chemically and biologically similarity to the mineral phase found in the human bone structure. PU and bovine derived hydroxyapatite (BHAp) solutions with different concentrations were prepared with dissolving polyurethane and BHAp in Dimethylformamide (DMF) and Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions. Blended PU-BHAp solutions in different concentrations were used for electrospinning technique to create nanofiber scaffolds and new biocomposite material together. SEM, FTIR and physical analysis such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, density measurement and tensile strength measurement tests were carried out after production process.

  20. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite doped with selenium oxyanions: a new material for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    Selenium-substituted hydroxyapatites containing selenate SeO4(2-) or selenite SeO3(2-) ions were synthesized using a wet precipitation method. The selenium content was determined by atomic absorbance spectrometry. The raw, unsintered powders were also characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, middle-range FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis. The synthesized apatites were found to be pure and nanocrystalline with a crystal size similar to that in bone mineral. The incorporation of selenium oxyanions into the crystal lattice was confirmed. The toxicity of hydroxyapatites containing selenite or selenate ions was evaluated with a protozoan assay and bacterial luminescence test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystal imperfection studies of pure and silicon substituted hydroxyapatite using Raman and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shuo; Huang, Jie; Best, Serena; Bonfield, William

    2005-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is important in biomedical applications because of its chemical similarity to the mineral content of bone and its consequent bioactivity. Silicon substitution into the hydroxyapatite crystal lattice was found to enhance its bioactivity both in vitro and in vivo [1, 2]. However, the mechanism for the enhancement is still not well understood. In this paper, the crystal imperfections introduced by silicon substitution were studied using XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that silicon substitution did not introduce microstrain, but deceased the crystal size in the hk0 direction. Three new vibration modes and peak broadening were observed in Raman spectra following silicon incorporation. The imperfections introduced by silicon substitution may play a role in enhancing bioactivity. A phenomenological relationship between the width of the PO4 v1 peak and crystal size was established.

  2. Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Film Containing Re-Doped MoS2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Shalom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Films combining hydroxyapatite (HA with minute amounts (ca. 1 weight % of (rhenium doped fullerene-like MoS2 (IF nanoparticles were deposited onto porous titanium substrate through electrophoretic process (EPD. The films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM analysis showed relatively uniform coatings of the HA + IF on the titanium substrate. Chemical composition analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS of the coatings revealed the presence of calcium phosphate minerals like hydroxyapatite, as a majority phase. Tribological tests were undertaken showing that the IF nanoparticles endow the HA film very low friction and wear characteristics. Such films could be of interest for various medical technologies. Means for improving the adhesion of the film to the underlying substrate and its fracture toughness, without compromising its biocompatibility are discussed at the end.

  3. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Lima, Isabel M.; Laird, David A.; Hicks, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ∼20 MJ kg -1 , and densities >1.0 Mg m -3 ) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, ∼20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed 'farm scale' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields.

  4. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Hicks, Kevin B. [Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lima, Isabel M. [Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Laird, David A. [National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2110 University Blvd., Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are {proportional_to}20 MJ kg{sup -1}, and densities >1.0 Mg m{sup -3}) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, {proportional_to}20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed ''farm scale'' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields. (author)

  5. Sequestration of radionuclides and heavy metals by hydroxyapatite doped with Fe, Cu and Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidel, Linnah L.; Moore, Robert Charles; Salas, Fred; Grouios, Fotini; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Helean, Katheryn B.

    2005-01-01

    Apatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (F,OH,Cl)(P6 3 /m, Z=2), is the most abundant phosphate mineral on Earth. The end-member hydroxyapatite, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH(P2 1 /b), is the primary mineral component in bones and teeth and tends to scavenge and sequester heavy metals in the human body. Hydroxyapatite has also been shown to be effective at sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals in certain natural systems (Dybowska et al., 2004). Hydroxyapatite has been the focus of many laboratory studies and is utilized for environmental remediation of contaminated sites (Moore et al., 2002). The crystal structure of apatite tolerates a great deal of distortion caused by extensive chemical substitutions. Metal cations (e.g. REE, actinides, K, Na, Mn, Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Cd, Fe) substitute for Ca, and oxyanions (e.g. AsO 4 3- , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , SiO 4 4- , CrO 4 2- ) replace PO 4 3- through a series of coupled substitutions that preserve electroneutrality. Owing to the ability of apatite to incorporate 'impurities'(including actinides) gives rise to its proposed use as a waste form for radionuclides. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that hydroxyapatite has a strong affinity for U, Pu, Np, Sr and Tc reduced from pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) by SnCl 2 (Moore et al., 2002). Based on these earlier promising results, an investigation was initiated into the use of apatite-type materials doped with aliovalent cations including Fe, Cu and Sn as Tc-scavengers. Synthetic Fe and Cu-doped hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by precipitation of Ca, from Ca-acetate, and P, from ammonium phosphate. The Fe and Cu were introduced as chlorides into the Ca-acetate solution. Stannous chloride was used as a reducing agent and was apparently incorporated into the crystal structures of the hydroxyapatite samples in small, as yet undetermined quantities.

  6. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Murillo L., E-mail: murillolongo@gmail.com [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saeki, Margarida Juri [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Telling, Mark T.F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Parra, Joao P.R.L.L. [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Landsgesell, Sven [Helmholtz–Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Smith, Ron I. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Bordallo, Heloisa N. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • We synthesized a magnetic bio-NCP with potential to be used against breast cancer. • The magnetic nanoparticles have an inverted spinel structure. • The coating with chitosan does not cause changes to the particle microstructure. • The hydration level of bio-NCP is crucial to the surface modification with apatite. • Bio-NCP with narrow size distribution and high magnetic response was obtained. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The bio-NCP consists of magnetic nanoparticles of Mn and Zn ferrite inside a polymeric coating (chitosan) modified with nanocrystals of apatite. The materials were characterized with synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD), Time-of-Flight Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and magnetic measurement with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). We obtained ferrite nanoparticles with a high inversion degree of the spinel structure regarding the Fe and Mn, but with all the Zn in the A site. The coating of such nanoparticles with chitosan had no notable effects to the ferrite microstructure. In addition, the polymeric surface can be easily modified with apatite nanocrystals since the hydration of the bio-NCP during synthesis can be controlled. The resulting bio-NCP presents a spherical shape with a narrow size distribution and high magnetic response at room temperature and is a very promising material for early diagnosis of breast cancer and its treatment.

  7. Study of the viability of hydroxyapatite as matrix of the generator 99 Mo/99m Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar D, I.C.; Badillo A, V.E.; Monroy G, F.

    2004-01-01

    The generator more used in the nuclear medicine it is the generator 99 Mo / 99 Tc. The separation of 99 Mo and 99m Tc in the commercial generator is carried out on a column that contains alumina (Al 2 0 3 ). The adsorbent proposed in this investigation work, the hydroxyapatite, is an insoluble solid considered within of the fixers of anions more important. To evaluate the efficiency of the hydroxyapatite in the separation of the Mo and the Tc they were carried out preliminary tests to know the likeness of the one been accustomed to by the molybdate ions (MoO 4 -2 ) and the pertechnetate ions (Tc0 4 - ) in function of the value of the p H, in a solution of CaCI 2 0.01 M. For the study of the retention of the molybdate ion, it was used the radioisotope Mo-99 fission product, and for the pertechnetate ion it was used the Tc- 99 m radionuclide son of the Mo-99. The obtained results in a solution of CaCl 2 0.01 M to different values of p H of the solution, show that the fixation of the pertechnetate ions (TcO 4 - ) and the fixation of the molybdate ions (MoO 4 -2 ), they present very different behaviors in the hydroxyapatite. The results indicate that the synthetic hydroxyapatite BIO-RAD retains to the molybdate ion to values of lightly acid p H (5-6), being the retention of the pertechnetate practically worthless. (Author)

  8. Characterisation of Suspension Precipitated Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, P K; Swain, P.K.; Patnaik, S.C

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-known biomaterial for coating on femoral implants, filling of dental cavity and scaffold for tissue replacement. Hydroxyapatite possess limited load bearing capacity due to their brittleness. In this paper, the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders was prepared by dissolving calcium oxide in phosphoric acid, followed by addition of ammonia liquor in a beaker. The prepared solution was stirred by using magnetic stirrer operated at temperature of 80°C for an hour. This leads to the formation of hydroxyapatite precipitate. The precipitate was dried in oven for overnight at 100°C. The dried agglomerated precipitate was calcined at 800°C in conventional furnace for an hour. The influence of calcium oxide concentration and pH on the resulting precipitates was studied using BET, XRD and SEM. As result, a well-defined sub-rounded morphology of powders size of ∼41 nm was obtained with a salt concentration of 0.02 M. Finally, it can be concluded that small changes in the reaction conditions led to large changes in final size, shape and degree of aggregation of the hydroxyapatite particles. (paper)

  9. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini [Department of Chemistry, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lintang, Hendrik O. [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca{sup 2+} ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA.

  10. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Lintang, Hendrik O.; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca 2+ ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA

  11. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  12. Finite Element Simulation of Diametral Strength Test of Hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Fahrettin; Toros, Serkan; Evis, Zafer

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the diametral strength test of sintered hydroxyapatite was simulated by the finite element software, ABAQUS/Standard. Stress distributions on diametral test sample were determined. The effect of sintering temperature on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite was studied. It was concluded that high sintering temperatures did not reduce the stress on hydroxyapatite. It had a negative effect on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite after 1300 deg. C. In addition to the porosity, other factors (sintering temperature, presence of phases and the degree of crystallinity) affect the diametral strength of the hydroxyapatite.

  13. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  14. Characterization of hydroxyapatite substituted with silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H.M. da; Soares, G.A.; Mateescu, M.; Anselme, K.; Palard, M.; Champion, E.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of silicon (Si) ions into hydroxyapatite structure (HA) influences on physical, chemical and physiological properties. Some studies reported the improved bioactivity Si substitution, and it also accelerates the biomineralization process. The main objective of this work is to characterize stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite substituted with 1.13% in weight of Si (SiHA) using a wet precipitation method followed by a heat treatment. SEM/EDS, AFM, DRX and FTIR analyses were used to characterize the samples. EDS and FTIR results confirmed the presence of Si. Silicon induces small changes on crystal structure of HA, not detected on X-ray diffraction patterns of sintered tablets of SiHA and HA. No secondary phases were observed, that indicates the Si had entered the HA lattice. (author)

  15. Production of zirconia - hydroxyapatite (Z Ha) by using the co-precipitation method and studies of densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane V.; Domingues, Rosana Z.

    1997-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ha) is one of the materials most bio compatible with human bones and teeth, but its mechanical properties, especially toughness, are insufficient for hard tissue. Recent studies demonstrated that ceramics can be toughened by zirconium particles disperse in them, due to transformation, microcracking, and/or crack diffraction toughening mechanisms. The objective of this study is to characterize zirconia-toughened hydroxy apatite powders prepared by precipitation method by XRD, IR spectroscopy, TEM, TAG, DTA and BET analysis. The density of their ceramics was determined by mercury picnometry method. It was discussed the influence of addition of zirconium in different compositions and phases (Zr O 2 or Zr(OH) 4 ), compacting pressure and sintering temperature on zirconia - hydroxyapatite composites (ZHA). The results show that there is not any kind of reaction or chemical interaction between both phases of the composite materials. (author)

  16. Nanostructure of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, E.I.; Klechkovskaya, V.V.; Bobrovsky, V.V.; Khamchukov, Yu.D.; Klubovich, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings were studied by high-resolution transmission microscopy, microdiffraction, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Coatings were prepared by spraying hydroxyapatite targets onto copper, nickel, and chromium substrates and onto NaCl and BaF 2 single crystals in an argon plasma at a gas pressure of ∼1 Pa; the sputter power was about 200 W; and the RF-generator frequency was 13.56 MHz. Under the conditions used, thin layers of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite were formed regardless of the nature of the substrate

  17. Scaffolds of polycaprolactone with hydroxyapatite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Guinea B.C.; Zavaglia, Cecilia A.C.; Arruda, Antonio Celso F.

    2009-01-01

    Scaffolds of poly (ε-caprolactone) has been studied in many researches in tissue engineering. The used of hydroxyapatite fibers, allowed increase its resistance mechanical, beside the character bioactive and osteoconductive. Improving, its role in tissue engineering. The aim in this study was developed polycaprolactone matrix with dispersed hydroxyapatite fibers. The characterizations were by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X- Ray Diffractometer (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy dispersive X-Ray Detector (EDX). Was able reviewed its composition, morphology and possible contaminations. The results were scaffolds with porosity and distribution of the fibers in all its area. (author)

  18. Microcracks induce osteoblast alignment and maturation on hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yutian

    Physiological bone tissue is a mineral/collagen composite with a hierarchical structure. The features in bone, such as mineral crystals, fibers, and pores can range from the nanometer to the centimeter in size. Currently available bone tissue scaffolds primarily address the chemical composition, pore size, and pore size distribution. While these design parameters are extensively investigated for mimicking bone function and inducing bone regeneration, little is known about microcracks, which is a prevalent feature found in fractured bone in vivo and associated with fracture healing and repair. Since the purpose of bone tissue engineering scaffold is to enhance bone regeneration, the coincidence of microcracks and bone densification should not be neglected but rather be considered as a potential parameter in bone tissue engineering scaffold design. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that microcracks enhance bone healing. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the osteoblast (bone forming cells) response to microcracks in dense (94%) hydroxyapatite substrates. Microcracks were introduced using a well-established Vickers indentation technique. The results of our study showed that microcracks induced osteoblast alignment, enhanced osteoblast attachment and more rapid maturation. These findings may provide insight into fracture healing mechanism(s) as well as improve the design of bone tissue engineering orthopedic scaffolds for more rapid bone regeneration.

  19. In situ observation of fluoride-ion-induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, J H; Thurner, P J; Lauer, M E; Bosma, B L; Schitter, G; Fantner, G E; Izumi, M; Weaver, J C; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2007-01-01

    The topography of freshly fractured bovine and human bone surfaces was determined by the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fracture surfaces from both kinds of samples exhibited complex landscapes formed by hydroxyapatite mineral platelets with lateral dimensions ranging from ∼90 nm x 60 nm to ∼20 nm x 20 nm. Novel AFM techniques were used to study these fracture surfaces during various chemical treatments. Significant topographical changes were observed following exposure to aqueous solutions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or highly concentrated sodium fluoride (NaF). Both treatments resulted in the apparent loss of the hydroxyapatite mineral platelets on a timescale of a few seconds. Collagen fibrils situated beneath the overlying mineral platelets were clearly exposed and could be resolved with high spatial resolution in the acquired AFM images. Time-dependent mass loss experiments revealed that the applied agents (NaF or EDTA) had very different resulting effects. Despite the fact that the two treatments exhibited nearly identical results following examination by AFM, bulk bone samples treated with EDTA exhibited a ∼70% mass loss after 72 h, whereas for the NaF-treated samples, the mass loss was only of the order of ∼10%. These results support those obtained from previous mechanical testing experiments, suggesting that enhanced formation of superficial fluoroapatite dramatically weakens the protein-hydroxyapatite interfaces. Additionally, we discovered that treatment with aqueous solutions of NaF resulted in the effective extraction of noncollagenous proteins from bone powder

  20. Impedance and modulus spectroscopic study of nano hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogiya, B. V.; Jethava, H. O.; Tank, K. P.; Raviya, V. R.; Joshi, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2, HAP) is the main inorganic component of the hard tissues in bones and also important material for orthopedic and dental implant applications. Nano HAP is of great interest due to its various bio-medical applications. In the present work the nano HAP was synthesized by using surfactant mediated approach. Structure and morphology of the synthesized nano HAP was examined by the Powder XRD and TEM. Impedance study was carried out on pelletized sample in a frequency range of 100Hz to 20MHz at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and a.c. conductivity with frequency of applied field was studied. The Nyquist plot as well as modulus plot was drawn. The Nyquist plot showed two semicircle arcs, which indicated the presence of grain and grain boundary effect in the sample. The typical behavior of the Nyquist plot was represented by equivalent circuit having two parallel RC combinations in series.

  1. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  2. Determination of Ca/P molar ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F., E-mail: mascapin@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral composed of calcium phosphate employed for endodontics, restorative dentistry and other applications in orthopedics and prosthesis. Additionally, this biomaterial is an inexpensive but efficient adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals and other unwanted species of contaminated liquid effluents. This is especially interesting when low-cost effective remediation is required. A Ca / P molar ratio of 1.667 is consistent with the theoretical Ca / P ratio for calcium hydroxyapatite with a compositional formula of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, which properties are well discussed in the literature. The aim of this work was to implement and validate a methodology for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in the hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as providing the Ca / P molar ratio. To accomplish these achievements, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) was applied. This is a non-destructive technique that requires no chemical treatment, enabling fast chemical analysis in a wide variety of samples, with no hazardous waste being generated as a result of the process of determination. A standard reference material from NIST (SRM 1400 – Bone Ash) was used to validate the methodology for the determination of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, strontium and the Ca / P ratio in HA samples by WDXRF. The Z-score test was applied as a statistical tool and showed that the calculated values were of less than 1.8 for all the measured analytes. (author)

  3. Modulation of enamel matrix proteins on the formation and nano-assembly of hydroxyapatite in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Huang Weiya; Zhang Yuanming; Xue Bo; Wen Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Natural enamel has a hierarchically nanoassembled architecture that is regulated by enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) during the formation of enamel crystals. To understand the role of EMPs on enamel mineralization, calcium phosphate (CaP) growth experiments in both the presence and absence of native rat EMPs in a single diffusion system were conducted. The morphology and organization of formed CaP crystals were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High-Resolution Transmission Microscopy (HRTEM) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED). In the system containing the EMPs, hydroxyapatite (HAP) with hierarchical lamellar nanostructure can be formed and the aligned HAP assembly tightly bundled by 3–4 rod-like nanocrystals like an enamel prism. However, in the absence of EMPs, only a sheet-like structure of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) phase was presented. EMPs promote HAP formation and inhibit the growth of OCP on the (010) plane. It is discussed that the organized Amelogenin/Amorphous Calcium Phosphate might be the precursor to the bundled HAP crystal prism. The study benefits the understanding of biomineralization of tooth enamel. - Highlights: ► An aligned hydroxyapatite crystal bundled by rod-like nanosize crystals was obtained. ► An organized Amel/ACP would be the precursor of the bundled hydroxyapatite crystal prism. ► EMPs inhibit the growth of octacalcium phosphate in a defined plane.

  4. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite doped with selenium oxyanions: A new material for potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Selenium-substituted hydroxyapatites containing selenate SeO 4 2− or selenite SeO 3 2− ions were synthesized using a wet precipitation method. The selenium content was determined by atomic absorbance spectrometry. The raw, unsintered powders were also characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, middle-range FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis. The synthesized apatites were found to be pure and nanocrystalline with a crystal size similar to that in bone mineral. The incorporation of selenium oxyanions into the crystal lattice was confirmed. The toxicity of hydroxyapatites containing selenite or selenate ions was evaluated with a protozoan assay and bacterial luminescence test. - Highlights: • We synthesized and analyzed hydroxyapatites doped with selenium oxyanions. • We used various analytical methods, i.e. XRD, TEM, AAS and FT-IR. • We confirmed incorporation of SeO 3 2− and SeO 4 2− into the crystal lattice. • The toxicity of the materials was studied

  5. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite doped with selenium oxyanions: A new material for potential biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolmas, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.kolmas@wum.edu.pl [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    Selenium-substituted hydroxyapatites containing selenate SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} or selenite SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions were synthesized using a wet precipitation method. The selenium content was determined by atomic absorbance spectrometry. The raw, unsintered powders were also characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, middle-range FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis. The synthesized apatites were found to be pure and nanocrystalline with a crystal size similar to that in bone mineral. The incorporation of selenium oxyanions into the crystal lattice was confirmed. The toxicity of hydroxyapatites containing selenite or selenate ions was evaluated with a protozoan assay and bacterial luminescence test. - Highlights: • We synthesized and analyzed hydroxyapatites doped with selenium oxyanions. • We used various analytical methods, i.e. XRD, TEM, AAS and FT-IR. • We confirmed incorporation of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} into the crystal lattice. • The toxicity of the materials was studied.

  6. Obtention of hydroxyapatite submicrometric of bovine origin by vibratory grinding for rapid prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meira, C.R.; Purquerio, B.M.; Fortulan, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Submicron bovine hydroxyapatite was obtained for rapid prototyping. Hydroxyapatite structure originated from bovine mineral bone has great importance among the biomaterials and biocompatibility due to its great similarity with the human bone structure. This study aims to obtain powder for manufacture by rapid prototyping of scaffolds. This technique manufacture requires highly reactive powders to compensate for the absence of pressure forming. Hydroxyapatite was milled in a ball mill and vibratory mill, and analyzed for their average equivalent spherical diameter and surface area. Test specimens were isostatically pressed at 100 MPa and machined into cylindrical test specimens. These specimens were sintered at several temperatures to determine the optimal sintering temperature based on densification and chemistry stability. In grinding ball mill was obtained particles of equivalent diameter of 0.74 micron in vibratory mill of 0.46 micrometers. An average flexural strength of 100 MPa and 99,8% of real density was attained for the sample sintered at 1300 deg C/2h, signaling potential for use in rapid prototyping. (author)

  7. Determination of Ca/P molar ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Ap. F.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral composed of calcium phosphate employed for endodontics, restorative dentistry and other applications in orthopedics and prosthesis. Additionally, this biomaterial is an inexpensive but efficient adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals and other unwanted species of contaminated liquid effluents. This is especially interesting when low-cost effective remediation is required. A Ca / P molar ratio of 1.667 is consistent with the theoretical Ca / P ratio for calcium hydroxyapatite with a compositional formula of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , which properties are well discussed in the literature. The aim of this work was to implement and validate a methodology for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in the hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as providing the Ca / P molar ratio. To accomplish these achievements, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF) was applied. This is a non-destructive technique that requires no chemical treatment, enabling fast chemical analysis in a wide variety of samples, with no hazardous waste being generated as a result of the process of determination. A standard reference material from NIST (SRM 1400 – Bone Ash) was used to validate the methodology for the determination of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, strontium and the Ca / P ratio in HA samples by WDXRF. The Z-score test was applied as a statistical tool and showed that the calculated values were of less than 1.8 for all the measured analytes. (author)

  8. Modulation of enamel matrix proteins on the formation and nano-assembly of hydroxyapatite in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong, E-mail: tlihong@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630 (China); Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Huang Weiya [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Taizhou, Taizhou University, Zhejiang 317000 (China); Zhang Yuanming [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630 (China); Xue Bo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630 (China); Wen Xuejun [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Natural enamel has a hierarchically nanoassembled architecture that is regulated by enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) during the formation of enamel crystals. To understand the role of EMPs on enamel mineralization, calcium phosphate (CaP) growth experiments in both the presence and absence of native rat EMPs in a single diffusion system were conducted. The morphology and organization of formed CaP crystals were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High-Resolution Transmission Microscopy (HRTEM) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED). In the system containing the EMPs, hydroxyapatite (HAP) with hierarchical lamellar nanostructure can be formed and the aligned HAP assembly tightly bundled by 3-4 rod-like nanocrystals like an enamel prism. However, in the absence of EMPs, only a sheet-like structure of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) phase was presented. EMPs promote HAP formation and inhibit the growth of OCP on the (010) plane. It is discussed that the organized Amelogenin/Amorphous Calcium Phosphate might be the precursor to the bundled HAP crystal prism. The study benefits the understanding of biomineralization of tooth enamel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An aligned hydroxyapatite crystal bundled by rod-like nanosize crystals was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An organized Amel/ACP would be the precursor of the bundled hydroxyapatite crystal prism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EMPs inhibit the growth of octacalcium phosphate in a defined plane.

  9. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär; Jimbo, Ryo; Naito, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its...... fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA) minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants...

  10. Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite with Granular Form or Porous Scaffold in Canine Alveolar Sockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANG, SEOK JIN; KIM, SE EUN; HAN, TAE SUNG; SON, JUN SIK; KANG, SEONG SOO; CHOI, SEOK HWA

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess bone regeneration using hydroxyapatite (HA). The primary focus was comparison of bone regeneration between granular HA (gHA) forms and porous HA (pHA) scaffold. The extracted canine alveolar sockets were divided with three groups: control, gHA and pHA. Osteogenic effect in the gHA and pHA groups showed bone-specific surface and bone mineral density to be significantly higher than that of the control group (psocket healing. For new bone formation during 8 weeks' post-implantation, HA with porous scaffold was superior to the granular form of HA. PMID:28438860

  11. Incorporating catechol into electroactive polypyrrole nanowires on titanium to promote hydroxyapatite formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengao Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the osteointegration property of biomedical titanium, nano-architectured electroactive coating was synthesized through the electrochemical polymerization of dopamine and pyrrole. The highly binding affinity of Ca2+ to the catechol moiety of doped dopamine enabled efficient interaction between polypyrrole/polydopamine nanowires and mineral ions. The results indicate that the PPy/PDA nanowires preserved its efficient electro-activity and accelerated the hydroxyapatite deposition in a simulated body fluid. The PPy/PDA nanowires coating could be applied to promote the osteointegration of titanium implant.

  12. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on bioinert metals such as Ti–6Al–4V are necessary for biomedical applications. Together, HAP and Ti–6Al–4V are biocompatible and bioactive. The challenges of depositing HAP on Ti–6Al–4V with traditional thermal...

  13. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Lintang, Hendrik O; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2015-11-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca(2+) ion released in SBF solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koch, C.F.; Johnson, S.; Kumar, D.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Chrisey, D.B.; Doraiswamy, A.; Jin, C.; Narayan, R.J.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2007), s. 484-494 ISSN 0928-4931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : hydroxyapatite * pulsed laser deposition * bioactive ceramic s Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2007

  15. Microwave assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nano strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruban Kumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.; Saral, A.M. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nano strips was carried out by chemical precipitation method followed by microwave irradiation. The microwave assisted reactions proceed at fast rates. It is found that the presence of the complex reagent EDTA plays an important role in the morphological changes of nanostructure hydroxyapatite. EDTA acts as a hexadentate unit by wrapping itself around the Ca{sup 2+} metal ion with, four oxygen and two nitrogen atoms and forms several five member chelate rings. The relative specific surface energies associated with the facets of the crystal determines the shape of the crystal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite nano strips with the range 50-100 nm in EDTA influenced HAP powders. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) result combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the presence of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the as-prepared material. X-ray patterns collected on the powder after heat-treatment at 1100 C for 2 h in air exhibits single phase of HAP. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Adsorption of nickel on synthetic hydroxyapatite from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Pivarciova, L.; Rajec, P.; Caplovicova, M.

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of nickel on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite samples used in experiments were a commercial hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite of high crystallinity with Ca/P ratio of 1.563 and 1.688, respectively, prepared by a wet precipitation process. The sorption of nickel on hydroxyapatite was pH independent ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The adsorption of nickel was rapid and the percentage of Ni sorption on both samples of hydroxyapatite was >98 % during the first 15-30 min of the contact time for initial Ni 2+ concentration of 1 x 10 -4 mol dm -3 . The experimental data for sorption of nickel have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm and the value of maximum sorption capacity of nickel on a commercial hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite prepared by wet precipitation process was calculated to be 0.184 and 0.247 mmol g -1 , respectively. The sorption of Ni 2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca 2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite under experimental conditions. The competition effect of Co 2+ and Fe 2+ towards Ni 2+ sorption was stronger than that of Ca 2+ ions. NH 4 + ions have no apparent effect on nickel sorption. (author)

  17. Precipitation of hydroxyapatite on electrospun polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugavel, Suganya; Reddy, Venugopal Jayarama; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Lakshmi, B S; Dev, Vr Giri

    2014-07-01

    Advances in electrospun nanofibres with bioactive materials have enhanced the scope of fabricating biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering. The present research focuses on fabrication of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds by electrospinning followed by hydroxyapatite deposition by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering. Morphology, composition, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds along with controls polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffolds were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle and tensile tests, respectively. Adipose-derived stem cells cultured on polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds displayed highest cell proliferation, increased osteogenic markers expression (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), osteogenic differentiation and increased mineralization in comparison with polycaprolactone control. The obtained results indicate that polycaprolactone/aloe vera/silk fibroin-hydroxyapatite nanofibrous scaffolds have appropriate physico-chemical and biological properties to be used as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Bio digester : anaerobic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, Marten; Hulzen, Hans; Keizer, Melvin; Pruisscher, Gerlof; Smint, Martin; Vincent, Helene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the theme 13 and 14, our group have to realize a project in the field of the renewable energy. This project consist of the design of a bio-digester for the canteen of Zernikeplein. Gert Hofstede is our client. To produce energy, a bio-digester uses the anaerobic digestion, which is made

  19. Understanding bio-economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2008-01-01

    New plants for production of bio-based fuels, chemicals or plastics are being set up at an accelerating pace. However, this transition towards bio-based fuels, feedstocks and chemicals has not come without consequences. Increased demand has pushed up prices of key agricultural products such as maize

  20. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid biomass because of their logistic advantages, better mineral balance, and better processability. Especially the ease of pressurization, which is required for large scale synthesis gas production, is...

  1. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. 59 Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO 4 or CaCO 3 ) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO 3 , CaHPO 4 , hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation

  2. A techno-economic evaluation of two non-edible vegetable oil based bio diesel in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Ali, M.

    2010-01-01

    Technical evaluation of Bio diesel, produced from various non-edible oils, was carried out on the basis of emission profile, torque, engine brake power and exhaust temperatures at 10% blend ratio (by volume) with mineral diesel. The performance of engine parameters showed that the castor oil based bio diesel gave the best results. Economic feasibility for bio diesel production was carried out based on available data on cultivation of necessary plants on marginal lands. This economic analysis also included the value of by-products which would be available during the chemical process for the production of bio diesel. It was found that jatropha bio diesel could be produced at a comparable cost to mineral diesel, however, castor bio diesel required substantial subsidies or mass cultivation of plants on marginal lands to enable it to compete economically with mineral diesel. (author)

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  4. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  5. Sea urchin tooth mineralization: Calcite present early in the aboral plumula

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Stuart R.; Veis, Arthur; Xiao, Xianghui; Almer, Jonathan D.; Dorvee, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    In both vertebrate bone, containing carbonated hydroxyapatite as the mineral phase, and in invertebrate hard tissue comprised of calcium carbonate, a popular view is that the mineral phase develops from a long-lived amorphous precursor which later transforms into crystal form. Important questions linked to this popular view are: When and where is the crystallized material formed, and is amorphous solid added subsequently to the crystalline substrate? Sea urchin teeth, in which the earliest mi...

  6. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  7. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  8. Study of sorption processes of strontium on the synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Rajec, P.

    2011-01-01

    The sorption of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by a wet precipitation process followed by calcination of calcium phosphate that precipitated from aqueous solution. Also, commercial hydroxyapatites were used. The sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite depended on the method of preparation and it was pH independent ranging from 4 to 9 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The distribution coefficient K d was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of Sr 2+ and Ca 2+ ions in solution with concentration above 1 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 . The percentage strontium sorption for commercial and by wet method prepared hydroxyapatite was in the range of 83-96%, while calcined hydroxyapatite was ranging from 10 to 30%. The experimental data for sorption of strontium have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Sr 2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca 2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite. Although calcined hydroxyapatite is successfully used as biomaterial for hard tissues repair, it is not used for the treatment of liquid wastes. (author)

  9. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the sputtered Ti doped hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, A; Padmanabhan, S C; Ak Azem, F; Braic, M; Titorencu, I; Birlik, I; Morris, M A; Braic, V

    2016-10-01

    The hydroxyapatite enriched with Ti were prepared as possible candidates for biomedical applications especially for implantable devices that are in direct contact to the bone. The hydroxyapatites with different Ti content were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Ti-6Al-4V alloy using pure hydroxyapatite and TiO2 targets. The content of Ti was modified by changing the RF power fed on TiO2 target. The XPS and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite structure. The hardness and elastic modulus of the hydroxyapatite were increased by Ti addition. After 5 days of culture, the cell viability of the Ti-6Al-4V was enhanced by depositing with undoped or doped hydroxyapatite. The Ti additions led to an increase in cell viability of hydroxyapatite, after 5 days of culture. The electron microscopy showed the presence of more cells on the surface of Ti-enriched hydroxyapatite than those observed on the surface of the uncoated alloys or undoped hydroxyapatite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  11. Paracrystalline Disorder from Phosphate Ion Orientation and Substitution in Synthetic Bone Mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Mary E; Zhou, Shiliang; Melot, Brent C; Peaslee, Graham F; Neilson, James R

    2016-12-05

    Hydroxyapatite is an inorganic mineral closely resembling the mineral phase in bone. However, as a biological mineral, it is highly disordered, and its composition and atomistic structure remain poorly understood. Here, synchrotron X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis methods provide insight into the nature of atomistic disorder in a synthetic bone mineral analogue, chemically substituted hydroxyapatite. By varying the effective hydrolysis rate and/or carbonate concentration during growth of the mineral, compounds with varied degrees of paracrystallinity are prepared. From advanced simulations constrained by the experimental pair distribution function and density functional theory, the paracrystalline disorder prevalent in these materials appears to result from accommodation of carbonate in the lattice through random displacement of the phosphate groups. Though many substitution modalities are likely to occur in concert, the most predominant substitution places carbonate into the mirror plane of an ideal phosphate site. Understanding the mineralogical imperfections of a biologically analogous hydroxyapatite is important not only to potential bone grafting applications but also to biological mineralization processes themselves.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite-gelatine composite materials for orthopaedic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanovska, A., E-mail: biophy@yandex.ru [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine); Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Kuznetsov, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine); Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Stanislavov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine); Husak, E. [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine); Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Pogorielov, M. [Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Starikov, V. [National Technical University ”Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze Str., 61002, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bolshanina, S. [Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Danilchenko, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine)

    2016-11-01

    The composite materials based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and gelatine (Gel) with addition of silver and zirconium oxide were obtained. The study investigates a combination of low powered ultrasonic irradiation and low concentration of gelatine in the co-precipitation synthesis. These composites have different weight ratios of organic/inorganic components and may be synthesized in two ways: simple mixing and co-precipitation. Both of which were compared. The estimation of porosity, in vivo testing, surface morphology and phase composition as well as the IR-analysis were provided. Hydroxyapatite was the main crystalline phase in obtained composites. While around powdered HA-Gel composite the connective tissue capsule is formed without bone tissue formation, HA-Gel-Ag porous composite implantation leads to formation of new bone tissue and activation of cell proliferation. Addition of silver ions into composite material allows decreasing inflammation on the first stage of implantation and has positive effect on bone tissue formation. Some of the obtained composite materials containing silver or ZrO{sub 2} are biocompatible. bio-resorbable and osteoconductive with high level of porosity (75–85%). - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite-gelatine composites with addition of Ag{sup +} and ZrO{sub 2} were obtained. • Composites were synthesized in two ways: simple mixing and co-precipitation. • Co-precipitation synthesis combined ultrasonic treatment and low concentration of gelatine. • Obtained composites have different weight ratios of organic/inorganic components. • Some composites are osteoconductive and all of them have high level of porosity (75–85%).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite-gelatine composite materials for orthopaedic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovska, A.; Kuznetsov, V.; Stanislavov, A.; Husak, E.; Pogorielov, M.; Starikov, V.; Bolshanina, S.; Danilchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The composite materials based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and gelatine (Gel) with addition of silver and zirconium oxide were obtained. The study investigates a combination of low powered ultrasonic irradiation and low concentration of gelatine in the co-precipitation synthesis. These composites have different weight ratios of organic/inorganic components and may be synthesized in two ways: simple mixing and co-precipitation. Both of which were compared. The estimation of porosity, in vivo testing, surface morphology and phase composition as well as the IR-analysis were provided. Hydroxyapatite was the main crystalline phase in obtained composites. While around powdered HA-Gel composite the connective tissue capsule is formed without bone tissue formation, HA-Gel-Ag porous composite implantation leads to formation of new bone tissue and activation of cell proliferation. Addition of silver ions into composite material allows decreasing inflammation on the first stage of implantation and has positive effect on bone tissue formation. Some of the obtained composite materials containing silver or ZrO_2 are biocompatible. bio-resorbable and osteoconductive with high level of porosity (75–85%). - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite-gelatine composites with addition of Ag"+ and ZrO_2 were obtained. • Composites were synthesized in two ways: simple mixing and co-precipitation. • Co-precipitation synthesis combined ultrasonic treatment and low concentration of gelatine. • Obtained composites have different weight ratios of organic/inorganic components. • Some composites are osteoconductive and all of them have high level of porosity (75–85%).

  14. Properties of poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite composite through the use of epoxy functional compatibilizers for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monmaturapoj, Naruporn; Srion, Autcharaporn; Chalermkarnon, Prasert; Buchatip, Suthawan; Petchsuk, Atitsa; Noppakunmongkolchai, Warobon; Mai-Ngam, Katanchalee

    2017-08-01

    A composite of 70/30 poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite was systematically prepared using various amounts of glycidyl methacrylate as reactive compatibilizer or Joncryl ADR®-4368 containing nine glycidyl methacrylate functions as a chain extension/branching agent to improve the mechanical and biological properties for suitable usage as internal bone fixation devices. The effect of glycidyl methacrylate/Joncryl on mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite was investigated through flexural strength. Cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the composite samples were determined by Alamar Blue assay and alkaline phosphatase expression, respectively. Result shows that flexural strength tends to decrease, as glycidyl methacrylate content increases except for 1 wt.% glycidyl methacrylate. With an addition of dicumyl peroxide, the flexural strength shows an improvement than that of without dicumyl peroxide probably due to the chemical bonding of the hydroxyapatite and poly(lactic acid) as revealed by FTIR and NMR, whereas the composite with 5 wt.% Joncryl shows the best result, as the flexural strength increases getting close to pure poly(lactic acid). The significant morphology change could be seen in composite with Joncryl where the uniform agglomeration of hydroxyapatite particles oriented in poly(lactic acid) matrix. Addition of the epoxy functional compatibilizers at suitable percentages could also have benefits to cellular attachment, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. So that, this poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite composite could be a promising material to be used as internal bone fixation devices such as screws, pins and plates.

  15. Hydroxyapatite Fibers: A Review of Synthesis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Mei-Li; He, Kun; Huang, Zhen-Nan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Lu, Yu-Peng; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) exhibits excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity, non-toxicity and so on, making it a perfect candidate for biomedical applications. However, HA is not qualified to be used in load-bearing sites due to its poor flexural strength and fracture toughness. Design, synthesis and application of fibrous HA is a promising strategy to overcome the inherent brittleness. This review provides a brief description of HA and hydroxyapatite fiber (HAF), then introduces different synthesis methods of HAF and highlights the inherent merits and drawbacks involved in each method. Finally, the future perspectives in this active research area are given. The purpose of this review is to acquaint the reader with this promising new field of biomaterials research and with emphasis on recent techniques to obtain continuous, uniform and long HAF.

  16. Crystallite arrangement of hydroxyapatite microcrystals in human tooth cementum as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaleric, U.; Gaspirc, B.; Cevc, P.; Schara, M.

    1998-01-01

    Human dental cementum was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The measured EPR powder spectra of γ-irradiated cementum resembled those of γirradiated enamel. Both spectra were characterized by the same line shapes and g values. The position of the extreme first derivate peaks can be described by g 1 =2.0023 and g 2 =1.9971±0.0002, and are assignable to the CO 3 3- center. The angular dependence of the cementum EPR spectra indicates a different arrangement of the hydroxyapatite microcrystals compared to that of enamel. A corresponding model of cementum micro-crystal alignment has been proposed. The methodology presented can be utilized for studying the mineralization process of root cementum and other mineralized tissues. (au)

  17. Nucleation of hydroxyapatite on Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk fibroin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingying; Shuai, Yajun; Zhou, Guanshan; Mandal, Namita; Zhu, Liangjun

    2014-01-01

    Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk fibroin, which is spun from a wild silkworm, has increasingly attracted interest in the field of tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on A. pernyi fibroin film. Von Kossa staining proved that A. pernyi fibroin had Ca binding activity. The A. pernyi fibroin film was mineralized with HAp crystals by alternative soaking in calcium and phosphate solutions. Spherical crystals were nucleated on the A. pernyi fibroin film according to scanning electron microscopeimaging results. The FT-IR and X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed that these spherical crystals were HAp. The results of in vitro cell culture using MG-63 cells demonstrated that the mineralized A. pernyi fibroin film showed excellent cytocompatibility and sound improvement of the MG-63 cellviability.

  18. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  19. BioSentinel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems' (AES) BioSentinel project will develop, prototype, integrate, test, and prepare for the first spaceflight mission of a broadly...

  20. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  1. BioHack*Kolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle

    Short Abstract BioHack*Kolding explores the potential of do-it-together biology to support community building in a town that lacks strong science representation, assisting participants to reflect on the bio-potential of their personal, social and political ecologies and to translate their ideas...... into action. Long Abstract Organisations that support lay people to practice bioscience alongside experts are proliferating. They enable interested people to join the global discussion on Bio Engineering by supporting them to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to do it themselves. Such organisations play...... an important role in facilitating informed debate around the biological sciences. Yet they cannot reach everyone. BioHack*Kolding asks how community-focused biology initiatives can reach people in smaller towns that lack science representation, so that they too can join the debate and ensure that its...

  2. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  3. FIBROUS SILICA-HYDROXYAPATITE COMPOSITE BY ELECTROSPINNING

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Alberto Garibay-Alvarado; León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal; Simón Yobanny Reyes-López

    2017-01-01

    New nanocomposite membrane was fabricated by electrospinning. The nanocomposite combines a glass and hydroxyapatite (HA). This research proposed the incorporation of glass to counteract the brittleness of HA in a composite formed by coaxial fibers which will be used for bone replacement. Calcium phosphate ceramics are used widely for dental and orthopedic reasons, because they can join tightly through chemical bonds and promote bone regeneration. Precursors HA and SiO2 were synthetized throug...

  4. Understanding bio-economics

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    New plants for production of bio-based fuels, chemicals or plastics are being set up at an accelerating pace. However, this transition towards bio-based fuels, feedstocks and chemicals has not come without consequences. Increased demand has pushed up prices of key agricultural products such as maize and corn with the result that consumers - especially those in low income areas - have reacted with concern and protest. At the same time, environmental research institutes and lobby groups - and n...

  5. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  6. Bacterial Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the biological properties of bacterial cellulose-hydroxyapatite (BC-HA nanocomposite membranes for bone regeneration. Nanocomposites were prepared from bacterial cellulose membranes sequentially incubated in solutions of CaCl2 followed by Na2HPO4. BC-HA membranes were evaluated in noncritical bone defects in rat tibiae at 1, 4, and 16 weeks. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of the mineral phase was 40%–50% of the total weight. Spectroscopy, electronic microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyses, and X-ray diffraction showed formation of HA crystals on BC nanofibres. Low crystallinity HA crystals presented Ca/P a molar ratio of 1.5 (calcium-deficient HA, similar to physiological bone. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis showed bands assigned to phosphate and carbonate ions. In vivo tests showed no inflammatory reaction after 1 week. After 4 weeks, defects were observed to be completely filled in by new bone tissue. The BC-HA membranes were effective for bone regeneration.

  7. Fracture mechanics of hydroxyapatite single crystals under geometric confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Flavia; Nair, Arun K; Vergani, Laura; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-04-01

    Geometric confinement to the nanoscale, a concept that refers to the characteristic dimensions of structural features of materials at this length scale, has been shown to control the mechanical behavior of many biological materials or their building blocks, and such effects have also been suggested to play a crucial role in enhancing the strength and toughness of bone. Here we study the effect of geometric confinement on the fracture mechanism of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals that form the mineralized phase in bone. We report a series of molecular simulations of HAP crystals with an edge crack on the (001) plane under tensile loading, and we systematically vary the sample height whilst keeping the sample and the crack length constant. We find that by decreasing the sample height the stress concentration at the tip of the crack disappears for samples with a height smaller than 4.15nm, below which the material shows a different failure mode characterized by a more ductile mechanism with much larger failure strains, and the strength approaching that of a flaw-less crystal. This study directly confirms an earlier suggestion of a flaw-tolerant state that appears under geometric confinement and may explain the mechanical stability of the reinforcing HAP platelets in bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cellulose/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hua Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a facile, rapid, and green strategy for the synthesis of cellulose/hydroxyapatite (HA nanocomposites using an inorganic phosphorus source (sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH2PO4·2H2O, or organic phosphorus sources (adenosine 5′-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP, creatine phosphate disodium salt tetrahydrate (CP, or D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt octahydrate (FBP through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the phosphorus sources, heating time, and heating temperature on the phase, size, and morphology of the products were systematically investigated. The experimental results revealed that the phosphate sources played a critical role on the phase, size, and morphology of the minerals in the nanocomposites. For example, the pure HA was obtained by using NaH2PO4·2H2O as phosphorus source, while all the ATP, CP, and FBP led to the byproduct, calcite. The HA nanostructures with various morphologies (including nanorods, pseudo-cubic, pseudo-spherical, and nano-spherical particles were obtained by varying the phosphorus sources or adjusting the reaction parameters. In addition, this strategy is surfactant-free, avoiding the post-treatment procedure and cost for the surfactant removal from the product. We believe that this work can be a guidance for the green synthesis of cellulose/HA nanocomposites in the future.

  9. In vitro characterizations of mesoporous hydroxyapatite as a controlled release delivery device for VEGF in orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chye Khoon; Ng, Suxiu; Lim, Tee Yong; Tan, Hark Chuan; Loo, Joachim; Wang, Wilson

    2012-11-01

    Following bone implant surgery, prolonged ischemic conditions at the implant site often result in postsurgical complications like failure of osseointegration at the bone-implant interface which can lead to implant failure. Thus, restoration of the vascular supply is paramount to the proper development of the bone. High surface area mesostructured materials have been shown to be attractive candidates for bone regeneration to enhance cell adhesion and cell proliferation. This study uses hydroxyapatite, a naturally occurring mineral in the bone, fabricated to a range of suitable pore sizes, infused with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), to be progressively released to stimulate revascularization. In this study, several characterizations including nitrogen adsorption analysis, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope were used to evaluate the synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MHA). The results showed that MHA can gradually release VEGF for enhancing revascularization, which is beneficial for orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The coprecipitation of strontium with hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu

    1975-01-01

    The distribution behavior of the strontium ion between hydroxyapatite and the parent solution was investigated. The hydroxyapatite was formed by the extremely slow addition of diammonium hydrogenphosphate to solutions of calcium and strontium nitrate buffered with ethylenediamine at 80 0 C. The precipitate yielded a typical X-ray diffraction pattern of hydroxyapatite and had a composition in which the Ca/P molar ratio was 1.67 at pH 6.80. The strontium ion was coprecipitated in the apatite, obeying the Doerner and Hoskins logarithnmic distribution law. The distribution coefficient was scarcely affected by the strontium concentration on the pH value in the parent solution, and had a value of 0.26+-0.02 at 80 0 C. On the other hand, the apparent distribution coefficient was a little affected by such organic anions as acetate, citrate, lactate, glycinate, and glutamate ions. The lattice constants of the precipitates prepared in the research were measured in order to confirm the formation of the solid solutions. (auth.)

  11. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Roveri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Norberto Roveri, Michele IafiscoLaboratory of Environmental and Biological Structural Chemistry (LEBSC, Dipartimento di Chimica ‘G. Ciamician’, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, nanocrystals, biomimetism, biomaterials, drug delivery, remineralization

  12. Bio-fuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    European Union bio-fuel use for transport reached 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009. The slowdown in the growth of European consumption deepened again. Bio-fuel used in transport only grew by 18.7% between 2008 and 2009, as against 30.3% between 2007 and 2008 and 41.8% between 2006 and 2007. The bio-fuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the E.U. is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009. We can note that: -) the proportion of bio-fuel in the German fuels market has plummeted since 2007: from 7.3% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2009; -) France stays on course with an incorporation rate of 6.25% in 2009; -) In Spain the incorporation rate reached 3.4% in 2009 while it was 1.9% in 2008. The European bio-diesel industry has had another tough year. European production only rose by 16.6% in 2009 or by about 9 million tonnes which is well below the previous year-on-year growth rate recorded (35.7%). France is leading the production of bio-ethanol fuels in Europe with an output of 1250 million liters in 2009 while the total European production reached 3700 million litters and the world production 74000 million liters. (A.C.)

  13. Enhancement of bioactivity of titanium carbonitride nanocomposite thin films on steels with biosynthesized hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thampi VV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available VV Anusha Thampi,1 P Dhandapani,2 Geetha Manivasagam, B Subramanian11Electrochemical Materials Science Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, 2Corrosion and Materials Protection Division, Central Electrochemical Reserach Institute, Karaikudi, 3Centre for Bio-Materials Science and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, IndiaAbstract: Thin films of titanium carbonitride (TiCN were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering on medical grade steel. The biocompatibility of the coating was further enhanced by growing hydroxyapatite crystals over the TiCN-coated substrates using biologically activated ammonia from synthetic urine. The coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was determined in simulated body fluid. In addition, hemocompatibility was assessed by monitoring the attachment of platelets on the coating using SEM. The wettability of the coatings was measured in order to correlate with biocompatibility results. Formation of a coating with granular morphology and the preferred orientation was confirmed by SEM and X-ray diffraction results. The hydroxyapatite coating led to a decrease in thrombogenicity, resulting in controlled blood clot formation, hence demonstrating the hemocompatibility of the coating.Keywords: titanium carbonitride thin films, magnetron sputtering, ureolytic bacteria, biocompatibility

  14. Synthesis and characterization of bulk and coatings of hydroxyapatite using methanol precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khongwar, Jasper K.; Kannan, K.R.; Buvaneswari, G.

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite, an important bioceramic was synthesized in the bulk form and developed as a coating by a sol-gel route using alcoholic precursor. The bioactive coating was developed on bio-inert α-alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The apatite phase began to form after the heat treatment of the precursor at 500 deg. C for 10 min. The complete crystallization of the apatite was obtained at 800 deg. C heat treatment for 10 min. The phase composition of the bulk and the coatings was identified by FT-IR spectroscopic and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Surface morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy. The study indicates different surface textures for the powder and for the coatings on α-alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates

  15. Multi-Functions of Carbonated Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite (CDHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan

    Natural bone is a complex composite mainly constituted of inorganic minerals and organic collagen molecules. Calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials have been proposed as the predominant bone substitute for bone tissue engineering applications due to their chemical similarity to bone mineral. Amorphous carbonated calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) is an important compound among CaP materials because of the amorphous crystallite structure. The presence of extra ions in its lattice structure not only influences cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts, but also helps in bone metabolism. Biomimetic coating approach is the most widely used approach to produce CDHA coatings to implant. It is a process using simulated body fluid (SBF) to deposit bone-like CDHA coating to various material surfaces. The CDHA formation mechanism, SBF compositions and reacting conditions of biomimetic coating have already been sufficiently studied and compared in the past 20 years. It is an attempt in this thesis to explore new applications of SBF in biomedical research, focusing on different biomaterial applications: 1) based on the low temperature reaction condition of SBF, bisphosphonate incorporated CDHA coatings were deposited onto Ti6Al4V surface for the treatment of osteoporosis; 2) amorphous calcium phosphate nanospheres with extra elements in the lattice structure were prepared by a novel microwave assisted approach, providing a new potential of CaP materials production; 3) CDHA particles formed in SBF can be used as great fillers with biopolymers for preparing biocomposites for biomedical applications; 4) based on the high activity of CDHA amorphous structure and the stabilization ability of ethanol, yttrium and europium doped calcium phosphates were prepared using CDHA as a sacrificing template. In the end, future work based on these observations in the thesis is addressed, including areas of drug delivery, biocomposite fabrication and preparation of functionalized

  16. In vitro deposition of hydroxyapatite on cortical bone collagen stimulated by deformation-induced piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris-Suárez, Karem; Lira-Olivares, Joaquin; Ferreira, Ana Marina; Feijoo, José Luis; Suárez, Nery; Hernández, Maria C; Barrios, Esteban

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the effect of the piezoelectricity of elastically deformed cortical bone collagen on surface using a biomimetic approach. The mineralization process induced as a consequence of the piezoelectricity effect was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SEM micrographs showed that mineralization occurred predominantly over the compressed side of bone collagen, due to the effect of piezoelectricity, when the sample was immersed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) in a cell-free system. The TSDC method was used to examine the complex collagen dielectric response. The dielectric spectra of deformed and undeformed collagen samples with different hydration levels were compared and correlated with the mineralization process followed by SEM. The dielectric measurements showed that the mineralization induced significant changes in the dielectric spectra of the deformed sample. DSC and TSDC results demonstrated a reduction of the collagen glass transition as the mineralization process advanced. The combined use of SEM, TSDC, and DSC showed that, even without osteoblasts present, the piezoelectric dipoles produced by deformed collagen can produce the precipitation of hydroxyapatite by electrochemical means, without a catalytic converter as occurs in classical biomimetic deposition.

  17. Electric field-assisted formation of organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) spheres in carboxymethylated gelatin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, C; Heinemann, S; Kruppke, B; Worch, H; Thomas, J; Wiesmann, H P; Hanke, T

    2016-10-15

    A biomimetic strategy was developed in order to prepare organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) with spherical shape. The technical approach is based on electric field-assisted migration of calcium ions and phosphate ions into a hydrogel composed of carboxymethylated gelatin. The electric field as well as the carboxymethylation using glucuronic acid (GlcA) significantly accelerates the mineralization process, which makes the process feasible for lab scale production of ormoHAP spheres and probably beyond. A further process was developed for gentle separation of the ormoHAP spheres from the gelatin gel without compromising the morphology of the mineral. The term ormoHAP was chosen since morphological analyses using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and element analysis (EDX, FT-IR, XRD) confirmed that carboxymethylated gelatin molecules use to act as organic templates for the formation of nanocrystalline HAP. The hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals self-organize to form hollow spheres with diameters ranging from 100 to 500nm. The combination of the biocompatible chemical composition and the unique structure of the nanocomposites is considered to be a useful basis for future applications in functionalized degradable biomaterials. A novel bioinspired mineralization process was developed based on electric field-assisted migration of calcium and phosphate ions into biochemically carboxymethylated gelatin acting as organic template. Advantages over conventional hydroxyapatite include particle size distribution and homogeneity as well as achievable mechanical properties of relevant composites. Moreover, specifically developed calcium ion or phosphate ion release during degradation can be useful to adjust the fate of bone cells in order to manipulate remodeling processes. The hollow structure of the spheres can be useful for embedding drugs in the core, encapsulated by the highly mineralized outer shell. In this way, controlled drug release could be achieved, which enables

  18. Formation of nano-hydroxyapatite crystal in situ in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Junjie [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Zhu Dunwan [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yin Jianwei; Liu Yuxi [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yao Fanglian, E-mail: yaofanglian@tju.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yao Kangde [Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-07-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/polysaccharide composites have been widely used in bone tissue engineering due to their chemical similarity to natural bone. Polymer matrix-mediated synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite is one of the simplest models for biomimetic. In this article, the nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-pectin (nHCP) composites were prepared through in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) network. The formation processes of nHCP were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The interactions between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC networks were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The morphology and structure of nHA crystal were characterized by XRD and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Results suggested that the interfacial interactions between nano-hydroxyapatite crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC network assist the site specific nucleation and growth of nHA nanoparticles. The nHA crystals grow along the c-axis. In this process, pH value is the main factor to control the nucleation and growth of nHA crystal in chitosan-pectin PEC networks, because both the interactions' strength between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin and diffusion rate of inorganic ions depend on the pH value of the reaction system. Apart from the pH value, the chitosan/pectin ratio and [Ca{sup 2+}] also take important effects on the formation of nHA crystal. An effective way to control the size of nHA crystal is to adjust the content of pectin and [Ca{sup 2+}]. It is interesting that the Zeta potential of nHCP composites is about - 30 mV when the chitosan/pectin ratio {<=} 1:1, and the dispersion solution of nHCP composites has higher stability, which provides the possibility to prepare 3D porous scaffolds with nHCP for bone tissue engineering.

  19. An investigation of the mineral in ductile and brittle cortical mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Mukadam, Quresh; Saiz, Eduardo; Oldknow, Karla J; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis; Boyde, Alan; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter, and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone's mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone's mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse phenotypes. Osteogenesis imperfecta model, oim(-/-) , mice have a defect in the collagen, which leads to brittle bone; PHOSPHO1 mutants, Phospho1(-/-) , have ductile bone resulting from altered mineralization. Oim(-/-) and Phospho1(-/-) were compared with their respective wild-type controls. Femora were defatted and ground to powder to measure average mineral crystal size using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and to monitor the bulk mineral to matrix ratio via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD scans were run after TGA for phase identification to assess the fractions of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. Tibiae were embedded to measure elastic properties with nanoindentation and the extent of mineralization with backscattered electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Results revealed that although both pathology models had extremely different whole-bone mechanics, they both had smaller apatite crystals, lower bulk mineral to matrix ratio, and showed more thermal conversion to β-tricalcium phosphate than their wild types, indicating deviations from stoichiometric hydroxyapatite in the original mineral. In contrast, the degree of mineralization of bone matrix was different for each strain: brittle oim(-/-) were hypermineralized, whereas ductile Phospho1(-/-) were hypomineralized. Despite differences in the mineralization, nanoscale alterations in the mineral were associated with reduced tissue elastic moduli in both pathologies. Results indicated that alterations from normal crystal size

  20. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  1. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  2. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Xin; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Cathodic electrophoretic deposition has been utilized for the fabrication of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings on 316L stainless steel substrates. The addition of chitosan to the hydroxyapatite suspensions promoted the electrophoretic deposition of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and resulted in the formation of composite coatings. The obtained coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the deposit composition can be changed by a variation of the chitosan or hydroxyapatite concentration in the solutions. Experimental conditions were developed for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposites containing 40.9-89.8 wt.% hydroxyapatite. The method enabled the formation of adherent and uniform coatings of thicknesses up to 60 μm. X-ray studies revealed that the preferred orientation of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix increases with decreasing hydroxyapatite content in the composite coatings. The obtained coatings provided the corrosion protection for the 316L stainless steel substrates

  3. Hydroxyapatite does not improve the outcome of a bipolar hemiarthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, H.J.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Buma, P.; Lemmens, J.A.M.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    In a one-surgeon study the clinical and radiographic results of 30 cementless bipolar hip prostheses in 24 patients younger than 55 years were evaluated. Eleven noncoated prostheses (Noncoated Group) and 19 hydroxyapatite-coated prostheses (Hydroxyapatite Group) were compared after a mean followup

  4. Development of hydroxyapatite bone cement for controlled drug ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this work was to study the preparation and characterization of drug–hydroxyapatite cement. The hydroxyapatite (HA) cement has been synthesized by using tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous with sodium hydrogen phosphate as liquid phase. The effect of added ...

  5. In-situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    OpenAIRE

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in-situ deposition of hydroxyaptite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, trans...

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Powder by Wet Precipitation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyaningrum, S. E.; Herdyastuty, N.; Devina, B.; Supangat, D.

    2018-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is main inorganic component of the bone with formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite can be used as substituted bone biomaterial because biocompatible, non toxic, and osteoconductive. In this study, hydroxyapatite is synthesized using wet precipitation method from egg shell. The product was sintered at different temperatures of 800°C to 1000°C to improve its crystallinity. The hydroxyapatite was characterized by X-ray analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to reveal its phase content, morphology and types of bond present within it. The analytical results showed hydroxyapatite had range in crystallinity from 85.527 to 98.753%. The analytical functional groups showed that presence of functional groups such as OH, (PO4)3 2-, and CO3 2- that indicated as hydroxyapatite. The result of characterization SEM indicated that hydroxyapatite without sintering and HAp sintering at 800 °C were irregular shape without pore. The best hydroxyapatite with temperature sintering at 900 °C showed oval shaped with pores without agglomerated.

  7. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  8. CLINICO-MORPHOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF BIO-OSS ® DURING BONE-PLASTIC OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SIDELNIKOV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the clinical and morphological characteristics of Bio-Oss ® and Bio-Gate ® materials during bone-plastic operations, especially bone regeneration after surgical interventiond. Materials and method: The pathomorphological study was performed with the intravital biopsy material of bone tissue from augmentation areas, obtained during implants placement. Clinical studies included subjective and objective methods, in particular X-ray analysis and photo documenting. Bio-Oss ®, Bio-Gide ®, Bio-Gide ® Perio membranes, Resor-Pin pins, U-impl implant systems were investigated and 231 operations were performed with Bio-Oss ® and Bio-Gate ®, of which 38 cases of sinus lifting, 145 of bone plasty with simultaneous implantation and 48 cases of periodontal surgery. Results: Usage of bone-plastic Bio-OSS ® and Bio-Gate ® materials during various bone-plastic and periodontal operations assures a high clinical effect (from 93 to 99%. Morphologically, it has been observed that, after usage of bone Bio-OSS ® and Bio-Gate ® materials, a new osteoid tissue was formed, similar to the bone tissue of the alveolar process, with high mineralization levels, especially in the first 2 years, due to the simultaneous resorption of the material. The newly-formed tissue has a classical design and can fully perform the functions of jaw bones, especially for carrying loads transmitted with either teeth or implants.

  9. Gallium-containing hydroxyapatite for potential use in orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, P.; Teixeira, A.R.; Malzac, A.; Coelho, M. de B.

    2009-01-01

    A novel material that may be recommended for grafts and implants stimulating bone growth has been obtained by introducing gallium ions (up to 11.0 mass%) into crystalline lattice of hydroxyapatite. The doping was carried out using gallium nitrate and sodium gallate solutions. In both cases, lattice parameters of gallium-doped hydroxyapatite are identical to those of pure synthetic hydroxyapatite. Gallium does not replace calcium as a result of heterovalent substitution and consequently produces no distortions in the framework of hydroxyapatite matrix. It remains strongly fixed in the form of solid solution of intercalation. According to scanning electron microscopy images gallium insertion does not cause any morphological alterations in hydroxyapatite structure and the product developed meets physico-chemical criteria for biomaterial to be employed in orthopedic practice and local handling of traumatic injuries. Its future usage opens the opportunity to enhance osteosynthesis and calcium retention in loco.

  10. Study on carbonated hydroxyapatite as a thermoluminescence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafaei, M.; Sardari, D.; Ziaie, F.; Larijani, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were used for thermoluminescence dosimetry. The nano-structure carbonated hydroxyapatite synthesized via hydrolysis of CaHPO 4 and CaCO 3 . The obtained nano powders were characterized by XRD technique and FTIR spectroscopy system. The carbonated hydroxyapatite samples were irradiated at different doses using 60 Co gamma rays, and were subjected to thermoluminescence measurement system, consequently. The TL glow curve exhibited two distinguishable peaks centered at around of 165 C and 310 C. The TL response of carbonated hydroxyapatite samples as a function of absorbed dose was linear in the range of 25-1000 Gy. Other dosimetric features of the carbonated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles including fading and reproducibility were also investigated.

  11. Synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by using precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasherpour, I.; Heshajin, M. Soulati; Kazemzadeh, A.; Zakeri, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, hydroxyapatite powder has been synthesized from the calcium nitrate hydrated and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate solution by precipitation method and heat treatment of hydroxyapatite powders. In order to study the structural evolution, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) were used. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to estimate the particle size of the powder and observe the morphology and agglomeration state of the powder. Results show that hydroxyapatite nanocrystalline can successfully be produced by precipitation technique from raw materials. Hydroxyapatite grain gradually increased in size when temperature increased from 100 to 1200 o C, and the hydroxyapatite hexagonal-dipyramidal phase was not transformed to the other calcium phosphates phases up to 1200 o C

  12. Minerals and aligned collagen fibrils in tilapia fish scales: structural analysis using dark-field and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mitsuhiro; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tagaya, Motohiro; Chen, Song; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    The mineralized structure of aligned collagen fibrils in a tilapia fish scale was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques after a thin sample was prepared using aqueous techniques. Electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy data indicated that a mineralized internal layer consisting of aligned collagen fibrils contains hydroxyapatite crystals. Bright-field imaging, dark-field imaging, and energy-filtered TEM showed that the hydroxyapatite was mainly distributed in the hole zones of the aligned collagen fibrils structure, while needle-like materials composed of calcium compounds including hydroxyapatite existed in the mineralized internal layer. Dark-field imaging and three-dimensional observation using electron tomography revealed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were mainly found in the matrix between the collagen fibrils. It was observed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were preferentially distributed on the surface of the hole zones in the aligned collagen fibrils structure and in the matrix between the collagen fibrils in the mineralized internal layer of the scale.

  13. Bio-Oss® modified by calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes osteogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjing; Yang, Lan; Zheng, Zhichao; Li, Zhengmao; Deng, Tian; Ren, Wen; Wu, Caijuan; Guo, Lvhua

    2017-11-01

    Bio-Oss ® and α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are involved in osteogenesis. However, it has remained to be assessed how α-CGRP affects the effect of Bio-Oss. In the present study, primary osteoblasts were incubated with α-CGRP, Bio-Oss, α-GGRP-Bio-Oss or mimic-α-CGRP. The proliferation rate, mineralization nodules, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of osteogenic genes were measured by a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, Alizarin Red-S staining, ALP activity detection and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR as well as western blot analysis, respectively. The proliferation rate, ALP activity and the number of mineralization nodules were significantly increased in the α-CGRP-modified Bio-Oss group compared to that in the Bio-Oss group. The mRNA and protein levels of osteocalcin, Runt-related transcription factor-2 and ALP were significantly upregulated in the α-CGRP-Bio-Oss group compared with those in the Bio-Oss group. Furthermore, the effect of mimic-α-CGRP on osteogenesis was reduced as it carried a mutation. In conclusion, the present study was the first to demonstrate that Bio-Oss modified with CGRP contributed to osteogenesis and may provide a novel formulation applied in the clinic for restoration of large bone defects.

  14. Hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ilisei, Simona; Luca, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is focused on a study regarding the possibility of obtaining hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticle coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold. The method applied is based on a combined strategy involving hydroxyapatite biomimetic deposition on polyurethane surface using a Supersaturated Calcification Solution (SCS), combined with silver ions reduction and in-situ crystallization processes on hydroxyapatite-polyurethane surface by sample immersing in AgNO 3 solution. The morphology, composition and phase structure of the prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The data obtained show that a layer of hydroxyapatite was deposited on porous polyurethane support and the silver nanoparticles (average size 34.71 nm) were dispersed among and even on the hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane surface acts as a reducer and a stabilizing agent for silver ions. The surface plasmon resonance peak in UV-Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption maximum at 415 nm, indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. The hydroxyapatite-silver polyurethane scaffolds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the obtained data were indicative of good antibacterial properties of the materials. - Highlights: • The hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles were grown on the polyurethane scaffold • The hydroxyapatite/polyurethane acts as reducing agent, stabilizer and matrix for Ag • The samples were well characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, XPS, UV-visible spectroscopy • The hydroxyapatite/silver polyurethane scaffold shows antibacterial property

  15. In-vitro and in-vivo design and validation of an injectable polysaccharide-hydroxyapatite composite material for sinus floor augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricain, J C; Aid, R; Lanouar, S; Maurel, D B; Le Nihouannen, D; Delmond, S; Letourneur, D; Amedee Vilamitjana, J; Catros, S

    2018-04-07

    Polysaccharide-based composite matrices consisting of natural polysaccharides, pullulan and dextran supplemented with hydroxyapatite (Matrix-HA) have recently been developed. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capacities of this composite material to promote new bone formation in a sinus lift model in the sheep. Secondary objectives were to evaluate in vitro properties of the material regarding cell adhesion and proliferation. In this report, once such composite matrix was prepared as injectable beads after dispersion in a physiological buffer, and evaluated using a large animal model (sheep) for a sinus lift procedure. In vitro studies revealed that these microbeads (250-550μm in diameter) allow vascular cell adhesion and proliferation of Endothelial Cells (EC) after 1 and 7 days of culture. In vivo studies were performed in 12 adult sheep, and newly formed tissue was analyzed by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by histology 3 and 6 months post-implantation. CBCT analyses at the implantation time revealed the radiolucent properties of these matrices. Quantitative analysis showed an increase of a dense mineralized tissue in the Matrix-HA group up to 3 months of implantation. The mineralized volume over total volume after 6 months reached comparable values to those obtained for Bio-Oss ® used as positive control. Histological examination confirmed that the Matrix-HA did not induce any long term inflammatory events, and promoted direct contact between the osteoid tissue and lamellar bone structures and beads. After 6 months, we observed a dense network of osteocytes surrounding both biomaterials as well as a newly vascularized formed tissue in close contact to the biomaterials. In conclusion, the absence of animal components in Matrix-HA, the osteoconductive property of Matrix-HA in sheep, resulting in a dense bone and vascularized tissue, and the initial radiolucent property to follow graft

  16. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  17. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...

  18. Cytotoxicity of nano-hydroxyapatite on human-derived oral epithelium cell line: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Abassi; Mandana Sattari; Noushin Jalayer Naderi; Marzie Sorooshzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a more surface contact and solubility than conventional hydroxyapatite. Hydroxynanoparticles enhances the biological and mechanical properties of new regenerated tissues. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have received attention as a new and effective osseous graft for using as scaffolds in bone regeneration. The reports on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles biocompatibility are controversial. It has been shown that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles induces i...

  19. Iron inhibits hydroxyapatite crystal growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, Pascal; Filmon, Robert; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Baslé, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Hemochromatosis is a known cause of osteoporosis in which the pathophysiology of bone loss is largely unknown and the role of iron remains questionable. We have investigated the effects of iron on the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro on carboxymethylated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) pellets. This noncellular and enzyme-independent model mimics the calcification of woven bone (composed of calcospherites made of hydroxyapatite crystals). Polymer pellets were incubated with body fluid containing iron at increasing concentrations (20, 40, 60 micromol/L). Hydroxyapatite growth was studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman microscopy. When incubated in body fluid containing iron, significant differences were observed with control pellets. Iron was detected at a concentration of 5.41- to 7.16-fold that of controls. In pellets incubated with iron, there was a approximately 3- to 4-fold decrease of Ca and P and a approximately 1.3- to 1.4-fold increase in the Ca/P ratio. There was no significant difference among the iron groups of pellets, but a trend to a decrease of Ca with the increase of iron concentration was noted. Calcospherite diameters were significantly lower on pellets incubated with iron. Raman microspectroscopy showed a decrease in crystallinity (measured by the full width of the half height of the 960 Deltacm(-1) band) with a significant increase in carbonate substitution (measured by the intensity ratio of 1071 to 960 Deltacm(-1) band). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis identified iron in the calcospherites. In vitro, iron is capable to inhibit bone crystal growth with significant changes in crystallinity and carbonate substitution.

  20. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  1. Fabricating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aiping; Lu Yan; Si Yunfeng; Dai Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO 4 3- to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  2. Frabicating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aiping; Lu, Yan; Si, Yunfeng; Dai, Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO43- to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  3. Biomimetic Growth of Hydroxyapatite on Kenaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Izwan Abd Razak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA growth on mercerized kenaf fiber (KF was achieved by immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF solution with the addition of a chelating agent. An electron micrograph revealed uniform HA layers on the KF within 14 days of immersion with significant vibrational peaks of HA components. The tensile tests showed no significant drops in the unit break of the modified fibers. This new bone-like apatite coating on KF can be useful in the field of bone tissue engineering. The key motivation for this new approach was that it utilizes the abundantly available kenaf plant resource as the biobased template.

  4. Structure–property relationships of iron–hydroxyapatite ceramic matrix nanocomposite fabricated using mechanosynthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Jamillah Amer; Prajitno, Djoko Hadi; Saidin, Syafiqah; Nur, Hadi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an attractive bioceramics due to its similar composition to bone mineral and its ability to promote bone–implant interaction. However, its low strength has limited its application as load bearing implants. This paper presented a work focusing on the improvement of HAp mechanical property by synthesizing iron (Fe)-reinforced bovine HAp nanocomposite powders via mechanosynthesis method. The synthesis process was performed using high energy milling at varied milling time (3, 6, 9, and 12 h). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its mechanical properties were investigated by micro-Vicker's hardness and compression tests. Results showed that milling time directly influenced the characteristics of the nanocomposite powders. Amorphous BHAp was formed after 9 and 12 h milling in the presence of HPO 4 2− ions. Continuous milling has improved the crystallinity of Fe without changing the HAp lattice structure. The nanocomposite powders were found in spherical shape, agglomerated and dense after longer milling time. The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were also increased at 69% and 66%, respectively, as the milling time was prolonged from 3 to 12 h. Therefore, the improvement of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite was attributed to high Fe crystallinity and homogenous, dense structure produced by mechanosynthesis - Highlights: • Improvement of mechanical properties of HAp bioceramics by mechanosynthesis method • Structure–property relationship of iron–hydroxyapatite ceramic matrix nanocomposite • Milling time influenced the properties of iron–hydroxyapatite ceramic matrix nanocomposite

  5. Structure–property relationships of iron–hydroxyapatite ceramic matrix nanocomposite fabricated using mechanosynthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Jamillah Amer [Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Prajitno, Djoko Hadi [Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Saidin, Syafiqah [Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Nur, Hadi, E-mail: hadi@kimia.fs.utm.my [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Institut Sains dan Teknologi Nasional, Jl. Moh. Kahfi II, Jagakarsa, Jakarta Selatan 12640 (Indonesia); Hermawan, Hendra, E-mail: hendra.hermawan@gmn.ulaval.ca [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University, Québec City G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an attractive bioceramics due to its similar composition to bone mineral and its ability to promote bone–implant interaction. However, its low strength has limited its application as load bearing implants. This paper presented a work focusing on the improvement of HAp mechanical property by synthesizing iron (Fe)-reinforced bovine HAp nanocomposite powders via mechanosynthesis method. The synthesis process was performed using high energy milling at varied milling time (3, 6, 9, and 12 h). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its mechanical properties were investigated by micro-Vicker's hardness and compression tests. Results showed that milling time directly influenced the characteristics of the nanocomposite powders. Amorphous BHAp was formed after 9 and 12 h milling in the presence of HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions. Continuous milling has improved the crystallinity of Fe without changing the HAp lattice structure. The nanocomposite powders were found in spherical shape, agglomerated and dense after longer milling time. The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were also increased at 69% and 66%, respectively, as the milling time was prolonged from 3 to 12 h. Therefore, the improvement of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite was attributed to high Fe crystallinity and homogenous, dense structure produced by mechanosynthesis - Highlights: • Improvement of mechanical properties of HAp bioceramics by mechanosynthesis method • Structure–property relationship of iron–hydroxyapatite ceramic matrix nanocomposite • Milling time influenced the properties of iron–hydroxyapatite ceramic matrix nanocomposite.

  6. Molecular interactions in biomineralized hydroxyapatite amino acid modified nanoclay: In silico design of bone biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, Dinesh R.; Sharma, Anurag; Ambre, Avinash H.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2015-01-01

    A simulations driven approach to design of a novel biomaterial nanocomposite system is described in this study. Nanoclays modified with amino acids (OMMT) were used to mineralize hydroxyapatite (HAP), mimicking biomineralization. Representative models of organically modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and OMMT-hydroxyapatite (OMMT-HAP) were constructed using molecular dynamics and validated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transforms Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Attractive interactions exist between Ca atoms of HAP and C=O group of aminovaleric acid, indicating chelate formation in OMMT-HAP. Interaction energy maps describe molecular interactions among different constituents and their quantitative contributions in the OMMT and OMMT-HAP systems at both parallel and perpendicular orientations. High attractive and high repulsive interactions were found between PO 4 3− and MMT clay as well as aminovaleric molecules in OMMT-HAP perpendicular and parallel models. Large non-bonded interactions in OMMT-HAP indicate influence of neighboring environment on PO 4 3− in in situ HAPclay. Extensive hydrogen bonds were observed between functional hydrogen atoms of modifier and MMT clay in OMMT-HAP as compared to OMMT. Thus, HAP interacts with clay through the aminovaleric acid. This computational study provides a framework for materials design and selection for biomaterials used in tissue engineering and other areas of regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • Representative models of a hybrid nanoclay-hydroxyapatite biomaterial are built. • Interaction energy maps are constructed using a molecular dynamics. • Quantitative interactions between the three components of the biomaterial are found. • The modeling and experimental approach provides insight into the complex nanomaterial

  7. Preparation and characterization of gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres for hard tissue repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Shao Ching; Wang, Ming-Jia; Pai, Nai-Su; Yen, Shiow-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres composed of 21% gelatin (G) and 79% hydroxyapatite (HA) with uniform morphology and controllable size were synthesized from a mixed solution of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 H 2 PO 4 and gelatin by a wet-chemical method. Material analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning/transmission electron microscopy examination (SEM/TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to characterize G–HA microspheres by analyzing their crystalline phase, microstructure, morphology and composition. HA crystals precipitate along G fibers to form nano-rods with diameters of 6–10 nm and tangle into porous microspheres after blending. The cell culture indicates that G–HA composite microspheres without any toxicity could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In a rat calvarial defect model, G–HA bioactive scaffolds were compared with fibrin glue (F) and Osteoset® Bone Graft Substitute (OS) for their capacity of regenerating bone. Four weeks post-implantation, new bone, mineralization, and expanded blood vessel area were found in G–HA scaffolds, indicating greater osteoconductivity and bioactivity than F and OS. - Highlights: • G–HA composite microspheres were prepared by hydroxyapatite and gelatin. • In vitro tests indicated that the G–HA microspheres were biocompatible and bioactive. • In in vitro tests, G–HA microspheres could be applied in hard tissue engineering. • G–HA had healed the bone defect and provides a high proportion of surface area to open space

  8. Preparation and characterization of gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres for hard tissue repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Shao Ching [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Minimally Invasive Skull Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 1650 Taiwan Boulevard, Sect. 4, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurosurgery, ChangHua Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 80 Chung Cheng Road, Sect. 2 Chiu Kuan Village, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ming-Jia; Pai, Nai-Su [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Yen, Shiow-Kang, E-mail: skyen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres composed of 21% gelatin (G) and 79% hydroxyapatite (HA) with uniform morphology and controllable size were synthesized from a mixed solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and gelatin by a wet-chemical method. Material analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning/transmission electron microscopy examination (SEM/TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to characterize G–HA microspheres by analyzing their crystalline phase, microstructure, morphology and composition. HA crystals precipitate along G fibers to form nano-rods with diameters of 6–10 nm and tangle into porous microspheres after blending. The cell culture indicates that G–HA composite microspheres without any toxicity could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In a rat calvarial defect model, G–HA bioactive scaffolds were compared with fibrin glue (F) and Osteoset® Bone Graft Substitute (OS) for their capacity of regenerating bone. Four weeks post-implantation, new bone, mineralization, and expanded blood vessel area were found in G–HA scaffolds, indicating greater osteoconductivity and bioactivity than F and OS. - Highlights: • G–HA composite microspheres were prepared by hydroxyapatite and gelatin. • In vitro tests indicated that the G–HA microspheres were biocompatible and bioactive. • In in vitro tests, G–HA microspheres could be applied in hard tissue engineering. • G–HA had healed the bone defect and provides a high proportion of surface area to open space.

  9. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, Alessandra; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela; Montanaro, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and (b) titration of Ca(OH) 2 . The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m 2 /g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH) 2 were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH) 2

  10. Hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ilisei, Simona; Luca, Constantin

    2014-02-01

    The present paper is focused on a study regarding the possibility of obtaining hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticle coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold. The method applied is based on a combined strategy involving hydroxyapatite biomimetic deposition on polyurethane surface using a Supersaturated Calcification Solution (SCS), combined with silver ions reduction and in-situ crystallization processes on hydroxyapatite-polyurethane surface by sample immersing in AgNO3 solution. The morphology, composition and phase structure of the prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The data obtained show that a layer of hydroxyapatite was deposited on porous polyurethane support and the silver nanoparticles (average size 34.71 nm) were dispersed among and even on the hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane surface acts as a reducer and a stabilizing agent for silver ions. The surface plasmon resonance peak in UV-Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption maximum at 415 nm, indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. The hydroxyapatite-silver polyurethane scaffolds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the obtained data were indicative of good antibacterial properties of the materials. © 2013.

  11. Preparation of Bio-beads and Their Atrazine Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Hai-tao; ZHANG Lan-ying; LIU Na; ZHU Bo-lin

    2011-01-01

    Screened atrazine-mineralizing bacterium-Pseudomonas W4 was embedded inside an improved PVAH3BO3 embedment matrix to make bio-beads to degrade atrazine. The atrazine degradation characteristics were studied. The preparation procedure of bio-beads was as follows: (1) preparing a mixture of 100, 12.5, 10, 1.5 and 1 g/L PVA, bentonite(Ca), activated carbon powder, sodium alginate and centrifuged Pseudomonas W4 bacterium, respectively; (2) the mixture was dropped into a gently stirred cross linker solution(pH=6.7) and cured at 10 ℃ for 24 h.The optimal atrazine degradation conditions by bio-beads were as follows: pH=7, the auxiliary carbon source was glucose, and the concentration of glucose was greater than 325 mg/L. The bio-beads demonstrated stronger tolerance ability than the free microorganism to the increase of PCBs, hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. SEM images show the uniform distribution of the microorganism inside bio-beads and the porous cross-linked structure of bio-beads which provides excellent mass transfer capacity.

  12. Estimating Nitrogen Availability of Heat-Dried Bio solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.; Myhre, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    As heat-dried bio solids become more widely produced and marketed, it is important to improve estimates of N availability from these materials. Objectives were to compare plant-available N among three different heat-dried bio solids and determine if current guidelines were adequate for estimating application rates. Heat-dried bio solids were surface applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in Washington State, USA, and forage yield and N uptake measured for two growing seasons following application. Three rates of urea and a zero-N control were used to calculate N fertilizer efficiency regressions. Application year plant-available N (estimated as urea N equivalent) for two bio solids exceeded 60% of total N applied, while urea N equivalent for the third bio solids was 45%. Residual (second-year) urea N equivalent ranged from 5 to 10%. Guidelines for the Pacific Northwest USA recommend mineralization estimates of 35 to 40% for heat-dried bio solids, but this research shows that some heat-dried materials fall well above that range.

  13. BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in the field of Microsystem Technology has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. 'Biomes' is a discipline which focuses on microsystems for living systems. This work presents the exciting field of bio-microsystems.

  14. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  15. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  16. Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelar, Deidre L.; Davidson, Melanie T.M.; Dabrowski, Waldemar; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. Accurate assessment of the bone mineralization state is the first requirement for a comprehensive analysis. In diagnostic imaging, x-ray coherent scatter depends upon the molecular structure of tissues. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) exploits this feature to identify tissue types in composite biological specimens. We have used CSCT to map the distributions of tissues relevant to bone disease (fat, soft tissue, collagen, and mineral) within bone-tissue phantoms and an excised cadaveric bone sample. Using a purpose-built scanner, we have measured hydroxyapatite (bone mineral) concentrations based on coherent-scatter patterns from a series of samples with varying hydroxyapatite content. The measured scatter intensity is proportional to mineral density in true g/cm 3 . Repeated measurements of the hydroxyapatite concentration in each sample were within, at most, 2% of each other, revealing an excellent precision in determining hydroxyapatite concentration. All measurements were also found to be accurate to within 3% of the known values. Phantoms simulating normal, over-, and under-mineralized bone were created by mixing known masses of pure collagen and hydroxyapatite. An analysis of the composite scatter patterns gave the density of each material. For each composite, the densities were within 2% of the known values. Collagen and hydroxyapatite concentrations were also examined in a bone-mimicking phantom, incorporating other bone constituents (fat, soft tissue). Tomographic maps of the coherent-scatter properties of each specimen were reconstructed, from which material-specific images were generated. Each tissue was clearly distinguished and the collagen-mineral ratio determined from this phantom was also within 2% of the known value. Existing bone analysis techniques cannot determine the collagen-mineral ratio in intact specimens

  17. Influence of pH, competing ions, and salinity on the sorption of strontium and cobalt onto biogenic hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Mullan, Thomas K.; Grail, Quentin; Albadarneh, Malek; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Macaskie, Lynne E.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides contaminate a range of environments as a result of nuclear activities, for example, leakage from waste storage tanks/ponds (e.g. Hanford, USA or Sellafield sites, UK) or as a result of large scale nuclear accidents (e.g. Chernobyl, Ukraine or Fukushima, Japan). One of the most widely applied remediation techniques for contaminated waters is the use of sorbent materials (e.g. zeolites and apatites). However, a key problem at nuclear contaminated sites is the remediation of radionuclides from complex chemical environments. In this study, biogenic hydroxyapatite (BHAP) produced by Serratia sp. bacteria was investigated for its potential to remediate surrogate radionuclides (Sr2+ and Co2+) from environmentally relevant waters by varying pH, salinity and the type and concentration of cations present. The sorption capacity of the BHAP for both Sr2+ and Co2+ was higher than for a synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the solutions tested. BHAP also compared favorably against a natural zeolite (as used in industrial decontamination) for Sr2+ and Co2+ uptake from saline waters. Results confirm that hydroxyapatite minerals of high surface area and amorphous calcium phosphate content, typical for biogenic sources, are suitable restoration or reactive barrier materials for the remediation of complex contaminated environments or wastewaters.

  18. Experimental and in silico investigations of organic phosphates and phosphonates sorption on polymer-ceramic monolithic materials and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyńska, Monika; Zembrzuska, Joanna; Tomczak, Rafał; Mikołajczyk, Jakub; Rusińska-Roszak, Danuta; Voelkel, Adam; Buchwald, Tomasz; Jampílek, Josef; Lukáč, Miloš; Devínsky, Ferdinand

    2016-10-10

    A method based on experimental and in silico evaluations for investigating interactions of organic phosphates and phosphonates with hydroxyapatite was developed. This quick and easy method is used for determination of differences among organophosphorus compounds of various structures in their mineral binding affinities. Empirical sorption evaluation was carried out using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry or UV-VIS spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm sorption of organic phosphates and phosphonates on hydroxyapatite. Polymer-ceramic monolithic material and bulk hydroxyapatite were applied as sorbent materials. Furthermore, a Polymer-ceramic Monolithic In-Needle Extraction device was used to investigate both sorption and desorption steps. Binding energies were computed from the fully optimised structures utilising Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Potential pharmacologic and toxic effects of the tested compounds were estimated by the Prediction of the Activity Spectra of Substances using GeneXplain software. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N.; Singh, Devendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  20. Histologic analysis of a retrieved hydroxyapatite-coated femoral prosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søballe, K; Gotfredsen, K; Brockstedt-Rasmussen, H

    1991-01-01

    A hydroxyapatite-coated hip hemi-prosthesis was retrieved from a 98-year-old osteoporotic woman 12 weeks after implantation. Histologic analysis revealed bone and fibrous tissue almost evenly distributed around the surface of the implant circumference. Quantitative histologic analysis showed...... that 48% of the hydroxyapatite surface was covered by bone. Fibrous tissue covered 30% of the prosthetic surface, and 20% of the surface had no tissue coverage. Scanning electron microscopy showed direct contact without any clear boundary between the newly formed bone and the hydroxyapatite ceramic....

  1. Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Coatings with Incorporated Detonationally Generated Nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramatarova, L.; Pecheva, E.; Hikov, T.; Fingarova, D.; Dimitrova, R.; Spassov, T.; Krasteva, N.; Mitev, D.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of the substrate chemistry on the morphology of hydroxyapatite-detonational nanodiamond composite coatings grown by a biomimetic approach (immersion in a supersaturated simulated body fluid). When detonational nanodiamond particles were added to the solution, the morphology of the grown for 2 h composite particles was porous but more compact then that of pure hydroxyapatite particles. The nanodiamond particles stimulated the hydroxyapatite growth with different morphology on the various substrates (Ti, Ti alloys, glasses, Si, opal). Biocompatibility assay with MG63 osteoblast cells revealed that the detonational nanodiamond water suspension with low and average concentration of the detonational nanodiamond powder is not toxic to living cells.

  2. Recycled hydroxyapatite coatings on 316L stainless steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Filho, Antonio Alves; Pereira, Renato Alves; Araujo, Fernando Gabriel da Silva; Sousa, Camila Mateus de

    2010-01-01

    In this work were evaluated recycled hydroxyapatite coatings on 316L stainless steel substrates by plasma thermal aspersion. The hydroxyapatite used was obtained from bovine bone by the hydrothermal method. The samples of hydroxyapatite powders were divided according to their particle size distribution. The adhesion of the powders coating to the substrate was evaluated by assay scratch. The X-ray diffraction techniques and scanning electron microscopy were also used. The results of scratch resistance were between 46N and 63N. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction showed no cracks coatings, single-phase and with few fused particles. (author)

  3. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  4. Thermoluminescent characteristics of synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHAp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Rivera, T.; Guzman, J.; Piña-Barba, M.C.; Azorin, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHAp) obtained by the sol–gel method. For preparation of the SHAp powders, phosphorus pentoxide (P 2 O 5 ) and calcium nitrate tetrahydrated (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 –4H 2 O) were used. The powders obtained were submitted at different temperatures. The structural and morphological characterization were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy techniques. TL glow curve exhibited two peaks centered at around 200 °C and 300 °C. TL response of SHAp as a function of gamma absorbed dose was linear over a wide dose range. Fading of the storage information in the samples irradiated was also studied. The experimental results show that the synthetic hydroxyapatite obtained by the sol–gel method may have used in gamma radiation dosimetry applications. - highlights: • Dosimetric characteristics of SHAp under gamma irradiation effect were analyzed • SHAp powders were obtained by Sol–Gel method • Fading anomalous of HAp was performed showing 15% during 90 days • SHAp showed good dosimetric characteristics. • Dosimetric characteristics of SHAp have not been reported yet in the literature before this paper

  5. Microwave sintering of hydroxyapatite-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Y.; Roy, D.M.; Cheng, J.; Roy, R.; Agrawal, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Composites of hydroxyapatite/partially stabilized zirconia (HAp/PSZ) and hydroxyapatite/silicon carbide whiskers (HAp/SiC) were sintered at 1100-1200 degrees C by microwave at 2.45 GHz. Characterization of the sintered composites was carried out by density, microstructure, phase composition, and fracture toughness measurements. The results show that although not yet fully densified, a much higher sintered density in the HAp/PSZ composite was achieved by microwave sintering than by conventional sintering at the same temperature. A relative density of 93% was achieved by 20 min. microwave processing at 1200 degrees C. Comparatively, 2 h conventional sintering of the same material at 1200 degrees C led to only 75.5% relative density. K IC of this microwave sintered HAp/PSZ of 93% density was found to be 3.88 MPa√m, which is 250% of the value for pure HAp of the same density. A further increase in K IC could be expected if full or nearly full densification was achieved. Sintering of PSZ particles in the HAp/PSZ composite was also observed in the microwave processed sample. Microwave sintering of HAp/SiC was not successful in the current study due to the oxidation of SiC in air at high temperature. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Reactive hydroxyapatite fillers for pectin biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munarin, Fabiola; Petrini, Paola; Barcellona, Giulia; Roversi, Tommaso; Piazza, Laura; Visai, Livia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a novel injectable biocomposite hydrogel is produced by internal gelation, using pectin as organic matrix and hydroxyapatite either as crosslinking agent and inorganic reinforcement. Tunable gelling kinetics and rheological properties are obtained varying the hydrogels' composition, with the final aim of developing systems for cell immobilization. The reversibility by dissolution of pectin-hydroxyapatite hydrogels is achieved with saline solutions, to possibly accelerate the release of the cells or active agents immobilized. Texture analysis confirms the possibility of extruding the biocomposites from needles with diameters from 20 G to 30 G, indicating that they can be implanted with minimally-invasive approaches, minimizing the pain during injection and the side effects of the open surgery. L929 fibroblasts entrapped in the hydrogels survive to the immobilization procedure and exhibit high cell viability. On the overall, these systems result to be suitable supports for the immobilization of cells for tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluoride removal performance of glass derived hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Wen; Zhan, Lei; Piao, Longhua; Russel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) is prepared. → Micro-G-HAP adsorbs F - ions in solutions more effectively than commercial nano-HAP. → The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. -- Abstract: A novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) with different ranges of particle size was prepared by immersion sodium calcium borate glass in 0.1 M K 2 HPO 4 solution by the ratio of 50 g L -1 for 7 days. The unique advantage of G-HAP for the adsorption of fluoride ions in solutions was studied. The effects of size and quantity of particles, pH value and adsorption time on adsorption performance were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 17.34 mg g -1 if 5 g L -1 , - in solution more effectively than commercial nano-HAP, which makes potential application of the G-HAP in removing the fluoride ions from wastewater. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms for F - could be well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model respectively, which could be used to describe the adsorption behavior. The mechanism of G-HAP in immobilizing F - from aqueous solutions was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  8. Preparation of alternate fuels by means of bio-methanization, pyrolysis and gasification; Preparation thermique de combustibles alternatifs par bio-methanisation, thermolyse et gazeification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, A.; Jung, C.G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-06-01

    The paper gives a general description of wastes and their various components each of them depending on their behaviour during the beneficiation treatment: water, organic matters (bio-degradable and non bio-degradable), mineral matters and metals some examples are given. Various processes are available: compost production, bio-methanization and thermal processes. These thermal processes are incineration, gasification and pyrolysis, depending on the quantity (or absence) of air during the process. The paper gives a description of these processes as well as the type of equipment that are utilised. (authors)

  9. Strontium incorporates at sites critical for bone mineralization in rats with renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oste, Line; Verberckmoes, Steven C.; Behets, Geert J.; Dams, Geert; Bervoets, An R.; De Broe, Marc E.; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Van Hoof, Viviane O.; Bohic, Sylvain; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the development of a mineralization defect during strontium administration and its reversibility after withdrawal in rats with chronic renal failure. Recently, strontium ranelate has been introduced as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. However, caution has to be taken, as this bone disorder mainly develops in elderly people who may present a moderately decreased renal function. In order to assess the ultra-structural localization of strontium in bone and thereby to get a better insight into the element's systemic effects on bone, synchrotron-based x-ray micro-fluorescence was applied, which showed that after 2 weeks of strontium loading (2 g l -1 in drinking water) in rats with renal failure, concomitant with the development of impaired mineralization, the element was localized mainly at the outer edge of the mineralized bone, while after longer loading periods, a more homogeneous distribution was found. After washout, strontium was found at sites deeper within the trabeculae, while newly deposited low-strontium-containing mineral was found at the outer edges. Synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction analysis showed that strontium is incorporated in the apatite crystal lattice through exchange with calcium. The results show that strontium is initially incorporated in bone at sites of active bone mineralization, close to the osteoid/mineralization front.Most likely, strontium binds to matrix proteins serving as crystal nucleation points and by hetero-ionic substitution with calcium within the hydroxyapatite crystals, thereby impairing further hydroxyapatite formation. After withdrawal, strontium is released from these sites, by which mineralization is restored and the previously formed strontium-containing hydroxyapatite is buried under a new layer of mineralized bone. (authors)

  10. Effect of Citric Acid Surface Modification on Solubility of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavini, Ranuri; Sandaruwan, Chanaka; De Silva, Madhavi; Priyadarshana, Gayan; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Karunaratne, Veranja

    2018-04-04

    Worldwide, there is an amplified interest in nanotechnology-based approaches to develop efficient nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers to address major challenges pertaining to food security. However, there are significant challenges associated with fertilizer manufacture and supply as well as cost in both economic and environmental terms. The main issues relating to nitrogen fertilizer surround the use of fossil fuels in its production and the emission of greenhouse gases resulting from its use in agriculture; phosphorus being a mineral source makes it nonrenewable and casts a shadow on its sustainable use in agriculture. This study focuses on development of an efficient P nutrient system that could overcome the inherent problems arising from current P fertilizers. Attempts are made to synthesize citric acid surface-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using wet chemical precipitation. The resulting nanohybrids were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction to extract the crystallographic data, while functional group analysis was done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Morphology and particle size were studied using scanning electron microscopy along with elemental analysis using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Its effectiveness as a source of P was investigated using water release studies and bioavailability studies using Zea mays as the model crop. Both tests demonstrated the increased availability of P from nanohybrids in the presence of an organic acid compared with pure hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and rock phosphate.

  11. Dynamic light scattering study of inhibition of nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals by osteopontin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R de Bruyn

    Full Text Available We study the effect of isoforms of osteopontin (OPN on the nucleation and growth of crystals from a supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate ions. Dynamic light scattering is used to monitor the size of the precipitating particles and to provide information about their concentration. At the ion concentrations studied, immediate precipitation was observed in control experiments with no osteopontin in the solution, and the size of the precipitating particles increased steadily with time. The precipitate was identified as hydroxyapatite by X-ray diffraction. Addition of native osteopontin (nOPN extracted from rat bone caused a delay in the onset of precipitation and reduced the number of particles that formed, but the few particles that did form grew to a larger size than in the absence of the protein. Recombinant osteopontin (rOPN, which lacks phosphorylation, caused no delay in initial calcium phosphate precipitation but severely slowed crystal growth, suggesting that rOPN inhibits growth but not nucleation. rOPN treated with protein kinase CK2 to phosphorylate the molecule (p-rOPN produced an effect similar to that of nOPN, but at higher protein concentrations and to a lesser extent. These results suggest that phosphorylations are critical to OPN's ability to inhibit nucleation, whereas the growth of the hydroxyapatite crystals is effectively controlled by the highly acidic OPN polypeptide. This work also demonstrates that dynamic light scattering can be a powerful tool for delineating the mechanism of protein modulation of mineral formation.

  12. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia via polydopamine inspired coating for hydroxyapatite biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Norhidayu Muhamad; Hussain, Rafaqat; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2014-12-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been widely used as biomedical implant due to its high strength and enhanced toughening characteristics. However, YSZ is a bioinert material which constrains the formation of chemical bonds with bone tissue following implantation. Inspired by the property of mussels, the surface of YSZ ceramics was functionalized by quinone-rich polydopamine to facilitate the biomineralization of hydroxyapatite. YSZ discs were first immersed in 2 mg/mL of stirred or unstirred dopamine solution at either 25 or 37 °C. The samples were then incubated in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7d. The effect of coating temperature for stirred and unstirred dopamine solutions during substrate grafting was investigated on the basis of chemical compositions, wettability and biomineralization of hydroxyapatite on the YSZ functionalized surface. The results revealed that the YSZ substrate grafted at 37 °C in stirred solution of dopamine possessed significantly improved hydrophilicity (water contact angle of 44.0 ± 2.3) and apatite-mineralization ability (apatite ratio of 1.78). In summary, the coating temperature and stirring condition during grafting procedure affected the chemical compositions of the films and thus influenced the formation of apatite layer on the substrate during the biomineralization process.

  13. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P2O5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  14. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO 2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P 2 O 5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  15. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Kristen A., E-mail: kazimmer@vt.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); LeBlanc, Jill M.; Sheets, Kevin T.; Fox, Robert W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  16. Hydroxyapatite and Calcified Elastin Induce Osteoblast-like Differentiation in Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yang; Sinha, Aditi; Nosoudi, Nasim; Grover, Ankit; Vyavahare, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification can be categorized into two different types. Intimal calcification related to atherosclerosis and elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC). Osteoblast-like differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been shown in both types; however, how this relates to initiation of vascular calcification is unclear. We hypothesize that the initial deposition of hydroxyapatite-like mineral in MAC occurs on degraded elastin first and that causes osteogenic transformation of VSMCs. To test this, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were cultured on hydroxyapatite crystals and calcified aortic elastin. Using RT-PCR and specific protein assays, we demonstrate that RASMCs lose their smooth muscle lineage markers like alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) and myosin heavy chain (MHC) and undergo chondrogenic/osteogenic transformation. This is indicated by an increase in the expression of typical chondrogenic proteins such as aggrecan, collagen type II alpha 1(Col2a1) and bone proteins such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Furthermore, when calcified conditions are removed, cells return to their original phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that elastin degradation and calcification precedes VSMCs' osteoblast-like differentiation. PMID:24447384

  17. Dynamic Light Scattering Study of Inhibition of Nucleation and Growth of Hydroxyapatite Crystals by Osteopontin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, John R.; Goiko, Maria; Mozaffari, Maryam; Bator, Daniel; Dauphinee, Ron L.; Liao, Yinyin; Flemming, Roberta L.; Bramble, Michael S.; Hunter, Graeme K.; Goldberg, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of isoforms of osteopontin (OPN) on the nucleation and growth of crystals from a supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate ions. Dynamic light scattering is used to monitor the size of the precipitating particles and to provide information about their concentration. At the ion concentrations studied, immediate precipitation was observed in control experiments with no osteopontin in the solution, and the size of the precipitating particles increased steadily with time. The precipitate was identified as hydroxyapatite by X-ray diffraction. Addition of native osteopontin (nOPN) extracted from rat bone caused a delay in the onset of precipitation and reduced the number of particles that formed, but the few particles that did form grew to a larger size than in the absence of the protein. Recombinant osteopontin (rOPN), which lacks phosphorylation, caused no delay in initial calcium phosphate precipitation but severely slowed crystal growth, suggesting that rOPN inhibits growth but not nucleation. rOPN treated with protein kinase CK2 to phosphorylate the molecule (p-rOPN) produced an effect similar to that of nOPN, but at higher protein concentrations and to a lesser extent. These results suggest that phosphorylations are critical to OPN’s ability to inhibit nucleation, whereas the growth of the hydroxyapatite crystals is effectively controlled by the highly acidic OPN polypeptide. This work also demonstrates that dynamic light scattering can be a powerful tool for delineating the mechanism of protein modulation of mineral formation. PMID:23457612

  18. Carbonate Hydroxyapatite and Silicon-Substituted Carbonate Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, and Solubility Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Bang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition, solubility, and physical and mechanical properties of carbonate hydroxyapatite (CO3Ap and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (Si-CO3Ap which have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP techniques were used to characterize the formation of CO3Ap and Si-CO3Ap. The results revealed that the silicate (SiO44- and carbonate (CO32- ions competed to occupy the phosphate (PO43- site and also entered simultaneously into the hydroxyapatite structure. The Si-substituted CO3Ap reduced the powder crystallinity and promoted ion release which resulted in a better solubility compared to that of Si-free CO3Ap. The mean particle size of Si-CO3Ap was much finer than that of CO3Ap. At 750°C heat-treatment temperature, the diametral tensile strengths (DTS of Si-CO3Ap and CO3Ap were about 10.8±0.3 and 11.8±0.4 MPa, respectively.

  19. Topography, wetting, and corrosion responses of electrodeposited hydroxyapatite and fluoridated hydroxyapatite on magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, Mahtab; Jafari, Hassan; Ghaffari Shahri, Seyed Morteza; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Almasi, Davood

    2016-08-12

    In this study, different types of calcium-phosphate phases were coated on NaOH pre-treated pure magnesium. The coating was applied by electrodeposition method in order to provide higher corrosion resistance and improve biocompatibility for magnesium. Thickness, surface morphology and topography of the coatings were analyzed using optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopies, respectively. Composition and chemical bonding, crystalline structures and wettability of the coatings were characterized using energy-dispersive and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and contact angle measurement, respectively. Degradation behavior of the coated specimens was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests. The experiments proved the presence of a porous coating dominated by dicalcium-phosphate dehydrate on the specimens. It was also verified that the developed hydroxyapatite was crystallized by alkali post-treatment. Addition of supplemental fluoride to the coating electrolyte resulted in stable and highly crystallized structures of fluoridated hydroxyapatite. The coatings were found effective to improve biocompatibility combined with corrosion resistance of the specimens. Noticeably, the fluoride supplemented layer was efficient in lowering corrosion rate and increasing surface roughness of the specimens compared to hydroxyapatite and dicalcium-phosphate dehydrates layers.

  20. Mixed Contaminants Removal Efficiency Using Bio-FeS Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyunhee; Roh, Yul

    2018-02-01

    Advances in nanotechnology has provided diverse industrial applications including an environmental remediation field. In particular, bio-nanotechnology gives extended eco-friendly remediation practice. Among diverse bio-nanoparticles synthesized by microorganisms, the iron based nanoparticles (NPs) are of great interest because of their availability, low cost and toxicity to human health and the environment. In this study, iron based nanoparticles were biologically synthesized and mineralogically identified. Also, the removal efficiency of mixed contaminants, high As(III)-low Cr(VI) and high As(V)-low Cr(VI), using these bio-nanoparticles were conducted. As a result, biologically synthesized NPs were identified as FeS complex and their catalytic capacity showed highly effective to immobilize more than 97% of mixed contaminants by adsorption/mineralization.

  1. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  2. Fabrication and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated forsterite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a novel hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated forsterite scaffold with a desired porous structure, high ... X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron ... Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, ...

  3. Orbital volume augmentation with calcium hydroxyapatite filler in anophthalmic enophthalmos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aletaha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The use of injectable calcium hydroxyapatite for orbital volume restoration in anophthalmic sockets is a simple, fast, and minimally invasive method with considerable long-term effects and low complications.

  4. Amino acid-assisted synthesis of strontium hydroxyapatite bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strontium-incorporated calcium phosphates show potential in biomedical application, particularly the doped stron- tium may ... shows that the addition of glycine plays an important role in reducing the particle size of strontium hydroxyapatite.

  5. Macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomas, ME

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available An improved strategy is described for the manufacture of macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications. This is based on a modified fugitive phase technique, which allows production of relatively open, high-strength devices...

  6. Preparation and characterization of collagen-hydroxyapatite/pectin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenpo, Feng; Gaofeng, Liang; Shuying, Feng; Yuanming, Qi; Keyong, Tang

    2015-03-01

    Pectin, a kind of plant polysaccharide, was introduced into collagen-hydroxyapatite composite system, and prepared collagen-hydroxyapatite/pectin (Col-HA/pectin) composite in situ. The structure of the composite was investigated by XRD, SEM, and FT-IR. The mechanical properties, water absorption, enzyme degradation, and cytotoxicity of the composite were investigated as well. The results show that the inorganic substance in the composite materials is hydroxyapatite in relatively low crystallinity. A new interface appeared by the interaction among hydroxyapatite and collagen-pectin, and formed smooth fine particles. The mechanical properties, water absorption, enzyme degradation, and cytotoxicity indicate a potential use in bone replacement for the new composite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals from cattle bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Sangeeta; Wei, Shanghai; Han, Jie; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this present study, hydroxyapatite which was obtained from cattle bones has been heat treated at temperature 400 °C and 600 °C. The microstructure after the treatment has been studied in detail using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The TEM results indicate that natural bone consists of collagen and hydroxyapatite nano-crystals which are needle shaped. The heat treatment influences the crystallinity and growth of these hydroxyapatite nano-crystals known as ‘crystal maturation’ or ‘crystal ageing’. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite is obtained from cattle bones. • Material has been characterised using XRD and TEM. • Crystal growth and orientation has been studied in detail.

  8. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals from cattle bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Sangeeta, E-mail: spt658@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Wei, Shanghai [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Han, Jie [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL (United States); Gao, Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2015-11-15

    In this present study, hydroxyapatite which was obtained from cattle bones has been heat treated at temperature 400 °C and 600 °C. The microstructure after the treatment has been studied in detail using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The TEM results indicate that natural bone consists of collagen and hydroxyapatite nano-crystals which are needle shaped. The heat treatment influences the crystallinity and growth of these hydroxyapatite nano-crystals known as ‘crystal maturation’ or ‘crystal ageing’. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite is obtained from cattle bones. • Material has been characterised using XRD and TEM. • Crystal growth and orientation has been studied in detail.

  9. Influence of preparation method on hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is extensively used in medical applications as an artificial bone because of its similarity to ... system, have been applied to fabricate HA porous scaffolds. In this work .... ceramic structured by the colloidal processing was.

  10. Bio solids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.A.J; Berton, R.S.B; Coscione, A.R; Saes, L.A

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of bio solids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (ph, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micro nutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were evaluated. Bio solids can completely substitute mineral N and P fertilizer to banana growth. Soil exchangeable K and leaf-K concentration must be monitored in order to avoid K deficiency in banana plants. No risk of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentration increase in the index leaf was observed when bio solids were applied at the recommended N rate.

  11. Bio energy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  12. A novel electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Jinfa; Zuo, Baoqi

    2012-01-01

    A novel electrospinning of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers with different composition ratios was performed with methanoic acid as a spinning solvent. The silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrids containing up to 30% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be electrospun into the continuous fibrous structure. The electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers showed bigger diameter and wider diameter distribution than pure silk fibroin nanofibers, and the average diameter gradually increased from 95 to 582 nm. At the same time, the secondary structure of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite nanofibers was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and DSC measurement. Comparing with the pure silk fibroin nanofibers, the crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in the hybrid nanofibers. X-ray diffraction results demonstrated the hydroxyapatite crystalline nature remained as evidenced from the diffraction planes (002), (211), (300), and (202) of the hydroxyapatite crystallites, which was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The thermal behavior of hybrid nanofibers exhibited the endothermic peak of moisture evaporation ranging from 86 to 113 °C, and the degradation peak at 286 °C appeared. The SF/HAp nanofibers mats containing 30% HAp nanoparticles showed higher breaking tenacity and extension at break for 1.1688 ± 0.0398 MPa and 6.55 ± 1.95%, respectively. Therefore, the electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers should be provided potentially useful options for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► The novel SF/HAp nanofibers were directly prepared by electrospinning method. ► The nanofiber diameter had significant related to the content of HAp. ► The crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in the hybrid nanofibers. ► The HAp crystals existing in the hybrid nanofibers were characterized

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite biomaterials prepared by microwave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rosmamuhamadani; Arawi, Ainaa Zafirah Omar; Talari, Mahesh Kumar; Mahat, Mohd Muzamir; Jais, Umi Sarah

    2012-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite, (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is an attractive and widely utilized bio-ceramic material for orthopedic and dental implants because of its close resemblance of native tooth and bone crystal structure. Synthetic HA exhibits excellent osteoconductive properties. Osteoconductivity means the ability to provide the appropriate scaffold or template for bone formation. Calcium phosphate biomaterials [(HA), tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate (HA/TCP)] with appropriate three-dimensional geometry are able to bind and concentrate endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins in circulation, and may become osteoinductive and can be effective carriers of bone cell seeds. This HA can be used in bio-implants as well as drug delivery application due to the unique properties of HA. Biomaterials synthesized from the natural species like mussel shells have additional benefits such as high purity, less expensive and high bio compatibility. In this project, HA-nanoparticles of different crystallite size were prepared by microwave synthesis of precursors. High purity CaO was extracted from the natural mussel shells for the synthesis of nano HA. Dried nano HA powders were analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique for the determination of crystal structure and impurity content. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) investigation was employed for the morphological investigation of nano HA powders. From the results obtained, it was concluded that by altering the irradiation time, nano HA powders of different crystallite sizes and morphologies could be produced. Crystallite sizes calculated from the XRD patterns are found to be in the range of 10-55 nm depending on the irradiation time.

  14. Nano-particle doped hydroxyapatite material evaluation using spectroscopic polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Trojanowski, Michał; Gardas, Mateusz; Głowacki, Maciej J.; Kraszewski, Maciej; Strąkowski, Marcin R.

    2015-03-01

    Bio-ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) are widely used materials in medical applications, especially as an interface between implants and living tissues. There are many ways of creating structures from HAp like electrochemical assisted deposition, biomimetic, electrophoresis, pulsed laser deposition or sol-gel processing. Our research is based on analyzing the parameters of the sol-gel method for creating thin layers of HAp. In order to achieve this, we propose to use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for non-destructive and non-invasive evaluation. Our system works in the IR spectrum range, which is helpful due to the wide range of nanocomposites being opaque in the VIS range. In order to use our method we need to measure two samples, one which is a reference HAp solution and second: a similar HAp solution with nanoparticles introduced inside. We use silver nanoparticles below 300 nm. The aim of this research is to analyze the concentration and dispersion of nanodopants in the bio-ceramic matrix. Furthermore, the quality of the HAp coating and deposition process repetition have been monitored. For this purpose the polarization sensitive OCT with additional spectroscopic analysis is being investigated. Despite the other methods, which are suitable for nanocomposite materials evaluation, the OCT with additional features seems to be one of the few which belong to the NDE/NDT group. Here we are presenting the OCT system for evaluation of the HAp with nano-particles, as well as HAp manufacturing process. A brief discussion on the usefulness of OCT for bio-ceramics materials examination is also being presented.

  15. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  16. Selenium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals–Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties and Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pajor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatites (HAs, as materials with a similar structure to bone minerals, play a key role in biomaterials engineering. They have been applied as bone substitute materials and as coatings for metallic implants, which facilitates their osseointegration. One of the beneficial characteristics of HA, when used to create biocompatible materials with improved physicochemical or biological properties, is its capacity for ionic substitution. The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge about HAs containing selenate ions IV or VI. The enrichment of HAs with selenium aims to create a material with advantageous effects on bone tissue metabolism, as well as having anticancer and antibacterial activity. The work is devoted to both methods of obtaining Se-HA and an evaluation of its chemical structure and physicochemical properties. In addition, the biological activity of such materials in vitro and in vivo is discussed.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-natural polymers nanocomposites for dentistry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Vaezmomeni, Seyede Ziba; Samiei, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Marzyeh; Davaran, Soodabeh; Mahkam, Mehrdad; Asadi, Ghale; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), the main mineral component of bones and teeth, was synthesized by using the reaction between calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2∙4H2O and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (NH4)2HPO4 (DAHP) with a chemical precipitation method. The objective of this study is to utilize novel inorganic-organic nanocomposites for biomedical applications. HA is an inorganic component (75% w) and chitosan, alginate and albumin (Egg white) are organic components of nanocomposites (25% w). Nanocomposites were prepared in deionized water solutions, at room temperature, using a mechanical and magnetic stirrer for 48 h. The microstructure and morphology of sintered n-HAP were tested at different preheating temperature and laser sintering speed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  18. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro anti-proliferative and hemolytic activity of hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, R.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP) nanoparticles are widely used in several biomedical applications due to its compositional similarities to bone mineral, excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, osteoconductivity. In this present investigation, HAP nanoparticles synthesized by precipitation technique using calcium nitrate and di-ammonium phosphate. The crystalline nature and the functional group analysis are confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) respectively. The morphological observations are ascertained from field emission electron scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In vitro anti-proliferative and hemolytic activities are carried out on the synthesized HAP samples and the studies reveals that HAP have mild activity against erythrocytes.

  19. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  20. Synthesis and bio-evaluation of nano-hydroxyapatite trapped by 153Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing Wenzeng; Luo Shunzhong; Wen Guanghua; Jiang Shubin; Xiong Xiaoling; Liu Guoping

    2006-03-01

    After nanoHA was synthesized, 153 Sm-EDTMP-nanoHA and 153 Sm-citrate-nanoHA were prepared and proved stable in vitro. ECT images of New Zealand rabbits injected with 153 Sm-EDTMP-nanoHA had better contrast, skeletal figure visible, liver and spleen clear. The images of 153 Sm-citrate-nanoHA showed a similar results but kidney invisible, which meant 153 Sm-citrate-nanoHA showed a similar results but kidney invisible, which meant 153 Sm-citrate-nanoHA was mainly excreted through liver and gall. 153 Sm-EDTMP-nanoHA's half effective inhibition concentrations to SMMC-7721 and MCF-7 cells were 1.98 g/L and 0.075 g/L respectively and 153 Sm-citrate-nanoHA's were 1.89 g/L and 0.094 g/L proportionally. 153 Sm-EDTMP-nanoHA and 153 Sm-citrate-nanoHA were worthy of a further research because their half effective inhibition concentrations were much lower than ones of the single nanoHA. (authors)

  1. Functionalization of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles surface: source of new applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Sanchez, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The surface of the nano-calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 is reacted with stearic acid, succinic anhydride, succinimide and 2 a minoetil dihydrogenphosphate. Introduction of different functional groups is given onto the surface. An ionic interaction is identified by infrared spectroscopy and Raman between the carboxylate groups of the resulting organic molecules and calcium of the hydroxyapatite. The formation of a P-O-P pyrophosphate type bond has been for 2-aminoethyl dihydrogen phosphate with hydroxyapatite groups. Hydroxyapatite phase was remained in all cases after the reaction as demonstrated by diffraction of x-ray in powder. The amount of spiked molecules is quantified by analysis of thermal degradation which together with the determination of the surface area by BET isotherms of nitrogen adsorption. A degree of surface coverage is estimated by the organic molecules. A maximum percentage of 71% is obtained for the functionalization with succinic anhydride, followed by 57% for the reaction with stearic acid. Dilute suspensions of different materials were prepared for which in phosphate buffer solution have presented two populations around 2 and 5 μm in diameter for the modified particles. The ζ-Potential of various materials was determined occurring a variation in the potential of the unmodified hydroxyapatite. The particles with physicochemical properties different of the starting hydroxyapatite were obtained, this has expanded the range of application of the material. (author) [es

  2. Suspension thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite: microstructure and in vitro behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolelli, Giovanni; Bellucci, Devis; Cannillo, Valeria; Lusvarghi, Luca; Sola, Antonella; Stiegler, Nico; Müller, Philipp; Killinger, Andreas; Gadow, Rainer; Altomare, Lina; De Nardo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In cementless fixation of metallic prostheses, bony ingrowth onto the implant surface is often promoted by osteoconductive plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. The present work explores the use of the innovative High Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS) process to coat Ti substrates with thin homogeneous hydroxyapatite coatings. The HVSFS hydroxyapatite coatings studied were dense, 27-37μm thick, with some transverse microcracks. Lamellae were sintered together and nearly unidentifiable, unlike conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite. Crystallinities of 10%-70% were obtained, depending on the deposition parameters and the use of a TiO2 bond coat. The average hardness of layers with low (hydroxyapatite, with a Weibull modulus of ≈3.3. During soaking in simulated body fluid, glassy coatings were progressively resorbed and replaced by a new, precipitated hydroxyapatite layer, whereas coatings with 70% crystallinity were stable up to 14days of immersion. The interpretation of the precipitation behaviour was also assisted by surface charge assessments, performed through Z-potential measurements. During in vitro tests, HA coatings showed no cytotoxicity towards the SAOS-2 osteoblast cell line, and surface cell proliferation was comparable with proliferation on reference polystyrene culture plates. © 2013.

  3. Novel doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, L.; Oktar, F.N.; Stan, G.E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Serban, N.; Luculescu, C.; Mihailescu, I.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► HA coatings synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. ► Comparative study of commercial vs. animal origin materials. ► HA coatings of animal origin were rougher and more adherent to substrates. ► Animal origin films can be considered as promising candidates for implant coatings. - Abstract: We report on the synthesis of novel ovine and bovine derived hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium substrates by pulsed laser deposition for a new generation of implants. The calcination treatment applied to produce the hydroxyapatite powders from ovine/bovine bones was intended to induce crystallization and to prohibit the transmission of diseases. The deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pull-off adherence and profilometry measurements were also carried out. X-ray diffraction ascertained the polycrystalline hydroxyapatite nature of the powders and films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evidenced the vibrational bands characteristic to a hydroxyapatite material slightly carbonated. The micrographs of the films showed a uniform distribution of spheroidal particulates with a mean diameter of ∼2 μm. Pull-off measurements demonstrated excellent bonding strength values between the hydroxyapatite films and the titanium substrates. Because of their physical–chemical properties and low cost fabrication from renewable resources, we think that these new coating materials could be considered as a prospective competitor to synthetic hydroxyapatite used for implantology applications.

  4. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Roy, Bibhas; Agarwal, Tarun; Giri, Supratim; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S.; Maiti, Tapas K.; Banerjee, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic–osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co"2"+) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP–OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic–osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Cobalt (Co"+"2) doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAp) can be prepared by the wet chemical method. • The concentration of Co"+"2 influences the physico-chemical properties of HAp. • Co-HAp was found to be biocompatible and osteogenic. • Co-HAp enhanced cellular VEGF secretion through HIF-1α stabilization. • The optimum biological performance of Co-HAp was achieved for 0.33% (w/w) Co"+"2 doping.

  5. Study of sorption processes of copper on synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Ometakova, J.; Rajec, P.; Caplovicova, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sorption of copper on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite sample prepared by a wet precipitation process was of high crystallinity with Ca/P ratio of 1.688. The sorption of copper on hydroxyapatite was pH independent ranging from 4 to 6 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The adsorption of copper was rapid and the percentage of Cu sorption was >98% during the first 15-30 min of the contact time. The experimental data for sorption of copper have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Cu 2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca 2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite under experimental conditions. The competition effect of Zn 2+ , Fe 2+ and Pb 2+ towards Cu 2+ sorption was stronger than that of Co 2+ , Ni 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The ability of the bivalent cations to depress the sorption of copper on hydroxyapatite was in the following order Pb 2+ > Fe 2+ > Zn 2+ > Co 2+ ∼ Ni 2+ . (author)

  6. Improvement of the stability of hydroxyapatite through glass ceramic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Na Ra; Yang, Zheng Xun; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Kim, Tae Suk; Lee, Jong Kook

    2010-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite has achieved significant application in orthopedic and dental implants due to its excellent biocompatibility. Sintered hydroxyapatites showed significant dissolution, however, after their immersion in water or simulated body fluid (SBF). This grain boundary dissolution, even in pure hydroxyapatites, resulted in grain separation at the surfaces, and finally, in fracture. In this study, hydroxyapatite ceramics containing apatite-wollastonite (AW) or calcium silicate (SG) glass ceramics as additives were prepared to prevent the dissolution. AW and SG glass ceramics were added at 0-7 wt% and powder-compacted uniaxially followed by firing at moisture conditions. The glass phase was incorporated into the hydroxyapatite to act as a sintering aid, followed by crystallization, to improve the mechanical properties without reducing the biocompatibility. As seen in the results of the dissolution test, a significant amount of damage was reduced even after more than 14 days. TEM and SEM showed no decomposition of HA to the secondary phase, and the fracture toughness increased, becoming even higher than that of the commercial hydroxyapatite.

  7. Formation of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgen Volodymyrovych PYLYPCHUK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA has long been used as a coating material in the implant industry for orthopedic implant applications. HA is the natural inorganic constituent of bone and teeth. By coating titanium (base material of implant engineering because of its lightness and durability with hydroxyapatite, we can provide higher biocompatibility of titanium implants, according to HA ability to form a direct biochemical bond with living tissues. This article reports a biomimetic approach for coating hydroxyapatite with titanium A method of modifying the surface of titanium by organic modifiers (for creating functional groups on the surface, followed by formation "self-assembled" layer of biomimetic hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF. FTIR and XPS confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surface. Comparative study of the formation of HA on the surface of titanium plates modified by different functional groups: Ti(≡OH, Ti/(≡Si-OH and Ti/(≡COOH is conducted. It was found that the closest to natural stoichiometric hydroxyapatite Ca/P ratio was obtained on Ti/(≡COOH samples. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4974

  8. The hydroxyapatite-binding regions of a rat salivary glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embery, G; Green, D R

    1989-09-01

    The regions of a salivary sulphated glycoprotein which are involved in its attachment to hydroxyapatite (Biogel HTP) have been characterised. The sulphated glycoprotein, a 35S-labelled preparation from mixed palatal and buccal minor gland secretions of the rat was bound onto hydroxyapatite and the resultant glycoprotein-hydroxyapatite complex was sequentially digested with pronase E and alpha-L-fucosidase, a treatment which released 86.8% +/- 1.7% of the radioactivity of the initially bound glycoprotein. The fragments which remained attached to the hydroxyapatite after enzymic digestion were fractionated on Sephadex G-25 and analysed for carbohydrate and amino acid components. A range of amino acids were detected which could reflect both glycosylated and non-glycosylated-binding regions. Sialic acid, although considered to be involved in the attachment process was not detected in any of the fragments remaining after enzymic digestion, a finding which provides indirect evidence that the enzymically liberated products do not subsequently re-attach to the hydroxyapatite surface. The notable feature of the fractions with average Mr estimated at 1000 or less is the high proportion of N-acetylhexosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. It is apparent that the hexosamine residues, which normally bear the ester sulphate moieties of sulphated glycoproteins, play an important role in the attachment of sulphated glycoproteins to hydroxyapatite.

  9. Innovative biodegradable poly(L-lactide/collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibrous scaffolds promote osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou GQ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Guoqiang Zhou,1–3 Sudan Liu,1 Yanyan Ma,1 Wenshi Xu,1 Wei Meng,1 Xue Lin,1 Wenying Wang,1,3 Shuxiang Wang,1–3 Jinchao Zhang1–3 1College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, 2Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, 3Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The development of an artificial bone graft which can promote the regeneration of fractures or diseased bones is currently the most challenging aspect in bone tissue engineering. To achieve the purpose of promoting bone proliferation and differentiation, the artificial graft needs have a similar structure and composition of extracellular matrix. One-step electrospinning method of biocomposite nanofibers containing hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles and collagen (Coll were developed for potential application in bone tissue engineering. Nanocomposite scaffolds of poly(L-lactide (PLLA, PLLA/HA, PLLA/Coll, and PLLA/Coll/HA were fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology, diameter, elements, hydrophilicity, and biodegradability of the composite scaffolds have been investigated. The biocompatibility of different nanocomposite scaffolds was assessed using mouse osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 in vitro, and the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of cells on different nanofibrous scaffolds were investigated. The results showed that PLLA/Coll/HA nanofiber scaffolds enhanced cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and gene expression of osteogenic markers compared to other scaffolds. In addition, the nanofibrous scaffolds maintained a stable composition at the beginning of the degradation period and morphology wastage and weight loss were observed when incubated for up to 80 days in physiological simulated conditions. The PLLA/Coll/HA composite nanofibrous scaffolds could be a potential material for guided bone regeneration

  10. Hardystonite improves biocompatibility and strength of electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers over hydroxyapatite: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Amit K. [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Chhabra, Hemlata; Kadam, Sachin S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Londhe, Kishore; Soni, Vivek P. [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare physico-chemical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) and hardystonite (HS) based composite scaffolds. Hardystonite (Ca{sub 2}ZnSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) powders were synthesized by a sol–gel method while polycaprolactone–hardystonite (PCL–HS) and polycaprolactone–hydroxyapatite (PCL–HA) were fabricated in nanofibrous form by electrospinning. The physico-chemical and biological properties such as tensile strength, cell proliferation, cell infiltration and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined on both kinds of scaffolds. We found that PCL–HS scaffolds had better mechanical strength compared to PCL–HA scaffolds. Addition of HA and HS particles to PCL did not show any inhibitory effect on blood biocompatibility of scaffolds when assessed by hemolysis assay. The in vitro cellular behavior was evaluated by growing murine adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (mE-ASCs) over the scaffolds. Enhanced cell proliferation and improved cellular infiltrations on PCL–HS scaffolds were observed when compared to HA containing scaffolds. PCL–HS scaffolds exhibited a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and better mineralization of the matrix in comparison to PCL–HA scaffolds. These results clearly demonstrate the stimulatory role of Zn and Si present in HS based composite scaffolds, suggesting their potential application for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The osteogenic potential of PCL–HA and PCL–HS scaffolds was compared. • PCL–HS scaffolds showed better mechanical strength as compared to PCL–HA scaffolds. • Enhanced cell proliferation and infiltration were observed on PCL–HS scaffolds. • mE-ASCs showed better ALP activity and matrix mineralization on PCL–HS scaffolds.

  11. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  12. Limitation of biocompatibility of hydrated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaychev, V. V.; Teleshev, A. T.; Gorshenev, V. N.; Yakovleva, M. A.; Fomichev, V. A.; Pankratov, A. S.; Menshikh, K. A.; Fadeev, R. S.; Fadeeva, I. S.; Senotov, A. S.; Kobyakova, M. I.; Yurasova, Yu B.; Akatov, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of hydrated paste is considered to be a promising material for a minor-invasive surgical curing of bone tissue injure. However questions about adhesion of cells on this material and its biocompatibility still remain. In this study biocompatibility of paste-formed nanosized HA (nano-HA) by in vitro methods is investigated. Nano-HA (particles sized about 20 nm) was synthesized under conditions of mechano-acoustic activation of an aqueous reaction mixture of ammonium hydrophosphate and calcium nitrate. It was ascertained that nanocrystalline paste was not cytotoxic although limitation of adhesion, spreading and growth of the cells on its surface was revealed. The results obtained point on the need of modification of hydrated nano-HA in the aims of increasing its biocompatibility and osteoplastic potential.

  13. Fabricating hydroxyapatite nanorods using a biomacromolecule template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Aiping, E-mail: apzhu@yzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Lu Yan; Si Yunfeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Dai Sheng [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2011-02-01

    Rod-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with various aspect ratios are synthesized by means of low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of a N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl]chitosan chloride (HTCC) template. The synthesized HAps were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results reveal that HAps are rod-like monocrystals, where the size and morphology can be tailored by varying synthesis conditions, such as pH, hydrothermal synthesis temperature and the ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} to the quaternary ammonium in HTCC. The mechanism of HTCC template on HAp nanorod preparation is analyzed.

  14. Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupanski, M.D.; Lucena, M.P.P.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been established as the calcium phosphate based compound with most applications in the biological field. Among the numerous techniques for synthesis of HAp, the sol-gel processing route affords great control over purity and formed phases using low processing temperatures. In addition, the sol-gel approach offers an option for homogeneous HAp coating on metal substrates, as well as the ability to generate nanocrystalline powders. In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of HAp was investigated employing triethyl phosphate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as phosphorous and calcium precursors, respectively. The aging effect on phase composition and powder morphology of the final product was studied in terms of temperature and aging time. The powders were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  15. Coprecipitation of rare earth elements with hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu

    1979-01-01

    The distribution behavior of trace rare earth elements between an aqueous phase and hydroxyapatite crystals was investigated. The apatite prepared by adding phosphate ion extremely slowly to an aqueous solution containing calcium, rare earth elements, ethylenediamine and nitrilotriacetate ion at 80 0 C. Apparently the coprecipitation reaction seems to be anomalous, because the apparent distribution coefficient did not have a constant value through the reaction. But when the true distribution coefficient was calculated by using the thermodynamic data at 80 0 C, it was revealed that rare earth ions were coprecipitated obeying logarithmic distribution law. The true distribution coefficient values of trivalent yttrium, scandium, europium and cerium ions were about 10sup(7.3), 10sup(9.8), 10sup(7.4) and 10sup(6.5) respectively. (author)

  16. Novel hydroxyapatite biomaterial covalently linked to raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meme, L; Santarelli, A; Marzo, G; Emanuelli, M; Nocini, P F; Bertossi, D; Putignano, A; Dioguardi, M; Lo Muzio, L; Bambini, F

    2014-01-01

    Since raloxifene, a drug used in osteoporosis therapy, inhibits osteoclast, but not osteoblast functions, it has been suggested to improve recovery during implant surgery. The present paper describes an effective method to link raloxifene, through a covalent bond, to a nano-Hydroxyapatite-based biomaterial by interfacing with (3-aminopropyl)-Triethoxysilane as assessed by Infra Red-Fourier Transformed (IR-FT) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). To evaluate the safety of this modified new material, the vitality of osteoblast-like cells cultured with the new biomaterial was then investigated. Raloxifene-conjugated HAbiomaterial has been shown to be a safe material easy to obtain which could be an interesting starting point for the use of a new functional biomaterial suitable in bone regeneration procedures.

  17. Thermal Diffusivity in Bone and Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, A.; Peña Rodríguez, G.; Muñoz Hernández, R. A.; Díaz Gongora, J. A. I.; Mejia Barradas, C. M.

    2004-09-01

    We report thermal diffusivity measurements in bull bone and commercial hydroxyapatite (HA), both in powder form, in order to determinate the thermal compatibility between these materials. Besides this, we report a comparison between these measured values and those of metallic samples frequently used in implants, as high purity titanium and stainless steel. Our results show a good thermal compatibility (74%) between HA and bone, both in powder form. Finally, it was obtained a one order of magnitude difference between the thermal diffusivity values of metallic samples and those corresponding values to bone and HA being this difference greater in titanium than in stainless steel, which is important to consider in some biomedical and dental applications.

  18. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canillas, M.; Rivero, R.; García-Carrodeguas, R.; Barba, F.; Rodríguez, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties. [es

  19. Uranium retention in aqueous hydroxyapatite suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, Ana G.; Marrero, Julieta G.; Perez Arisnabarreta, Sebastian A.; Di Nanno, Maria P.; Smichowski, Patricia N.

    2000-01-01

    Batch equilibration were performed to study the ability of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP)[Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] to immobilize uranium. Different parameters affecting U uptake were evaluated. These studies showed that U was quantitatively retained in a wide range of pHs in the first 15 minutes. These experiments were performed at different U concentrations, between 1 to 100 μg/g and in all cases U uptake did not depend on U concentration. The high retention of U in HAP could be explained by the high specific surface area of the synthesized starting material. The solid phase was characterised by energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis before and after U retention. Effluents were treated using the proposed method and recovery studies were in all cases better than 90%. (author)

  20. In vitro hydroxyapatite adsorbed salivary proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Rui; Lobo, Maria Joao C.; Duarte, Jose; Ferrer-Correia, Antonio J.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Dubin, Joshua R.; Domingues, Pedro M.; Amado, Francisco M.L.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the present knowledge about saliva components and their respective functions, the mechanism(s) of pellicle and dental plaque formation have hitherto remained obscure. This has prompted recent efforts on in vitro studies using hydroxyapatite (HA) as an enamel model. In the present study salivary proteins adsorbed to HA were extracted with TFA and EDTA and resolved by 2D electrophoresis over a pH range between 3 and 10, digested, and then analysed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Nineteen different proteins were identified using automated MS and MS/MS data acquisition. Among them, cystatins, amylase, carbonic anhydrase, and calgranulin B, were identified

  1. Processing of hydroxyapatite obtained by combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Canillas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons of implants failure are the stress forces appearing in the material–tissue interface due to the differences between their mechanical properties. For this reason, similar mechanical properties to the surrounding tissue are desirable. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite by solution combustion method and its processing have been studied in order to obtain fully dense ceramic bodies with improved mechanical strength. Combustion synthesis provides nanostructured powders characterized by a high surface area to facilitate the following sintering. Moreover, synthesis was conducted in aqueous and oxidizing media. Oxidizing media improve homogenization and increase the energy released during combustion. It gives rise to particles whose morphology and size suggest lower surface energies compared with aqueous media. The obtained powders were sintered by using a controlled sintering rate schedule. Lower surfaces energies minimize the shrinkage during sintering and relative densities measurements and diametral compression test confirm improved densification and consequently mechanical properties.

  2. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  3. Fluoride removal performance of glass derived hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Wen, E-mail: wliang@ecust.edu.cn [Research Institute of Biomaterials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology (China); Zhan, Lei; Piao, Longhua [Research Institute of Biomaterials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology (China); Russel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institut, Universitaet Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) is prepared. {yields} Micro-G-HAP adsorbs F{sup -} ions in solutions more effectively than commercial nano-HAP. {yields} The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. -- Abstract: A novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) with different ranges of particle size was prepared by immersion sodium calcium borate glass in 0.1 M K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution by the ratio of 50 g L{sup -1} for 7 days. The unique advantage of G-HAP for the adsorption of fluoride ions in solutions was studied. The effects of size and quantity of particles, pH value and adsorption time on adsorption performance were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 17.34 mg g{sup -1} if 5 g L{sup -1}, <100 {mu}m G-HAP was added to a solution with an initial pH value of 6.72 and the adsorption time was 12 h. The results showed that the micro-G-HAP could immobilize F{sup -} in solution more effectively than commercial nano-HAP, which makes potential application of the G-HAP in removing the fluoride ions from wastewater. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms for F{sup -} could be well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model respectively, which could be used to describe the adsorption behavior. The mechanism of G-HAP in immobilizing F{sup -} from aqueous solutions was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. Hydroxyapatite/collagen bone-like nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Our group has succeeded to synthesize material with bone-like nanostructure and bone-like inorganic and organic composition via self-organization mechanism between them using simultaneous titration method under controlled pH and temperature. The hydroxyapatite/collagen (HAp/Col) bone-like nanocomposite completely incorporated into bone remodeling process to be substituted by new bone. Cells cultured on the HAp/Col revealed very interesting reactions. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells showed upregulation of alkaline phosphatase >3 times greater than MG63 cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). MG63 cells 3-dimensionally cultured in a "HAp/Col sponge," a porous HAp/Col having sponge-like viscoelasticity, accumulated calcium phosphate nodules on extracellular matrices they secreted. Bone marrow cells co-cultured with osteoblasts on HAp/Col differentiated to osteoclasts without differentiation supplements. This phenomenon is not found in cells cultured on hydroxyapatite ceramics and TCPS, and rarely in cells cultured on dentin. These results suggest that HAp/Col is a good candidate for tissue engineering of bone as well as bone filler. In a clinical test as a bone filler, the HAp/Col sponge was significantly better than porous β-tricalcium phosphate. The HAp/Col sponge has been approved by the Japanese government and will be used as greatly needed bone filler in patients. In addition to the above, HAp/Col coating on titanium revealed higher osteo-conductivity than HAp-coated titanium and bare titanium and improved direct bonding between titanium and newly formed bone. The HAp/Col coating may be used for metal devices requiring osseointegration.

  5. Hydroxyapatite formation on graphene oxide modified with amino acids: arginine versus glutamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafoghi, M.; Brodusch, N.; Gauvin, R.; Cerruti, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca5(PO4)3OH) is the main inorganic component of hard tissues, such as bone and dentine. HA nucleation involves a set of negatively charged phosphorylated proteins known as non-collagenous proteins (NCPs). These proteins attract Ca2+ and PO43− ions and increase the local supersaturation to a level required for HA precipitation. Polar and charged amino acids (AAs) are highly expressed in NCPs, and seem to be responsible for the mineralizing effect of NCPs; however, the individual effect of these AAs on HA mineralization is still unclear. In this work, we investigate the effect of a negatively charged (Glu) and positively charged (Arg) AA bound to carboxylated graphene oxide (CGO) on HA mineralization in simulated body fluids (SBF). Our results show that Arg induces HA precipitation faster and in larger amounts than Glu. We attribute this to the higher stability of the complexes formed between Arg and Ca2+ and PO43− ions, and also to the fact that Arg exposes both carboxyl and amino groups on the surface. These can electrostatically attract both Ca2+ and PO43− ions, thus increasing local supersaturation more than Glu, which exposes carboxyl groups only. PMID:26791001

  6. Hydroxyapatite formation on graphene oxide modified with amino acids: arginine versus glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafoghi, M; Brodusch, N; Gauvin, R; Cerruti, M

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca5(PO4)3OH) is the main inorganic component of hard tissues, such as bone and dentine. HA nucleation involves a set of negatively charged phosphorylated proteins known as non-collagenous proteins (NCPs). These proteins attract Ca(2+) and PO4(3-) ions and increase the local supersaturation to a level required for HA precipitation. Polar and charged amino acids (AAs) are highly expressed in NCPs, and seem to be responsible for the mineralizing effect of NCPs; however, the individual effect of these AAs on HA mineralization is still unclear. In this work, we investigate the effect of a negatively charged (Glu) and positively charged (Arg) AA bound to carboxylated graphene oxide (CGO) on HA mineralization in simulated body fluids (SBF). Our results show that Arg induces HA precipitation faster and in larger amounts than Glu. We attribute this to the higher stability of the complexes formed between Arg and Ca(2+) and PO4(3-) ions, and also to the fact that Arg exposes both carboxyl and amino groups on the surface. These can electrostatically attract both Ca(2+) and PO4(3-) ions, thus increasing local supersaturation more than Glu, which exposes carboxyl groups only. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  8. BIOS Security Analysis and a Kind of Trusted BIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenliu; Xu, Rongsheng

    The BIOS's security threats to computer system are analyzed and security requirements for firmware BIOS are summarized in this paper. Through discussion about TCG's trust transitivity, a new approach about CRTM implementation based on BIOS is developed. In this paper, we also put forward a new trusted BIOS architecture-UTBIOS which is built on Intel Framework for EFI/UEFI. The trustworthiness of UTBIOS is based on trusted hardware TPM. In UTBIOS, trust encapsulation and trust measurement are used to construct pre-OS trust chain. Performance of trust measurement is also analyzed in the end.

  9. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  10. A Bone Graft Substitutes Hydroxyapatite Coated Gentamycin (Bonigent) As Drug Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnah Mustaffa; Fauziah Othman; Asmah Rahmat; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Shaaban Kasim; Narimah Abu Baka; Nasani Nasrul

    2014-01-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite coated with antibiotic gentamycin for drug delivery system is namely Bonigent. In this product, antibiotic (gentamycin) is coated into the scaffolds HA porous and Would then be released slowly into the bone tissue upon implantation, this way would increase drug penetration, thus avoiding systemic infection, preventing the formation of biofilm and improved healing. When a foreign material (implants or scaffolds of bone graft substitutes) is introduced into the body, there would be normally formation of biofilm that can lead to systemic infection and cause device failure. Surgeon will use antibiotic such as gentamycin to avoid these effects. The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of fabricating a drug delivery system (DDS) that serves dual functions, to combating biofilms and to enhance bone in growths. We also successfully producing a scaffold HA bone graft substitutes incorporated with antibiotic gentamycin to combating bio-film and prevent the failure medical device implant for healthy and human nation. Bone graft substitutes into porous scaffolds suitable for drug delivery; loading the scaffolds with gentamycin; and study release rate in vivo were studied. Porous bone grafts substitutes are coated with antibiotic gentamycin by immerse technique. In order to limit biofilm formation, biomaterials loaded with suitable antibiotics can be used as a preventative measure. The biomaterials hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive space filler and is produced locally by Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Porous HA and HA/ TCP has the potential to be used as synthetic bone graft materials because it is bioactive and biocompatible with bone tissues. Development of a product as bone graft substitute (BGS) with special ability of delivering drug (gentamycin) to bone tissue for better and more effective healing process. Characterization of the physical analysis, porosity, surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis (SEM) and

  11. Bone regeneration based on nano-hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposites: an in vitro and in vivo comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakol, S.; Nikpour, M. R.; Amani, A.; Soltani, M.; Rabiee, S. M.; Rezayat, S. M.; Chen, P.; Jahanshahi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface morphology, surface wettability, and size distribution of biomaterials affect their in vitro and in vivo bone regeneration potential. Since nano-hydroxyapatite has a great chemical and structural similarity to natural bone and dental tissues, incorporated biomaterial of such products could improve bioactivity and bone bonding ability. In this research, nano-hydroxyapatite (23 ± 0.09 nm) and its composites with variety of chitosan content [2, 4, and 6 g (45 ± 0.19, 32 ± 0.12, and 28 ± 0.12 nm, respectively)] were prepared via an in situ hybridization route. Size distribution of the particles, protein adsorption, and calcium deposition of powders by the osteoblast cells, gene expression and percentage of new bone formation area were investigated. The highest degree of bone regeneration potential was observed in nano-hydroxyapatite powder, while the bone regeneration was lowest in nano-hydroxyapatite with 6 g of chitosan. Regarding these data, suitable size distribution next to size distribution of hydroxyapatite in bone, smaller size, higher wettability, lower surface roughness of the nano-hydroxyapatite particles and homogeneity in surface resulted in higher protein adsorption, cell differentiation and percentage of bone formation area. Results obtained from in vivo and in vitro tests confirmed the role of surface morphology, surface wettability, mean size and size distribution of biomaterial besides surface chemistry as a temporary bone substitute.

  12. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  13. Combinatorial Nano-Bio Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pingqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yun-Long; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-06-08

    Nano-bio interfaces are emerging from the convergence of engineered nanomaterials and biological entities. Despite rapid growth, clinical translation of biomedical nanomaterials is heavily compromised by the lack of comprehensive understanding of biophysicochemical interactions at nano-bio interfaces. In the past decade, a few investigations have adopted a combinatorial approach toward decoding nano-bio interfaces. Combinatorial nano-bio interfaces comprise the design of nanocombinatorial libraries and high-throughput bioevaluation. In this Perspective, we address challenges in combinatorial nano-bio interfaces and call for multiparametric nanocombinatorics (composition, morphology, mechanics, surface chemistry), multiscale bioevaluation (biomolecules, organelles, cells, tissues/organs), and the recruitment of computational modeling and artificial intelligence. Leveraging combinatorial nano-bio interfaces will shed light on precision nanomedicine and its potential applications.

  14. Review of heavy metal bio-remediation in contaminated freeway facilitated by adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Toxicity around biological systems is a significant issue for environmental health in a long term. Recent biotechnological approaches for bio-remediation of heavy metals in freeway frequently include mineralization, bio-adsorption or even remediation. Thus, adequate restoration in freeway requiring cooperation, integration and assimilation of such biotechnological advances along with traditional and ethical wisdom to unravel the mystery of nature in the emerging field of bio-remediation was reviewed with highlights to better understand problems associated with toxicity of heavy metals and eco-friendly technologies.

  15. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of citric acid-based nano hydroxyapatite composite graft in the regeneration of intrabony defects - A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia Priya Dayashankar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional periodontal therapy with various bone grafts has limited scope and the results are not predictable. To improve their utility, the hybridization of bioceramics and biodegradable polymers has been widely adopted to reform the mechanical properties of bone grafts. One such biodegradable polymer is POC (Poly 1,8 octanediol. Secondly, citric acid is considered as the key material in bone mineralization, which is related to the overall stability, strength and fracture resistance of bone. Hence citric acid is incorporated in a polymer and Nano hydroxyapatite to form a composite graft, for periodontal bone regeneration. This study attempts to evaluate the efficacy of citric acid based Nano-hydroxyapatite composite graft for the treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis patients over 12 months. Methods: A split mouth study, which consists of 10 systemically healthy patients, were randomly treated with Citric acid based Nano hydroxyapatite composite graft (test sites, n=18 or with Nano hydroxyapatite alone (control sites, n=15. Plaque index, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL, bone probing depth (BPD and hard tissue parameters such as amount of defect fill, percentage of defect fill, and changes in alveolar crest were assessed over a period of 12 months. Statistical analysis used was student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Results: Both test and control sites demonstrated statistically significant reduction of PD, BPD, gain in CAL and radiographic bone fill. Nevertheless the test sites showed Statistically significant improvements in all the parameters as compared to control sites at 12 months. Conclusion: Citric acid based Nano hydroxyapatite composite graft can be considered as a newer material for periodontal regeneration.

  16. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boskey, Adele L.; Christensen, Brian Søndergaard; Taleb, Hayat

    2012-01-01

    The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA...

  17. Characterization of un-hydrated and hydrated BioAggregate™ and MTA Angelus™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, J; Sorrentino, F; Damidot, D

    2015-04-01

    BioAggregate™ is a novel material introduced for use as a root-end filling material. It is tricalcium silicate-based, free of aluminium and uses tantalum oxide as radiopacifier. BioAggregate contains additives to enhance the material performance. The purpose of this research was to characterize the un-hydrated and hydrated forms of BioAggregate using a combination of techniques, verify whether the additives if present affect the properties of the set material and compare these properties to those of MTA Angelus™. Un-hydrated and hydrated BioAggregate and MTA Angelus were assessed. Un-hydrated cement was tested for chemical composition, specific surface area, mineralogy and kinetics of hydration. The set material was investigated for mineralogy, microstructure and bioactivity. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and isothermal calorimetry were employed. The specific surface area was investigated using a gas adsorption method with nitrogen as the probe. BioAggregate was composed of tricalcium silicate, tantalum oxide, calcium phosphate and silicon dioxide and was free of aluminium. On hydration, the tricalcium silicate produced calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. The former was deposited around the cement grains, while the latter reacted with the silicon dioxide to form additional calcium silicate hydrate. This resulted in reduction of calcium hydroxide in the aged cement. MTA Angelus reacted in a similar fashion; however, since it contained no additives, the calcium hydroxide was still present in the aged cement. Bioactivity was demonstrated by deposition of hydroxyapatite. BioAggregate exhibited a high specific surface area. Nevertheless, the reactivity determined by isothermal calorimetry appeared to be slow compared to MTA Angelus. The tantalum oxide as opposed to bismuth oxide was inert, and tantalum was not leached in solution. BioAggregate exhibited

  18. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anu, Sharma, E-mail: issaranu@gmail.com; Gayatri, Sharma, E-mail: sharmagayatri@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College of Engineering & Technology, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  19. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  20. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  1. Inverse Opal Scaffolds with Gradations in Mineral Content for Spatial Control of Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunlei; Qiu, Jichuan; Pongkitwitoon, Suphannee; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Xia, Younan

    2018-05-30

    The design and fabrication of inverse opal scaffolds with gradations in mineral content to achieve spatial control of osteogenesis are described. The gradient in mineral content is established via the diffusion-limited transport of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in a closely packed lattice of gelatin microbeads. The mineral-graded scaffold has an array of uniform pores and interconnected windows to facilitate efficient transport of nutrients and metabolic wastes, ensuring high cell viability. The graded distribution of mineral content can provide biochemical and mechanical cues for spatially regulating the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells. This new class of scaffolds holds promise for engineering the interfaces between mineralized and unmineralized tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization; Mineralizacao in vitro de esponjas de quitosana: colageno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G., E-mail: virginia@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos- IQSC, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  3. Clinical, histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of socket preservation using a synthetic nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in comparison with a bovine xenograft: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Gholam Ali; Najafi, Babak; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh; Goetz, Werner; Najafi, Siamak

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NCHA), NanoBone(®) and a deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), Bio-Oss(®) with a collagen membrane on the horizontal ridge width alterations following tooth extraction, in addition to histologic aspects of the grafted extraction sockets. In this randomized clinical trial, 28 symmetrical, non-molar, extraction sockets using a split-mouth design in 12 patients (eight women and four men; aged 21-60; mean 44.6 ± 11.4 years), were randomly selected in the first group to be grafted with DBBM granules covered with a collagen membrane and in the other group grafted with NCHA covered with a collagen membrane. Following extraction horizontal ridge width was measured using caliper and was blindly compared to the dimensions measured prior to implant placement, at the 6- to 8-month follow-up. Subsequently, a 2 × 6 mm trephine core was obtained with aid of acrylic stent and routine histologic preparation was performed on the specimens. The width of the DBBM group decreased from 7.75 ± 1.55 to 6.68 ± 1.85 mm (P < 0.05), whereas the width of the NCHA group decreased from 7.36 ± 1.94 to 6.43 ± 2.08 mm (P < 0.05). The mean between-group difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.62). Furthermore, histologic and histomorphometric analyses revealed 28.63 ± 12.53% vital bone in NCHA group vs. 27.35 ± 12.39% in DBBM group, and no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.68). Socket preservation using either NCHA or DBBM in combination with collagen membrane, results in similar, limited horizontal ridge width alterations following tooth extraction. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. The effect of particle agglomeration on the formation of a surface-connected compartment induced by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human monocyte-derived macrophages☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Karin H.; Motskin, Michael; Philpott, Alistair J.; Routh, Alexander F.; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Duer, Melinda J.; Skepper, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    Agglomeration dramatically affects many aspects of nanoparticle–cell interactions. Here we show that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles formed large agglomerates in biological medium resulting in extensive particle uptake and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in human macrophages. Particle citration and/or the addition of the dispersant Darvan 7 dramatically reduced mean agglomerate sizes, the amount of particle uptake and concomitantly cytotoxicity. More surprisingly, agglomeration governed the mode of particle uptake. Agglomerates were sequestered within an extensive, interconnected membrane labyrinth open to the extracellular space. In spite of not being truly intracellular, imaging studies suggest particle degradation occurred within this surface-connected compartment (SCC). Agglomerate dispersion prevented the SCC from forming, but did not completely inhibit nanoparticle uptake by other mechanisms. The results of this study could be relevant to understanding particle–cell interactions during developmental mineral deposition, in ectopic calcification in disease, and during application of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle vectors in biomedicine. PMID:24183166

  5. Protein Adsorption and Antibacterial Behavior for Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    OpenAIRE

    笠原, 英充; 小形, 信男; 荻原, 隆

    2005-01-01

    Homogeneous hydroxyapatite nanocrystals which have aspect ratio with more than four were synthesized by hydrothermal method. X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that the Ca/P ratio of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was maintaining start composition. The protein adsorption properties and bacteria-resistant of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals were investigated. The protein adsorption properties of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals were improvement after the hydrothermal treatment. Bacteria-resistant behavio...

  6. Bone toughness at the molecular scale: A model for fracture toughness using crosslinked osteopontin on synthetic and biogenic mineral substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavelier, S; Dastjerdi, A K; McKee, M D; Barthelat, F

    2018-05-01

    The most prominent structural components in bone are collagen and mineral. However, bone additionally contains a substantial amount of noncollagenous proteins (most notably of the SIBLING protein family), some of which may act as cohesive/adhesive "binders" for the composite hybrid collagen/mineral scaffolding, whether in the bulk phase of bone, or at its interfaces. One such noncollagenous protein - osteopontin (OPN) - appears to be critical to the deformability and fracture toughness of bone. In the present study, we used a reconstructed synthetic mineral-OPN-mineral interface, and a biogenic (natural tooth dentin) mineral/collagen-OPN-mineral/collagen interface, to measure the fracture toughness of OPN on mineralized substrates. We used this system to test the hypothesis that OPN crosslinking by the enzyme tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) that is found in bone enhances interfacial adhesion to increase the fracture toughness of bone. For this, we prepared double-cantilever beam substrates of synthetic pure hydroxyapatite mineral, and of narwhal dentin, and directly apposed them to one another under different intervening OPN/crosslinking conditions, and fracture toughness was tested using a miniaturized loading stage. The work-of-fracture of the OPN interface was measured for different OPN formulations (monomer vs. polymer), crosslinking states, and substrate composition. Noncrosslinked OPN provided negligible adhesion on pure hydroxyapatite, whereas OPN crosslinking (by the chemical crosslinker glutaraldehyde, and TG2 enzyme) provided strong interfacial adhesion for both hydroxyapatite and dentin using monomeric and polymeric OPN. Pre-coating of the substrate beams with monomeric OPN further improved the adhesive performance of the samples, likely by allowing effective binding of this nascent OPN form to mineral/matrix components, with this pre-attachment providing a protein layer for additional crosslinking between the substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

  7. The Foreign Body Giant Cell Cannot Resorb Bone, But Dissolves Hydroxyapatite Like Osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ten Harkel

    Full Text Available Foreign body multinucleated giant cells (FBGCs and osteoclasts share several characteristics, like a common myeloid precursor cell, multinuclearity, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP. However, there is an important difference: osteoclasts form and reside in the vicinity of bone, while FBGCs form only under pathological conditions or at the surface of foreign materials, like medical implants. Despite similarities, an important distinction between these cell types is that osteoclasts can resorb bone, but it is unknown whether FBGCs are capable of such an activity. To investigate this, we differentiated FBGCs and osteoclasts in vitro from their common CD14+ monocyte precursor cells, using different sets of cytokines. Both cell types were cultured on bovine bone slices and analyzed for typical osteoclast features, such as bone resorption, presence of actin rings, formation of a ruffled border, and characteristic gene expression over time. Additionally, both cell types were cultured on a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating to discriminate between bone resorption and mineral dissolution independent of organic matrix proteolysis. Both cell types differentiated into multinucleated cells on bone, but FBGCs were larger and had a higher number of nuclei compared to osteoclasts. FBGCs were not able to resorb bone, yet they were able to dissolve the mineral fraction of bone at the surface. Remarkably, FBGCs also expressed actin rings, podosome belts and sealing zones--cytoskeletal organization that is considered to be osteoclast-specific. However, they did not form a ruffled border. At the gene expression level, FBGCs and osteoclasts expressed similar levels of mRNAs that are associated with the dissolution of mineral (e.g., anion exchange protein 2 (AE2, carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAII, chloride channel 7 (CIC7, and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase, in contrast the matrix degrading

  8. Adsorption of citrate ions on hydroxyapatite synthesized by various methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarek, E.; Janusz, W.; Sternik, D.

    2014-01-01

    The specific adsorption of citric acid ions at hydroxyapatite interface was investigated by the means of radioisotope method ( 14 C) as a function of citric acid ions concentration, NaCl concentration and pH. Application of the hydroxyapatite has become wide in the biomaterial field as the Ca 10 (OH) 2 (PO 4 ) 6 possess biocompatibility with human hard tissue. Hydroxyapatite was synthesized using three different methods. The physical properties of the resulting powder were characterized by DTA/TG, XRD, AFM and SEM microscopy. Physicochemical qualities characterizing the electrical double layer of the hydroxyapatite/NaCl solution interface were determined. The zeta potential and the adsorption of citric acid molecule were studied as a function of pH. The point of zero charge and the isoelectric point of samples were determined. Electrical double layer parameters of hydroxyapatite/NaCl interface are influenced by a synthesis method. The points pH pzc and pH IEP for sample 1 are pH pzc 7.5 and pH IEP 3; for sample 2 pH pzc 7.05 and pH IEP 3, for sample 3 pH pzc 6.7 and pH IEP 3. Temperature has weak influence both on pure substance and with citric acid adsorbed, as derivatographic analysis has shown, and characterization of hydroxyapatite structure may be carried out by this thermal analysis. Two phenomena are responsible for citric acid adsorption: phosphate group's replacement at hydroxyapatite surface by citric ions parallel to intraspherical complexes formation. (author)

  9. Raman Spectroscopic Analyses of Jaw Periosteal Cell Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brauchle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve safer patient treatments, serum-free cell culture conditions have to be established for cell therapies. In previous studies, we demonstrated that serum-free culture favored the proliferation of MSCA-1+ osteoprogenitors derived from the jaw periosteum. In this study, the in vitro formation of bone-specific matrix by MSCA-1+ jaw periosteal cells (JPCs, 3 donors was assessed and compared under serum-free and serum-containing media conditions using the marker-free Raman spectroscopy. Based on a standard fluorescence assay, JPCs from one patient were not able to mineralize under serum-containing culture conditions, whereas the other cells showed similar mineralization levels under both conditions. Raman spectra from mineralizing MSCA-1+ JPCs revealed higher levels of hydroxyapatite formation and higher mineral to matrix ratios under serum-free culture conditions. Higher carbonate to phosphate ratios and higher crystallinity in JPCs cultured under serum-containing conditions indicated immature bone formation. Due to reduced collagen production under serum-free conditions, we obtained significant differences in collagen maturity and proline to hydroxyproline ratios compared to serum-free conditions. We conclude that Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool for the assessment and noninvasive monitoring of in vitro mineralization of osteoprogenitor cells. Further studies should extend this knowledge and improve JPC mineralization by optimizing culture conditions.

  10. In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongliang; Li, Baoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Jia, Dechang

    2009-09-01

    Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CS-Fe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravity. The mineralized nanoparticles were nonstoichiometric magnetite with a unit formula of Fe2.85O4 and coated by a thin layer of chitosan. The mineralized magnetite nanoparticles with mean diameter of 13 nm dispersed in chitosan hydrogel uniformly. Magnetization measurement indicated that superparamagnetism behavior was exhibited. These magnetite nanoparticles mineralized in chitosan hydrogel have potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Moreover, this method can also be used to synthesize other kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, such as ZnO, Fe2O3 and hydroxyapatite.

  11. In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongliang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CS–Fe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravity. The mineralized nanoparticles were nonstoichiometric magnetite with a unit formula of Fe2.85O4and coated by a thin layer of chitosan. The mineralized magnetite nanoparticles with mean diameter of 13 nm dispersed in chitosan hydrogel uniformly. Magnetization measurement indicated that superparamagnetism behavior was exhibited. These magnetite nanoparticles mineralized in chitosan hydrogel have potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Moreover, this method can also be used to synthesize other kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, such as ZnO, Fe2O3and hydroxyapatite.

  12. Preparation of Porous Hydroxyapatite Tablets and Porous Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Orthopaedic Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Gonzalez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite tablets and coatings on metal substrates were obtained by the addition of polymeric additives and liofilization. Both tablets and coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Coatings obtained by plasma spraying also exhibited interconnected porous of 100 μm while coatings obtained by laser ablation did not show any porosity. The diffraction patterns of the deposited HA were similar to that of the powder obtained by the precipitation method suggesting that no significant changes occurred during the coating procedure

  13. Bio-tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field.

  14. The electrolysis time on electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with bipolar membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Adrian; Jumari, Arif; Budiman, Anatta Wahyu; Puspitaningtyas, Stella Febianti; Cahyaningrum, Suci; Nazriati, Nazriati; Fajaroh, Fauziatul

    2018-02-01

    The electrochemical method with bipolar membrane has been successfully used for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite. In this work, we have developed 2 chambers electrolysis system separated by a bipolar membrane. The membrane was used to separate cations (H+ ions produced by the oxidation of water at the anode) and anions (OH- ions produced by the reduction of water at the cathode). With this system, we have designed that OH- ions still stay in the anions chamber because OH- ions was very substantial in the hydroxyapatite particles formation. The aim of this paper was to compare the electrolysis time on electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with and without the bipolar membrane. The electrosynthesis was performed at 500 mA/cm2 for 0.5 to 2 hours at room temperature and under ultrasonic cleaner to void agglomeration with and without the bipolar membrane. The electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with the bipolar membrane more effective than without the bipolar membrane. The hydroxyapatite has been appeared at 0.5 h of the electrolysis time with the bipolar membrane (at the cathode chamber) while it hasn't been seen without the bipolar membrane. The bipolar membrane prevents OH- ions migrate to the cation chamber. The formation of HA becomes more effective because OH- ions just formed HA particle.

  15. Sorption of zinc on synthetic hydroxyapatite from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.; Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Rajec, P.

    2014-01-01

    The sorption of Zn 2+ on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a batch method and radiotracer technique. This work was aimed to study influence of the contact time, effect of pH and different concentration of Zn 2+ ions in the solution. The percentage of zinc adsorption on HA1 and HA2 was more than 96 % during 1 h for initial Zn 2+ concentration of 1·10 -4 .5·10 -4 and 1·10 -3 mol·dm -3 . The equilibrium time of 2 h was chosen for further experiments. The sorption of zinc on hydroxyapatite was pH independent ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The experimental data for adsorption of zinc have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm and the value of maximum adsorption capacity of zinc on a commercial hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite prepared by wet precipitation process was calculated to be 0.437 mmol·g -1 and 0.605 mmol·g -1 , respectively. (authors)

  16. Adsorption mechanism of BMP-7 on hydroxyapatite (001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hailong; Wu, Tao; Dong, Xiuli; Wang, Qi; Shen, Jiawei

    2007-01-01

    Many properties and functions of bone-related proteins perform through the interface with the hydroxyapatite. However, the mechanism of difference of proteins adsorbing behaviors caused by the variation of calcium and phosphate ions on hydroxyapatite is still unclear at atomic level. In this work, we investigated the site-selective adhesion and the adsorption mechanism of protein BMP-7 to the hydroxyapatite surfaces in aqueous media during adsorption and desorption processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations combined with trajectory analysis were employed to give insight into the underlying behaviors of BMP-7 binding. The results suggest that the adsorption sites could be divided into two categories: COO - and NH 2 /NH3+. For COO - , the adsorption phenomenon is driven by the electrostatic interaction formed between the negative charged carboxylate groups and the Ca1 cations on the hydroxyapatite surface. While for NH 2 /NH3+, the interaction is through the intermolecular H-bonds between the N-containing groups and the phosphate on the hydroxyapatite surface

  17. Bisphosphonates enhance bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on bone hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marcin; Junka, Adam; Smutnicka, Danuta; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Gluza, Karolina; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna

    2015-07-01

    Because of the suspicion that bisphosphonates enhance bacterial colonization, this study evaluated adhesion and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans 25175, Staphylococcus aureus 6538, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 14454 reference strains on hydroxyapatite coated with clodronate, pamidronate, or zoledronate. Bacterial strains were cultured on bisphosphonate-coated and noncoated hydroxyapatite discs. After incubation, nonadhered bacteria were removed by centrifugation. Biofilm formation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Bacterial colonization was estimated using quantitative cultures compared by means with Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Modeling of the interactions between bisphosphonates and hydroxyapatite was performed using the Density Functional Theory method. Bacterial colonization of the hydroxyapatite discs was significantly higher for all tested strains in the presence of bisphosphonates vs. Adherence in the presence of pamidronate was higher than with other bisphosphonates. Density Functional Theory analysis showed that the protonated amine group of pamidronate, which are not present in clodronate or zoledronate, forms two additional hydrogen bonds with hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the reactive cationic amino group of pamidronate may attract bacteria by direct electrostatic interaction. Increased bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation can promote osteomyelitis, cause failure of dental implants or bisphosphonate-coated joint prostheses, and complicate bone surgery in patients on bisphosphonates. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Roy, Bibhas; Agarwal, Tarun; Giri, Supratim; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S; Maiti, Tapas K; Banerjee, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic-osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co(2+)) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP-OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic-osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating.

  20. Ostrich eggshell as an alternative raw material for hydroxyapatite synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliman, L.B.; Gouvea, D.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of ostrich eggshell for hydroxyapatite synthesis, a biomaterial of great medical importance due to its high biocompatibility. The eggshell was used as calcium ions source due its great containing of CaCO3. For its utilization, the eggshell was calcined and the obtained oxide (CaO) was transformed into Ca(OH)_2. Hydroxyapatite synthesis consisted in a wet precipitation reaction between Ca(OH)_2 and commercial H_3PO_4. The X ray Diffraction analysis has shown that the precipitated Hydroxyapatite calcined at 800°C resulted in a bifasic powder of Hydroxyapatite and β-Tricalcium Phosphate, which proves that this precipitated Hydroxyapatite was deficient in calcium. The Infrared Spectroscopy, showed the presence of CO_3"2"- ions, result of carrying out the reaction in open atmosphere. By Scanning Electron Microscopy nanometric particles arranged in agglomerates were observed and Specific Surface Area measurement resulted in 11,70 m²/g. Following this procedure, the ostrich eggshell gets a technological profitable reuse also environmentally friendly, being transformed in a new product of high aggregate value. (author)

  1. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  2. In vitro mechanical integrity of hydroxyapatite coated magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M Bobby; Orr, Lynnley, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    The mechanical integrity of resorbable implants during service, especially in load bearing orthopaedic applications, is critical. The high degradation rate of resorbable magnesium and magnesium-based implants in body fluid may potentially cause premature in-service failure. In this study, a magnesium alloy (AZ91) was potentiostatically coated with hydroxyapatite at different cathodic voltages in an attempt to enhance the mechanical integrity. The mechanical integrity of the uncoated and hydroxyapatite coated alloys was evaluated after in vitro testing of the coated samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). The uncoated alloy showed 40% loss in the mechanical strength after five days exposure to SBF. However, the hydroxyapatite coated alloy exposed to SBF showed 20% improvement in the mechanical strength as compared to that of the uncoated alloy. The alloy coated potentiostatically at -2 V performed better than the -3 V coated alloy. The cross-sectional analysis of the coatings revealed relatively uniform coating thickness for the -2 V coated alloy, whereas the -3 V coated alloy exhibited areas of uneven coating. This can be attributed to the increase in hydrogen evolution on the alloy during -3 V coating as compared to -2 V coating. The scanning electron micrographs of the in vitro tested alloy revealed that hydroxyapatite coating significantly reduced the localized corrosion of the alloy, which is critical for better in-service mechanical integrity. Thus, the study suggests that the in vitro mechanical integrity of resorbable magnesium-based alloy can be improved by potentiostatic hydroxyapatite coating.

  3. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  4. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  5. Components of Variance when Assessing the Reproducibility of Body Composition Measurements using Bio-Impedance and the Hologic QDR-2000 DXA Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Hessov, Ib

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the reproducibility of measuring lean tissue mass (LTM), fat mass(FM(DXA)), bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) with a Hologic QDR-2000 DXA scanner, and both fat free mass (FFM(bio)) and fat mass (FM(bio)) with an impedance meter. Furthermore, the study aimed to assess...

  6. Continuous production of bio-oil by catalytic liquefaction from wet distiller’s grain with solubles (WDGS) from bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Glasius, Marianne; Rudolf, Andreas; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt

    2012-01-01

    Bio-refinery concepts are currently receiving much attention due to the drive toward flexible, highly efficient systems for utilization of biomass for food, feed, fuel and bio-chemicals. One way of achieving this is through appropriate process integration, in this particular case combining enzymatic bio-ethanol production with catalytic liquefaction of the wet distillers grains with soluble, a byproduct from the bio-ethanol process. The catalytic liquefaction process is carried out at sub-critical conditions (280–370 °C and 25 MPa) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst, a process known as the Catliq ® process. In the current work, catalytic conversion of WDGS was performed in a continuous pilot plant with a maximum capacity of 30 dm 3 h −1 of wet biomass. In the process, WDGS was converted to bio-oil, gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The oil obtained was characterized using several analysis methods, among them elementary analysis and GC–MS. The study shows that WDGS can be converted to bio oil with high yields. The results also indicate that through the combination of bio-ethanol production and catalytic liquefaction, it is possible to significantly increase the liquid product yield and scope, opening up for a wider end use applicability. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass. ► Product phase analysis: oil, acqeous, gas and mineral phase. ► Energy and mass balance evaluation.

  7. Mechanical characterization of hydroxyapatite, thermoelectric materials and doped ceria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng

    For a variety of applications of brittle ceramic materials, porosity plays a critical role structurally and/or functionally, such as in engineered bone scaffolds, thermoelectric materials and in solid oxide fuel cells. The presence of porosity will affect the mechanical properties, which are essential to the design and application of porous brittle materials. In this study, the mechanical property versus microstructure relations for bioceramics, thermoelectric (TE) materials and solid oxide fuel cells were investigated. For the bioceramic material hydroxyapatite (HA), the Young's modulus was measured using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) as a function of (i) porosity and (ii) microcracking damage state. The fracture strength was measured as a function of porosity using biaxial flexure testing, and the distribution of the fracture strength was studied by Weibull analysis. For the natural mineral tetrahedrite based solid solution thermoelectric material (Cu10Zn2As4S13 - Cu 12Sb4S13), the elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness were studied as a function of (i) composition and (ii) ball milling time. For ZiNiSn, a thermoelectric half-Heusler compound, the elastic modulus---porosity and hardness---porosity relations were examined. For the solid oxide fuel cell material, gadolina doped ceria (GDC), the elastic moduli including Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured by RUS as a function of porosity. The hardness was evaluated by Vickers indentation technique as a function of porosity. The results of the mechanical property versus microstructure relations obtained in this study are of great importance for the design and fabrication of reliable components with service life and a safety factor. The Weibull modulus, which is a measure of the scatter in fracture strength, is the gauge of the mechanical reliability. The elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio are needed in analytical or numerical models of the thermal and

  8. Nano-Hydroxyapatite Thick Film Gas Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Munde, Shivaji G.; Mahabole, Megha P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work pure and metal ions (Co and Fe) doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films have been successfully utilized to improve the structural, morphological and gas sensing properties. Nanocrystalline HAp powder is synthesized by wet chemical precipitation route, and ion exchange process is employed for addition of Co and Fe ions in HAp matrix. Moreover, swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) technique is used to modify the surface of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp with various ion fluence. The structural investigation of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp thick films are carried out using X-ray diffraction and the presence of functional group is observed by means FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface morphology is visualized by means of SEM and AFM analysis. CO gas sensing study is carried out for, pure and metal ions doped, HAp thick films with detail investigation on operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity. The surface modifications of sensor matrix by SHI enhance the gas response, response/recovery and gas uptake capacity. The significant observation is here to note that, addition of Co and Fe in HAp matrix and surface modification by SHI improves the sensing properties of HAp films drastically resulting in gas sensing at relatively lower temperatures.

  9. Reusable hydroxyapatite nanocrystal sensors for protein adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagaya, Motohiro; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Chakarov, Dinko; Kasemo, Bengt; Tanaka, Junzo

    2010-01-01

    The repeatability of the adsorption and removal of fibrinogen and fetal bovine serum on hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystal sensors was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technique. The HAp nanocrystals were coated on a gold-coated quartz sensor by electrophoretic deposition. Proteins adsorbed on the HAp sensors were removed by (i) ammonia/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM), (ii) ultraviolet light (UV), (iii) UV/APM, (iv) APM/UV and (v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatments. FTIR spectra of the reused surfaces revealed that the APM and SDS treatments left peptide fragments or the proteins adsorbed on the surfaces, whereas the other methods successfully removed the proteins. The QCM-D measurements indicated that in the removal treatments, fibrinogen was slowly adsorbed in the first cycle because of the change in surface wettability revealed by contact angle measurements. The SDS treatment was not effective in removing proteins. The APM or UV treatment decreased the frequency shifts for the reused HAp sensors. The UV/APM treatment did not induce the frequency shifts but decreased the dissipation shifts. Therefore, we conclude that the APM/UV treatment is the most useful method for reproducing protein adsorption behavior on HAp sensors.

  10. Reusable hydroxyapatite nanocrystal sensors for protein adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Tagaya, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Nobutaka Hanagata, Dinko Chakarov, Bengt Kasemo and Junzo Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The repeatability of the adsorption and removal of fibrinogen and fetal bovine serum on hydroxyapatite (HAp nanocrystal sensors was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D monitoring technique. The HAp nanocrystals were coated on a gold-coated quartz sensor by electrophoretic deposition. Proteins adsorbed on the HAp sensors were removed by (i ammonia/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM, (ii ultraviolet light (UV, (iii UV/APM, (iv APM/UV and (v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS treatments. FTIR spectra of the reused surfaces revealed that the APM and SDS treatments left peptide fragments or the proteins adsorbed on the surfaces, whereas the other methods successfully removed the proteins. The QCM-D measurements indicated that in the removal treatments, fibrinogen was slowly adsorbed in the first cycle because of the change in surface wettability revealed by contact angle measurements. The SDS treatment was not effective in removing proteins. The APM or UV treatment decreased the frequency shifts for the reused HAp sensors. The UV/APM treatment did not induce the frequency shifts but decreased the dissipation shifts. Therefore, we conclude that the APM/UV treatment is the most useful method for reproducing protein adsorption behavior on HAp sensors.

  11. A novel biomagnetic nanoparticle based on hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H-C; Wang, T-W; Sun, J-S; Wang, W-H; Lin, F-H

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, magnetic HAP was synthesized at different ratios of Fe:Ca (X Fe/Ca ) by the co-precipitation method. We have evaluated the present essential properties including the crystal structure and cell parameters by XRD, lattice arrangement by HR-TEM, composition analysis by ICP-MS, and functional groups by FTIR. The morphology and magnetization were investigated by SEM and AFM and SQUID, respectively. The in vitro biocompatibility was also investigated with a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The results showed that the crystal and molecular structure of the synthesized magnetic-HAP nanoparticle remained unaltered without collapse with the addition of iron ions. The lattice constants of m-HAP were similar to reference JCPDS card no. 9-432. The magnetization of m-HAP nanoparticles increased with increasing X Fe/Ca and possessed the superparamagnetic property with size distribution around 20 nm. The hydroxyapatite-based magnetic nanoparticles were also examined with good biocompatibility. With the appropriate physico-chemical and biological properties, the magnetic-HAP nanoparticles would have great potential to be applied in biomedical applications

  12. Nanoscale hydroxyapatite particles for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongjian; Lee, Jaebeom

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic HAp has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. However, the low mechanical strength of normal HAp ceramics generally restricts its use to low load-bearing applications. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have reignited investigation of nanoscale HAp formation in order to clearly define the small-scale properties of HAp. It has been suggested that nano-HAp may be an ideal biomaterial due to its good biocompatibility and bone integration ability. HAp biomedical material development has benefited significantly from advancements in nanotechnology. This feature article looks afresh at nano-HAp particles, highlighting the importance of size, crystal morphology control, and composites with other inorganic particles for biomedical material development. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Synthesis and characteristics of porous hydroxyapatite bioceramics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenxi; Jiang, Dazong

    2002-06-01

    The macroporous structure of human bone allows the ingrowth of the soft tissues and organic cells into the bone matrix, profits the development and metabolism of bone tissue, and adapts the bone to the change of load. There is great requirement for artificial biomimic porous bioactive ceramics with the similar structure of bone tissue that can be used clinically for repairing lost bone. Fine hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder produced by wet chemical reaction was mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose or other pores-making materials to form green cake. After drying at low temperature (below 100 degrees C) and decarbonizing at about 300 degrees C-400 degrees C, the spongy ceramic block was sintered at high temperature, thus, macroporous HAp bioceramic with interconnected pores and reasonable porosity and pore-diameter was manufactured. This kind of porous HAp bioceramics were intrinsically osteoinductive to a certain degree, but its outstanding property was that they can absorb human bone morphogenetic proteins and other bone growth factors to form composites, so that the macroporous HAp bioactive ceramic has appropriate feasibility for clinical application. From the point of biomedical application, the recent developments in synthesis and characteristics investigation of macroporous HAp are reviewed in this paper.

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry using synthetic hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwon; Kim, Hwi Young; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hirata, Hiroshi [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Park, Jong Min [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The victims exposed doses under 3.5-4.0 Gy have chance to survive if treated urgently. To determine the priority of treatment among a large number of victims, the triage – distinguishing patients who need an urgent treatment from who may not be urgent – is necessary based on radiation biodosimetry. A current gold standard for radiation biodosimetry is the chromosomal assay using human lymphocytes. But this method requires too much time and skilled labors to cover the mass victims in radiation emergencies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been known for its capability of quantifying radicals in matters. EPR dosimetry is based on the measurement of stable radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) contained in tooth enamel is a major probe for radiation dose reconstruction. This HAP dosimetry study was performed using a novel EPR spectrometer in Hokkaido University, Japan. The EPR dose-response curve was made using HAP samples. The blind test using 250 cGy samples showed the feasibility of EPR dosimetry for the triage purpose.

  15. The fabrication of well-interconnected polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds, enhancing the exposure of hydroxyapatite using the wire-network molding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Hong, Myoung Wha; Jeong, Hoon-Jin; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young Yul; Cho, Young-Sam

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the fabrication method was proposed for the well-interconnected polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold with exposed hydroxyapatite using modified WNM technique. To characterize well-interconnected scaffolds in terms of hydroxyapatite exposure, several assessments were performed as follows: morphology, mechanical property, wettability, calcium ion release, and cell response assessments. The results of these assessments were compared with those of control scaffolds which were fabricated by precision extruding deposition (PED) apparatus. The control PED scaffolds have interconnected pores with nonexposed hydroxyapatite. Consequently, cell attachment of proposed WNM scaffold was improved by increased hydrophilicity and surface roughness of scaffold surface resulting from the exposure of hydroxyapatite particles and fabrication process using powders. Moreover, cell proliferation and differentiation of WNM scaffold were increased, because the exposure of hydroxyapatite particles may enhance cell adhesion and calcium ion release. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2315-2325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Controllable mineral coatings on PCL scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Barnhart, Kara; Migneco, Francesco; Flanagan, Colleen; Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have developed mineral coatings on polycaprolactone scaffolds to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO(3)) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mm, 25 mm, and 100 mm. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite, the major inorganic constituent of human bone tissue in coatings formed in all HCO(3) concentrations. Mineral coatings with increased HCO(3) substitution showed more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate but showed re-precipitation in an environment with the aforementioned ions. The mineral coating provided an effective mechanism for growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. We also demonstrated sustained release of all growth factors with release kinetics that were strongly dependent in the solubility of the mineral coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Prakasam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes.

  18. Geloina coaxans shell as calcium source on synthesis hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, P. H.; Kamiah, A.

    2018-04-01

    Geloina coaxans shell (GCS) is one of mullusc shell mainly composed by calcium carbonate. In this work, calcium carbonate has been converted to calcium oxide by calcination at 1000°C for 12 hours. The calcined of geloina coaxans shell were treated with HNO3 to produce Ca(NO3)2 as calcium source on synthesis hydroxyapatite. Orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) was used as phosphate donor. Reaction of Ca/P has been done by precipitation method at molar ratio of precursors of 1.67 and pH adjusted at 10 using NH4OH. The XRD result revealed that hydoxyapatite can be prepared at 3 M of HNO3 and stirring time for 240 minutes. Specific band of hydroxyapatite such as PO4 and OH observed using FTIR instrument. Analysis of crystal size using Schererr equation proved nanosize of powder hydroxyapatite can be produced.

  19. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, A.; De, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we compute elasto-plastic properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanindentation data using a two-step algorithm. In the first step the yield stress is obtained using hardness and Young’s modulus data, followed by the computation of the flow parameters. The computational approach is first validated with data from existing literature. It is observed that hydroxyapatite single crystals exhibit anisotropic mechanical response with a lower yield stress along the [1010] crystallographic direction compared to the [0001] direction. Both work hardening rate and work hardening exponent are found to be higher for indentation along the [0001] crystallographic direction. The stress-strain curves extracted here could be used for developing constitutive models for hydroxyapatite single crystals. PMID:21262492

  20. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Costescu, Adrian; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized particles of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is of great interest for the development of new biomedical applications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ca10−xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years and became a major health problem. Here, we report a method for synthesizing Ag doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. Also, in this paper Ag:HAp-NPs are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The specific antimicrobial activity revealed by the qualitative assay is demonstrating that our compounds are interacting differently with the microbial targets, probably due to the differences in the microbial wall structures. PMID:23509801

  1. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Steluta Ciobanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanosized particles of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is of great interest for the development of new biomedical applications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ca10−xAgx(PO46(OH2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years and became a major health problem. Here, we report a method for synthesizing Ag doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. Also, in this paper Ag:HAp-NPs are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The specific antimicrobial activity revealed by the qualitative assay is demonstrating that our compounds are interacting differently with the microbial targets, probably due to the differences in the microbial wall structures.

  2. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Costescu, Adrian; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized particles of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is of great interest for the development of new biomedical applications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ca(10-x)Ag(x)(PO4)6(OH)2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years and became a major health problem. Here, we report a method for synthesizing Ag doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. Also, in this paper Ag:HAp-NPs are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The specific antimicrobial activity revealed by the qualitative assay is demonstrating that our compounds are interacting differently with the microbial targets, probably due to the differences in the microbial wall structures.

  3. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2015-01-01

    In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes. PMID:26703750

  4. Interactions of hydroxyapatite surfaces: conditioning films of human whole saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Marité; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Hamit, Jildiz; Rutland, Mark W; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2008-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite is a very interesting material given that it is the main component in tooth enamel and because of its uses in bone implant applications. Therefore, not only the characterization of its surface is of high relevance but also designing reliable methods to study the interfacial properties of films adsorbed onto it. In this paper we apply the colloidal probe atomic force microscopy method to investigate the surface properties of commercially available hydroxyapatite surfaces (both microscopic particles and macroscopic discs) in terms of interfacial and frictional forces. In this way, we find that hydroxyapatite surfaces at physiological relevant conditions are slightly negatively charged. The surfaces were then exposed to human whole saliva, and the surface properties were re-evaluated. A thick film was formed that was very resistant to mechanical stress. The frictional measurements demonstrated that the film was indeed highly lubricating, supporting the argument that this system may prove to be a relevant model for evaluating dental and implant systems.

  5. Lecithin-based wet chemical precipitation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michał, Wojasiński; Ewa, Duszyńska; Tomasz, Ciach

    Hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the wet chemical precipitation method at 60 °C in the presence of biocompatible natural surfactant-lecithin. The composition and morphology of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite synthesized with lecithin (nHAp-PC) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Size distribution for nanoparticles was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis in NanoSight system. We discuss in details influence of lecithin concentration in reaction system on nHAp-PC morphology, as well as on size distributions and suspendability of nanoparticles. Product exhibits crystalline structure and chemical composition of hydroxyapatite, with visible traces of lecithin. Difference in surfactant amounts results in changes in particles morphology and their average size.

  6. Synthesis of silver doped hydroxyapatite nanospheres using Ouzo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Prekajski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoemulsion technique, based on Ouzo effect, was applied for synthesis of the pure and silver doped (2.5 and 5 mol% calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp. After calcination at 500 °C fully crystallized powders were obtained. X-ray powder diffraction analysis accompanied with Rietveld refinement revealed that the synthesized powders were single-phase hydroxyapatite. Raman spectroscopy also confirmed that the synthesized powders were single-phase. The obtained HAp particles were spherical in shape and their sizes were in the nanometer range which was revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis (FESEM. The successful synthesis of the single-phase Ag doped HAp showed that nanoemulsion method is a simple technique for obtaining pure and doped hydroxyapatite nanospheres.

  7. Nanoparticle fabrication of hydroxyapatite by laser ablation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaev, O. R.; Wieliczka, D. M.; Wrobel, J. M.; Kruger, M. B.; Dusevich, V.

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic polycrystalline hydroxyapatite was ablated in water with 337 nm radiation from a UV nitrogen pulsed laser. According to transmission electron microscopy micrographs, the ablated particles were approximately spherical and had a size of ∼80 nm. Raman spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that particles had the same structure as the original crystal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the surface chemical composition was close to that of the original material. The characteristics of the ablated particles and estimations of the temperature rise of the hydroxyapatite surface under laser irradiation are consistent with the mechanism of explosive boiling being responsible for ablation. The experimental observations offer the basis for preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by laser ablation in water

  8. HSP as bio dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  9. Bio-prospecting of distillery yeasts as bio-control and bio-remediation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals.

  10. The precursors effects on biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruç, Afife Binnaz Hazar; Aydınoğlu, Aysu

    2017-06-01

    In this study, effects of the starting material on chemical, physical, and biological properties of biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders (BHA) were investigated. Characterization and chemical analysis of BHA powders were performed by using XRD, FT-IR, and ICP-AES. Microstructural features such as size and morphology of the resulting BHA powders were characterized by using BET, nano particle sizer, pycnometer, and SEM. Additionally, biological properties of the BHA ceramic powders were also investigated by using water-soluble tetrazolium salts test (WST-1). According to the chemical analysis of BHA ceramic powders, chemical structures of ceramics which are prepared under different conditions and by using different starting materials show differences. Ceramic powders which are produced at 80°C are mainly composed of hydroxyapatite, dental hydroxyapatite (contain Na and Mg elements in addition to Ca), and calcium phosphate sulfide. However, these structures are altered at high temperatures such as 900°C depending on the features of starting materials and form various calcium phosphate ceramics and/or their mixtures such as Na-Mg-hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, Mg-Whitlockit, and chloroapatite. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that amorphous ceramics produced at 80°C and ceramics containing chloroapatite structure as main or secondary phases were found to be extremely cytotoxic. Furthermore, cell culture studies showed that highly crystalline pure hydroxyapatite structures were extremely cytotoxic due to their high crystallinity values. Consequently, the current study indicates that the selection of starting materials which can be used in the production of calcium phosphate ceramics is very important. It is possible to produce calcium phosphate ceramics which have sufficient biocompatibility at physiological pH values and by using appropriate starting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Suspension thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite: Microstructure and in vitro behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolelli, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.bolelli@unimore.it [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena, MO (Italy); Bellucci, Devis; Cannillo, Valeria; Lusvarghi, Luca; Sola, Antonella [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena, MO (Italy); Stiegler, Nico; Müller, Philipp; Killinger, Andreas; Gadow, Rainer [Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and Composites (IMTCCC), Universität Stuttgart, Allmandring 7b, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Altomare, Lina; De Nardo, Luigi [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “G. Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, I-20131 Milano (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    In cementless fixation of metallic prostheses, bony ingrowth onto the implant surface is often promoted by osteoconductive plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. The present work explores the use of the innovative High Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS) process to coat Ti substrates with thin homogeneous hydroxyapatite coatings. The HVSFS hydroxyapatite coatings studied were dense, 27–37 μm thick, with some transverse microcracks. Lamellae were sintered together and nearly unidentifiable, unlike conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite. Crystallinities of 10%–70% were obtained, depending on the deposition parameters and the use of a TiO{sub 2} bond coat. The average hardness of layers with low (< 24%) and high (70%) crystallinity was ≈ 3.5 GPa and ≈ 4.5 GPa respectively. The distributions of hardness values, all characterised by Weibull modulus in the 5–7 range, were narrower than that of conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite, with a Weibull modulus of ≈ 3.3. During soaking in simulated body fluid, glassy coatings were progressively resorbed and replaced by a new, precipitated hydroxyapatite layer, whereas coatings with 70% crystallinity were stable up to 14 days of immersion. The interpretation of the precipitation behaviour was also assisted by surface charge assessments, performed through Z-potential measurements. During in vitro tests, HA coatings showed no cytotoxicity towards the SAOS-2 osteoblast cell line, and surface cell proliferation was comparable with proliferation on reference polystyrene culture plates. - Highlights: • Thin, dense HA layers were originated by HVSFS deposition of molten agglomerates of ≈ 1 μm. • Tensile adhesion strength of HVSFS HA onto Ti well above the threshold of ISO 13779-2 • Crystallinity (10–70%) is determined by system temperature during deposition. • Crystallinity controls the reactivity during immersion in simulated body fluid. • SAOS-2 osteoblast-like cells adhered well and

  12. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Roy, Bibhas [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Agarwal, Tarun [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Giri, Supratim [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S. [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India); Maiti, Tapas K. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Banerjee, Indranil, E-mail: indraniliit@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008 (India)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic–osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co{sup 2+}) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP–OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic–osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Cobalt (Co{sup +2}) doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAp) can be prepared by the wet chemical method. • The concentration of Co{sup +2} influences the physico-chemical properties of HAp. • Co-HAp was found to be biocompatible and osteogenic. • Co-HAp enhanced cellular VEGF secretion through HIF-1α stabilization. • The optimum biological performance of Co-HAp was achieved for 0.33% (w/w) Co{sup +2} doping.

  13. Crystallization of carbonate hydroxyapatite in the presence of strontium ranelate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, R. R.; Golovanova, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of strontium ranelate on the crystallization of carbonate hydroxyapatite from a prototype of synovial fluid of humans has been investigated. The synthesis products are studied by IR Fourier spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. The amount of strontium in the samples is determined by atomic emission analysis. The sizes of crystallites in the synthesized phases are calculated from the Selyakov-Scherrer formula; the lattice parameters are also determined. The phases obtained are found to be species of calcium-deficient strontium-containing carbonate hydroxyapatite of mixed A and B types. Schemes of chemical reactions occurring during heat treatment are proposed.

  14. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite ceramics prepared by hydrolysis in polyol medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechay, Abderrahmen; Feki, Hafed E. L.; Schoenstein, Fréderic; Jouini, Noureddine

    2012-07-01

    This Letter describes a new approach for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, which involves precipitation and hydrolysis reactions conducted in polyol medium. In fact, ammonium-hydrogen phosphate and calcium nitrate were dissolved in polyol, and then heated at the boiling point of the polyol (ethane1, 2diol or propane1, 2diol). Besides, the phase and composition of the polycrystalline were studied by TGA/DTA, FT-IR, TEM and XRD techniques. The nanoparticles thus obtained present interesting morphological characters varying from needle to very thin platelet. Moreover, the hydroxyapatite prepared in ployol shows higher cristallinity in comparison with that obtained by other 'chimie douce' methods.

  15. Waste utilization for the controlled synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, Suprabha, E-mail: Suprabha.nayar@gmail.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India); Guha, Avijit [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-05-05

    This work uses biomolecules in waste and medicinally important materials for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Orange and potato peel, eggshell, papaya leaf and calendula flower extracts have varied biomolecules, which exert a significant, control on the in situ synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite particles. The biomimetic synthesis of inorganic particles using known matrices is already well established, however, there are only a few reports using compound extracts. The synthesized nanocomposite has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies. Role of varied biomolecules in controlled inorganic synthesis may have tremendous technological impact.

  16. Mechanisms of uranium interactions with hydroxyapatite: Implications for groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C.C.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.; Piana, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The speciation of U(VI) sorbed to synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a combination of U LIII-edge XAS, synchrotron XRD, batch uptake measurements, and SEM-EDS. The mechanisms of U(VI) removal by apatite were determined in order to evaluate the feasibility of apatitebased in-situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). In batch U(VI) uptake experiments with synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), near complete removal of dissolved uranium (>99.5%) to use in development of PRBs for groundwater U(VI) remediation.

  17. Superior sealing effect of hydroxyapatite in porous-coated implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ole; Kold, Søren; Bendix, Knud

    2005-01-01

    Migration of wear debris to the periprosthetic bone is a major cause of osteolysis and implant failure. Both closed-pore porous coatings and hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been claimed to prevent the migration of wear debris. We investigated whether HA could augment the sealing effect of a por......Migration of wear debris to the periprosthetic bone is a major cause of osteolysis and implant failure. Both closed-pore porous coatings and hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been claimed to prevent the migration of wear debris. We investigated whether HA could augment the sealing effect...

  18. Structural and Biological Assessment of Zinc Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Popa , Cristina ,; Deniaud , Aurélien; Michaud-Soret , Isabelle; Guégan , Régis; Motelica-Heino , Mikael; Predoi , Daniela

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The aim of the current research work was to study the physicochemical and biological properties of synthesized zinc doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHAp) nanoparticles with Zn concentrations í µí±¥ Zn = 0 (HAp), í µí±¥ Zn = 0.07 (7ZnHAp), and í µí±¥ Zn = 0.1 (10ZnHAp) for potential use in biological applications. The morphology, size, compositions, and incorporation of zinc into hydroxyapatite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron micro...

  19. Mechanical behaviour of new zirconia-hydroxyapatite ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.A.; Morejon, L. [La Habana Univ. (Cuba). Centro de Biomateriales; Martinez, S. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. Cristallografia, Mineralogia; Ginebra, M.P.; Carlsson, N.; Fernandez, E.; Planell, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). CREB; Clavaguera-Mora, M.T.; Rodriguez-Viejo, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    In this work a new zirconia-hydroxyapatite ceramic material was obtained by uniaxial pressing and sintering in humid environment. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and infrared spectra (FT-IR) showed that the hydroxyapatite (HA) is the only calcium phosphate phase present. The fracture toughness for HA with 20 wt.% of magnesia partially stabilised zirconia (Mg-PSZ) was around 2.5 times higher than those obtained for HA pure, also the highest value of bending strength (160 MPa) was obtained for material reinforced with Mg-PSZ. For the MgPSZ-HA (20%) the fracture mechanism seems to be less transgranular. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of natural hydroxyapatite (recycled) composites with titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Filho, Antonio Alves; Gouveia, Vitor Jose Pinto; Pereira, Renato Alves; Araujo, Fernando Gabriel da Silva; Sousa, Camila Mateus de

    2010-01-01

    Natural hydroxyapatite biphasic ceramics (recycled) with titania (TiO_2-Hap) were studied in this work. For the formation of such ceramic the powders were mixed natural hydroxyapatite obtained from veal bone by the hydrothermal method with titania (TiO_2), forming the composites H9T1. The powders, manually homogenized, were conformed in pellet and sintered at temperatures between 1200 and 1400 deg C The ceramic bodies were characterized by XRD and SEM/EDS. The initial results were not satisfactory and require new studies. (author)

  1. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  2. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khola, G.; Ghazala, B.

    2011-01-01

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  3. Hydroxyapatites enriched in silicon–Bioceramic materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katarzyna Szurkowska; Joanna Kolmas

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, abbreviated as HA) plays a crucial role in implantology, dentistry and bone surgery. Due to its considerable similarity to the inorganic fraction of the mineralized tissues (bones, enamel and dentin), it is used as component in many bone substitutes, coatings of metallic implants and dental materials. Biomaterial engineering often takes advantage of HA capacity for partial ion substitution because the incorporation of different ions in the HA structure leads to materials with improved biological or physico-chemical properties. The objective of the work is to provide an overview of current knowledge about apatite materials substituted with silicon ions. Although the exact mechanism of action of silicon in the bone formation process has not been fully elucidated, research has shown beneficial effects of this element on bone matrix mineralization as well as on collagen type I synthesis and stabilization. The paper gives an account of the functions of silicon in bone tissue and outlines the present state of research on synthetic HA containing silicate ions (Si-HA). Finally, methods of HA production as well as potential and actual applications of HA materials modified with silicon ions are discussed.

  4. A graded graphene oxide-hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin biomimetic scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chu, Yanyan; He, Jianxin; Shao, Weili; Zhou, Yuman; Qi, Kun; Wang, Lidan; Cui, Shizhong

    2017-11-01

    To better mimic natural bone, a graphene oxide-hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin (cGO-HA/SF) scaffold was fabricated by biomineralizing carboxylated GO sheets, blending with SF, and freeze-drying. The material has increasing porosity and decreasing density from outside to inside. Analysis of GO mineralization in simulated body fluid indicated that carboxylation and Chitosan may synergistically regulate HA growth along the c-axis of weakly crystalline, rod-like GO-HA particles. Compared with HA/SF gradient composites, a cGO-HA gradient scaffold with cGO:HA mass ratio 1:4 has 5-fold and 2.5-fold higher compressive strength and compressive modulus, respectively. Additionally, the cGO-HA/SF composite stimulated mouse mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation, alkaline phosphatase secretion, and mineral deposition more strongly than HA/SF and pure HA scaffolds. Hence, the material may prove to be an excellent and versatile scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis spherical porous hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide composites by ultrasonic-assisted method for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peizhen; Shen, Juan; Zou, Guohong; Xia, Xu; Jin, Bo; Yu, Jiaxin

    2018-04-10

    Spherical porous hydroxyapatite (SHA)/graphene oxide (GO) composites with different GO (w/w) content of 16%, 40%, and 71% have been fabricated through a facile and controllable ultrasonic-assisted method at room temperature. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical testing and biomimetic mineralization. Results showed SHA were covered by GO, and SHA/GO composites had an irregular surface with different degrees of wrinkles. The elastic modulus and hardness of SHA/GO-3 composites were up to 12.45 ± 0.33 GPa and 686.67 ± 26.95 MPa, which indicated that the contents of GO had an effect on SHA/GO composites. And the mechanical properties of SHA/GO-2 composites were similar to SHA particles. The biomimetic mineralization in SBF solution showed the bone-like apatite layer on composites surface, which demonstrated that the SHA/GO materials had osseointegration property. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility of SHA/GO-2 composites and pure GO were evaluated by cell adhesion and proliferation tests using MC3T3-E1 cells, which demonstrated that the SHA/GO composites can act as a good template for the cells growth and adhesion. These results suggested that the SHA/GO composites will be a promising material for biomedical application.

  6. Hydroxyapatites enriched in silicon – Bioceramic materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szurkowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, abbreviated as HA plays a crucial role in implantology, dentistry and bone surgery. Due to its considerable similarity to the inorganic fraction of the mineralized tissues (bones, enamel and dentin, it is used as component in many bone substitutes, coatings of metallic implants and dental materials. Biomaterial engineering often takes advantage of HA capacity for partial ion substitution because the incorporation of different ions in the HA structure leads to materials with improved biological or physicochemical properties. The objective of the work is to provide an overview of current knowledge about apatite materials substituted with silicon ions. Although the exact mechanism of action of silicon in the bone formation process has not been fully elucidated, research has shown beneficial effects of this element on bone matrix mineralization as well as on collagen type I synthesis and stabilization. The paper gives an account of the functions of silicon in bone tissue and outlines the present state of research on synthetic HA containing silicate ions (Si-HA. Finally, methods of HA production as well as potential and actual applications of HA materials modified with silicon ions are discussed.

  7. Hydroxyapatites and europium(III) doped hydroxyapatites as a carrier of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiglusz, Rafal J; Kedziora, Anna; Lukowiak, Anna; Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz; Strek, Wieslaw

    2012-08-01

    Hydroxyapatites (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and Eu3+:Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) were synthesized by aqueous synthesis route. Hydroxyapatites were impregnated with silver ions that were subsequently reduced. XRD, TEM, and SAED measurements were used in order to determine the crystal structure and morphology of the final products. The results showed the well crystallized hydroxyapatite grains with diameter of about 35 nm and with silver nanoparticles on their surface. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoparticles against: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 as model of the Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352 as model of Gram-negative bacteria, were shown with the best activity against K. pneumoniae. These nanocomposite powders can be a promising antimicrobial agent and a fluorescent material for biodetection due to their optical and bioactive properties.

  8. Biocompatible nanocrystalline natural bonelike carbonated hydroxyapatite synthesized by mechanical alloying in a record minimum time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lala, S. [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan-713104, West Bengal (India); Brahmachari, S.; Das, P.K. [Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Das, D. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata-700098 (India); Kar, T. [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Pradhan, S.K., E-mail: skp_bu@yahoo.com [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan-713104, West Bengal (India)

    2014-09-01

    Single phase nanocrystalline biocompatible A-type carbonated hydroxyapatite (A-cHAp) powder has been synthesized by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric mixture of CaCO{sub 3} and CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O powders in open air at room temperature within 2 h of milling. The A-type carbonation in HAp is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Structural and microstructure parameters of as-milled powders are obtained from both Rietveld's powder structure refinement analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Size and lattice strain of nanocrystalline HAp particles are found to be anisotropic in nature. Mechanical alloying causes amorphization of a part of crystalline A-cHAp which is analogous to native bone mineral. Some primary bond lengths of as-milled samples are critically measured. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay test reveals high percentage of cell viability and hence confirms the biocompatibility of the sample. The overall results indicate that the processed A-cHAp has a chemical composition very close to that of biological apatite. - Graphical abstract: Biocompatible A-Type Carbonated Hydroxyapatite (A-cHAp) has been synthesized by mechanical alloying in polycrystalline form within 2 h of milling. The shape and position of CO channel have been shown. - Highlights: • A-cHAp phase is completed within 2 h of milling. • FTIR analysis confirms A-type carbonation in HAp. • Amorphization of a part of crystalline A-cHAp. • Particle size and strain are anaisotropic in nature. • High cell viability under MTT assay.

  9. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia via polydopamine inspired coating for hydroxyapatite biomineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Norhidayu Muhamad [Medical Devices and Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul, E-mail: rafiq@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Devices and Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of functionalized yttria stabilized zirconia using polydopamine. • Improved hydrophilicity of the grafted samples with low contact angle of 44.0 ± 2.3. • Apatite layer with Ca/P ratio of 1.78 formed on the surface of the grafted samples. • Atomic percentage of Ca 2p increased by 2-fold at coating temperature of 37 °C. - Abstract: Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been widely used as biomedical implant due to its high strength and enhanced toughening characteristics. However, YSZ is a bioinert material which constrains the formation of chemical bonds with bone tissue following implantation. Inspired by the property of mussels, the surface of YSZ ceramics was functionalized by quinone-rich polydopamine to facilitate the biomineralization of hydroxyapatite. YSZ discs were first immersed in 2 mg/mL of stirred or unstirred dopamine solution at either 25 or 37 °C. The samples were then incubated in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7d. The effect of coating temperature for stirred and unstirred dopamine solutions during substrate grafting was investigated on the basis of chemical compositions, wettability and biomineralization of hydroxyapatite on the YSZ functionalized surface. The results revealed that the YSZ substrate grafted at 37 °C in stirred solution of dopamine possessed significantly improved hydrophilicity (water contact angle of 44.0 ± 2.3) and apatite-mineralization ability (apatite ratio of 1.78). In summary, the coating temperature and stirring condition during grafting procedure affected the chemical compositions of the films and thus influenced the formation of apatite layer on the substrate during the biomineralization process.

  10. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia via polydopamine inspired coating for hydroxyapatite biomineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain, Norhidayu Muhamad; Hussain, Rafaqat; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of functionalized yttria stabilized zirconia using polydopamine. • Improved hydrophilicity of the grafted samples with low contact angle of 44.0 ± 2.3. • Apatite layer with Ca/P ratio of 1.78 formed on the surface of the grafted samples. • Atomic percentage of Ca 2p increased by 2-fold at coating temperature of 37 °C. - Abstract: Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been widely used as biomedical implant due to its high strength and enhanced toughening characteristics. However, YSZ is a bioinert material which constrains the formation of chemical bonds with bone tissue following implantation. Inspired by the property of mussels, the surface of YSZ ceramics was functionalized by quinone-rich polydopamine to facilitate the biomineralization of hydroxyapatite. YSZ discs were first immersed in 2 mg/mL of stirred or unstirred dopamine solution at either 25 or 37 °C. The samples were then incubated in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7d. The effect of coating temperature for stirred and unstirred dopamine solutions during substrate grafting was investigated on the basis of chemical compositions, wettability and biomineralization of hydroxyapatite on the YSZ functionalized surface. The results revealed that the YSZ substrate grafted at 37 °C in stirred solution of dopamine possessed significantly improved hydrophilicity (water contact angle of 44.0 ± 2.3) and apatite-mineralization ability (apatite ratio of 1.78). In summary, the coating temperature and stirring condition during grafting procedure affected the chemical compositions of the films and thus influenced the formation of apatite layer on the substrate during the biomineralization process

  11. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, Jayanta [Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Kolkata (India); Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-04-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations.

  12. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations

  13. In vitro and in vivo investigation of bisphosphonate-loaded hydroxyapatite particles for peri-implant bone augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettenberger, Ulrike; Luginbuehl, Vera; Procter, Philip; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2017-07-01

    Locally applied bisphosphonates, such as zoledronate, have been shown in several studies to inhibit peri-implant bone resorption and recently to enhance peri-implant bone formation. Studies have also demonstrated positive effects of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles on peri-implant bone regeneration and an enhancement of the anti-resorptive effect of bisphosphonates in the presence of calcium. In the present study, both hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA) and zoledronate were combined to achieve a strong reinforcing effect on peri-implant bone. The nHA-zoledronate combination was first investigated in vitro with a pre-osteoclastic cell assay (RAW 264.7) and then in vivo in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The in vitro study confirmed that the inhibitory effect of zoledronate on murine osteoclast precursor cells was enhanced by loading the drug on nHA. For the in vivo investigation, either zoledronate-loaded or pure nHA were integrated in hyaluronic acid hydrogel. The gels were injected in screw holes that had been predrilled in rat femoral condyles before the insertion of miniature screws. Micro-CT-based dynamic histomorphometry and histology revealed an unexpected rapid mineralization of the hydrogel in vivo through formation of granules, which served as scaffold for new bone formation. The delivery of zoledronate-loaded nHA further inhibited a degradation of the mineralized hydrogel as well as a resorption of the peri-implant bone as effectively as unbound zoledronate. Hyaluronic acid with zoledronate-loaded nHA, thanks to its dual effect on inducing a rapid mineralization and preventing resorption, is a promising versatile material for bone repair and augmentation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Bioceramic coating of hydroxyapatite on titanium substrate with Nd-YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Gary J.; Pirzada, Daniel; Cai, M.; Mohanty, Pravansu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2005-01-01

    The ability to bond to bone tissue is a unique property of bioactive ceramics. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is one of the potential bioceramics candidates due to its superior bio-compatibility. Significant effort has been devoted to coat HAp ceramics on metallic substrates. Most of these processes, such as ion-beam sputter coating, thermal spraying, and flame spraying, are high temperature line of sight processes, which suffer from undesirable phase formation and weak metal/HAP bonding strength. This paper presents a unique process to coat HAp powders on titanium substrates at low temperature and enhance the coating/substrate interface by laser surface engineering. Nd-YAG laser transmits HAp powders and the laser power is absorbed by titanium substrate to produce a thin layer of molten region. During coating process, HAp powders are kept at low temperature before they are entrapped in metallic layer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the microstructure of coating; the chemical composition of the coating is determined by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Mechanical properties of the interface between coating and Ti substrate were investigated by nanoindentation

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF{sub 2} conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  16. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  17. Microstructural characteristics of the hydroxyapatite and its influence in the Tl signal induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Hernandez A, M.; Estrada G, R.; Rodriguez L, V.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis carried out on different materials has shown that the quantity and type of dopants play an important role in the behaviour thermoluminescent signal induced by the ionizing radiation. More recent studies have also shown that the grain size influences strongly in the thermoluminescent signal. Plus still, the crystal growth habit and the crystalline degree have an important effect in the type and intensity thermoluminescent signal. In this sense, we present this work on the analysis of the thermoluminescent signal induced by the gamma radiation in the hydroxyapatite ceramic. Depending the growth habit, a variation of the peak temperature location, signal intensity and linearity range was observed; in particular cases a lineal relationship between glow curve and radiation dose was in the range from 2 to 1000 Gray. These results are complemented with a microstructural and crystalline degree analysis through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. The dose-response over the whole irradiation range opening up the possibility of employing this bio material as a dosimeter. (Author)

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF 2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  20. Hydroxyapatite coating affects the Wnt signaling pathway during peri-implant healing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorfve, A; Lindahl, C; Xia, W; Igawa, K; Lindahl, A; Thomsen, P; Palmquist, A; Tengvall, P

    2014-03-01

    Owing to its bio- and osteoconductivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used implant material, but its osteogenic properties are only partly evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The present study focused on bone healing adjacent to HA-coated titanium (Ti) implants, with or without incorporated lithium ions (Li(+)). Special attention was given to the Wnt signaling pathway. The implants were inserted into rat tibia for 7 or 28 days and analyzed ex vivo, mainly by histomorphometry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). HA-coated implants showed, irrespective of Li(+) content, bone-implant contact (BIC) and removal torque values significantly higher than those of reference Ti. Further, the expression of OCN, CTSK, COL1A1, LRP5/6 and WISP1 was significantly higher in implant-adherent cells of HA-coated implants, with or without Li(+). Significantly higher β-catenin expression and significantly lower COL2A1 expression were observed in peri-implant bone cells from HA with 14 ng cm(-2) released Li(+). Interestingly, Ti implants showed a significantly larger bone area (BA) in the threads than HA with 39 ng cm(-2) released Li(+), but had a lower BIC than any HA-coated implant. This study shows that HA, with or without Li(+), is a strong activator of the Wnt signaling pathway, and may to some degree explain its high bone induction capacity. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface bioactivity modification of titanium by CO 2 plasma treatment and induction of hydroxyapatite: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xixue; Shen, Hong; Shuai, Kegang; Zhang, Enwei; Bai, Yanjie; Cheng, Yan; Xiong, Xiaoling; Wang, Shenguo; Fang, Jing; Wei, Shicheng

    2011-01-01

    Since metallic biomaterials used for orthopedic and dental implants possess a paucity of reactive functional groups, bioactivity modification of these materials is challenging. In the present work, the titanium discs and rods were treated with carbon dioxide plasma and then incubated in a modified simulated body fluid 1.5SBF to obtain a hydroxyapatite layer. Surface hydrophilicity of samples, changes of surface chemistry, surface morphologies of samples, and structural analysis of formed hydroxyapatite were investigated by contact angle to water, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results demonstrated that hydrophilicity of titanium surface was improved and hydroxyl groups increased after modification with carbon dioxide plasma treatment. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of titanium were the richest after carbon dioxide plasma treatment under the condition of 20 W for less than 30 s. The hydroxyapatite formability of titanium surface was enhanced by carbon dioxide plasma pretreatment, which was attributed to the surface chemistry. MC3T3-E1 cell as a model cell was cultured on the Ti, CPT-Ti and CPT/SBF-Ti discs in vitro, and the results of the morphology and differentiation of the cell showed that CPT/SBF-Ti was the highest bioactive. The relative parameters of the new bone around the Ti and CPT/SBF-Ti rods including bone mineral density (BMD), a ratio of bone volume to total volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.) and trabecular number (Tb.N.) were analyzed by a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) after 4-, 8- and 12-week implantation periods in vivo. The results indicated that the CPT/SBF-Ti was more advantageous for new bone formation.

  2. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying application to obtain hydroxyapatite coatings on the stainless steel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Marija D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the standard metallic materials for hip implants, besides the 316LVM stainless steel, were titanium- and cobalt/chromium-based alloys. Although bioinert, due to their corrosion resistance, they are not biocompatible. Contemporary surgical implants are not made just of bioinert metal anymore, but with deposited bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp coating. Hydroxyapatite is chemically identical with the mineral constituent of bones and teeth, what besides its biocompatibility provides bioactivity as well. The HAp limitations are, however, weak tensile strength and low fatigue resistance for long term loadings, if used alone. This is the reason for HAp to be deposited onto the surgical implant, and to enable its bioactivity, what means intergrowth with bones, and therefore the long-lasting and mechanical stable non-cemented prosthesis. This is important predominantly because the need for such prostheses for younger population, and a better life quality. There are several contemporary techniques that have been used for deposition of these coatings onto the metal implant. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying for obtaining the stable HAp coatings on the 316LVM stainless steel, ordinary used as a standard material for hip implants production are presented in this paper. The coatings of a commercially available hydroxyapatite powder were plasma-sprayed onto the specimens of medical grade 316LVM stainless steel under various operating conditions. The optical microscopy was used for microstructure and porosity characterization, while coating morphology and Ca/P ratio were analyzed using SEM equipped with EDX. Coating microstructure varied from a porous to a glassy structure, depending on operating conditions applied and coating thickness. Coating porosity was determined to be at the lower required limit requested for the bone-coating intergrowth possibility, but nevertheless adhesion measurements showed good results. The Ca/P ratio was

  3. Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-upApproach for the Development of Artificial Bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Viengkham, Malathong; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-09-27

    The controlled integration of organic and inorganic components confers natural bone with superior mechanical properties. Bone biogenesis is thought to occur by templated mineralization of hard apatite crystals by an elastic protein scaffold, a process we sought to emulate with synthetic biomimetic hydrogel polymers. Crosslinked polymethacrylamide and polymethacrylate hydrogels were functionalized with mineral-binding ligands and used to template the formation of hydroxyapatite. Strong adhesion between the organic and inorganic materials was achieved for hydrogels functionalized with either carboxylate or hydroxy ligands. The mineral-nucleating potential of hydroxyl groups identified here broadens the design parameters for synthetic bone-like composites and suggests a potential role for hydroxylated collagen proteins in bone mineralization.

  4. Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of chitosan/hydroxyapatite biocomposites based on a novel bilayer rate-controlling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing-Xiao; Ran, Jia-Bing; Chen, Si; Shen, Xin-Yu; Tong, Hua

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare sophisticated biomaterials using a biomimetic approach, a deeper understanding of biomineralization is needed. Of particular importance is the control and regulation of the mineralization process. In this study, a novel bilayer rate-controlling model was designed to investigate the factors potentially influencing mineralization. In the absence of a rate-controlling layer, nano-scale hydroxyapatite (HA) crystallites exhibited a spherical morphology, whereas, in the presence of a rate-controlling layer, HA crystallites were homogeneously dispersed and spindle-like in structure. The mineralization rate had a significant effect on controlling the morphology of crystals. Furthermore, in vitro tests demonstrated that the reaction layer containing spindle-like HA crystallites possessed superior biological properties. These results suggest that a slow mineralization rate is required for controlling the morphology of inorganic crystallites, and consumption by the rate-controlling layer ensured that the ammonia concentration remained low. This study demonstrates that a biomimetic approach can be used to prepare novel biomaterials containing HA crystallites that have different morphologies and biological properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  6. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  7. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  8. Hydroxyapatite implants with designed internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T M; Halloran, J W; Hollister, S J; Feinberg, S E

    2001-06-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used as a bone graft material in the clinics for decades. Traditionally, the pores in these HAs are either obtained from the coralline exoskeletal patterns or from the embedded organic particles in the starting HA powder. Both processes offer very limited control on the pore structure. A new method for manufacturing porous HA with designed pore channels has been developed. This method is essentially a lost-mold technique with negative molds made with Stereolithography and a highly loaded curable HA suspension as the ceramic carrier. Implants with designed channels and connection patterns were first generated from a Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) software and Computer Tomography (CT) data. The negative images of the designs were used to build the molds on a stereolithography apparatus with epoxy resins. A 40 vol% HA suspension in propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate (PNPGDA) and iso-bornyl acrylate (IBA) was formulated. HA suspension was cast into the epoxy molds and cured into solid at 85 degrees C. The molds and acrylate binders were removed by pyrolysis, followed by HA green body sintering. With this method, implants with six different channel designs were built successfully and the designed channels were reproduced in the sintered HA implants. The channels created in the sintered HA implants were between 366 microm and 968 microm in diameter with standard deviations of 50 microm or less. The porosity created by the channels were between 26% and 52%. The results show that HA implants with designed connection pattern and well controlled channel size can be built with the technique developed in this study. Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  9. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  10. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  11. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  12. Obtention of hydroxyapatite submicrometric of bovine origin by vibratory grinding for rapid prototyping; Obtencao de hidroxiapatita submicrometrica de origem bovina por moagem vibratoria visando prototipagem rapida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira, C.R.; Purquerio, B.M.; Fortulan, C.A., E-mail: camilameira@sc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Braga, F.J.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Submicron bovine hydroxyapatite was obtained for rapid prototyping. Hydroxyapatite structure originated from bovine mineral bone has great importance among the biomaterials and biocompatibility due to its great similarity with the human bone structure. This study aims to obtain powder for manufacture by rapid prototyping of scaffolds. This technique manufacture requires highly reactive powders to compensate for the absence of pressure forming. Hydroxyapatite was milled in a ball mill and vibratory mill, and analyzed for their average equivalent spherical diameter and surface area. Test specimens were isostatically pressed at 100 MPa and machined into cylindrical test specimens. These specimens were sintered at several temperatures to determine the optimal sintering temperature based on densification and chemistry stability. In grinding ball mill was obtained particles of equivalent diameter of 0.74 micron in vibratory mill of 0.46 micrometers. An average flexural strength of 100 MPa and 99,8% of real density was attained for the sample sintered at 1300 deg C/2h, signaling potential for use in rapid prototyping. (author)

  13. Cyanobacteria: A precious bio-resource in agriculture, ecosystem and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar eSingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in view the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters, generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, syngas and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet.

  14. Growth of hydroxyapatite on the cellular membrane of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for the preparation of hybrid biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Eric Reyes, E-mail: onomaeric@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Prolongación de la 24 Sur y Ave San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, Col San Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Torres, Maykel González, E-mail: mikegcu@fata.unam.mx [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Muñoz, Susana Vargas, E-mail: vmsu@unam.mx [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Rosas, Efraín Rubio, E-mail: efrainrubio@yahoo.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Prolongación de la 24 Sur y Ave San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, Col San Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue (Mexico); and others

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to grow hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals on the cellular wall of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis using a bio-mimetic method. Several strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) gene markers to differentiate the strains and confirm the identity of the isolated species to guarantee that the selected species was not harmful to human health or the environment. Three of the analyzed strains were selected because they exhibited the best nucleation and growth of HAp on the bacterial surface. This innovative method to grow HAp crystals on a cellular membrane helps to elucidate the mechanisms by which osseous tissue is formed in nature. The optimum concentration for the simulated physiological fluid (SPF) was 1.5 ×. The hybrid materials were characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • HAp crystals are grown on the cellular wall of a GP bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. • The growing was carried out by using a bio-mimetic method. • Hybrid materials were characterized with morphological and spectroscopic techniques. • The reported method allows understanding the mechanisms to produce osseous tissue. • The membrane of Bacillus thuringiensis can grow more HAp than Bacillus halodurans.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite/hydroxyapatite tubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first step is the formation of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) tubes on natural template followed by hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramic coated on the Fe 3 O 4 tubes. HAp improves the biocompatibility and stability of the prepared tubes. Sintering at 900 ∘ C improves the crystalline stability of nanotubes and removes the natural ...

  16. Characteristics of porous zirconia coated with hydroxyapatite as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Zirconia; porosity; hydroxyapatite; coating; compressive strength. 1. Introduction. A lot of .... typically from 300–500 μm, estimated from the SEM images. Thus, the .... Kim H W, Georgiou F, Knowles J C, Koh Y H and Kim H E. 2004 Biomaterials ...

  17. Biomedical properties of laser prepared silver-doped hydroxyapatite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Weiserová, Marie; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zezulová, Markéta; Strnad, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2011), 1265-1269 ISSN 1054-660X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/07/0325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : silver -doped hydroxyapatite * PLD * layers * antibacterial properties Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.605, year: 2011

  18. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  19. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn-Benz, M.; van 't Hof, W.; Bikker, F.J.; Nazmi, K.; Brand, H.S.; Sotres, J.; Lindh, L.; Arnebrant, T.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for

  20. Synthesis of fluorapatite–hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and toxicity investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Montazeri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available N Montazeri, R Jahandideh, Esmaeil BiazarDepartment of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran, IranAbstract: In this study, calcium phosphate nanoparticles with two phases, fluorapatite (FA; Ca10(PO46F2 and hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO46(OH2, were prepared using the sol-gel method. Ethyl phosphate, hydrated calcium nitrate, and ammonium fluoride were used, respectively, as P, Ca, and F precursors with a Ca:P ratio of 1:72. Powders obtained from the sol-gel process were studied after they were dried at 80°C and heat treated at 550°C. The degree of crystallinity, particle and crystallite size, powder morphology, chemical structure, and phase analysis were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Zetasizer experiments. The results of XRD analysis and FTIR showed the presence of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite phases. The sizes of the crystallites estimated from XRD patterns using the Scherrer equation and the crystallinity of the hydroxyapatite phase were about 20 nm and 70%, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and SEM images and Zetasizer experiments showed an average size of 100 nm. The in vitro behavior of powder was investigated with mouse fibroblast cells. The results of these experiments indicated that the powders were biocompatibile and would not cause toxic reactions. These compounds could be applied for hard-tissue engineering.Keywords: fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite, sol-gel, nanoparticles, biocompatibility