WorldWideScience

Sample records for bio international convention

  1. 78 FR 39327 - Bio Diagnostic International; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 11-63] Bio Diagnostic... Control, Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to Bio Diagnostic International... application of Bio Diagnostic International, Inc., for a DEA Certificate of Registration as a distributor of...

  2. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  3. International antiterrorist conventions concerning the safety of air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek BARCIK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the international law regulations are presented concerning the civilian safety of the air transport. The history concerning air terrorism and international antiterrorist conventions was described in detail, involving The Chicago Convention, The Tokyo Convention, The Hague Convention and Montreal Convention.

  4. Characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel produced from sewage sludge as a conventional fuel substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Bongjin; Nam, Wonjun; Lee, Na-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Safely final disposal of sewage sludge which is being increased every year has already become serious problems. As one of the promising technologies to solve this problem, thermal drying method has been attracting wide attention due to energy recovery from sewage sludge. This paper describes several characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel, as a conventional fuel substitute, produced from sewage sludge drying and granulation plant having the treatment capacity of 10 ton/ day. This plant has been successfully operated many times and is now designing for scale-up. Average moisture content of twelve kinds of bio-solid fuels produced from the plant normally less than 10 wt% and average shape of them is mainly composed of granular type having a diameter of 2-8 mm for easy handling and transportation to the final market destinations. Average higher heating value, which is one of the important properties to estimate the possibility of available energy, of bio-solid fuels is about 3800 kcal/ kg as dry basis. So they can be utilized to supply energy in the coal power plant and cement kiln etc. as a conventional fuel substitute for a beneficial reuse. Characteristics including proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, contents of heavy metals, wettability etc. of bio-solid fuels have been also analyzed for the environmentally safe re utilization. (author)

  5. Automobile industry and new bio-fuel oils: International panorama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, G.

    1992-01-01

    In assessing the technical/economic feasibility of the direct combustion of vegetable oils in diesel type engines, this paper first points out the good results obtained in performance tests on these fuels in Elsberg engines, and their low sulfur and nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide emission characteristics. It then assesses the improvements that are necessary in the development of marketable bio-fuel oils that conform to European Communities air pollution standards for automobiles. Further efforts must be made to reduce bio-fuel oil smoke emission levels, to compensate for their lower calorific value as compared with conventional diesel fuels, and to make them compatible with automobile finishing materials - paints and plastics. The paper suggests a set of suitable fiscal policies designed to favour the marketing of bio-diesel fuels based on their favourable pollution abating qualities - low greenhouse gas emissions and biodegradability

  6. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6...

  7. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win....... With this monograph as their guide, lawyers and scholars who deal with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when...

  8. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and

  9. Stakeholder involvement in international conventions governing civil nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerechts, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Mr Emmerechts explained that international conventions have varying positions on stakeholders and their involvement depending upon the intent of the legislator and the field they cover, ranging from a narrow to a broad interpretation. He addressed stakeholder involvement in two other international conventions governing civil nuclear activities, namely the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention), both concluded under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). He noted that the Convention on Nuclear Safety remains a 'traditional' international legal instrument, focusing on governments and governmental bodies as the main stakeholders and limiting obligations regarding the involvement of the public and intergovernmental organisations to their receiving information and observing. Likewise, the Joint Convention limits obligations regarding public involvement to access to information, notably as to the siting of proposed facilities. However, he noted that in the European Union, the Directive on Nuclear Safety (2014/87/Euratom) and the Directive for the Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste (2011/70/Euratom) have more advanced public participation requirements in nuclear decision making. Mr Emmerechts explained that the substantial differences between nuclear legislation and the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions with regards to public involvement requirements could partly be explained by the technicality of nuclear information and by issues related to nuclear security

  10. Application of international maritime protection conventions to radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.M.; Walden, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of international maritime protection conventions to radioactive pollution is discussed with particular emphasis on the 1972 London Convention on prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter. Under that Convention, wastes are divided into three categories according to their radioactivity. High level wastes, whose dumping is prohibited, and low level wastes which require a special dumping permit are studied on the basis of definitions established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Mention is made of the IAEA-recommended procedures for issue of the specific dumping as well as of the exceptions provided for ships and aircraft enjoying State immunity and cases of force majeure or emergencies. Also dealt with are the other international Conventions applying to prevention of radioactive marine pollution [fr

  11. International nuclear liability conventions: status and possible changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, Patrick.

    1978-01-01

    The table of ratifications and accessions annexed to this paper shows that despite the considerable progress achieved these past years and the entry into force of the Vienna Convention, the number of Contracting Parties to the Nuclear Civil Liability Conventions remains insufficient. The adaptation of the first of these Conventions - the Paris Convention - as well as its Brussels Supplementary Convention to the technical and economic developments which have taken place since their adoption should provide the means for encouraging their implementation at international level. The main amendments which are envisaged are replacement of the present unit of account by the Special Drawing Right, the increase of the amounts of liability and compensation and finally, the technical scope of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  12. Amendment of APPRE for Ratification of the International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ho

    2010-01-01

    Both the international community and the IAEA have been making efforts to strengthen the global regime on nuclear security. As a result of these efforts, two conventions regarding nuclear security were issued by the UN and IAEA. The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (NTC) and the Amendment to Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNMNF). The NTC entered into force in 2007, but the CPPNMNF still has not yet been enacted. In the work plan released after the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (which was held in Washington D.C) these conventions were mentioned as important tools against nuclear terrorism. The purpose of these conventions was to prevent malicious acts against radioactive materials and nuclear facilities. The article also specifies strong penal provisions. Many countries which had ratified these conventions had to revise or change their domestic acts or laws in order conform to these new international regimes. The ROK signed these two conventions in 2005: however, it has not ratified them yet. The government has a plan to ratify them before the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, which will be held in the ROK. Each article in the conventions should be reviewed thoroughly in terms of their effects on the domestic legal and institutional systems. The penal provisions regulating the conventions should especially be carefully scrutinized since their effects are considerable. In this paper, we compared the penal provisions in the conventions with the ROK's laws and selected the provisions that are not specified in the ROK's legal system. The proposed articles for amendment to the APPRE are also suggested

  13. International convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitsch-Prevor, O.

    2005-01-01

    The Preamble, composed of 13 paragraphs and drafted in the usual style of a General Assembly resolution, is aimed at placing the convention in a number of relevant contexts. First, the convention is linked to the issue of the maintenance of international peace and security through a reference to the purposes of the United Nations under Article 1 of the Charter. Next, it is presented as being a further step in the decisions, measures and instruments developed by the United Nations over the past ten years with the common objective of eliminating international terrorism in all its forms. Lastly, the convention is placed in its specific nuclear context through a number of references. In its third paragraph, the Preamble contains a reference to the principle recognizing 'the right of all states to develop and apply nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their legitimate interests in the potential benefits to be derived from the peaceful application of nuclear energy'. This paragraph is identical to the first paragraph of the Preamble of the CPPNM, and the same principle is stated again in the first paragraph of the Preamble of the Amendment to the CPPNM, and constitutes a kind of general statement in favour of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and technology, without explicit reservations concerning non-proliferation, the safety and security of nuclear facilities or the management of radioactive waste. A draft amendment presented by the United States delegation in the final phase of work that suggested adding the phrase 'while recognizing that the goals of peaceful utilisation should not be used as a cover for proliferation' to the sentence cited above, was apparently not retained. Next, the Preamble mentions the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, and in the tenth paragraph the threat that 'acts of nuclear terrorism may result in the gravest consequences and may pose a threat to international peace and security'. Paragraph 11 of the

  14. A proposed structure for an international convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitze, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author recommends a framework convention that will stimulate policy changes without expensive emission reductions in the short term. A central task for a climate convention will be to provide the international community with a permanent mechanism for coordinating its efforts to deal with climate change. The convention should go beyond organizational structure to establish a process for updating the parties' understanding of the science and potential impacts of climate change and for building consensus on policy responses. Each party must then be required to prepare and distribute its own national plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for adapting to future change while achieving its development objectives. A set of targets and timetables for the reduction of greenhouse gas reductions is presented

  15. Provisions relating to Nuclear Energy. II - International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Portuguese Junta de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Energy Commission) reproduces in Portuguese and in the original language (English or French), texts of a series of international conventions in the nuclear field and the Statutes of international nuclear organisations and undertakings. The following are among the texts included: the Statutes of the IAEA, NEA, Eurochemic; the Euratom Treaty; the Tlatelolco Treaty; the co-operation agreement between Portugal and the United States on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (NEA) [fr

  16. International conventions for measuring radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    In buildings, whether civil or industrial, natural radioactivity always occurs at different degrees in the materials (main building materials, decorative materials). Concerns on radioactivity from building materials is unavoidable for human living and developing. As a member of WTO, China's measuring method of radioactivity for building materials, including radionuclides limitation for building materials, hazard evaluation system etc, should keep accordance with the international rules and conventions. (author)

  17. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar-Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Bermúdez, J M; Suárez-Ruiz, I; Ruiz, B

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are more predominant in microwave pyrolysis with a major presence of light compounds. The bio-gas fraction from microwave pyrolysis presents a much higher syngas content (H2+CO), and a lower CO2 and CH4 proportion than that obtained by conventional pyrolysis. Yields are similar for both treatments with a slightly higher gas yield in the case of microwave pyrolysis due to the fact that microwave heating favors heterogeneous reactions between the gases and the char. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship of community traffic rights and international conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has established the Union as a legal personality. It opens for mixed agreements on foreign policy and community topics. In areas where the Union legislates, the EU can sign various kinds of agreements on behalf of the member states, who are consequently not allowed to negotiate international agreements on their own (autonomously in these areas. The European Union's accession to the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail (COTIF represents a historic step for the railway community. This relationship is now clear: a disconnection clause in the accession agreement in principle allows EU law precedence for traffic internal to the EU. The relationship between EU law and COTIF law is there more about coordination than disconnection.

  19. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  20. Developments in international convention on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2000-01-01

    A few years after the adoption of a Protocol to amend the world-wide Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a new ''global'' Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage (September 1997), the countries which are party to the Western Europe based Paris and Brussels Conventions are working on the revision of these instruments within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The objective of this exercise is not only to preserve the compatibility of the Paris and Vienna provisions, which is now an imperative deriving from the application of the 1988 Joint Protocol linking these two Conventions, but also to substantially improve certain features of this regime such as its technical and geographical scope of application, the facilitation of the rights of victims to defend their claims and, of course, the level of funds effectively available to compensate the damage. This paper reviews briefly the recent evolution of the international nuclear liability regime and discusses some of the challenges which the nuclear countries are facing in this context. (author)

  1. Comparative Bio-Efficacy and Synergism of New Generation Polyfluorobenzyl and Conventional Pyrethroids Against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Manas; Akulwad, Ambadas; Kshirsagar, Rajendra; Muthukrishnan, Siva

    2018-05-28

    Intensive exposure to insecticides has resulted in the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquitoes. We tested the bio-efficacy of two Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory strains differentially bio-responsive to pyrethroids to understand the comparative efficacy of different polyfluorobenzyle and conventional pyrethroid molecules and the role of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in synergizing these molecules in increased tolerance of mosquitoes to these molecules. We have taken deltamethrin (α-cyano pyrethroid with phenoxybenzyl moiety); permethrin (phenoxybenzyl pyrethroid without an α-cyano group); transfluthrin, dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin (polyfluorinated benzyl compounds); and prallethrin (modified cyclopentadienone compound) for this study. We found higher bio-efficacy in dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin compared with transfluthrin against tested mosquito strains. We found that transfluthrin exhibited synergism with PBO, which supports the hypothesis that P450 enzymes could play a role in the detoxification process of transfluthrin, which was earlier not believed. However, other polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with a 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl capping in the tetrafluorobenzyl ring (dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin) exhibit greater synergism with PBO compared with transfluthrin. Further study is required to understand the mechanism for higher synergistic ratios in polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl moiety and ascertain the possible involvement of novel mechanisms that may involve in developing resistance. This is the first report of comparative bio-efficacy of multiple polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids and PBO synergism against mosquitoes.

  2. Application of international double taxation conventions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumiter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we sought to address the international double taxation phenomenon from two different standpoints. To begin with, in the first part we analysed the framework of international double taxation, and how this topic was tackled in both Romanian and international literature.International double taxation has been analyzed, mutatis mutandis, from an economic perspective, more precisely in terms of the implications that it generates on economies, on added value, on capital flows, on the internationalisation of business. Second, I believed it was important to analyse international double taxation from a legal perspective, through the jurisdictional effects of obtaining income or holding property at the European or international level. Romania's case is carefully approached in this paper, aiming to highlight the issues Romania is facing concerning cooperation in tax matters with authorities from other countries, how the more than 80 double taxation conventions are applied and interpreted, but also other aspects that should be considered by the Romanian tax authorities, based on the provisions of the Fiscal Code and the Fiscal Procedure Code. The article ends by presenting, commenting on and analysing two test cases in international double taxation, of remarkable importance and actuality for Romanian jurisprudence to observe how complex double taxation mechanisms operate in practice. The conclusion of this article emphasises the importance ofsignificant “steps” achieved by Romania on the path to creating a true “fiscal area” in the European Union, as well as the “corridors” that should be inserted to correct economi c – legal and economic deficiencies and gaps, in order to strengthen the fiscal area.

  3. A proposal for an international convention on radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1998-01-01

    One century has passed since harmful effects of radiation on living tissues were recognized. Organized efforts to reduce radiation hazards began in early 1920s. Major efforts by the ICRP since 1928, aided by ICRU, greatly helped in formulating principles, policies and guidance for radiation protection. The WHO formally recognized ICRP in 1956 and began implementing ICRP recommendations and guidance throughout the world. The IAEA, after it took office in 1957, began to establish or adopt standards of safety based on ICRP recommendations and provide for application of these standards in the field of atomic energy. Later on, other pertinent international organizations joined IAEA in establishing the Basic Safety Standards on radiation safety. The IAEA has issued, until now, nearly couple of hundred safety related documents on radiation safety and waste management. However, in spite of all such international efforts for three quarter of a century, there has been no effective universal control in radiation safety. Problems exist at the user, national, international and manufacturers and suppliers levels. Other problems are management of spent sources and smuggling of sources across international borders. Although, radiation and radionuclides are used by all countries of the world, regulatory and technical control measures in many countries are either lacking or inadequate. The recommendations and technical guidance provided by the international organizations are only advisory and carry no mandatory force to oblige countries to apply them. Member States approve IAEA safety standards and guides at the technical meetings and General Conference, but many of them do not apply these. An International Convention is, therefore, essential to establish international instrument to ensure universal application of radiation safety. (author)

  4. International conventions on air pollution abatement. Implementation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.; Groza, L.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental protection, the pollution reduction, their positive direct and indirect effects, the energy efficiency increase in using fossil fuels have an important role on the environmental and energy policies, as well as on the long-term planning. The report presents, under the new legislative context, the general frame from the implementation of concrete actions to fulfill the commitments contained in different environmental conventions, in which Romania is or intends to be a part. In this context it is presented the national approach for the implementation of two conventions: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, this under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The report presents the necessary measures to reduce the emissions of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen oxides taking into account the process of the Romanian integration in the European structure as well as the dynamic of the economic reform. Romania is aware that the necessary environmental activities (research, design, environmental investments etc.) must be financed from internal resources, the own resources of the polluting economic units, the central and local budgets. (author). 7 refs

  5. Nuclear safety: an international approach: the convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a general presentation of the IAEA Convention on Nuclear Safety which has already be signed by 50 countries and which is the first legal instrument that directly addresses the safety of nuclear power plants worldwide. The paper gives a review of its development and some key provisions for a better understanding of how this agreement will operate in practice. The Convention consists of an introductory preamble and four chapters consisting of 35 articles dealing with: the principal objectives, definitions and scope of application; the various obligations (general provisions, legislation, responsibility and regulation, general safety considerations taking into account: the financial and human resources, the human factors, the quality assurance, the assessment and verification of safety, the radiation protection and the emergency preparedness; the safety of installations: sitting, design and construction, operation); the periodic meetings of the contracting parties to review national reports on the measures taken to implement each of the obligations, and the final clauses and other judicial provisions common to international agreements. (J.S.). 1 append

  6. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capareda, Sergio [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hall, Kenneth R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Searcy, Royce [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; Thompson, Wayne H. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Baltensperger, David [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Myatt, Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Blumenthal, Jurg [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

    2012-11-30

    Maintaining a predictable and sustainable supply of feedstock for bioenergy conversion is a major goal to facilitate the efficient transition to cellulosic biofuels. Our work provides insight into the complex interactions among agronomic, edaphic, and climatic factors that affect the sustainability of bioenergy crop yields. Our results provide science-based agronomic response measures that document how to better manage bioenergy sorghum production from planting to harvest. We show that harvest aids provide no significant benefit as a means to decrease harvest moisture or improve bioenergy yields. Our efforts to identify optimal seeding rates under varied edaphic and climatological conditions reinforce previous findings that sorghum is a resilient plant that can efficiently adapt to changing population pressures by decreasing or increasing the numbers of additional shoots or tillers – where optimal seeding rates for high biomass photoperiod sensitive sorghum is 60,000 to 70,000 seeds per acre and 100,000 to 120,000 seeds per acre for sweet varieties. Our varietal adaptability trials revealed that high biomass photoperiod sensitive energy sorghum consistently outperforms conventional photoperiod insensitive sweet sorghum and high biomass forage sorghum as the preferred bioenergy sorghum type, with combined theoretical yields of both cellulosic and fermentable water-soluble sugars producing an average yield of 1,035 gallons of EtOH per acre. Our nitrogen trials reveal that sweet sorghums produce ample amounts of water-soluble sugars with minimal increases in nitrogen inputs, and that excess nitrogen can affect minor increases in biomass yields and cellulosic sugars but decrease bioenergy quality by decreasing water-soluble sugar concentrations and increasing ash content, specifically when plant tissue nitrogen concentrations exceed 0.6 %, dry weight basis. Finally, through our growth and re-growth trials, we show that single-cut high biomass sorghum bioenergy yields

  7. Indonesia Interest in International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention No.189

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Anugrah, Debora Panca

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to analyze, Indonesia Interest in ILO convention No. 189 on Decent Works for Domestic Workers. Indonesia has massive number of domestic workers caused by low quality of education. Therefore, Indonesia agreed on creation of ILO Convention No.189 in protecting their society that works as domestic workers. However, in the early of ILO Convention No.189 agreement creation in 2011, Indonesia has not ratified this Convention to 2013. If Indonesia has ratified this convention prev...

  8. 7th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Pramod; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Nagar, Atulya

    2013-01-01

    The book is a collection of high quality peer reviewed research papers presented in Seventh International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing (BIC-TA 2012) held at ABV-IIITM Gwalior, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of "Computational Intelligence". The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of nature/bio-inspired computing and presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of novel computational techniques.

  9. Comparison of conventional and bio-treated methods as dust suppressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maryam; Chu, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Dust is an environmental, geotechnical, health, and economical hazard. Fugitive dust emanating along transportation systems such as roads, railways, and airports especially can have significant impacts on health, safety, material loss, cost of maintenance, and interfere with the facilities. Quantitative studies on the effectiveness of the proper dust palliatives and their environmental impact have been studied with a number of biological and chemical methods. The objective of this study was to establish a method for using the microbial Induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) approach to reduce the percent of mass loss against erosive force of wind regarding to the concentration and characteristics of aggregate used, climate, and traffic amounts. The results of this study showed that the required precipitation for dust control of sand by 70% is less than 15 g CaCO 3 /m 2 between sand grains in bio-treated sand. The wind tunnel test results of this study also indicate that the effectiveness of the bio-treatment method for dust control depends on many variables, such as the percent of precipitated calcium carbonate and tensile strength.

  10. Fifth International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2014, the 5th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2014 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing remains to be one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference was to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2014 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  11. 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2013, the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2013 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference is to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2013 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  12. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-alcohols. The use of conventional and membrane-assisted catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, P. K.

    2013-11-01

    The energy consumption around the globe is on the rise due to the exponential population growth and urbanization. There is a need for alternative and non-conventional energy sources, which are CO{sub 2}-neutral, and a need to produce less or no environmental pollutants and to have high energy efficiency. One of the alternative approaches is hydrogen economy with the fuel cell (FC) technology which is forecasted to lead to a sustainable society. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is recognized as a potential fuel and clean energy carrier being at the same time a carbon-free element. Moreover, H{sub 2} is utilized in many processes in chemical, food, metallurgical, and pharmaceutical industry and it is also a valuable chemical in many reactions (e.g. refineries). Non-renewable resources have been the major feedstock for H{sub 2} production for many years. At present, {approx}50% of H{sub 2} is produced via catalytic steam reforming of natural gas followed by various down-stream purification steps to produce {approx}99.99% H{sub 2}, the process being highly energy intensive. Henceforth, bio-fuels like biomass derived alcohols (e.g. bio-ethanol and bio-glycerol), can be viable raw materials for the H{sub 2} production. In a membrane based reactor, the reaction and selective separation of H{sub 2} occur simultaneously in one unit, thus improving the overall reactor efficiency. The main motivation of this work is to produce H{sub 2} more efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way from bio-alcohols with a high H{sub 2} selectivity, purity and yield. In this thesis, the work was divided into two research areas, the first being the catalytic studies using metal decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) based catalysts in steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) at low temperatures (<450 deg C). The second part was the study of steam reforming (SR) and the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions in a membrane reactor (MR) using dense and composite Pd-based membranes to produce high purity H{sub 2}. CNTs

  13. Application of international double taxation conventions in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2016-01-01

    In this article we sought to address the international double taxation phenomenon from two different standpoints. To begin with, in the first part we analysed the framework of international double taxation, and how this topic was tackled in both Romanian and international literature.International double taxation has been analyzed, mutatis mutandis, from an economic perspective, more precisely in terms of the implications that it generates on economies, on added value, on capital flows, on the...

  14. TO THE 70TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Neradyiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the prerequisite for the development and adoption of the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944. There are given the appreciation of the contents of the convention, it is shown its place and importance in the field of international air law. There is shown the current importance of the Chicago Convention for the development of international civil aviation.

  15. Internal dose estimation by bio-assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure, both external and internal, can occur to radiation workers during the operation of various nuclear fuel cycle facilities and radiation facilities. The assessment of radiation doses to workers, routinely or potentially exposed to radiation, through intake of radionuclide is an integral part of the radiation protection programme. Internal dose is the radiation exposure that results from the intake of radioactive materials into the body by inhalation, ingestion, absorption through the skin or via wounds. Assessment of radiation doses arising from the intake of radioactive material by the workers is termed as internal exposure assessment. Unlike external exposure, internal exposure cannot be measured directly. Its evaluation is based on the calculation of the intake of radionuclide either from direct measurements (e.g, external monitoring of whole body or of specific organs and tissues) or indirect measurements (e.g. radioactivity in urine, faeces, breath or samples from the working environment) (ICRP Pub. 78, 1997 and NRPB-W60, 2004). Another method of internal dose assessment is based on the measurement of airborne radionuclides in the working areas of the facility and the worker's occupancy in those areas

  16. A comparison of piezosurgery with conventional techniques for internal osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, I; Doğan, R; Gökler, O

    2017-06-01

    To compare conventional osteotomy with the piezosurgery medical device, in terms of postoperative edema, ecchymosis, pain, operation time, and mucosal integrity, in rhinoplasty patients. In this prospective study, 49 rhinoplasty patients were randomly divided into two groups according to osteotomy technique used, either conventional osteotomy or piezosurgery. For all patients, the total duration of the operation was recorded, and photographs were taken and scored for ecchymosis and edema on postoperative days 2, 4, and 7. In addition, pain level was evaluated on postoperative day 2, and mucosal integrity was assessed on day 4. All scoring and evaluation was conducted by a physician who was blinded to the osteotomy procedure. In the piezosurgery group, edema scores on postoperative day 2 and ecchymosis scores on postoperative days 2, 4, and 7 were significantly lower than in the conventional osteotomy group (p piezosurgery group than in the conventional osteotomy group (p piezosurgery group. When total operation duration was compared, there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). Piezosurgery is a safe osteotomy method, with less edema (in the early postoperative period) and ecchymosis compared with conventional osteotomy, as well as less pain, a similar operation duration, and no mucosal damage.

  17. Liquid balance monitoring inside conventional, Retrofit, and bio-reactor landfill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abichou, Tarek; Barlaz, Morton A; Green, Roger; Hater, Gary

    2013-10-01

    The Outer Loop landfill bioreactor (OLLB) in Louisville, KY, USA has been the site of a study to evaluate long-term bioreactor performance at a full-scale operational landfill. Three types of landfill units were studied including a conventional landfill (Control cell), a new landfill area that had an air addition and recirculation piping network installed as waste was being placed (As-Built cell), and a conventional landfill that was modified to allow for liquids recirculation (Retrofit cell). During the monitoring period, the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213LMg(-1) (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste), respectively. The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198LMg(-1) from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells, respectively. The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. In the Control and As-Built cells, leachate head on liner decreased once waste placement stopped. The measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from the estimate of accumulated liquid by the liquid balance. Additionally, measurements on excavated solid waste samples revealed large spatial variability in waste moisture content. The degree of saturation in the Control cells decreased from 85% to 75%. The degree of saturation increased from 82% to 83% due to liquids addition in the Retrofit cells and decreased back to 80% once liquid addition stopped. In the As-Built cells, the degree of saturation increased from 87% to 97% during filling activities and then started to decrease soon after filling activities stopped to reach 92% at the end of the monitoring period. The measured leachate generation rates were used to estimate an in-place saturated hydraulic conductivity of the MSW in the range of 10(-8) to 10(-7)ms(-1) which is lower than previous reports. In the Control and Retrofit cells, the net loss in liquids, 43 and 12LMg(-1), respectively, was similar to the measured settlement of 15% and 5

  18. 1st International Symposium ‘Physics, Engineering and Technologies for Bio-Medicine’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium “Physics, Engineering and Technologies for BioMedicine” was held in Moscow at the occasion of the foundation of the new Institute PhysBio at MEPHI (Russia) on October 20-23, 2016. Under the auspices of the Russian Ministry of Science and Education, the Ministry of Health and the State Company Rosatom, the Symposium is organized by the Institute of Engineering Physics for Biomedicine (PhysBio), which has recently been established at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute). The PhysBio’s goal is to train highly-skilled personnel through the research and development in engineering physics for biomedicine, including nuclear medicine, material science, laser physics and biophotonic technologies. The Symposium was aimed to meet the leading scientists and experts in nuclear medicine, biophysics, biophotonics, and emerging fields to present their works and to have invited lectures. (paper)

  19. Productions of palm oil bio diesel whit heterogeneous basic catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Luis A; Franco C, Alexander; Zuleta S, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The conventional process to produce biodiesel involves the presence of homogeneous basic catalysts. However, these catalysts have disadvantages associated to the need of purification steps, which increase the cost of the final product and generate pollution problems caused by the effluents. This paper compares different homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the biodiesel production from palm oil. For this, heterogeneous catalysts supported on alumina were prepared and characterized by nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Transesterification of palm oil with methanol was accomplished at 60 celsius degrade and one hour, varying methanol/oil ratio, the type of catalyst and its concentration. Yields of the reaction and purity of the so obtained biodiesel were evaluated. Comparing the catalysts performance, based on the amount, was found that sodium methoxide (CH 3 ONa) and potassium carbonate supported on alumina (K 2 CO 3 /Al 2 O 3 ) were the catalysts that give the higher purity of biodiesel (96.8 and 95.85% respectively). When was determined the active site quality, by dividing the performance by each mole of active sites, it was found that calcined Na 2 SO 4 /Al 2 O 3 has the most active sites.

  20. Liquid balance monitoring inside conventional, Retrofit, and bio-reactor landfill cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abichou, Tarek, E-mail: abichou@eng.fsu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida State University, 2525 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32311 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Green, Roger; Hater, Gary [Waste Management Inc., Cincinnati, OH 45211 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg{sup −1} (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste). • The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg{sup −1} from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells. • The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. • Measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from accumulated liquid by balance. • The in-place saturated hydraulic conductivity of the MSW was calculated to be in the range of 10{sup −8} to 10{sup −7} m s{sup −1}. - Abstract: The Outer Loop landfill bioreactor (OLLB) in Louisville, KY, USA has been the site of a study to evaluate long-term bioreactor performance at a full-scale operational landfill. Three types of landfill units were studied including a conventional landfill (Control cell), a new landfill area that had an air addition and recirculation piping network installed as waste was being placed (As-Built cell), and a conventional landfill that was modified to allow for liquids recirculation (Retrofit cell). During the monitoring period, the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg{sup −1} (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste), respectively. The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg{sup −1} from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells, respectively. The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. In the Control and As-Built cells, leachate head on liner decreased once waste placement stopped. The measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from the estimate of accumulated liquid by the liquid balance. Additionally, measurements on excavated solid waste samples revealed large spatial variability in waste moisture content. The degree of saturation in the Control cells decreased from 85% to 75%. The degree of saturation increased from 82% to 83% due to liquids addition in the Retrofit

  1. Liquid balance monitoring inside conventional, Retrofit, and bio-reactor landfill cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abichou, Tarek; Barlaz, Morton A.; Green, Roger; Hater, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg −1 (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste). • The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg −1 from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells. • The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. • Measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from accumulated liquid by balance. • The in-place saturated hydraulic conductivity of the MSW was calculated to be in the range of 10 −8 to 10 −7 m s −1 . - Abstract: The Outer Loop landfill bioreactor (OLLB) in Louisville, KY, USA has been the site of a study to evaluate long-term bioreactor performance at a full-scale operational landfill. Three types of landfill units were studied including a conventional landfill (Control cell), a new landfill area that had an air addition and recirculation piping network installed as waste was being placed (As-Built cell), and a conventional landfill that was modified to allow for liquids recirculation (Retrofit cell). During the monitoring period, the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells received 48, 14, and 213 L Mg −1 (liters of liquids per metric ton of waste), respectively. The leachate collection system yielded 60, 57 and 198 L Mg −1 from the Retrofit, Control, and As-Built cells, respectively. The head on liner in all cells was below regulatory limits. In the Control and As-Built cells, leachate head on liner decreased once waste placement stopped. The measured moisture content of the waste samples was consistent with that calculated from the estimate of accumulated liquid by the liquid balance. Additionally, measurements on excavated solid waste samples revealed large spatial variability in waste moisture content. The degree of saturation in the Control cells decreased from 85% to 75%. The degree of saturation increased from 82% to 83% due to liquids addition in the Retrofit cells and decreased back to 80

  2. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability: Disability Inclusive Development and International Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozue Kay Nagata

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a historical momentum for disabled persons and their associates, as well as ODA workers in the development cooperation field all over the world. For the last two decades, persons with disabilities, their associates and professionals working in this field have promoted their human rights, equality, nondiscrimination and full participation. This Convention is beyond the concept of non-discrimination, and it is very comprehensive in its structure, scope and coverage, promoting developmental activities too in order to realize disabled people’s socio-economic rights. Furthermore it calls for international and regional development cooperation. Prior to its adoption, in September 2000 at the Millennium Summit the Member States of the Untied Nations issued the Millennium Declaration, committing themselves to a series of development targets, most of which are to be achieved by 2015. Known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, they represent a framework for achieving sustainable and "just" human development through broadening the benefits of development for all categories individuals, women and men, the poor and the rich, the disabled and the non-disabled. The very first goal of the MDG is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. Poverty is both a cause and consequence of disability. Poverty and disability reinforce one another. Thus, it is necessary to ensure that persons with disabilities be an integral part of efforts to achieve MDGs, particularly in the areas of poverty alleviation, primary education, gender, employment and international development cooperation. In the Asian and Pacific region, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP has proclaimed two decades of disabled persons 1993-2002, and 2003-2013 (to which Iran became a signatory in 1994, and promoted the inclusive, barrier-free and rights

  3. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaldev Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite bhasma (SMB has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas . The experimental animals (rats were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  4. Effect of temperature on the density of palm oil bio diesel and its blends with conventional diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumea H, Pedro N; Chaves N, German; Vargas R, Claudia M

    2006-01-01

    The density is a property of easy measurement which can be correlated with other key properties for evaluating fuel performance in diesel engines, such as calorific value and cetane number. Additionally, the density is one of the most important parameters in connection with fuel storage, transportation and commercialization. In this paper, experimental results showing the temperature dependence of the density for palm oil bio diesel and its 5% and 20% blends with conventional petroleum derived diesel fuel are presented. The experimental results were adequate fixed by linear regressions resulting in regression coefficients close to 1. For calculating the density of the BACPACPM blends a simple mixing law (weighted mass average) was proposed leading to absolute maximum deviations lesser than 0.5% of measured data. The density experimental results for the different tested fuels were compared with the estimated values from the volume correction method proposed by the Astm D1250 standard for hydrocarbon type fuels. For the neat BACP case (B100) the absolute maximum deviation was within 0.32% of measured data indicating that the mentioned correction method is also adequate for predicting the volumetric temperature behavior of substances having different chemical nature such as the methylesters of fatty acids.

  5. 8th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Linqiang; Fang, Xianwen

    2013-01-01

    International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA) is one of the flagship conferences on Bio-Computing, bringing together the world’s leading scientists from different areas of Natural Computing. Since 2006, the conferences have taken place at Wuhan (2006), Zhengzhou (2007), Adelaide (2008), Beijing (2009), Liverpool & Changsha (2010), Malaysia (2011) and India (2012). Following the successes of previous events, the 8th conference is organized and hosted by Anhui University of Science and Technology in China. This conference aims to provide a high-level international forum that researchers with different backgrounds and who are working in the related areas can use to present their latest results and exchange ideas. Additionally, the growing trend in Emergent Systems has resulted in the inclusion of two other closely related fields in the BIC-TA 2013 event, namely Complex Systems and Computational Neuroscience. These proceedings are intended for researchers in the fiel...

  6. 6th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Krömer, Pavel; Pant, Millie; Muda, Azah

    2016-01-01

    This Volume contains the papers presented during the 6th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications IBICA 2015 which was held in Kochi, India during December 16-18, 2015. The 51 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected. The 6th International Conference IBICA 2015 has been organized to discuss the state-of-the-art as well as to address various issues in the growing research field of Bio-inspired Computing which is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  7. International conventions and agreements in the ecological area: In light of modern civilization and international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of authors examine the problem of environmental protection in their papers. The concept of sustainable development and intensive use of modern technology in order to overcome the environmental problems of modern civilization becomes an imperative. Theoretical engagement in ecological issues is not enough. It is necessary to implement ecological measures in practice and to spread environmental awareness. Modern science and social practice have interdependence of economy and ecology in their focus. The main direction of social change is movement from economic to ecological paradigm that involves an ethical responsibility to the current and future generations. There is a need to establish effective programs to protect the environment at the national and supranational level. Active international cooperation in the field of ecology has resulted in the formulation of a number of documents on environmental protection. This paper illustrates the importance of environmental protection and the necessity of implementing international conventions and agreements in the environmental field, with focus on their impact on international trade.

  8. An international waste convention: measures for achieving sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Gary D; McLeod, Glen; Anbarci, Melanie A

    2006-12-01

    Waste is a by-product of economic growth. Consequently, economic growth presents challenges for sustainable resource management and development because continued economic growth implies continued growth in waste outputs. Poor management of waste results in the inappropriate depletion of natural resources and potentially adverse effects on the environment, health and the economy. It is unsustainable. This paper begins by outlining the magnitude of and the current response to the growth in the quantity of waste outputs. This is followed by a consideration of why the international response to date, including the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, fails to address the issue adequately. The paper concludes with a discussion on why and how an international treaty or other measure could advance sustainable development by providing an appropriate framework within which to address the problem.

  9. Reflections on a future international convention on safety in radioactive waste management - September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Canete, A.

    1995-01-01

    This probably is a suitable moment for work to begin on an international Convention in this area, although it is a difficult task. Generally speaking, the RADWASS (Radioactive Waste Safety Standards) Programme has achieved sufficient consensus, and might serve as an important basis for work in relation to the Convention. The Convention should not go into highly technical details since consensus at this level is more difficult at the present moment, although this will undoubtedly be achieved in the medium term. An important element of the Convention should be the regulation of movements of radioactive wastes at international level. (orig./HP)

  10. Carrier’s liability under the international conventions for the carriage of goods by sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anežka GROBARČÍKOVÁ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, there is no international convention for the carriage of goods in general. Each mode of transport counts on one or several international conventions that specifically regulate the provision of international transport by sea, rail, road or air. Thus, multimodal freight transport are characterised by a patchwork of different legal regimes that represents a huge challenge for the growth of multimodal transport industry. The paper aims to analyse the latest, but still not in force Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (the Rotterdam rules that should provide global solution for multimodal carrier liability. Comparison of the carrier’s liability in the former conventions relating to the international carriage of goods by sea and other rules are also discussed.

  11. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. United Nations 2005: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2016, the convention has 115 signatories and 106 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Convention covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors; covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to participate in them, as an accomplice; stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted; encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by sharing information and assisting each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and, deals with both crisis situations, assisting States to solve the situations and post-crisis situations by rendering nuclear material safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  12. Capital Gains on the Alienation of Assets Operated in International Traffic Under Double Taxation Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Arango, José Manuel; Universidad Externado de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the taxation of capital gains on the alienation of assets, particularly vessels, ships and aircrafts operated in international traffic from the perspective of double taxation conventions. Therefore, Article 13 of the OECD Model convention is analyzed from its respective commentaries, the history of the Model and the proposed changes. The research also cover the comparison with the United States Model Convention and the treaty practice. Finally, as an auxiliary source, th...

  13. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  14. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  15. DO WE STILL NEED A CONVENTION IN THE FIELD OF HARMONISATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL LAW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korzhevskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper critically discusses the opinion of certain scholars that the use of multilateral treaties (conventions in the field of harmonisation of international commercial law has been in a state of steady decline. They believe that traditional treaty law has been gradually replaced in recent years by softer methods of making international law, such as the use of restatements and model laws. Some scholars even claim that treaty law is dead or dying. The work assesses whether this view has reasonable grounds, providing an overview of the most prominent hard law and soft law harmonising instruments and outlining issues relating to the success of conventions, their advantages, drawbacks and tensions arising in this area. The paper suggests that conventions remain necessary where the third party or public interest are at stake, however, further improvements are needed to make conventions more successful instruments in international commercial law.

  16. The UN Convention on International Watercourses and integrated water management: A bridge built

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzaki, Vasiliki-Maria

    2008-11-01

    The UN Convention on the Law of the Non Navigational Uses of International Watercourses incorporates principles regarding the management of international water resources. The most important principles are the duty of the riparian states to cooperate, not to cause significant harm, to protect the aquatic environment and to utilize the watercourses reasonably and equitably. The lack of hierarchy between these principles signifies that the necessary step for the sound management of shared natural resources is an integrated approach, which takes into account economic development, human needs and environmental protection. Moreover, the UN Convention proved to be useful for the International Court of Justice (hereinafter ICJ) in the settlement of the Gabcikovo- Nagymaros dispute between Hungary and Slovakia for the Danube River. The Court highlighted the importance of the Convention by reminding the riparian states of their obligation to abide by its principles. On the other hand, the ICJ has used the principles of the Convention in the pending case of Pulp Mills between Uruguay and Argentina. This paper is going to show that the UN Convention is an international legal framework with general guidelines in order to create regional conventions, which promotes integrated water management as a solution to the emerging challenges of international water law and potential future conflicts.

  17. The UN Convention on International Watercourses and integrated water management: A bridge built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzatzaki, Vasiliki-Maria

    2008-01-01

    The UN Convention on the Law of the Non Navigational Uses of International Watercourses incorporates principles regarding the management of international water resources. The most important principles are the duty of the riparian states to cooperate, not to cause significant harm, to protect the aquatic environment and to utilize the watercourses reasonably and equitably. The lack of hierarchy between these principles signifies that the necessary step for the sound management of shared natural resources is an integrated approach, which takes into account economic development, human needs and environmental protection. Moreover, the UN Convention proved to be useful for the International Court of Justice (hereinafter ICJ) in the settlement of the Gabcikovo- Nagymaros dispute between Hungary and Slovakia for the Danube River. The Court highlighted the importance of the Convention by reminding the riparian states of their obligation to abide by its principles. On the other hand, the ICJ has used the principles of the Convention in the pending case of Pulp Mills between Uruguay and Argentina. This paper is going to show that the UN Convention is an international legal framework with general guidelines in order to create regional conventions, which promotes integrated water management as a solution to the emerging challenges of international water law and potential future conflicts.

  18. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  19. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  20. Organizational structure and basic functions of international convention «SportAссord» activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dolbysheva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define and determine the basic functions of International convention “SportAссord” activity within the framework of international sport movement. Materials and Methods: 21 literary sources have been analyzed. Results: International convention “SportAссord” is a nongovernmental sport organization, which unites, supports, coordinates and protects international sport federations and organizations in the international sport movement. “SportAссord” does its activities in accordance with United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1296 (XLIV, provisions of the International Olympic Charter and Code of Ethics, grounding on World Anti-Doping Code. The president is the head of administrative office, with the departments and board of executive body under control. General Assembly is the supreme authority, which carries out the range of basic tasks and grants authority to the management of “SportAccord” and its members for them to fulfill general and special functions. Conclusions: the International convention “SportAccord” activity is aimed at carrying out tasks by fulfilling general and special functions on the basis of international and internal legal documents.

  1. Analysis of the market for bio energy - locally and internationally. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    This report aims to describe the market potential for biogas and biomass heat and power applications, and to assess the opportunities and barriers for development of such biomass markets locally and internationally. The project has been commissioned by ENERCOAST whose overall aim is to create a market for bio energy in the North Sea area. The project uses Denmark, Central Denmark Region, and three Danish municipalities (Randers, Norddjurs, and Syddjurs) to illustrate the challenges related to developing a more substantial market for bio energy trade. A parallel study also commissioned by ENERCOAST and carried out by Ea Energy Analyses assessed the sustainability of relevant biomass supply chains related to the resource accessibility in the three municipalities. The primary focus was on biogas, straw, wood residues, and energy crops for combined heat and power production and the results were presented in a report released in July of 2010 entitled 'SSCM Analysis of the Bioenergy Resources in Randers, Norddjurs and Syddjurs' (Ea Energy Analyses, 2010). The data basis for both studies is very similar, and as such the current report incorporates and builds upon many of the SSCM reports findings. The present report describes the market structures and price developments of the aforementioned biomass resources. The market structures and trade conditions are described on a local (the 3 municipalities), national (Denmark) and regional/international (European/global) level. (LN)

  2. National Assembly report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the progressive implementation of measures and international convention to prevent pollution by ships: the Oilpol convention (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil), the Marpol convention (Marine Pollution), and the different international conventions on liability and compensation (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, convention on other damages). It also describes the French system to struggle against marine pollution. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the 2001 Convention (liability, mandatory insurance and certificate, and so on), expresses some reserves on the chosen arrangement, and comments the impact of this convention

  3. International conventions on civil liability for nuclear damage. Revised 1976 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This revised edition contains the texts of the following multilateral conventions and instruments concerning civil liability for nuclear damage: The Vienna Convention of 21 May 1963 on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage; The Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (incorporating the provisions of the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964); The Brussels Convention of 31 January 1963; Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 (and incorporating the provisions of the Additional Protocol signed in Paris on 28 January 1964); and the Brussels Convention of 25 May 1962 on the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships. Final Act and Resolutions of the International Conference on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, held in Vienna from 29 April to 19 May 1963; Final Act of the International Legal Conference on Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Substances, held in Brussels from 29 November to 2 December 1971; and Convention Relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage of Nuclear Material, adopted at Brussels on 17 December 1971

  4. A new international convention against terrorism: the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Full text in French, English and Spanish. Introduction to the main elements of the convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, Jean-Paul; )

    2005-01-01

    The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2016, the convention has 115 signatories and 106 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The Convention covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors; covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to participate in them, as an accomplice; stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted; encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by sharing information and assisting each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and, deals with both crisis situations, assisting States to solve the situations and post-crisis situations by rendering nuclear material safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  5. Investigation of aeration rate on Uranium bio leaching in internal airlift bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolala, M. R.; Safdari, S. J.; Haghighi Asl, A.; Rashidi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is leached from the uranium ore of the second anomaly of Saghand by the Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans bacteria in an internal airlift bio-reactor. This study has been made to find the effect of aeration rate as well as its optimal value. The experiments have been carried out at 4 aeration rates to find the best recovery results in the least possible time duration. The results showed that the most percentage of the uranium recovery is in the superficial gas velocity of 0.010 m/s. The recovery at this aeration rate has an efficiency of more than 95 p ercent i n 11 days. Also, the best range for aeration study in the airlift bio-reactor is calculated with a minimum value of 0.0065 m/s which is the critical value of the uranium particle suspension as well as the maximum value of 0.015 m/s. The stress on the bacteria increases the recovery time process in velocities of more than 0.015 m/s.

  6. 77 FR 14199 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of... Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to... International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES or Treaty or Convention) by...

  7. The Debate around the Need for an International Convention on the Rights of Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Apter, Itai

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest and debate around the question, whether there is a need for an international convention on the rights of older persons. The debate around this question is far from simple or consensual. Although there are strong voices in favor, there are also strong arguments against. Moreover, the mere fact that…

  8. Proposal of a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienpont, L.M.; Beastall, G.H.; Christofides, N.D.; Faix, J.D.; Ieiri, T.; Jarrige, V.; Miller, W.G.; Miller, R.; Nelson, J.C.; Ronin, C.; Ross, H.A.; Rottmann, M.; Thijssen, J.H.; Toussaint, B.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis

  9. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 75 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  10. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 80 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  11. Comparative analysis of fiscal terms for Alberta oil sands and international heavy and conventional oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    There are considerable differences between international heavy oil and Alberta oil sands projects, notably the high viscosity of the bitumen in the oil sands reservoirs. The oil sands bitumen do not flow to wells without heating the bitumen, thereby adding to the already high cost of Alberta oil sand operations. This report provided an economic comparison of Alberta oil sands and international heavy oil projects. It also included a brief scoping review to compare with conventional oil regimes. Full exploration costs including the costs of dry holes were allocated to conventional oil operations in order to obtain a proper comparison. This investigation included the costs of dry holes. The report was a follow up to an earlier study released on April 12, 2007 on the preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sand terms. The report provided an economic framework and described project selection. It then provided a discussion of production, costs and price data. Four adjusted projects were presented and compared with Alberta. The Venezuelan royalty formula was also discussed. Last, the report provided a detailed fiscal analysis. Comparisons were offered with Cold Lake and Athabasca Mine. A review of some other fiscal systems applicable to conventional oil were also outlined. It was concluded that Alberta oil sands developments are very competitive. It would be possible to modestly increase government revenues, without affecting the international competitive position of Alberta with respect to conventional oil. There is also some possibility to increase the base royalty on the Alberta oil sands without losing competitiveness. tabs., figs

  12. The Nuclear Safety Convention - does it confirm existing German law, and update international law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Some selected examples are discussed that are intended to answer the question of whether the NSC in its essence represents a development in confirmation of existing German nuclear law, and whether, assuming its coming into effect, this Convention will mean a step forward in the development of international law. The author examines the value of this codification of international law as such, and some of the obligations and standards such as retrofitting measures or shutdown of reactors below safety standard, and continues with briefly discussing the relationship between the NSC and nuclear liability law, the planned provisions for radiological protection in Art. 15, and the obligations for transboundary notification of safety-relevant events. These stipulations are analysed in comparison to existing international law, and with a view to their implementation under German law. Some provisions of the NSC that are based on standards of international technical guidance are compared with German regulatory guides. (orig./HP) [de

  13. International convention on World Homoeopathy Day: Integrating Homoeopathy in health care delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An International Convention on World Homoeopathy Day was held to commemorate the 261 st birth anniversary of Dr. Samuel Hahnemann on 9 th -10 th April 2016, at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi, India. The theme of the Convention was "Integrating Homoeopathy in Healthcare" for achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC as advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO. The Convention made for an ideal platform for extensive deliberations on the existing global scenario of Homoeopathy, with particular reference to India, strategy building and formulation of national policies for worldwide promotion, safety, quality, and effectiveness of medicines, evolving standards of education, international cooperation, and evidence-based practice of Homoeopathy. Organized jointly by Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH, an autonomous research organization of Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, and Liga Medicorum Homoeopathica Internationalis (LMHI, the Convention witnessed presentations of more than 100 papers during 21 technical sessions held in parallel in four halls, each named after homoeopathic stalwarts, viz., Hahnemann, Boenninghansen, Hering, and Kent.

  14. THE OBSERVATION OF THE HUMAN BEING DIGNITY, AS MIRRORED IN CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA) SAVA

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the ...

  15. The New International Nuclear Liability Conventions: Status of their Implementation into National Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade or so, a number of significant improvements have been made to the international nuclear liability regimes. The first major advancement was the adoption, in September 1997, of the Protocol to amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (VC Protocol) and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). This was followed, in February 2004, by the adoption of Protocols to amend both the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (PC Protocol) and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention (BSC Protocol). The principle goal of these new instruments is to provide more compensation to more victims in respect of more types of nuclear damage suffered than ever before. A second objective, at least for the VC and PC Protocols, is to maintain compatibility between the Paris and Vienna Conventions, thereby ensuring the smooth functioning of the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention (VC) and the Paris Convention (PC). In addition, both Vienna and Paris Convention States wish to ensure that the newly revised Conventions will not prevent them from joining the global liability and compensation regime established by the CSC, should they so wish. However, one wonders to what extent these new instruments will attract a sufficient number of adherents to make them truly effective. While the VC Protocol is already in force, it has drawn surprisingly little support from the 1963 Vienna Convention States and even less from those countries with important nuclear generating capacity but which have not yet joined any of the international nuclear liability and compensation instruments. For its part, and notwithstanding its adoption almost 10 years ago, the CSC has not yet entered into force and only the future will tell whether it ever will, particularly given its strict requirements in this regard. As for the PC and BSC

  16. Comparative study of P19 EC stem cell differentiation in between conventional hanging drop and the zebrafish chorion as a bio-derived material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae Seok Na; Lee, Hwang; Sun Uk Kim; Chang Nam Hwang; Sang Ho Lee; Ji Yoon Kang; Jai Kyeong Kim; James Jungho Pak

    2008-07-01

    Various materials including glass and polymers have been widely used for stem cell culture due to their biocompatibility. However, the roles of these materials are fundamentally limited because they cannot realize or imitate the complex biological functions of living tissues, except in very simple cases. Here, the development of a bio-derived material suitable for stem cell culture and improvement of differentiation efficiency to specific cell lineages with no stimulating agents by using a chorion obtained from a fertilized zebrafish egg through the removal of the yolk and embryonic cell mass from the egg is reported. Mouse P19 EC stem cells introduced into the empty chorion form a uniform embryoid body (EB) without addition of any inducing agent. It is demonstrated that the zebrafish chorion with nanopores improves efficiencies greatly in the EB formation, cell proliferation, and lineage-specific differentiations compared to those of the conventional hanging drop culture method.

  17. DNA extraction on bio-chip: history and preeminence over conventional and solid-phase extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoib, Adilah; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Md Arshad, M K

    2017-11-01

    This review covers a developmental progression on early to modern taxonomy at cellular level following the advent of electron microscopy and the advancement in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction for expatiation of biological classification at DNA level. Here, we discuss the fundamental values of conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction using liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) followed by development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods, as well as recent advances in microfluidics device-based system for DNA extraction on-chip. We also discuss the importance of DNA extraction as well as the advantages over conventional chemical methods, and how Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) system plays a crucial role for the future achievements.

  18. 78 FR 13694 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Sixteenth Regular Meeting; Tentative U.S. Negotiating Positions for... Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), will attend the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna...

  19. Comparative evaluation of civil liability conventions on radioactive and oil pollution and liability under international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoche, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of transfrontier radioactive pollution or oil pollution, compensation for damage may be sought under two different liability systems: there is the framework of international law of liability of international persons, and there is the liability regime established by international conventions. The latter system has adopted a very friendly attitude towards the claims of a private victim claiming compensation from the private polluter. The book first sets out the basic principles and practice of the two liability systems, also considering the latest developments and current discussions advocating the acknowledgement of the principle of strict and absolute liability in international law. The relationship of the two systems is the major issue of the book, and the Chernobyl reactor accident has made it a particularly topical issue at that. The problems arising in the wake of this accident have shown the need for clarification in this field. The author suggests as a practical approach a strict separation of the two bases of claims, so that parallel or successive procedure on the level of international law or civil law is possible. Finally the problem of avoiding duplication in the payment of compensation is discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  20. THE OBSERVATION OF THE HUMAN BEING DIGNITY, AS MIRRORED IN CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA SAVA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the United Nations, signed at San Francisco, California, on the 26th of June 1945, The European Convention of Human Rights, signed at Rome, on the 5th of November 1950, the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted in 1963, The Charter of Paris, called “For a new Europe” – 1989, The Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, signed at San José, in Costa Rica, on the 22nd of November 1969, The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, adopted during the Conference for Organisation of African Unity (OAU, on the 27th of June 1981, The Asian Human Rights Charter, elaborated by the Asian Human Rights Commission and proclaimed on the 17th of May 1998 etc.

  1. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee's work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world's public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author)

  2. International practice patterns and factors associated with non-conventional hemodialysis utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Nathan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine characteristics that influence the utilization of non-conventional hemodialysis (NCHD therapies and its subtypes (nocturnal (NHD, short daily (SDHD, long conventional (LCHD and conventional hemodialysis (CHD as well as provider attitudes regarding the evidence for NCHD use. Methods An international cohort of subscribers of a nephrology education website http://www.nephrologynow.com was invited to participate in an online survey. Non-conventional hemodialysis was defined as any forms of hemodialysis delivered > 3 treatments per week and/or > 4 hours per session. NHD and SDHD included both home and in-centre. Respondents were categorized as CHD if their centre only offered conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis. Variables associated with NCHD and its subtypes were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The survey assessed multiple domains regarding NCHD including reasons for initiating and discontinuing, for not offering and attitudes regarding evidence. Results 544 surveys were completed leading to a 15.6% response rate. The final cohort was limited to 311 physicians. Dialysis modalities utilized among the respondents were as follows: NCHD194 (62.4%, NHD 83 (26.7%, SDHD 107 (34.4%, LCHD 81 (26% and CHD 117 (37.6%. The geographic regions of participants were as follows: 11.9% Canada, 26.7% USA, 21.5% Europe, 6.1% Australia/New Zealand, 10% Africa/Middle East, 10.9% Asia and 12.9% South America. Variables associated with NCHD utilization included NCHD training (OR 2.47 CI 1.25-4.16, government physician reimbursement (OR 2.66, CI 1.11-6.40, practicing at an academic centre (OR 2.28 CI 1.25-4.16, higher national health care expenditure and number of ESRD patients per centre. Hemodialysis providers with patients on NCHD were significantly more likely to agree with the statements that NCHD improves quality of life, improves nutritional status, reduces EPO requirements

  3. The protection against nuclear risks under the international nuclear liability law: the geographical and technical scope of the international conventions on third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissich, S.J.

    2001-10-01

    This Ph.D.-research deals with the International Conventions on Third Party Liability for Nuclear Damage. In 1960, the Paris Convention was established with the aim of providing a special uniform nuclear third party liability regime for Western Europe. This Convention was supplemented in 1963 by the Brussels Supplementary Convention. Also in 1963, the Vienna Convention, which aimed to establish a world-wide system based on the same principles as the Paris Convention, was adopted. A further Convention was adopted in 1971 to ensure that nuclear third party liability law and not maritime law would apply to carriage of nuclear materials by sea. In 1988, the Paris and Vienna Conventions have been linked by the adoption of a Joint Protocol. In 1997, the process of amending the 1963 Vienna Convention was successfully concluded and a Convention on Supplementary Compensation was adopted. This Ph.D.-research consists of seven chapters: following an introduction, the second chapter gives a general view of the existing international legal sources. The third chapter describes the international civil nuclear liability law concept and its leading principles. The main element of this work is the question of the technical and geographical scope of the international nuclear liability conventions (chapter IV and V). The conventions are only applicable to nuclear incidents, which occur in a nuclear installation or incidental to the carriage or storage of nuclear material. The nuclear damage must arise out of the radioactive properties of nuclear substances which are also defined by legal terms. In addition, the scope of the conventions is limited by the nature of the installations. The geographical scope of application is established by the provisions on geographical coverage. Only the 1963 Vienna Convention does not contain any specific provision dealing with the territorial scope of its application. The geographical scope determines where the nuclear incident or the nuclear damage

  4. Erosion resistance of pipe bends with bio-inspired internal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengchun; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    Guided by the structure of a shell surface, a bio-inspired surface is proposed to enhance the erosion resistance of pipe bends carrying crude-oil and sand in the turbulent flow regime. A comparison of the erosion rate between a smooth bend and the bio-inspired one is carried out using numerical simulations: large eddy simulations are used to simulate turbulence, and these are coupled to a discrete element method for the solid particles. The results indicate that the bio-inspired surface can control effectively the liquid-solid flow near the wall, and decrease the particle-wall force. This, then, leads to a reduction in the erosion rate brought about by the sand transported by the crude-oil in the pipe bend. The China Scholarship Council is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Radiation safety study for conventional facility and siting pre project phase of International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Sasaki, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed high-energy collider consisting of two linear accelerators, two dumping rings, electron and positron sources, and a single colliding hall with two detectors. The total length and CMS energy of the ILC will be 31 km and 500 GeV, respectively (and 50 km and 1 TeV after future upgrade). The design of the ILC has entered the pre-project phase, which includes site-dependent design. Radiation safety design for the ILC is on-going as a part of conventional facility and siting activities of the pre-project phase. The thickness of a central wall of normal concrete is designed to be 3.5 m under a pessimistic assumption of beam loss. The beam loss scenario is under discussion. Experience and knowledge relating to shielding design and radiation control operational work at other laboratories are required. (authors)

  6. Liability and compensation for oil pollution damage: some current threats to the international convention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Wu

    2002-01-01

    The carriage of oil is indispensable to the industrialized nations. In this respect, the carriage of oil is undertaken as a service to society as a whole with its individual members deriving benefits from its carriage to varying degrees. Consequently, after examining the four Conventions in the international system of compensation for oil pollution from ships, it is argued that the general citizenship of those nations pay, in exceptional cases, for a small share of the risk, which is created in part by the citizens, as users of oil. The paper proposes the creation of a fund of last resort that could be conceived either at a regional level or a national level and financed through (indirect) taxation on the population as a whole. This type of fund could have a wider use in the field of marine pollution and protection of marine resources. (author)

  7. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J

    1994-12-31

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee`s work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world`s public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author).

  8. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-12-31

    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee`s work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world`s public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author).

  9. Application of the new International Code of Practice for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology to conventional exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Gonzalez, A.; Cardenas Herrera, J.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Machado, A.; Mora Machado, R. de la

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the recent years, a policy for updating and installation of the X-ray equipment, specialized as well as conventional, have been carrying out, in Cuba. Conventional equipment has reached almost the whole primary level. Considering this situation, the quality control programs and clinical dosimetry have become even more important. Regarding the last one, an International Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology had been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in order to been used as a guide and to standardize the methodologies used to evaluate the patient exposure in radiodiagnostic. Taken into consideration the above reasons, an assessment of the aforementioned code of practice was done in order to choose the most feasible methodology to implement in the country. The evaluation was performed considering the lack of dosimetric equipment and medical physicists in this practice, in the interests of increasing the measurements scope to a large number of services as well as to standardize the methodology on a national scale. The present work shows the results obtained from the application of the new code of practice to conventional radiology exams in some medical institutions. Out of 3 on patients measurements methodologies described in the code of practice, the one of measurement of the incident air kerma was chosen. This methodology allow to the physicist to focus on the diagnostic equipment tests and to delegate the collection of the patient and exposure parameters data to the technicians, which make the increased of the patient and diagnostic departments sample, possible. The measurements were carried out in 2 hospital of the capital. The exams involved in the assessments were thorax PA, lumbar spine AP and lumbar spine LAT. In every diagnostic service, 25 patients were chosen on each projection. The weight and height average of the patient sample were 68 kg and 167 cm respectively. In the assessment were considered only

  10. Senate report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report recalls the different texts concerning the law of the sea: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982 which was ratified by France in 1996, the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution of 1992, the creation of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds, and the International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by sea (HNS) in 1996. While evoking some recent examples of wrecks and pollutions and some already existing French and European initiatives, it describes the implications and consequences of this convention on the French law and for its enforcement, provided that this new treaty is designed to take bunker oil into account as it may induce a significant pollution of the marine environment

  11. SURGICAL OUTCOMES AFTER INVERTED INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE FLAP VERSUS CONVENTIONAL PEELING FOR VERY LARGE MACULAR HOLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Raja; Singh, Sumit R; Taylor, Stanford; Berrocal, Maria H; Chhablani, Jay; Tyagi, Mudit; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Pappuru, Rajeev R; Apte, Rajendra S

    2018-04-23

    To evaluate the anatomical and visual outcomes of inverted flap technique of peeling of internal limiting membrane (ILM) versus standard peeling of ILM for macular holes of basal diameter more than 800 μm. Patients with very large idiopathic macular holes more than 800 μm in basal diameter (ranging from 243 μm to 840 μm in minimum diameter) were retrospectively included in the study. In Group A, 18 eyes of 18 patients underwent ILM peeling using the inverted flap technique. In Group B, 18 eyes of 18 patients underwent conventional ILM peeling. The primary endpoint was the rate of hole closure at 6 months after surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the change in best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months after surgery. There were no significant differences in ocular characteristics of the study groups at baseline except for the age distribution. Mean macular hole diameter was 1,162.8 ± 206.0 μm and 1,229.6 ± 228.1 μm in Group A and Group B, respectively. The hole closure rate was 88.9% (16/18) in Group A and 77.8% (14/18) in Group B (P = 0.66). The mean gain in best-corrected visual acuity was higher in Group A than in Group B (P = 0.12) at 6 months, but this was not statistically significant. There were no severe ocular adverse events in either group. In this multicenter series, inverted ILM flap technique did not lead to significantly higher anatomical closure rates than conventional ILM peeling in large macular holes more than 800 μm in diameter.

  12. Some aspects of the contractual application of the limited liability of suppliers convened by several international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldivar, E.

    1976-01-01

    Civil liability for nuclear damage has been the subject of specific regulations by means of International Conventions and the laws of countries which may be qualified as suppliers of nuclear fuel, materials and installations. These regulations have been necessary to facilitate development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. A second group of countries, namely those of Latin America, which are also purchasers, lack this specific legislation and have not ratified any International Convention on the subject. In those countries civil liability continues to be ruled by the classic norms of Roman Law. This difference in regimes has made for difficulties between suppliers and purchasers and could obstruct future exchanges in matters of nuclear energy between both groups of countries. It would be desirable for the competent authorities in purchasing countries to study the means of providing their countries with nuclear third party liability legislation based on the principles of the International Conventions. (N.E.A.) [fr

  13. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-bio (BAMN2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Oh, Ilkwon

    2014-07-01

    The 7th International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio was held on the magnificent and beautiful Jeju Island in Korea on 26-30 August 2013. In June 2007, the volcanic island and lava tube cave systems were designated as UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites for their natural beauty and unique geographical values. The aim of the congress was to offer high-level lectures, extensive discussions and communications covering the state-of-the-art on biomimetics, artificial muscles, and nano-bio technologies providing an overview of their potential applications in the industrial, biomedical, scientific and robotic fields. This conference provided a necessary platform for an ongoing dialogue between researchers from different areas (chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, engineering, robotics, etc) within biomimetics, artificial muscle and nano-bio technologies. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers that were presented at BAMN2013. Of the 400 or so papers and over 220 posters presented at this international congress, 15 papers were finally received, reviewed and accepted for this special issue, following the regular peer review procedures of the journal. The special issue covers polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites, and their applications. In particular, electromechanical performance and other characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with various commercially available ion exchange membranes are discussed. Additionally, the control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators is elaborated on. Further, the electrode effects of a cellulose-based electroactive paper energy harvester are described. Next, a flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators is discussed. A broad coverage of bio-applications of IPMC transducers is

  14. From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    OpenAIRE

    Joossens, L.

    2000-01-01

    Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco ...

  15. Introduction of unlimited liability into the atomic law with special regard to the international nuclear liability conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper was read at the international symposium on nuclear liability held in Munich in September 1984 by OECD/NEA and IAEA. It outlines the basic principles of the Paris liability convention and the international development. The author pleads in favour of unlimited liability for hazards on grounds of history, legal policy, legal dogmatics and practice. Moreover he thinks it useful and appropriate because it also improves the protection of the citizens. The same as the federal government the author holds that unlimited liability for hazards is compatible with the maximum damages and the congruity regulations of the Paris and Brussels liability convention. An amendment to the liability convention, though not necessary, would be desirable to make clear that both options - limited and unlimited liability - are open. (HSCH) [de

  16. Violation of International Conventions Relatively to the Treatment of Prisoners of War during the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokebayeva, Gulzhaukhar; Smagulov, Kadyrzhan; Mussabalina, Gulnara

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to address the issue of prisoners of war through the prism of international law. The object of research is the work of the Commission to investigate the Entente's complaints of violation of Hague Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War by German authorities. After the armistice, the governments of the Entente sent notes…

  17. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  18. Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: The run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werschkun, B.; Banerji, S.; Basurko, O.C.; David, M.; Fuhr, F; Gollasch, S.; Grummt, T.; Haarich, M.; Jha, A.N.; Kacan, S.; Kehrer, A.; Linders, J.; Mesbahi, E.; Pughiuc, D.; Richardson, S.D.; Schwarz-Schulz, B.; Shah, A.; Theobald, N.; von Gunten, U.; Wieck, S.; Hofer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for

  19. No One Shall Be Held in Slavery or Servitude: A critical analysis of international slavery conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Bales, Kevin; Robbins, Peter T.

    2001-01-01

    Traces the development of slavery definitions in international agreements from 1815 to 2001. Overview of slavery definitions in international law; Historical analysis of the evolution of slavery definitions in international agreements; Analysis of the main characteristics of slavery in international agreements; Types of social theory that can be used in illuminating slavery; Discussion on the dimensions of slavery.

  20. A bio-robotic platform for integrating internal and external mechanics during muscle-powered swimming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Christopher T; Clemente, Christofer J

    2012-01-01

    To explore the interplay between muscle function and propulsor shape in swimming animals, we built a robotic foot to mimic the morphology and hind limb kinematics of Xenopus laevis frogs. Four foot shapes ranging from low aspect ratio (AR = 0.74) to high (AR = 5) were compared to test whether low-AR feet produce higher propulsive drag force resulting in faster swimming. Using feedback loops, two complementary control modes were used to rotate the foot: force was transmitted to the foot either from (1) a living plantaris longus (PL) muscle stimulated in vitro or (2) an in silico mathematical model of the PL. To mimic forward swimming, foot translation was calculated in real time from fluid force measured at the foot. Therefore, bio-robot swimming emerged from muscle–fluid interactions via the feedback loop. Among in vitro-robotic trials, muscle impulse ranged from 0.12 ± 0.002 to 0.18 ± 0.007 N s and swimming velocities from 0.41 ± 0.01 to 0.43 ± 0.00 m s −1 , similar to in vivo values from prior studies. Trends in in silico-robotic data mirrored in vitro-robotic observations. Increasing AR caused a small (∼10%) increase in peak bio-robot swimming velocity. In contrast, muscle force–velocity effects were strongly dependent on foot shape. Between low- and high-AR feet, muscle impulse increased ∼50%, while peak shortening velocity decreased ∼50% resulting in a ∼20% increase in net work. However, muscle-propulsion efficiency (body center of mass work/muscle work) remained independent of AR. Thus, we demonstrate how our experimental technique is useful for quantifying the complex interplay among limb morphology, muscle mechanics and hydrodynamics. (paper)

  1. A bio-robotic platform for integrating internal and external mechanics during muscle-powered swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher T; Clemente, Christofer J

    2012-03-01

    To explore the interplay between muscle function and propulsor shape in swimming animals, we built a robotic foot to mimic the morphology and hind limb kinematics of Xenopus laevis frogs. Four foot shapes ranging from low aspect ratio (AR = 0.74) to high (AR = 5) were compared to test whether low-AR feet produce higher propulsive drag force resulting in faster swimming. Using feedback loops, two complementary control modes were used to rotate the foot: force was transmitted to the foot either from (1) a living plantaris longus (PL) muscle stimulated in vitro or (2) an in silico mathematical model of the PL. To mimic forward swimming, foot translation was calculated in real time from fluid force measured at the foot. Therefore, bio-robot swimming emerged from muscle-fluid interactions via the feedback loop. Among in vitro-robotic trials, muscle impulse ranged from 0.12 ± 0.002 to 0.18 ± 0.007 N s and swimming velocities from 0.41 ± 0.01 to 0.43 ± 0.00 m s(-1), similar to in vivo values from prior studies. Trends in in silico-robotic data mirrored in vitro-robotic observations. Increasing AR caused a small (∼10%) increase in peak bio-robot swimming velocity. In contrast, muscle force-velocity effects were strongly dependent on foot shape. Between low- and high-AR feet, muscle impulse increased ∼50%, while peak shortening velocity decreased ∼50% resulting in a ∼20% increase in net work. However, muscle-propulsion efficiency (body center of mass work/muscle work) remained independent of AR. Thus, we demonstrate how our experimental technique is useful for quantifying the complex interplay among limb morphology, muscle mechanics and hydrodynamics.

  2. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  3. Bio-Optical sensors on Argo Floats. Reports of the international ocean-colour coordinating group

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bernard, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG) is an international group of experts in the field of satellite ocean colour, acting as a liaison and communication channel between users, managers and agencies in the ocean-colour arena...

  4. The impact of the UNIDROIT Convention on international case law and practice: an appraisal / Manlio Frigo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Frigo, Manlio

    2015-01-01

    Kultuuriväärtuste tagastamise rahvusvahelisest praktikast. Kultuuriväärtuste rüüstamise ja ebaseadusliku ekspordi vastu võitlemisest Ameerika Ühendriikide näite põhjal. UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995); UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)

  5. The importance and effects of BEPS multilateral convention in international tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting is a result of the BEPS project carried out by the OECD and G20. The object and purpose of the BEPS Multilateral Convention is swift and consistent implementation of the agreed solutions aimed at preventing tax evasion or avoidance via modifications of the existing bilateral tax treaties, while providing for a high level of flexibility in the implementation. Signed on 7 June 2017, the Convention encompasses provisions on hybrid mismatches, treaty abuse, avoidance of permanent establishment status, improving dispute resolution and arbitration. The first four groups of norms have a bilateral impact on the relations between contracting jurisdictions regulated by their covered tax agreements; the effect of the optional provisions on arbitration is multilateral. The Convention contains two minimum standards each party is required to include in its covered tax agreements in an offered manner. The first one refers to the prevention of treaty shopping arrangements, while the second one concerns improvements in the dispute resolution. The flexibility is assured by granting each party the right to specify the tax treaties to which the Convention applies, to opt out of a wide range of provisions (apart from the minimum standards set out in the Convention as eligible for reservations, as well as to select an offered alternative. Serbia's position vis-à-vis the given choices has been elaborated. Serbia specified all its tax treaties as the 'covered tax agreements' but Germany, Switzerland and Sweden did not do the same with their respective treaties with Serbia. Serbia opted out of five articles of the Convention. While not contesting its importance, one may conclude that the Convention does not represent an announcement of a new multilateral tax order but rather a multilateral agreement of a number of states motivated by practical considerations.

  6. General Principles and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG – Uniformity under an Interpretation Umbrella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lassila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and digitalization of international sales creates needs to harmonize rules of international commercial contracts. The question is whether the harmonization should be done by binding rules or using soft law tools or through digitalization. In this article I argue on favor of harmonization through international contracts law rules’ international interpretation.The international interpretation principles used in this article are found from on Art. 7(1 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG which sets three interpretation rules: international character; promoting uniformity; and observance of good faith in international trade. These principles are not only principles of the CISG, but also principles commonly recognized in international commercial practice and also in domestic contract rules. I argue that by adopting an international interpretation umbrella – the meta-principle of international interpretation, cross-border contracts could be interpreted under the same principle no matter applicable substantial law. The meta-principle functions as an interpretation umbrella covering general principles and Articles of the CISG, general principles of international commercial contracts, Lex Mercatoria, and cross-border contract provision under national law.The outcomes points out that arbitral tribunals have interpreted general principles of the CISG and Lex Mercatoria in various ways. General principles and their application in case law is analyzed in connection with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Tribunals found that general principles of the CISG are applicable even if the CISG is not. It follows Art.’s 7(2 logic to promote international standard to cross-border contracts where the closes connection is international commercial practice rather than any national jurisdiction.

  7. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  8. Marginal and internal fit of pressed lithium disilicate inlays fabricated with milling, 3D printing, and conventional technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsy, Foudda R; Özcan, Mutlu; Khoury, Marwan; Majzoub, Zeina A K

    2017-09-29

    The subtractive and additive computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) of lithium disilicate partial coverage restorations is poorly documented. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal and internal fit accuracy of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic inlays fabricated with conventional, milled, and 3-dimensional (3D) printed wax patterns. A dentoform mandibular first molar was prepared for a mesio-occlusal ceramic inlay. Five groups of 15 inlays were obtained through conventional impression and manual wax pattern (group CICW); conventional impression, laboratory scanning of the stone die, CAD-CAM milled wax blanks (group CIDW) or 3D printed wax patterns (group CI3DW); and scanning of the master preparation with intraoral scanner and CAD-CAM milled (group DIDW) or 3D printed wax patterns (group DI3DW). The same design was used to produce the wax patterns in the last 4 groups. The replica technique was used to measure marginal and internal adaptation by using stereomicroscopy. Mixed-model ANOVA was used to assess differences according to the groups and discrepancy location (α=.05). Group DIDW showed the smallest marginal discrepancy (24.3 μm) compared with those of groups CICW (45.1 μm), CIDW (33.7 μm), CI3DW (39.8 μm), and DI3DW (39.7 μm) (Pimpressions and subtractive milling of wax patterns resulted in better marginal and internal fit accuracy than either conventional impression/fabrication or additive 3D manufacturing. Three-dimensional printed wax patterns yielded fit values similar to those of the conventionally waxed inlays. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The environmental impact of coal technology: Politics and methods of achieving an international convention to protect the earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Particular attention will be paid to the following points during the international Round Table discussions: Technology transfer and political opportunities for the environmentally-compatible use of coal in developing and transitional countries who rely on coal to meet their energy needs. Supporting this challenge for the international community of coal-based energy conservation in these countries, particularly through development aid. To increasingly accept our collective responsibility for energy considerations and environmental effects, based on a better understanding of the countries' differing limits and obligations in achieving the goal of a convention to protect the earth's atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  10. Remedies for Breach Under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    For every breach of a binding contract, there must be some remedy. The gap-filling remedial structure of the 1980 Vienna Sales Convention (CISG) reflects the fact that all significant forms of remedial relief may be said to fall within three basic courses of action which modern legal systems make...

  11. Marginal and Internal Fit of Cobalt-Chromium Fixed Dental Prostheses Generated from Digital and Conventional Impressions

    OpenAIRE

    Svanborg, Per; Skjerven, Henrik; Carlsson, Pablo; Eliasson, Alf; Karlsson, Stig; Örtorp, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Digital impressions are increasingly used and have the potential to avoid the problem of inaccurate impressions. Only a few studies to verify the accuracy of digital impressions have been performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of 3-unit tooth supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated from digital and conventional impressions. Methods. Ten FDPs were produced from digital impressions using the iTero system and 10 FDPs were produce...

  12. International Environmental Law and Naval War: The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions During International Armed Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boelaert-Suominen, Sonja

    2000-01-01

    .... The notion that the rules of general international environmental law continue to apply during armed conflict is now well accepted, but the principles that are usually cited remain at a very high level of abstraction...

  13. The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abdul Majid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC does not explicitly refer to sustainable development despite the fact that other United Nations (UN disarmament documents prescribe that international environmental law principles and sustainable development be considered among arms control agreements. This study’s objective is to utilize the principle of integration’s three components of environmental, economic, and social development, as found in the International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL from the New Delhi Declaration (Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, in order to evaluate whether the BWC contains such components; thereby, making it possible for the BWC to contribute to sustainable development. The methodology of this study is necessarily qualitative, given that it is a socio-legal research that relies on international agreements such as the BWC, declarations, resolutions, plans of implementation, other non-binding documents of the UN, and secondary resources—all of which are analyzed through a document analysis. The results show that the BWC addresses the environment (Article II, prohibits transfers relating to export controls, international trade, and economic development (Article III, while at the same time, covering social development concerns, health, and diseases that make up the international social law (Article X. Since the BWC is found to be capable of contributing to sustainable development, it is concluded that ISDL cannot be restricted to international environmental, economic, and social law, but should be expanded to include international arms control law.

  14. International Environmental Law and Naval War: The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions During International Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    propulsion was done with military applications in mind: Könz, 57 AJIL (1963), 109; Szasz , 2 JMLC (1971), No. 3, 553. 313 International Environmental Law and...International Environmental Law and Naval War Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently

  15. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection, will issue a completed Form CG-969, describing the passenger ship and certifying that an... TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-25 International... certain passenger, cargo or tankships engaged in international voyages: (i) Passenger Ship Safety...

  16. Combustion of Liquid Bio-Fuels in an Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccio, F.; Kalisz, S.; Baxter, D.; Svoboda, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 143, 1-3 (2008), s. 172-179 ISSN 1385-8947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : internal circulating fluidized bed * liquid fuel * combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of phosphor plate systems and conventional radiography in the detection of simulated internal root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karla de Faria; Rovaris, Karla; Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Távora, Débora de Melo; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the performance of conventional radiography and photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate in the detection of simulated internal root resorption (IRR) lesions in early stages. Twenty single-rooted teeth were X-rayed before and after having a simulated IRR early lesion. Three imaging systems were used: Kodak InSight dental film and two PSPs digital systems, Digora Optime and VistaScan. The digital images were displayed on a 20.1″ LCD monitor using the native software of each system, and the conventional radiographs were evaluated on a masked light box. Two radiologists were asked to indicate the presence or absence of IRR and, after two weeks, all images were re-evaluated. Cohen's kappa coefficient was calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement. The three imaging systems were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. For interexaminer agreement, overall kappa values were 0.70, 0.65 and 0.70 for conventional film, Digora Optima and VistaScan, respectively. Both the conventional and digital radiography presented low sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values with no significant difference between imaging systems (p = .0725). The performance of conventional and PSP was similar in the detection of simulated IRR lesions in early stages with low accuracy.

  18. Radiological protection stakes and improvement in the radiopharmaceutical industry and transport: The example of Cis Bio International in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirson, L.; Ratsrahorana, A.

    2002-01-01

    The company CIS BIO International is located on the site of the nuclear research centre of Saclay and is the only company in France producing radioisotopes for medical use. Since January 2002 CIS BIO International became a subsidiary of the SCHERING group (100% of the share holdings). CIS BIO International has two nuclear facilities. the main one is making conception, manufacturing, packaging and trading of radioactive materials for medical (radiopharmaceutical) or industrial use. Regarding the huge amount of radioactive material circulating and being manipulated in the dispatching room, the workers in charge of packaging and the drives in charge of loading those packages into their vehicles are the most exposed to radiation hazards. Them the highest individual dose recorded by dosimeters film, over 12 months in the row, for workers in charge of jobs in the dispatching room, increased from 10.5 mSv in 2000 to 12,7 mSv in January 2002. In the new decree related to radiological protection of workers, in application of the 1996 Euratom directive, the whole body dose limit should decrease. In that context and regarding the dosimetric stakes, an ALARA study has been carried out in the dispatching room. This ALARA study is aimed to reach an optima value of the exposure of the workers in the dispatching room and, indirectly of the exposure of the drivers. In order to take into account all external constraints towards activities carried out in the dispatching room and to insure coherency and an exhaustive list of improvement options related to exposure, a description of all the input/output processes was realised, in addition to those concerning the dispatching room. As a matter of fact, those constraints due to the specific nature of the company are various. They are on the one hand related to regulations applied to the nuclear facilities, to the radioactive materials transportation in countries of transit and in the recipient countries and on the other hand, related to

  19. Non-conventional provisions in regional trade agreements : do they enhance international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Kimura, Fukunari; Nabeshima, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    The scope of recent regional trade agreements (RTAs) is becoming much wider in terms of including several provisions such as competition policy or intellectual property. This paper empirically examines how far advanced, non-conventional provisions in RTAs increase trade values among RTA member countries, by estimating the gravity equation with more disaggregated indicators for RTAs. As a result, we find that the provision on competition policy has the largest impacts on trade values, followin...

  20. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  1. Marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium fixed dental prostheses generated from digital and conventional impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg, Per; Skjerven, Henrik; Carlsson, Pablo; Eliasson, Alf; Karlsson, Stig; Ortorp, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Digital impressions are increasingly used and have the potential to avoid the problem of inaccurate impressions. Only a few studies to verify the accuracy of digital impressions have been performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of 3-unit tooth supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated from digital and conventional impressions. Methods. Ten FDPs were produced from digital impressions using the iTero system and 10 FDPs were produced using vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material. A triple-scan protocol and CAD software were used for measuring and calculating discrepancies of the FDPs at 3 standard areas: mean internal discrepancy, absolute marginal gap, and cervical area discrepancy. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for analyzing the results. Results. For conventional and digital impressions, respectively, FDPs had an absolute marginal gap of 147  μ m and 142  μ m, cervical area discrepancy of 69  μ m and 44  μ m, and mean internal discrepancy of 117  μ m and 93  μ m. The differences were statistically significant in the cervical and internal areas (P digital impression technique is more exact and can generate 3-unit FDPs with a significantly closer fit compared to the VPS technique.

  2. Marginal and Internal Fit of Cobalt-Chromium Fixed Dental Prostheses Generated from Digital and Conventional Impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Svanborg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Digital impressions are increasingly used and have the potential to avoid the problem of inaccurate impressions. Only a few studies to verify the accuracy of digital impressions have been performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of 3-unit tooth supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs fabricated from digital and conventional impressions. Methods. Ten FDPs were produced from digital impressions using the iTero system and 10 FDPs were produced using vinyl polysiloxane (VPS impression material. A triple-scan protocol and CAD software were used for measuring and calculating discrepancies of the FDPs at 3 standard areas: mean internal discrepancy, absolute marginal gap, and cervical area discrepancy. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for analyzing the results. Results. For conventional and digital impressions, respectively, FDPs had an absolute marginal gap of 147 μm and 142 μm, cervical area discrepancy of 69 μm and 44 μm, and mean internal discrepancy of 117 μm and 93 μm. The differences were statistically significant in the cervical and internal areas (P<0.001. Significance. The results indicated that the digital impression technique is more exact and can generate 3-unit FDPs with a significantly closer fit compared to the VPS technique.

  3. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    . Structures down to sub-micrometer range and complex impedance measurements tools integrated at single chips are now affordable. Moreover, the introduction of alternative signals and data processing algorithms focuses on very fast and parallel electrical characterization which in turn pushes this technique to new applications and markets. Electrical impedance tomography today yields pictures in real time with a resolution that was impossible 10 years ago. The XVth International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance in conjunction with the XIVth Electrical Impedance Tomography ICEBI/EIT 2013 organized by the Institute for Bioprocessing and Analytical Measurement Techniques, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany, together with the EIT-group at the University of Göttingen, Germany, brings world leading scientists in these fields together. It is a platform to present the latest developments in instrumentation and signal processing but also points to new applications, especially in the field of biosensors and non-linear phenomena. Two Keynote lectures will extend the view of the participants above the mainstream of bio-impedance measurement. Friederich Kremer (University of Leipzig) delivers the plenary lecture on broad bandwidth dielectric spectroscopy. New achievements in the research of ligand gated ionic channels will be presented by Klaus Benndorf (University of Jena). Leading scientists in the field of bio-impedance measurement, such as, Sverre Grimnes, Orjan Martinsen, Andrea Robitzki, Richard Bayford, Jan Gimsa and Mart Min will give lectures for students but also more experienced scientists in a pre-conference tutorial which is a good opportunity to learn or refresh the basics. List of committees Conference Chair Dr Uwe Pliquett Professor Dieter Beckmann Institut für Bioprozess- und Analysenmesstechnik eV, Rosenhof, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany Technical Program Chair Maik Hiller Conventus Congressmanagement & Marketing GmbH, Carl-Pulfrich-Str. 1 - 07745 Jena Pre

  4. International cooperative initiatives and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key ...... efforts under the UNFCCC is uncertain, but believed to be quite large. •The UNFCCC is arguably ill suited to coordinate and strengthen the accountability of international cooperative initiatives.......International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key...... transparent performance monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The article concludes with two considerations. Firstly, it advocates for the United Nations Environment Programme as one entity that could bring much-needed coordination among ICIs, and between ICIs and national government-led efforts to mitigate...

  5. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Some organisms accumulate atmospheric contaminants over certain periods of time and concentrate them, thus allowing reliable analytical measurements if the organisms are suitably chosen. Measurements of contaminants accumulated by such organisms (biomonitors) provide information on the integrated exposure over an extended period of time. They may also be present in remote areas, and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Therefore, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact human health, and one of the main emphases is on studying air contaminants. The idea of organizing a workshop on biomonitoring atmospheric pollution arose during an IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Monitoring of Trace Element Air Pollution, carried out at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Portugal, with substantial technical support by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Netherlands. The International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (With Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21 to 24 September 1997. The meeting was organized in co-operation with the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear

  6. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP. Proceedings of an international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Some organisms accumulate atmospheric contaminants over certain periods of time and concentrate them, thus allowing reliable analytical measurements if the organisms are suitably chosen. Measurements of contaminants accumulated by such organisms (biomonitors) provide information on the integrated exposure over an extended period of time. They may also be present in remote areas, and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Therefore, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practicaluse of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact human health, and one of the main emphases is on studying air contaminants. The idea of organizing a workshop on biomonitoring atmospheric pollution arose during an IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Monitoring of Trace Element Air Pollution, carried out at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Portugal, with substantial technical support by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Netherlands. The International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (With Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21 to 24 September 1997. The meeting was organized in co-operation with the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear.

  7. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  8. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  9. Direct Signal-to-Noise Quality Comparison between an Electronic and Conventional Stethoscope aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Ebert, Doug; Bauer, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of heart, lung, and bowel sounds is routinely performed with the use of a stethoscope to help detect a broad range of medical conditions. Stethoscope acquired information is even more valuable in a resource limited environments such as the International Space Station (ISS) where additional testing is not available. The high ambient noise level aboard the ISS poses a specific challenge to auscultation by stethoscope. An electronic stethoscope's ambient noise-reduction, greater sound amplification, recording capabilities, and sound visualization software may be an advantage to a conventional stethoscope in this environment. Methods: A single operator rated signal-to-noise quality from a conventional stethoscope (Littman 2218BE) and an electronic stethoscope (Litmann 3200). Borborygmi, pulmonic, and cardiac sound quality was ranked with both stethoscopes. Signal-to-noise rankings were preformed on a 1 to 10 subjective scale with 1 being inaudible, 6 the expected quality in an emergency department, 8 the expected quality in a clinic, and 10 the clearest possible quality. Testing took place in the Japanese Pressurized Module (JPM), Unity (Node 2), Destiny (US Lab), Tranquility (Node 3), and the Cupola of the International Space Station. All examinations were conducted at a single point in time. Results: The electronic stethoscope's performance ranked higher than the conventional stethoscope for each body sound in all modules tested. The electronic stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 7 and 10 in all modules tested. In comparison, the traditional stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 4 and 7. The signal to noise ratio of borborygmi showed the biggest difference between stethoscopes. In the modules tested, the auscultation of borborygmi was rated between 5 and 7 by the conventional stethoscope and consistently 10 by the electronic stethoscope. Discussion: This stethoscope comparison was limited to a single operator. However, we

  10. Bio-Environment-Induced Degradation and Failure of Internal Fixation Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Perkins, Luke A; Wang, Guodong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liang, Hong

    2015-10-15

    Internal fixations provide fast healing but their failure remains problematic to patients. Here, we report an experimental study in failure of three typical cases of metals: a bent intramedullary stainless steel nail, a broken exterior pure Ti plate, and a broken intramedullary stainless steel nail. Characterization of the bent nail indicates that those metals are vulnerable to corrosion with the evidence of increased surface roughness and embrittlement. Depredated surface of the Ti plate resulted debris particles in the surrounding tissue of 15.2 ± 6.5 μm in size. Nanoparticles were observed in transmission electron microscope. The electron diffraction pattern of the debris indicates a combination of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. The failure mode of the broken nail made of stainless steel was found to be fatigue initiated from the surface. This study clearly shows the biological-attack induced surface degradation resulting in debris and fatigue. Future design and selection of implant materials should consider such factors for improvement.

  11. Bio-Environment-Induced Degradation and Failure of Internal Fixation Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal fixations provide fast healing but their failure remains problematic to patients. Here, we report an experimental study in failure of three typical cases of metals: a bent intramedullary stainless steel nail, a broken exterior pure Ti plate, and a broken intramedullary stainless steel nail. Characterization of the bent nail indicates that those metals are vulnerable to corrosion with the evidence of increased surface roughness and embrittlement. Depredated surface of the Ti plate resulted debris particles in the surrounding tissue of 15.2 ± 6.5 μm in size. Nanoparticles were observed in transmission electron microscope. The electron diffraction pattern of the debris indicates a combination of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. The failure mode of the broken nail made of stainless steel was found to be fatigue initiated from the surface. This study clearly shows the biological-attack induced surface degradation resulting in debris and fatigue. Future design and selection of implant materials should consider such factors for improvement.

  12. Third party liability insurance for international transport of nuclear substances in countries party to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, F.

    1977-01-01

    The number of international transports of radioactive materials has been increasing at an accelerating rate for several years. These transports are subject to specific safety rules which must be complied with in order to obtain nuclear third party liability cover. In general nuclear transports are insured under a policy which differs from that for installations. Transport policy criteria have been harmonized to some extent, in particular, in the frame of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Certificates established by the competent national authorities testifying to the existence of insurance must in principle be approved by the countries crossed which are parties to the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  13. From the ethical code to the international convention. A critical panorama of the World Tourism Organization from the cosmopolitanism perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. López-González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses a critical analysis of the nature of cosmopolitan order encouraged by the World Tourism Organization. Given the growth of tourism activity and the challenges that it poses, this specialized agency of the United Nations has formally promoted equitable, responsible and sustainable development of tourism. However, the criticism of the principles from which the organization shapes tourism has put the focus on the objectives pursued. The conversion of these principles, included in the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, adopted in 1999, into an international convention, approved in September 2017, presents a new scene that this work outlines from the cosmopolitanism perspective.

  14. Dialogues between the Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG and the Lex Mercatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Vásquez Palma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the tight connection that exist between the CISG and the lex mercatoria, since the first embody the second. Amid these a sort of dialogue occurs. The lex mercatoria supply the CISG, either at the contract level or the normative, acting as a resource for the interpretation and integration, as well as the rule that govern the contract. The CISG, as manifestation of the lex mercatoria, operate in the same way, either as source for the integration of the contract, or as the rule applicable to international contracts.

  15. Modernizing methodology for the WHO assessment of substances for the international drug control conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenberg, E; Sorge, L A; Wieniawski, W; Elliott, S; Amato, L; Scholten, W K

    2013-08-01

    The WHO Executive Board revised the guidance that governs the procedures for the WHO review of psychoactive substances for international drug control in 2010. To meet the standards defined in these guidelines, the current evaluation methodology at WHO must be an evidence-based assessment. We describe the history of substance evaluation from 1912 to the present and the development of the evaluation methods over time including a description of the current assessment system, using reports from WHO and its predecessor, the League of Nations. Furthermore, we describe the current review system. We found that some substances under international control were never reviewed; other substances were reviewed decades ago. We argue that assessments do not have unlimited validity, and therefore, substances need to be re-assessed periodically, as already recommended by the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence in 1982. We propose that the evaluation time be shortened; that the influence of the route of administration and/or dosage form of the preparation is considered in the evaluation; and we recommend studying national and regional assessment systems and adopting their best practices. With this article, we make a case for the inclusion of systematic review and other methods of comprehensive analysis of substance evaluation to arrive at a process of equal rigour and quality as already applied by WHO for the development of treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. International law, national policies and youth smoking: an examination of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Emmanuel Guindon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC addresses a wide range of issues including protection from exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The FCTC represents a minimum set of tobacco control policies, although the treaty explicitly encourages countries to go above and beyond these measures. Despite its lack of mandatory provisions. FCTC ratification and its timing may be good proxy for a country's commitment to tobacco control. Our first objective is to assess the impact of the FCTC on global youth tobacco use. Our second objective is to explore two areas that are amenable to policy change: secondhand smoke and advertising. Methods We used pooled repeated-cross-sectional data from youth surveys conducted between 1999 and 2015 in more than 150 low- and middle-income countries and multilevel analyses to account for the nesting of students in schools and schools in countries. First, we examined the association between three outcome variables (smoking susceptibility, defined as the absence of a firm decision not to smoke, current smoking defined as 30-day smoking prevalence and a five-point scale of smoking uptake and various indicators of the FCTC implementation. Second, we examined the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising and indicators of the FCTC implementation. Results We found considerable heterogeneity in the association between different measures of youth smoking and indicators of the FCTC implementation. On the whole, we found clearer associations between exposure to secondhand smoke and advertising and indicators of the FCTC implementation. Conclusions A number of studies have examined changes in the implementation of tobacco control measures since the ratification of the FCTC but few studies have examined the effect of the FCTC on tobacco use; fewer still have used pre- and post-FCTC data. More research that use such data is needed.

  17. NO global warming = YES nuclear energy. The International Nuclear Forum and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Emma

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear industry sits along side the renewable energy sector in its role as a non carbon emitting technology. But persuading international political leaders of this fact presents a challenge. Generating electricity from nuclear fuel avoids at least 2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide every year through its 16% share of world wide electricity generation. Nuclear energy is essential to minimising greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation highlights the main issues resulting from the climate change negotiations that are highly relevant to the industry; explains the activities of the International Nuclear Forum and our interaction with the delegates to the process; outlines future activities. The International Nuclear Forum (INF) was formed to provide a collective voice lobbying for nuclear at the climate change negotiations. It's internationally representative of the industry and comprises of: the Uranium Institute; the Nuclear Energy Institute; the Japan Atomic Industry Forum; the Canadian Nuclear Association; the European Nuclear Society, and Foratom. All are accredited non governmental observers to the negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  18. Critical Evaluation of International Treaties and Conventions on Women’s Human Right. A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Vijaya KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human right is a complete concept within it which never tends to devide the identity of men or women but simply say human. The ways in which women experience human rights and human right violations are unique. While human rights are often understood as the rights that everyone has by virtue of their humanity, the assumption that all humans have the same experiences and needs is particularly problematic for women. The human right revolution which has become a core principle of almost all the laws of the nation around the world discern that its essences is not just in enumerating it into a piece of law but practically applying it and respecting it, as an eternal part of justice. There is an urgent need to adopt balance approach in identifying the rights of women as human right. At the same time identifying this right individually and as part universal phenomenon of human right should be the concern of every woman in every walk of life. The present study undertakes a doctrinal research and attempt to critically analyze the practical application of human right norms from both national and international law perspective, thus drawing the attention of human right activist to this problematic area of concern.

  19. INTERACTION BETWEEN HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE CIVIL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION AND DOMESTIC LITIGATIONS CONCERNING DOMICILE OF THE CHILD AND PARENTAL AUTHORITY

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Magda VOICULESCU

    2018-01-01

    In the vast majority of cases, international abduction of a child determines almost per se litigations both at international and national level, namely an international litigation based on provisions of Hague Convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction and a domestic litigation aiming at establishing the domicile of the child in the state of destination and other different measures concerning the child which fall within the area of parental authority (joint or ...

  20. The Validity of International Sales Contracts: Irrelevance of the 'Validity Exception' in Article 4 Vienna Sales Convention and a Novel Approach to Determining the Convention's Scope

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeter, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    in: Ingeborg Schwenzer and Lisa Spagnolo (eds.), Boundaries and Intersections: The 5th Annual MAA Schlechtriem CISG Conference, The Hague: Eleven International Publishing (2014), pp. 95-117 Throughout the history of uniform law for international sales, the rules governing the validity of cross-border sales contracts have proven particularly difficult to harmonize because they differ greatly between the various domestic laws. This dilemma inter alia resulted in the "validity exception" in Arti...

  1. Understanding the Potential Content and Structure of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: Sample Treaty Provisions Drawn from Existing International Instruments. A Reference Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E.

    This document is designed to prepare advocates in the international disability community for productive participation in the development of international conventions on the human rights of people with disabilities. Knowledge of the standard categories of international law provisions will help participants address issues related to the structure of…

  2. Strategies for the inclusion of an internal amplification control in conventional and real time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    To illustrate important issues in optimization of a PCR assay with an internal control four different primer combinations for conventional PCR, two non-competitive and two competitive set-ups for real time PCR were used for detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken faecal samples....... In the conventional PCR assays the internal control was genomic DNA from Yersinia ruckeri, which is not found in chicken faeces. This internal control was also used in one of the set LIPS in real time PCR. In the three other set-ups different DNA fragments of 109 bp length prepared from two oligos of each 66 bp...... by a simple extension reaction was used. All assays were optimized to avoid loss of target sensitivity due to the presence of the internal control by adjusting the amount of internal control primers in the duplex assays and the amount of internal control in all assays. Furthermore. the assays were tested...

  3. National Assembly report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le Projet de Loi n.1792, autorisant l'adhesion a la convention internationale de 2001 sur la responsabilite civile pour les dommages dus a la pollution par les hydrocarbures de soute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first gives an overview of the progressive implementation of measures and international convention to prevent pollution by ships: the Oilpol convention (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil), the Marpol convention (Marine Pollution), and the different international conventions on liability and compensation (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution, International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, convention on other damages). It also describes the French system to struggle against marine pollution. Then, it presents the main arrangements of the 2001 Convention (liability, mandatory insurance and certificate, and so on), expresses some reserves on the chosen arrangement, and comments the impact of this convention

  4. Guidelines and policies on collection of biological specimens in the Philippines. Philippine Congress, International Convention on Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulid, D A

    1996-04-01

    In October, 1993, 16 months after the United Nations approved the International Convention on Biodiversity held in Rio de Janeiro, June, 1992, the Philippine Congress ratified and adopted the Convention. This is a manifestation of the full support of the Philippines for the principles and policies adopted by the UN body on the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable development of biological resources and equitable sharing of benefits between users and owners of biodiversity resources. The Philippine scientific community has long recognized the need for and importance of a national guideline and policy with regard to the collection of plants and animals in the Philippines for scientific or commercial purposes. A series of consultative meetings were held by representatives of government agencies, non-government organizations, private organizations, academic and private persons concerned with biodiversity conservation to formulate national guidelines that regulate the collection of plant and animal specimens in the country. Guidelines were unanimously adopted by various government agencies and academia and a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was signed on September 28, 1990. Very recently a new document was drafted, specifically to serve as a guideline for those who desire to undertake sample collecting in the Philippines for biodiversity prospecting. The document is now being reviewed by government departments and agencies and will be presented to the President of the Philippines for signing as an Executive Order (EO). Once signed, this EO will serve as a national policy for bioprospecting in the country. The Philippines is one of the countries in Southeast Asia that has endorsed the adoption of regional guidelines on the collection of plant and animal organisms for drug development. The ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1985). The Manila Declaration (1992) and lately, the Melaka Accord (1994), all of which were signed by various

  5. TO THE TOPIC ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO THE PRESERVATION OF THE BIO-RESOURCES STOCKS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Asanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of the work was to assess the activity of international organizations and determine theirs contribution to the preservation and rational use of water biological resources of the Caspian Sea and their inhabitant in the period after 1991.Results. The work presents a high management level of the state of water-biological resources during the history of the fishery basin. The management level of stocks, carried out by one country, including protection measures and artificial reproduction, allows to quickly respond to the dangers till the end of the XX century. It is shown that the activity of many out-regional and (or non-state international organizations, heightened during the last the last-day period, is limited to piece of information, comprised of data collection about basin and preparing of the base for the adoption of binding decisions in the international legal field , often there is in a negative context for the Russian Federation. It is noted the leading input of specialized state departments, institutes and organizations to the protection, reproduction, researching of water bio-resources and their inhabitant, the results of which were integrated in the frames of work of the Commission on water bio-resources of the Caspian Sea.Main conclusions. The abstract presents suggestions on activity of designated global institution taking into account the beginning of the Agreement on protection and rational use of water biological resources of the Caspian Sea. The article presents proposals for the activity of international organizations at the Caspian basin. 

  6. Fiscal 1997 survey report on a feasibility of international collaboration on bio-hydrogen R and D; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    R and D of the production technology of biohydrogen is an option effective for the world energy supply technology and the world environmental preservation technology in the 21st century. At present, a project named `R and D of the environment harmony type hydrogen production technology` tackles the R and D of the hydrogen production technology using photosynthetic microorganisms, and promotes the R and D in this field from both aspects of a basis and application as seen in a workshop held including interchanges with researchers and research institutes overseas. With the recently increasing interest in bio-hydrogen production technology also overseas, search and bleeding/improvement of microorganisms related to the hydrogen production and utilization technology of biomass have been advancing. For development in this field, it is necessary to construct a widespread research network and promote the comprehensive research and development. In this survey, most of the research institutes visited recognized an importance of international cooperation in this field and agreed to make future research interchanges in a wide range. Based on the survey, a feasibility of concrete international collaboration is searched. 146 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and the direct metal laser sintering techniques: A comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullattuthodi, Sujana; Cherian, Kandathil Phillip; Anandkumar, R; Nambiar, M Sreedevi

    2017-01-01

    This in vitro study seeks to evaluate and compare the marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) techniques. A master model of a prepared molar tooth was made using cobalt-chromium alloy. Silicone impression of the master model was made and thirty standardized working models were then produced; twenty working models for conventional lost-wax technique and ten working models for DMLS technique. A total of twenty metal copings were fabricated using two different production techniques: conventional lost-wax method and DMLS; ten samples in each group. The conventional and DMLS copings were cemented to the working models using glass ionomer cement. Marginal gap of the copings were measured at predetermined four points. The die with the cemented copings are standardized-sectioned with a heavy duty lathe. Then, each sectioned samples were analyzed for the internal gap between the die and the metal coping using a metallurgical microscope. Digital photographs were taken at ×50 magnification and analyzed using measurement software. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t -test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this study reveal that no significant difference was present in the marginal gap of conventional and DMLS copings ( P > 0.05) by means of ANOVA. The mean values of internal gap of DMLS copings were significantly greater than that of conventional copings ( P < 0.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the internal fit of conventional copings was superior to that of the DMLS copings. Marginal fit of the copings fabricated by two different techniques had no significant difference.

  8. Complications related to conventional self-expandable metal stent insertion and internal irradiation stent insertion in patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma: an analysis of 32 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingwen; Di Haiting; Zhu Jun; Shi Jian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the occurrence of complications between conventional self-expandable metal stent and internal irradiation stent insertion in treating patients with advanced esophageal carcinomas. Methods: A total of 32 patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma were randomly divided into irradiation stent group (n=15) and conventional stent group (n=17). Internal irradiation stent loaded with 125 I seeds was employed in patients of irradiation stent group, while conventional self-expandable metal stent was used in patients of conventional stent group. After the treatment, clinical follow-up was regularly conducted. Postoperative complications such as fever, severe chest pain, cough, esophageal perforation, pneumonia, hemorrhage, stent migration and restenosis, etc. were observed. Results: No significant difference in the occurrence of fever, severe chest pain, esophageal perforation and hemorrhage existed between the two groups (P>0.05). The difference in the occurrence of long-term complications such as stent migration or restenosis between the two groups was out statistically significant (P>0.05). However, the restenosis in irradiation stent group occurred obviously much later than that in conventional stent group. Conclusion: For the treatment of advanced esophageal carcinomas, the insertion of internal irradiation esophageal stent is safe. It dose not increase the incidence of postoperative complications. Therefore, it is worth popularizing this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  9. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, AAR

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. Purpose: This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Materials and Method: Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student’s t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). Results: The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student’s t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (pmarginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore, only the conventional group results in copings with clinically acceptable margins of less than 120um. PMID:24724133

  10. Marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and the direct metal laser sintering techniques: A comparative in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana Ullattuthodi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the internal fit of conventional copings was superior to that of the DMLS copings. Marginal fit of the copings fabricated by two different techniques had no significant difference.

  11. Conventional bio-transportation fuels : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uil, den H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weismann, M.

    2003-01-01

    Up to now renewable energy sources are primarily used in the Netherlands for electricity production. At the end of the past decade the GAVE programme started to facilitate the introduction of gaseous and liquid fuels in the post-Kyoto period (after 2010), with the potential to realize more than 80%

  12. Conventional bio-transportation fuels : an update

    OpenAIRE

    Uil, den, H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weismann, M.

    2003-01-01

    Up to now renewable energy sources are primarily used in the Netherlands for electricity production. At the end of the past decade the GAVE programme started to facilitate the introduction of gaseous and liquid fuels in the post-Kyoto period (after 2010), with the potential to realize more than 80% CO2 reduction as compared to its fossil alternative. In the first phase of the GAVE programme a large number of options for the production of climate neutral gaseous and liquid fuels were evaluated...

  13. The transboundary EIA convention in the context of private sector operations co-financed by an International Financial Institution: two case studies from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Mehrdad M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies involving private sector, offshore, oil field developments in the Caspian Sea. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) of these operations indicated that major and unmitigated oil spills could potentially result in transboundary impacts. Both projects were co-financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), an International Financial Institution (IFI). Project review and financing decision by the EBRD occurred when neither country hosting the projects was a Party to the 1991 Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention). Discussions with government agencies during project review highlighted their limited institutional capacity to pursue transboundary notification and consultation activities. However, without being formal Parties or having clearly defined roles under the Convention, the combined presence of the EBRD, the private sector developer and its project needing financing became important drivers to promote the Espoo Convention. Surveying for similar IFI-project combinations in developing and transition economies could provide a 'bottom up' input to further optimise the Convention Secretariat's awareness raising, intervention design, and alliance-building strategies. The knowledge management model and user-friendly Web site of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity highlight approaches that may also prove effective for the Espoo Convention

  14. Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Report from the Committee on Foreign Relations (To Accompany Treaty Doc. 99-11). 99th Congress, 2d Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations.

    The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, an international law whose purpose is to establish uniform rules to be applied in cases of international child abduction, is described. The Hague Convention requires that children wrongfully removed or retained abroad in connection with parental custody disputes be…

  15. 75 FR 11556 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... international treaty designed to control and regulate international trade in certain animal and plant species that are now or potentially may become threatened with extinction. These species are listed in...

  16. The WHO Tobacco Convention: A New Dawn in the Implementation of International Health Instrument? Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durojaye, Ebenezer

    2017-07-05

    The Tobacco Convention was adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003. Nikogosian and Kickbusch examine the five potential impacts of the Tobacco Convention and its Protocol on public health. These include the adoption of the Convention would seem to unlock the treaty-making powers of WHO; the impact of the Convention in the global health architecture has been phenomenal globally; the Convention has facilitated the adoption of further instruments to strengthen its implementation at the national level; the Convention has led to the adoption of appropriate legal framework to combat the use of tobacco at the national level and that the impact of the Convention would seem to go beyond public health but has also led to the adoption of the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco. However, the article by Nikogosian and Kickbusch would seem to overlook some of the challenges that may militate against the effective implementation of international law, including the Tobacco Convention, at the national level. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Needs and opportunities of adequate interpretation of the Hague convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction in the case of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time when the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction was passed, that was a very logical step and a goal that this Conventionis set before it, and that is prompt return of children wrongfully removed or retained children, was a necessary consequence of the circumstances of that time. Namely, in most cases, men, that is fathers, were those, who illegally took or kept the children. More than thirty years later, the situation in that field has changed in the sense that mothers are now abductors in most cases, mostly seeing that this is the only way to escape from the violence they, or their children, are facing with. In that sense, the question is whether the achievement of the objective of this Convention is still justified, that is would it be justified any other interpretation of the Convention in situations where the unlawful removal or retention of children is a result of domestic violence.

  18. Bio energy: Bio fuel - Properties and Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Martinsen, Arnold Kyrre; Sandberg, Eiliv; Fladset, Per Olav; Kjerschow, Einar; Teslo, Einar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 3 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Definitions and properties, (2) Bio fuel from the forest, (3) Processed bio fuel - briquettes, pellets and powder, (4) Bio fuel from agriculture, (5) Bio fuel from agro industry, (6) Bio fuel from lakes and sea, (7) Bio fuel from aquaculture, (8) Bio fuel from wastes and (9) Hydrogen as a fuel. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway. The chapter on energy from the forest includes products from the timber and sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry, furniture factories etc. Among agricultural sources are straw, energy forests, vegetable oil, bio ethanol, manure

  19. Comparison of marginal and internal fit of 3-unit ceramic fixed dental prostheses made with either a conventional or digital impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting-Shu; Sun, Jian

    2016-09-01

    For 20 years, the intraoral digital impression technique has been applied to the fabrication of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Clinical fit is one of the main determinants of the success of an FDP. Studies of the clinical fit of 3-unit ceramic FDPs made by means of a conventional impression versus a digital impression technology are limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the internal fit and marginal fit of CAD-CAM, 3-unit ceramic FDP frameworks fabricated from an intraoral digital impression and a conventional impression. A standard model was designed for a prepared maxillary left canine and second premolar and missing first premolar. The model was scanned with an intraoral digital scanner, exporting stereolithography (STL) files as the experimental group (digital group). The model was used to fabricate 10 stone casts that were scanned with an extraoral scanner, exporting STL files to a computer connected to the scanner as the control group (conventional group). The STL files were used to produce zirconia FDP frameworks with CAD-CAM. These frameworks were seated on the standard model and evaluated for marginal and internal fit. Each framework was segmented into 4 sections per abutment teeth, resulting in 8 sections per framework, and was observed using optical microscopy with ×50 magnification. Four measurement points were selected on each section as marginal discrepancy (P1), mid-axial wall (P2), axio-occusal edge (P3), and central-occlusal point (P4). Mean marginal fit values of the digital group (64 ±16 μm) were significantly smaller than those of the conventional group (76 ±18 μm) (Pdigital group (111 ±34 μm) were significantly smaller than those of the conventional group (132 ±44 μm) (Pdigital and conventional impressions showed clinically acceptable marginal and internal fit. The marginal and internal fit of frameworks fabricated from the intraoral

  20. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  1. INTERNATIONAL V. UNITED STATES COURTS: IN SEARCH OF A RIGHT AND A REMEDY IN ARTICLE 36 OF THE VIENNA CONVENTION ON CONSULAR RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Eizaga, Lorena; Ministerio de Ciencia y tecnología de Venezuela

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze whether Article 36 (1) (b) of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963) confers an individual right to consular notification upon detained foreign nationals under international and U.S. courts decisions, and if such right is to be considered a human right in the current state of international law. This paper will further analyze whether  characterizing consular notification as a fundamental human right would make a difference regarding the remedies that sh...

  2. Civil liability: quantitative and qualitative limitations analysis in the occurrence of a nuclear disaster in view of international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiras, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Paris and Vienna Conventions were involved to establish the liability regime aiming the public protection without decrease in the development at nuclear area. The proposal of this work is to discuss the lacks and limitations of these to both Brazilian reality and Brazilian legislation, and analyze limitations in civil liability in the occurrence of nuclear disaster. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

  3. A Baltic bio-bibliography - international lawyers of the Baltic region, past and present / Peter Macalister-Smith

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Macalister-Smith, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Eestist: Küllike Jürimäe (s. 1962, Euroopa Ühenduste Kohtu esimese astme kohtu kohtunik alates 12. maist 2004) ; Uno Lõhmus (s. 1952, Euroopa Kohtu kohtunik alates 11. maist 2004) ; Rait Maruste (s. 1953, Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu kohtunik) ; Rein Müllerson (s. 1944, Institut de droit international liige, valiti aastal 1995) ; Ants Piip (1884-1942, rahvusvahelise õiguse uurija) ; Kaarel Robert Pusta (1883-1964, Institut de droit international liige, valiti aastal 1932) ; Otto Strandman (1875-1941, Permanent Court of International Justice - kohtunik 1938, 1939) ; Henn-Jüri Uibopuu (s. 1929, rahvusvahelise õiguse uurija) ; Abner T. Uustal (1915-1985, rahvusvahelise õiguse uurija). Lisatud: A note on F. F. Martens (1845-1909), lk. 159-164 (Friedrich Frommhold Martens, Frederic de Martens, Fjodor Fjodorovitsh Martens)

  4. Provision of micro-nano bacterial cellulose as bio plastic filler by sonication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam; Rahmad, D.; Yunizurwan; Kasim, A.; Novelina; Emriadi

    2017-07-01

    Research and development of bioplastic has increased recently as a solution for substitution of conventional plastic which have many negative impacts to environment. However, physical properties and mechanical properties of its still lower than conventional plastic. An alternative solution for that problem is by using fillers that can increase the strength. Bacterial cellulose is considered as potential source for filler, but still need to be explored more. The privileges of bacterial cellulose are easy to get and does not have lignin, pectin, and hemicelluloses which are impurities in other celluloses. This research focused on gaining bacterial cellulose in micro-nano particle form and its impact on increasing the strength of bio plastic. Ultrasonication has been used as method to form micro-nano particle from bacterial cellulose. The result showed this method may form the particle size of bacterial cellulose approximately ± 3μm. Next step, after getting ± 3μm particle of bacterial cellulose, is making bio plastic with casting method by adding 1% of bacterial cellulose, from the total material in making bio plastic. Physical characteristic of the bio plastic which are tensile strength 11.85 MPa, modulus young 3.13 MPa, elongation 4.11% and density 0.42 g/cm3. The numbers of physical properties showwthat, by adding 1% of bacterial cellulose, the strength of bio plastic was significantly increase, even value of tensile strength has complied the international standard for bio plastic.

  5. Money laundering in the convention on combating bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions of the organization for cooperation and development (OECD)

    OpenAIRE

    Notari Bonini Notari; Rogério Gesta Leal

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how they are being addressed this issue under the Convention on Combating Public Officials Corruption Foreigners in Transactions Organization of International Trade for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the formulation of public policies for Combating Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian State. The Money Laundering is a species of corrupting practices, so that this type of illicit und...

  6. 77 FR 37433 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... wishing to be observers representing international non- governmental organizations (which must have... not affiliated with an organization may not register as observers. An international non-governmental... information on these proposals; and provide information on how non- governmental organizations based in the...

  7. Evaluation of marginal and internal gaps of metal ceramic crowns obtained from conventional impressions and casting techniques with those obtained from digital techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rathika; Kumar, S Arun; Prabhu, R; Govindan, Ranjani Thillai; Tanveer, Faiz Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Accuracy in fit of cast metal restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining the success of the restoration. A well-fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margin and with regard to its internal surface. The aim of the study is to evaluate the marginal fit of metal ceramic crowns obtained by conventional inlay casting wax pattern using conventional impression with the metal ceramic crowns obtained by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique using direct and indirect optical scanning. This in vitro study on preformed custom-made stainless steel models with former assembly that resembles prepared tooth surfaces of standardized dimensions comprised three groups: the first group included ten samples of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional technique, the second group included CAD/CAM-milled direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) crowns using indirect scanning, and the third group included DMLS crowns fabricated by direct scanning of the stainless steel model. The vertical marginal gap and the internal gap were evaluated with the stereomicroscope (Zoomstar 4); post hoc Turkey's test was used for statistical analysis. One-way analysis of variance method was used to compare the mean values. Metal ceramic crowns obtained from direct optical scanning showed the least marginal and internal gap when compared to the castings obtained from inlay casting wax and indirect optical scanning. Indirect and direct optical scanning had yielded results within clinically acceptable range.

  8. Proceedings of the seventh international food convention: nutritional security through sustainable development research and education for healthy foods - souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  9. Evaluation of lesions of the internal ligaments of the wrist; conventional magnetic resonance imaging versus MR arthrography (MRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Ahmed Kamal

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: MR arthrography is a potent additional tool facilitating the diagnosis of different pathologic entities affecting the major internal ligaments of the wrist joint and helps to reduce arthroscopic interventions.

  10. INTERACTION BETWEEN HAGUE CONVENTION ON THE CIVIL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION AND DOMESTIC LITIGATIONS CONCERNING DOMICILE OF THE CHILD AND PARENTAL AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Magda VOICULESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the vast majority of cases, international abduction of a child determines almost per se litigations both at international and national level, namely an international litigation based on provisions of Hague Convention on the civil aspects of international child abduction and a domestic litigation aiming at establishing the domicile of the child in the state of destination and other different measures concerning the child which fall within the area of parental authority (joint or exclusive. The purpose of the article is to analyze the interaction between the international and the national case and how they influence each other from a double perspective (procedural and substantial, taking into account that the two litigations are generally pending at the same time. Even the mere coexistence of the two litigations gives rise to the question which one should have priority in solving. Therefore, the objectives of this study are, on the one hand, to examine the implications in the domestic litigation of the decision pronounced in the Hague litigation (international competence, suspension of the national case, elements which are covered by the res judicata principle, and on the other hand to identify how a national decision on domicile and parental authority may influence the solution in the Hague case.

  11. 77 FR 71012 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... international trade in certain animal and plant species that are now or potentially may become threatened with extinction. These species are listed in Appendices to CITES, which are available on the CITES Secretariat's... Secretariat and the permanent CITES committees (Standing, Animals, and Plants Committees), and make...

  12. 77 FR 67390 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... control and regulate international trade in certain animal and plant species that are now or potentially may become threatened with extinction. These species are listed in Appendices to CITES, which are..., consider reports presented by the Secretariat and the permanent CITES committees (Standing, Animals, and...

  13. Development of a bio-mechanical model of the spine based on 3D internal-external relationships: bi-planar radiography and Moire fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunier-Koell, P.

    2010-11-01

    Nowadays, radiography is the gold standard for the follow up of spinal pathologies. Furthermore, bi-planar radiography allows the assessment of vertebrae configuration, by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. However, multiple radiographic examinations during childhood and adolescence increase the risk of breast cancer among women. To reduce radiation doses, some radiographic assessments could be replaced by the back surface evaluation. This kind of non-invasive procedure allows for acquisition of many clinical parameters useful for spinal pathologies diagnosis and follow-up. Moreover, with an appropriate bio mechanical model, the back surface measurements could be used to estimate the spine configuration. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement such a model based on personalized internal and external data. The Biomod 3S device has been developed by the company AXS MEDICAL SAS, Bordeaux, France. It offers the possibility of simultaneous acquisitions of X-rays and Moire fringes to obtain 3D reconstructions of the spine and the back surface. Such acquisitions on fifteen scoliotic subjects have enabled us to assess several relationships between internal 3D parameters (for example axial rotation of vertebrae) and external 3D parameters (for example rib hump). The spine configuration and the back surface obtained during this acquisition will also be used as initial position to develop (with Scilab) the multi-body model. The other data used by the model are the back surface in a second position and constraints obtained from the surface in both positions (for example displacement of C7 vertebra). The model has been validated on nine healthy subjects, whose 3D spine and back surface were reconstructed in several positions (standing, leaning forward, sitting) from MRI acquisitions. Moreover, the model has been operated on a pathological subject. This work has explored and utilized many spine and back surface information and leads the way to non-invasive diagnosis

  14. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves� propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves� propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves� propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves� propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  15. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  16. Evaluation of marginal and internal gaps of metal ceramic crowns obtained from conventional impressions and casting techniques with those obtained from digital techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathika Rai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accuracy in fit of cast metal restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining the success of the restoration. A well-fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margin and with regard to its internal surface. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the marginal fit of metal ceramic crowns obtained by conventional inlay casting wax pattern using conventional impression with the metal ceramic crowns obtained by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM technique using direct and indirect optical scanning. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study on preformed custom-made stainless steel models with former assembly that resembles prepared tooth surfaces of standardized dimensions comprised three groups: the first group included ten samples of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional technique, the second group included CAD/CAM-milled direct metal laser sintering (DMLS crowns using indirect scanning, and the third group included DMLS crowns fabricated by direct scanning of the stainless steel model. The vertical marginal gap and the internal gap were evaluated with the stereomicroscope (Zoomstar 4; post hoc Turkey's test was used for statistical analysis. One-way analysis of variance method was used to compare the mean values. Results and Conclusion: Metal ceramic crowns obtained from direct optical scanning showed the least marginal and internal gap when compared to the castings obtained from inlay casting wax and indirect optical scanning. Indirect and direct optical scanning had yielded results within clinically acceptable range.

  17. Implementing Decree of 29 February 1956 relating to Annex I of the International Convention concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail (CIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1956-01-01

    This implementing Decree on Annex I of the International Convention concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail (CIM) brings into force in Austria the provisions of that Annex on the materials and goods excluded from transport or included under certain conditions defined by the International Regulations concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID). It lays down 7 classes of material; class IVb concerns radioactive materials which are divided into groups A and B respectively covering those emitting gamma-rays and neutrons and those emitting alpha or beta rays. For this latter class, the transport provisions fix packaging criteria; despatch method, markings; it is forbidden to load radioactive materials together with explosives or Groups A and B together. (NEA) [fr

  18. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p < 0.05). Although the scores for quality of life assessment was similar between VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  19. [Appropriateness of the prescriptions of conventional versus new oral anticoagulants at discharge from a department of internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochatay, L; Beney, J; Jordan-von Gunten, V; Petignat, P A; Roulet, L

    2016-09-01

    The recently introduced oral direct anticoagulants (ODAs), presumably safer, and with comparable efficacy to the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), may reshape the world of anticoagulation medicine. This study aimed to assess the prescription appropriateness of ODAs and VKAs at discharge from hospital. We performed a one year retrospective study between August 2012 and July 2013 in the department of internal medicine of a regional hospital (HVs Sion) using Electronic Medical Records. All patients receiving an ODA were included and matched to a patient treated with a VKA. The appropriateness of prescription at discharge was defined by an adequate indication and dosing, the absence of contraindication, a minimal risk of drug-drug interactions and no major bleeding or venous thromboembolism during the hospitalization. The bleeding risk was evaluated with the HAS-BLED score when the indication was atrial fibrillation (AF). Out of the 44patients included (22 with an ODA and 22 with a VKA), 38 received an appropriate prescription according to all criteria. Two patients had an inadequate dosing. A potential drug-drug interaction was detected in 3patients receiving a VKA and in 1patient receiving an ODA. No major contraindication was found, but a relative contraindication was discussed in 3cases. The majority of patients receiving an ODA for an AF had a minor bleeding risk. No significant difference was ascertained between the two groups regarding the appropriateness of prescription. Our results suggest that ODAs were cautiously used in our setting. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Internal fit of pressed and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing ceramic crowns made from digital and conventional impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadioti, Evanthia; Aquilino, Steven A; Gratton, David G; Holloway, Julie A; Denry, Isabelle L; Thomas, Geb W; Qian, Fang

    2015-04-01

    No studies have evaluated the internal adaptation of pressed and milled ceramic crowns made from digital impressions. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the internal fit of pressed and milled ceramic crowns made from digital and conventional impressions. Thirty polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions and 30 Lava COS impressions made of a prepared dentoform tooth (master die) were fabricated. Thirty crowns were pressed in lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press), and 30 crowns were milled from lithium disilicate blocks (IPS e.max CAD) (15/impression technique) with the E4D scanner and milling engine. The master die and the intaglio of the crowns were digitized with a 3-dimensional laser coordinate measurement machine. The digital master die and intaglio of each crown were merged. The distance between the die and the intaglio surface of the crown was measured at 3 standardized points. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (α=.05). One-way ANOVA revealed that the internal gap obtained from the Lava/press group (0.211 mm, ±SD 0.041) was significantly greater than that obtained from the other groups (Pdigital impression and pressed crown produced the least accurate internal fit. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Internally gas-cooled radiofrequency applicators as an alternative to conventional radiofrequency and microwave ablation devices: An in vivo comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempp, Hansjörg, E-mail: Hansjoerg.rempp@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, Tübingen, 72076 (Germany); Voigtländer, Matthias [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Schenk, Martin [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Enderle, Markus D. [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Scharpf, Marcus [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Insitute of Pathology, Department on General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy, Liebermeisterstraße 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Greiner, Tim O. [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Neugebauer, Alexander [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To test the efficacy of internally CO{sub 2}-cooled radiofrequency (RF) ablation in vivo and to compare its effectiveness to a standard water-cooled RF probe and to a gas-cooled microwave (MW) device. Method and materials: 49 ablations were performed on 15 pigs under general anesthesia using 15G monopolar CO{sub 2}-cooled RF applicators, 17G monopolar water-cooled RF applicators and 15G internally CO{sub 2}-cooled microwave devices. The power of the MW device was 45 W, the current of the gas-cooled RF device was 1200–1600 mA. At the water-cooled RF probe, maximum power of 200 W was set. Ablation time was 15 min. The short and long axes of the ablation zone were measured. Histological analyses and NADH-staining were performed. The diameters and the ablation volumes were compared using an analysis of variance. Results: No spots of untreated tissue were observed close to the cooled needle track in any of the ablation zones. The largest short axis diameter was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm achieved with the gas-cooled monopolar applicator. With the water-cooled applicators, short axis diameter was significantly smaller, reaching 2.5 ± 0.4 cm. Gas-cooled MW probes achieved 2.9 ± 1.0 cm. The largest ablation volume was 31.5 ± 12 ml (gas-cooled RF), and the smallest was 12.7 ± 4 ml (water-cooled RF). Short/long axis ratio was largest for gas-cooled RF probes with 0.73 ± 0.08 versus 0.64 ± 0.04 for the water-cooled probes and 0.49 ± 0.25 for the microwave applicator. Conclusion: Gas-cooled RF applicators may have a higher potential for effective destruction of liver lesions than comparable water-cooled RF systems, and may be an alternative to standard RF and MW ablation devices.

  2. Holmium laser vs. conventional (cold knife) direct visual internal urethrotomy for short-segment bulbar urethral stricture: Outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanwar, Ankur; Kumar, Manoj; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Prakash, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to analyze the outcome between holmium laser and cold knife direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) for short-segment bulbar urethral stricture. We conducted a prospective study comprised of 112 male patients seen from June 2013 to December 2014. Inclusion criterion was short-segment bulbar urethral stricture (≤1.5cm). Exclusion criteria were prior intervention/urethroplasty, pan-anterior urethral strictures, posterior stenosis, urinary tract infection, and those who lost to followup. Patients were divided into two groups; Group A (n=58) included cold knife DVIU and group B (n=54) included holmium laser endourethrotomy patients. Patient followup included uroflowmetry at postoperative Day 3, as well as at three months and six months. Baseline demographics were comparable in both groups. A total of 107 patients met the inclusion criteria and five patients were excluded due to inadequate followup. Mean stricture length was 1.31 ± 0.252 cm (p=0.53) and 1.34 ± 0.251 cm in Groups A and B, respectively. Mean operating time in Group A was 16.3 ± 1.78 min and in Group B was 20.96 ± 2.23 min (p=0.0001). Five patients in Group A had bleeding after the procedure that was managed conservatively by applying perineal compression. Three patients in Group B had fluid extravasation postoperatively. Qmax (ml/s) was found to be statistically insignificant between the two groups at all followups. Both holmium laser and cold knife urethrotomy are safe and equally effective in treating short-segment bulbar urethral strictures in terms of outcome and complication rate. However, holmium laser requires more expertise and is a costly alternative.

  3. HEMI-TEMPORAL INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING IS AS EFFECTIVE AND SAFE AS CONVENTIONAL FULL PEELING FOR MACULAR HOLE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Akira; Kogo, Jiro; Sasaki, Hiroki; Yomoda, Ryo; Jujo, Tatsuya; Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2018-05-09

    To investigate the efficacy of hemi-temporal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic macular hole. The medical records of patients with macular holes who had undergone vitrectomy with ILM peeling were studied. Forty-two eyes with macular hole were divided into 2 groups based on surgical procedure (hemi-temporal ILM peeling [hemi group]: 15 eyes; 360° ILM peeling [360° group]: 27 eyes). The closure rates and distances between the optic disc and the intersection of two retinal vessels most closely located nasally or temporally to the macular hole were compared. The primary closure rates were not significantly different between the two groups (hemi group: 93.3%; 360° group: 92.5%, P = 0.92). The temporal retinal vessels in the hemi group were displaced 120.5 ± 102.0 µm toward the optic disc at 1 week postoperatively, which did not differ significantly from the 360° group (136.1 ± 106.1 µm) (P = 0.107). However, the nasal retinal vessels in the hemi group were displaced by 42.4 ± 42.9 µm at 1 week postoperatively, which was significantly less than the 90.1 ± 77.3 µm displacement seen in the 360° group (P = 0.040). Hemi-temporal ILM peeling may be preferable to 360° ILM peeling because of less displacement of the retina and greater safety.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  4. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  5. Application of Conventional and K0-Based Internal Monostandard NAA Using Reactor Neutrons for Compositional Analysis of Large Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Swain, K. K.; Pujari, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) work was carried out for samples of coal, uranium ore, stainless steel, ancient and new clay potteries, dross and clay pottery replica from Peru using low flux high thermalized irradiation sites. Large as well as non-standard geometry samples (1 g - 0.5 kg) were irradiated using thermal column (TC) facility of Apsara reactor as well as graphite reflector position of critical facility (CF) at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. Small size (10 - 500 mg) samples were also irradiated at core position of Apsara reactor, pneumatic carrier facility (PCF) of Dhruva reactor and pneumatic fast transfer facility (PFTS) of KAMINI reactor. Irradiation positions were characterized using indium flux monitor for TC and CF whereas multi monitors were used at other positions. Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The k0-based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method was used to determine elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na in coal and uranium ore samples, Sc in pottery samples and Fe in stainless steel. Insitu relative detection efficiency for each irradiated sample was obtained using γ rays of activation products in the required energy range. Representative sample sizes were arrived at for coal and uranium ore from the plots of La/Na ratios as a function of the mass of the sample. For stainless steel sample of SS 304L, the absolute concentrations were calculated from concentration ratios by mass balance approach since all the major elements (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn) were amenable to NAA. Concentration ratios obtained by IM-NAA were used for provenance study of 30 clay potteries, obtained from excavated Buddhist sites of AP, India. The La to Ce concentration ratios were used for preliminary grouping and concentration ratios of 15 elements with respect to Sc were used by statistical cluster analysis for confirmation of grouping. Concentrations of Au and Ag were determined in not so

  6. Legal aspects of the control and repression of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Is there a need for an international convention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, Scott

    2012-01-01

    It is generally recognised that illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials is a serious problem, and one that must be tackled with a comprehensive response involving national governments as well as a number of intergovernmental organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA notes that 1 773 incidents were reported to its Illicit Trafficking Database, or ITDB, between January 1993 and December 2009, and that 351 of these involved '... unauthorized possession and related criminal activities' such as '... illegal possession, movement or attempts to illegally trade in or use nuclear material or radioactive sources'. The IAEA adds that 222 more incidents were confirmed between July 2009 and June 2010 and concludes that: - the availability of unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material persists; - effective border control measures help to detect illicit trafficking, although effective control is not uniformly implemented at all international border points; and - individuals and groups are prepared to engage in trafficking this material. A disturbing trend is trafficking in particularly sensitive regions of the world, such as in countries that were formerly a part of the former Soviet Union. In November 2010, Georgian officials seized four individuals allegedly trying to sell cesium-137, which though fairly common can be used to make a radiological dispersion device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. This closely followed a court case in Georgia involving Armenian nationals who had attempted to sell weapon-grade plutonium. More recently, in June 2011, Moldovan police arrested six individuals suspected of trafficking in uranium-235. In view of the problem, this paper considers whether an international convention specifically targeting illicit trafficking is needed or not. The paper does not go conceptually beyond the legal aspects of controlling and repressing illicit trafficking; rather, it will look at whether the existing

  7. Money laundering in the convention on combating bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions of the organization for cooperation and development (OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notari Bonini Notari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how they are being addressed this issue under the Convention on Combating Public Officials Corruption Foreigners in Transactions Organization of International Trade for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for Combating Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian State. The Money Laundering is a species of corrupting practices, so that this type of illicit undertakes the realization of fundamental rights, social rights, economic criminal law, the democratic rule of law affecting, directly, public policy tax as a result of the commission of unlawful acts and offenses linked to issues of an economic nature, such as bribery, fraud, tax evasion, bribery, money laundering, drug trafficking, arms linked indirectly, to organized crime. Whereas the article is a bibliographic nature, it will be used as the method of approach to be adopted in its deductive development, with general assumption arguments (major premise for particular arguments (minor premise; while the procedure is analytical. Key words: Public Policy Tax, Money Laundering, Corruption of Foreign Public Officials, economic, illegalities. Money Laundering CRIME UNDER THE CONVENTION ON THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION OF FOREIGN public employee in the business operations of the International Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD This article AIMS to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how it is addressing this issue under the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Economic Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for the Fight against Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian government. Money laundering is a kind of corrupt practices, so this type of crime committed with the

  8. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, Jean; Combarnous, Michel; Jarry, Bruno; Monsan, Pierre; Burzynski, Jean-Pierre; Jeuland, Nicolas; Porot, Pierre; Demoment, Pascale; Gillmann, Marc; Marchand, Philippe; Kuentzmann, Paul; Kurtsoglou, Nicolas; Lombaert-Valot, Isabelle; Pelegrin, Marc; Renvier, Jacques; Rousseau, Julien; Stadler, Thierry; Tremeau, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  9. Summary of the Fourth Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and of the Activities of The International Nuclear Forum in Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Fourth Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change was concluded on 14 November 1998 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Unlike Kyoto in 1997, this conference was on a smaller scale and was convened as a technical work session, its aim being to produce a plan of action and a timetable for a programme of work for the next two years. This paper summarizes the main outcomes of the conference and looks at the way in which the International Nuclear Forum organized the nuclear industry's representation. In particular, the paper assesses the impact of the nuclear industry's message regarding the avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions, and goes on to consider what lessons can be reached for raising the industry's profile at future climate change conferences. (author)

  10. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.

  11. Bio-assessment of water pollution in coal belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Water pollution in coal belt has attracted attention of scientists as well as general people. Implication of water pollution on bio-system is still a more important issue and a lot of information has been accumulated. Apart from conventional methods of pollution monitoring, bio-monitoring is comparatively a new approach and a proper methodology is still in pipeline. The present study reviews various methods of bio-monitoring and compare various methodologies suggested at population level with conventional methods. The results indicated that the bio-assessment methodology can be a tool and hence be developed. (author)

  12. Bio politics - The bio-environment - bio-culture of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlavianos-Arvanitis, A.

    1997-01-01

    The bio-environment has been the single most important correlation in human history and can successfully promote international co-operational co-operation and understanding. With the construction of a network for collaboration, the 'Danube Countries' can come together in celebration of their culture and heritage. As the Danube flows from the Black Forest to the Black Sea, it carries messages of peace, hope and co-operation. Applying these messages to every endeavour can improve our quality of life and lead to a brighter future. Since its inception in 1985, the Bio politics International Organization (B.I.O.) has been labouring to raise awareness of the urgent need to instate a new system of norms and principles, compatible with sound environmental management and with the most important task of ensuring global literacy on environmental issues. Along with critically re-assessing the concept of profit, the goal is to adopt a system of bio centric values, where respect for the bio-environment will govern our every action and thought

  13. The international validation of bio- and chemical-anlaytical screening methods for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs: the DIFFERENCE project rounds 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loco, van J.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Roos, P.; Carbonnelle, S.; Boer, de J.; Goeyens, L.; Beernaert, H.

    2004-01-01

    The European research project DIFFERENCE is focussed on the development, optimisation and validation of screening methods for dioxin analysis, including bio-analytical and chemical techniques (CALUX, GC-LRMS/MS, GC x GC-ECD) and on the optimisation and validation of new extraction and clean-up

  14. White paper report from working groups attending the international conference on research and educational opportunities in bio-fuel crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, K.T. [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Dep., Southwest Florida Res. and Educ. Center, Immokalee, FL 34142 (United States); Gilbert, R.A. [University of Florida, Agronomy Dep., Everglades Res. and Educ. Center, Belle Glade, FL 33430 (United States); Helsel, Z.A. [Rutgers University, Plant Biology and Pathology Dep., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520 (United States); Buacum, L. [University of Florida, Hendry County Extension, LaBelle, FL 33935 (United States); Leon, R.; Perret, J. [EARTH University, Apto. 4442-1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A conference on current research and educational programs in production of crops for bio-fuel was sponsored and organized by the EARTH University and the University of Florida in November, 2008. The meeting addressed current research on crops for bio-fuel production with discussions of research alternatives for future crop production systems, land use issues, ethics of food vs. fuel production, and carbon sequestration in environmentally sensitive tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Americas. The need and potential for development of graduate and undergraduate curricula and inter-institutional cooperation among educational institutions in the region were also discussed. Delegations from Belize, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Honduras, Panama, The Dominican Republic, and the United States including ministers of Agriculture and Energy attended this meeting. Over a two-day period, four working groups provided a framework to facilitate networking, motivate task oriented creative thinking, and maintain a timely accomplishment of assigned duties in the context of the conference themes. Participants in the conference were assigned to one of four working groups, each following given topics: Agronomy, Environment, Socio-Economics and Education/Extension. It was the consensus of representatives of industry, academic and regulatory community assembled in Costa Rica that significant research, education and socio-economic information is needed to make production of bio-fuel crops sustainable. Agronomic research should include better crop selection based on local conditions, improved production techniques, pest and disease management, and mechanical cultivation and harvesting. Another conclusion was that tailoring of production systems to local soil characteristics and use of bio-fuel by-products to improve nutrient use efficiency and reduction of environmental impact on water quantity and quality is critical to sustainability of bio-fuel crop production. (author)

  15. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  16. Bio energocentrum

    OpenAIRE

    Vitoulová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Bakalářská práce byla zpracována jako projekt pro provedení stavby na základě ateliérové práce z 2. semestru. Areál Bio energocentrum, Modřice u Brna je komplexem čtyř vzájemně propojených budov dělených podle jejich funkcí – Budova pro veřejnost, produkční skleník, objekt pro zaměstnance, zařízení pro výrobu bioplynu. Konstrukční systém objektu je materiálově ze železobetonu, oceli a dřeva. Ideou urbanistického a architektonického řešení je jednoduchost tvarů, funkčnost a výstižnost záměru. ...

  17. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  18. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J J; Dorronsoro Arenal, J L; Rojas Garcia, E; Perez Pastor, R; Garcia Alonso, S

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  20. Health Care Providers in War and Armed Conflict: Operational and Educational Challenges in International Humanitarian Law and the Geneva Conventions, Part I. Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L; Giannou, Christos; Paterson, Mary A; Wren, Sherry M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2018-04-30

    Since 1945, the reason for humanitarian crises and the way in which the world responds to them has dramatically changed every 10 to 15 years or less. Planning, response, and recovery for these tragic events have often been ad hoc, inconsistent, and insufficient, largely because of the complexity of global humanitarian demands and their corresponding response system capabilities. This historical perspective chronicles the transformation of war and armed conflicts from the Cold War to today, emphasizing the impact these events have had on humanitarian professionals and their struggle to adapt to increasing humanitarian, operational, and political challenges. An unprecedented independent United Nations-World Health Organization decision in the Battle for Mosul in Iraq to deploy to combat zones emergency medical teams unprepared in the skills of decades-tested war and armed conflict preparation and response afforded to health care providers and dictated by International Humanitarian Law and Geneva Convention protections has abruptly challenged future decision-making and deployments. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 7).

  1. Conventional Wisdom versus Actual Outcomes: Challenges in the Conduct of an Ebola Vaccine Trial in Liberia during the International Public Health Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Gregg S; Baseler, Beth R; Hoover, Marie L; Pierson, Jerome F; Tegli, Jemee K; Johnson, Melvin P; Kieh, Mark W S; McNay, Laura A; Njoh, Wissedi Sio

    2017-07-01

    Clinical trials are challenging endeavors. Planning and implementing an investigational vaccine trial in Liberia, in the midst of an Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that World Health Organization classified a public health emergency of international concern, presented extraordinary challenges. Normally, years of preparation and a litany of tasks lay the groundwork for a successful, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial focused on safety and efficacy. Difficult research settings, unpredictable events, and other unique circumstances can add complexity. The setting in Liberia was especially problematic due to an infrastructure still badly damaged following a lengthy civil war and a very fragile health-care system that was further devastated by the EVD outbreak. The Partnership for Research on Vaccines in Liberia I EVD vaccine trial was planned and implemented in less than 3 months by a Liberian and U.S. research partnership, and its Phase II substudy was fully enrolled 3 months later. Contrasting conventional wisdom with trial outcomes offers an opportunity to compare early assumptions, barriers encountered, and adaptive strategies used, with end results. Understanding what was learned can inform future trial responses when disease outbreaks, especially in resource-poor locations with minimal infrastructure, pose a significant threat to public health.

  2. Legal content of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, adopted by the united nations general assembly by resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a detailed analysis of the legal contents of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant workers and their Families, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the Resolution 45/158 of December 1990. The objectives of the Convention, the personal spehere of application, the Human Rights of all migrant workers and their families wether they be regular of iregular are presented throughout the article. Finally, the practical effectiveness of the Convention is analyzed concluding with the importance of its ratification by the largest number of States possible.

  3. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  4. Application of the United Nations convention on contracts for TEH international sale of goods when the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of a contracting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the problems with respect to the application of the UN Sales Convention (CISG by virtue of its Article 1(1(b. To that effect, the author analyzes the legal nature of this provision, describes the prerequisites for its application and explains the relevance of different rules of private international law for the application of the CISG. A special attention is given to the effects of Article 95 reservation. The author presents arguments against a widely spread opinion that the Article 1(1(b is in itself a conflict-of-laws rule, suggests that this provision is suitable to be applied both by courts and arbitral tribunals and explains the importance of the rules on classification and renvoi for the application of the CISG. With respect to the effect of Article 95 reservation, the author gives precedence to the position of the applicable law, rather than the law of the forum, concerning this reservation.

  5. Bio-optofluidics and biophotonics at the cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Tauro, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micro-manipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optical...

  6. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture ...

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    identied as a prospective route to bio-fuels. The upgrading is most favorably done by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), producing bio-fuels at a quality equivalent to conventional fossil fuels. The topic of this Ph.D. thesis has been the development of active and stable catalysts for this reaction. In the search...

  8. HSP as bio dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  9. Comparative techno-economic analysis of biohydrogen production via bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Brown, Tristan R.; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of biohydrogen production via two bio-oil processing pathways: bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming. Both pathways employ fast pyrolysis to produce bio-oil from biomass stock. The two pathways are modeled using Aspen Plus ® for a 2000 t d −1 facility. Equipment sizing and cost calculations are based on Aspen Economic Evaluation® software. Biohydrogen production capacity at the facility is 147 t d −1 for the bio-oil gasification pathway and 160 t d −1 for the bio-oil reforming pathway. The biomass-to-fuel energy efficiencies are 47% and 84% for the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Total capital investment (TCI) is 435 million dollars for the bio-oil gasification pathway and is 333 million dollars for the bio-oil reforming pathway. Internal rates of return (IRR) are 8.4% and 18.6% for facilities employing the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that biohydrogen price, biohydrogen yield, fixed capital investment (FCI), bio-oil yield, and biomass cost have the greatest impacts on facility IRR. Monte-Carlo analysis shows that bio-oil reforming is more economically attractive than bio-oil gasification for biohydrogen production. -- Highlights: ► Biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming has higher energy efficiency compared to gasification. ► Hydrogen price, fixed capital cost, and feedstock cost most strongly affect IRR. ► Lower risk investment is biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming

  10. Incidental irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer: conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy versus conformal three-dimensional radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Elton Trigo Teixeira; Ugino, Rafael Tsuneki; Lopes, Mauricio Russo; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes; Silva, Joao Luis Fernandes da, E-mail: eltontt@gmail.com [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia; Santana, Marco Antonio; Ferreira, Denis Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate incidental irradiation of the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) through opposed tangential fields with conventional two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy techniques and to compare the results between the two techniques. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 80 breast cancer patients in whom radiotherapy of the IMLNs was not indicated: 40 underwent 2D radiotherapy with computed tomography for dosimetric control, and 40 underwent 3D radiotherapy. The total prescribed dose was 50.0 Gy or 50.4 Gy (2.0 or 1.8 Gy/day, respectively). We reviewed all plans and defined the IMLNs following the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recommendations. For the IMLNs, we analyzed the proportion of the volume that received 45 Gy, the proportion of the volume that received 25 Gy, the dose to 95% of the volume, the dose to 50% of the volume, the mean dose, the minimum dose (Dmin), and the maximum dose (Dmax). Results: Left-sided treatments predominated in the 3D cohort. There were no differences between the 2D and 3D cohorts regarding tumor stage, type of surgery (mastectomy, breast-conserving surgery, or mastectomy with immediate reconstruction), or mean delineated IMLN volume (6.8 vs. 5.9 mL; p = 0.411). Except for the Dmin, all dosimetric parameters presented higher mean values in the 3D cohort (p < 0.05). The median Dmax in the 3D cohort was 50.34 Gy. However, the mean dose to the IMLNs was 7.93 Gy in the 2D cohort, compared with 20.64 Gy in the 3D cohort. Conclusion: Neither technique delivered enough doses to the IMLNs to achieve subclinical disease control. However, all of the dosimetric parameters were significantly higher for the 3D technique. (author)

  11. Exploring Artificial Intelligence Utilizing BioArt

    OpenAIRE

    Simou , Panagiota; Tiligadis , Konstantinos; Alexiou , Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Part 15: First Workshop on Ethics and Philosophy in Artificial Intelligence (EPAI 2013); International audience; While artificial intelligence combined with Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology offers a variety of improvements and a technological and healthcare revolution, Bioartists attempt to replace the traditional artistic medium with biological materials, bio-imaging techniques, bioreactors and several times to treat their own body as an alive canvas. BioArt seems to play the role of a new ...

  12. Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests.

  13. The SCOPIC clause as a major development in salvage law : The SCOPIC clause in the context of the Lloyd’s Open Form and the International Convention on Salvage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djadjev, Ilian

    2015-01-01

    The SCOPIC clause (Special Compensation P&I Club Clause) provides an alternative remuneration to salvors, which is computed differently to the awards provided in Article 13 and Article 14 of the International Convention on Salvage (1989). In essence, SCOPIC provides agreed tariff rates under the

  14. Provisional Measures in the Case Concerning Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Thienel

    2009-02-01

    /LOKALE~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_header.htm" fs; mso-footnote-continuation-separator:url("file:///C:/DOKUME~1/mlippold/LOKALE~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_header.htm" fcs; mso-endnote-separator:url("file:///C:/DOKUME~1/mlippold/LOKALE~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_header.htm" es; mso-endnote-continuation-separator:url("file:///C:/DOKUME~1/mlippold/LOKALE~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_header.htm" ecs;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:70.85pt 70.85pt 2.0cm 70.85pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} -->

    On 15 October 2008, the International Court of Justice indicated provisional measures under Article 41 of its Statute in the Case concerning Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russia.[1] By these measures, it instructed both Russia and Georgia to refrain from specified violations of the Convention,[2] to do all in their power to prevent their public authorities from committing such violations

  15. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  16. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  17. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  18. Bio-optofluidics and Bio-photonics: Programmable Phase Optics activities at DTU Fotonik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Pedersen, Finn

    We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micromanipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optical...... tweezers, the BioPhotonics workstation is e.g. capable of long range 3D manipulation. This enables a variety of biological studies such as manipulation of intricate microfabricated assemblies or for automated and parallel optofluidic cell sorting. To further reduce its overhead, we propose ways of making...... the BioPhotonics Workstation platform more photon efficient by studying the 3D distribution of the counter propagating beams and utilizing the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method for illuminating the applied spatial light modulators....

  19. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  20. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  1. Jurisdiction in international civil and commercial cases : a comparative study of the law in the IBSA countries and the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LL.M. (International Commercial Law) This dissertation concerns a comparative analysis of Brazilian, Indian and South African private international law principles on the exercise of jurisdiction in international civil and commercial cases. The intention is to uncover the fundamental grounds of jurisdiction in these legal systems and in doing so draw attention to their comparable characteristics. Emphasis is placed on matters of a commercial nature. Furthermore, a discussion of the Hague Co...

  2. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  3. Bio digester : anaerobic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, Marten; Hulzen, Hans; Keizer, Melvin; Pruisscher, Gerlof; Smint, Martin; Vincent, Helene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the theme 13 and 14, our group have to realize a project in the field of the renewable energy. This project consist of the design of a bio-digester for the canteen of Zernikeplein. Gert Hofstede is our client. To produce energy, a bio-digester uses the anaerobic digestion, which is made

  4. Understanding bio-economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2008-01-01

    New plants for production of bio-based fuels, chemicals or plastics are being set up at an accelerating pace. However, this transition towards bio-based fuels, feedstocks and chemicals has not come without consequences. Increased demand has pushed up prices of key agricultural products such as maize

  5. Experience of the new service of dosimetry internal by Bio elimination of Tecnatom; Experiencia del nuevo servicio de dosimetria interna por bioeliminacion de Tecnatom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, T.; Navas Menchen, C.; Campos Mendia, J.

    2012-07-01

    Internal dosimetry is of particular relevance for occupationally exposed workers in the field of nuclear decommissioning and radioactive facilities. The tasks to be performed at these facilities involve an increase in the risk of incorporation of radioactive material into the body, the radioactive waste generated diverse in nature and involve work that may lead to a greater dispersion of radioactive material.

  6. BioSTEC 2017: 10th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies : Proceedings Volume 5: HealthInf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC 2017). This conference is sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC), in cooperation with the ACM

  7. Senate report on the bill authorizing joining the 2001 International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees (1) sur le projet de loi, Adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale, autorisant l'adhesion a la convention internationale de 2001 sur la responsabilite civile pour les dommages dus a la pollution par les hydrocarbures de soute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report recalls the different texts concerning the law of the sea: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982 which was ratified by France in 1996, the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution of 1992, the creation of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds, and the International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by sea (HNS) in 1996. While evoking some recent examples of wrecks and pollutions and some already existing French and European initiatives, it describes the implications and consequences of this convention on the French law and for its enforcement, provided that this new treaty is designed to take bunker oil into account as it may induce a significant pollution of the marine environment

  8. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  9. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-01-01

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  10. Pakistan's Approach Towards Cem-Bio Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. A.; Iqbal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan ratified the BWC and CWC as a non-possessive state at that time when international environment were fraught with uncertainties about Chem-Bio threat. The geographical location of Pakistan faces a serious multidimensional WMD threat which includes threat from, non-state actors and her neighbours especially after declaration of chemical weapons during process of ratification of CWC. Pakistan never pursued such chem-bio program with the aim to use it as a mean of deterrence in overall context of security policy and always encouraged any move regarding strengthening of national/international institutional efforts to counter potential misuse of chem-bio technology. Pakistan's position has consistently been positive, pragmatic and supportive. For better implementation of BWC and CWC in Pakistan, comprehensive policies have been formulated and National Authority has been established to work as National point of contact on CWC affairs. Pakistan CWC Act 2000, Pakistan Bio Safety Rules 2005 and Pakistan Export Control Act 2004 are the evidences of Pakistan's sincerity to the implementation of CWC and BWC. Pakistan has declared 15 industries involved with chemicals, out of which 06 have already been inspected by OPCW Inspectors. Pakistan has declared its national protective program and pursuing all possible measures to enhance the national capacity and potential to guard against chem-bio threats. Pakistan has proved that it is committed to the principles of disarmament, which could serve as confidence building measures and may help reducing distrust and regional tension.(author)

  11. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  12. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  13. Biofluid mechanics of special organs and the issue of system control. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop, March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Mair; Moore, James E; Fujioka, Hideki; Gaver, Donald P

    2010-03-01

    In the field of fluid flow within the human body, focus has been placed on the transportation of blood in the systemic circulation since the discovery of that system; but, other fluids and fluid flow phenomena pervade the body. Some of the most fascinating fluid flow phenomena within the human body involve fluids other than blood and a service other than transport--the lymphatic and pulmonary systems are two striking examples. While transport is still involved in both cases, this is not the only service which they provide and blood is not the only fluid involved. In both systems, filtration, extraction, enrichment, and in general some "treatment" of the fluid itself is the primary function. The study of the systemic circulation has also been conventionally limited to treating the system as if it were an open-loop system governed by the laws of fluid mechanics alone, independent of physiological controls and regulations. This implies that system failures can be explained fully in terms of the laws of fluid mechanics, which of course is not the case. In this paper we examine the clinical implications of these issues and of the special biofluid mechanics issues involved in the lymphatic and pulmonary systems.

  14. Survey on the possibility of international cooperation on production technology of biohydrogen; Bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    R and D on the production technology of hydrogen by biotechnology is one of the effective projects for worldwide energy supply technology and global environment protection technology in the 21st century. The research trend of various institutions promoting R and D on production technology of biohydrogen in the U.S.A. and other countries was surveyed together with the possibility of international cooperation. The production technology of biohydrogen is being watched over the world. Various researches are in promotion corresponding to environmental conditions as follows: search of not only photosynthetic bacteria but also such bacteria with hydrogen productivity as algae and anaerobic bacteria, and the gene engineering study for improving the hydrogen productivity of target microorganisms. All the institutions visited for this survey have great expectations in wide cooperative study in the future. On the possibility of international cooperation on the production technology of biohydrogen, the further precise survey should be promoted for developing more effective technologies based on the previous survey results. 156 refs., 10 tabs.

  15. Fisetin yeast-based bio-capsules via osmoporation: effects of process variables on the encapsulation efficiency and internalized fisetin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Câmara, Antonio Anchieta; Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick; Rosenthal, Amauri; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Pedrini, Márcia Regina da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Osmoporation is an innovative method that can be used with food-grade yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as natural encapsulating matrices. This technique overcomes barriers that difficult encapsulation and enables the internalization of fragile bioactive molecules such as fisetin into yeasts. In the present study, we assessed the effects of concentration, osmotic pressure, and temperature on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and internalized fisetin content (IF). Two different quantification strategies were investigated: direct extraction (DE) without cell washing or freeze-drying steps and indirect extraction (IE) performed after washings with ethanol and freeze-drying. Our results showed that osmoporation improved EE (33 %) and IF (1.199 mg). The best experimental conditions were found by using DE. High-resolution images showed that the yeast cell envelope was preserved during osmoporation at 30 MPa and 84 % of yeast cells remained viable after treatment. Washing cells with organic solvent led to decreased EE (0.65 %) and IF (0.023 mg). This was probably due to either damages caused to yeast cell envelope or fisetin dragged out of cell. Overall, the results demonstrated the adequacy and relevant biotechnological potential of yeasts as encapsulating matrices for hydrophobic compounds. This fresh biotechnological approach has proven to be a promising tool for the production of bioactive-rich food products.

  16. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harano, Yoko; Tochio, Naoya; Nakatani, Eiichi; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Mading, Steve; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Markley, John L.; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2012-01-01

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including 1 H, 13 C and 15 N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001–2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies.

  17. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  18. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  19. BioSentinel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems' (AES) BioSentinel project will develop, prototype, integrate, test, and prepare for the first spaceflight mission of a broadly...

  20. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  1. BioHack*Kolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle

    Short Abstract BioHack*Kolding explores the potential of do-it-together biology to support community building in a town that lacks strong science representation, assisting participants to reflect on the bio-potential of their personal, social and political ecologies and to translate their ideas...... into action. Long Abstract Organisations that support lay people to practice bioscience alongside experts are proliferating. They enable interested people to join the global discussion on Bio Engineering by supporting them to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to do it themselves. Such organisations play...... an important role in facilitating informed debate around the biological sciences. Yet they cannot reach everyone. BioHack*Kolding asks how community-focused biology initiatives can reach people in smaller towns that lack science representation, so that they too can join the debate and ensure that its...

  2. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  3. Waterpipe product packaging and labelling at the 3rd international Hookah Fair; does it comply with Article 11 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Darzi, Andrea; Lotfi, Tamara; Nakkash, Rima; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2017-08-01

    We assessed compliance of waterpipe product packaging and labelling with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Article 11. We evaluated samples collected at a trade fair against ten domains: health warning location, size, use of pictorials, use of colour, and packaging information on constituents and emissions. We also evaluated waterpipe accessories (e.g., charcoal) for misleading claims. Ten of 15 tobacco products had health warnings on their principal display areas, covering a median of 22.4 per cent (interquartile range 19.4-27.4 per cent) of those areas. Three had pictorial, in-colour health warnings. We judged all packaging information on constituents and emissions to be misleading. Eight of 13 charcoal products displayed environmentally friendly descriptors and/or claims of reduced harm that we judged to be misleading. Increased compliance with waterpipe tobacco regulation is warranted. An improved policy framework for waterpipe tobacco should also consider regulation of accessories such as charcoal products.

  4. Understanding bio-economics

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    New plants for production of bio-based fuels, chemicals or plastics are being set up at an accelerating pace. However, this transition towards bio-based fuels, feedstocks and chemicals has not come without consequences. Increased demand has pushed up prices of key agricultural products such as maize and corn with the result that consumers - especially those in low income areas - have reacted with concern and protest. At the same time, environmental research institutes and lobby groups - and n...

  5. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  6. Bio-fuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    European Union bio-fuel use for transport reached 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009. The slowdown in the growth of European consumption deepened again. Bio-fuel used in transport only grew by 18.7% between 2008 and 2009, as against 30.3% between 2007 and 2008 and 41.8% between 2006 and 2007. The bio-fuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the E.U. is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009. We can note that: -) the proportion of bio-fuel in the German fuels market has plummeted since 2007: from 7.3% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2009; -) France stays on course with an incorporation rate of 6.25% in 2009; -) In Spain the incorporation rate reached 3.4% in 2009 while it was 1.9% in 2008. The European bio-diesel industry has had another tough year. European production only rose by 16.6% in 2009 or by about 9 million tonnes which is well below the previous year-on-year growth rate recorded (35.7%). France is leading the production of bio-ethanol fuels in Europe with an output of 1250 million liters in 2009 while the total European production reached 3700 million litters and the world production 74000 million liters. (A.C.)

  7. Exploring Psychological and Aesthetic Approaches of Bio-Retention Facilities in the Urban Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyeon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, a number of bio-retention facilities have been installed in urban areas for flood control and green amenity purposes. As urban amenity facilities for citizens, bio-retentions have a lot potential; however, the literature on bio-retentions focused mostly on physiochemical aspects like water quality and runoffs. Hence, this paper aims to explore psychological aspects of bio-retentions such as perceptions and landscape aesthetic value for visitors. In order to achieve this purpose, the study employed on-site interviews and questionnaires in the chosen three case studies as research methodology. For the 3 different locations of bio-retention facilities, interviews and questionnaires were carried out. The surveys of 100 bio-retention users were conducted, investigating their general perceptions and landscape aesthetics of the bio-retention facilities. The paper found that only 34% of the interviewees recognised bio-detention facilities, illustrating that most visitors were not aware of such facilities and were unable to distinguish the differences between bio-retention and conventional gardens. On the other hand, the majority of interviewees strongly supported the concept and function of bio-retentions, especially those who recognised the differences in planting species with conventional urban open spaces. Such main findings also encourage further studies of seeking quantitative values by conducting a correlation analysis between the functions and aesthetics of bio-retention facilities.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal and Internal Gap of Co-Cr Copings Fabricated from Conventional Wax Pattern, 3D Printed Resin Pattern and DMLS Tech: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Eswaran; Azhagarasan, N S; Miglani, Saket; Ilango, T; Krishna, G Phani; Gajapathi, B

    2013-09-01

    Accuracy of the fit of the restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining success of the restoration. A well fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margins and internal surface. This study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the marginal gap and internal gap of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) copings fabricated by conventional casting procedures and with direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Among the total of 30 test samples 10 cast copings were made from inlay casting wax and 10 from 3D printed resin pattern. 10 copings were obtained from DMLS technique. All the 30 test samples were then cemented sequentially on stainless steel model using pressure indicating paste and evaluated for vertical marginal gap in 8 predetermined reference areas. All copings were then removed and partially sectioned and cemented sequentially on same master model for evaluation of internal gap at 4 predetermined reference areas. Both marginal gap and internal gap were measured in microns using video measuring system (VMS2010F). The results obtained for both marginal and internal gap were statistically analyzed and the values fall within the clinically acceptable range. The DMLS technique had an edge over the other two techniques used, as it exhibited minimal gap in the marginal region which is an area of chief concern.

  9. The evolution of development conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stefano Erber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual view on development and its translation into development policies. It argues that society's perception of development is structured by conventions, which provide a view of the past, present and future and, at the same time, allows a certain hierarchy of problems and solutions to such problems. The prevalence of a specific convention depends on the international conditions faced by this society and on the distribution of economic and political power within that society. Therefore, in complex societies there is always a struggle for hegemony between competing development conventions.

  10. 20th annual report 2011. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2010/2011 including: A short summary of previous data assessments, a status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network, a review of published vegetation results from ICP IM and preliminary analyses of collected vegetation data, a report on updated heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites, report on benefits of LTER collaboration (Long Term Ecological Research network, www.lter-europe.net), National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes. (orig.)

  11. 22nd annual report 2013. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2012/2013 including: A short summary of previous data assessments; A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network; A final report on relations between vegetation changes and nitrogen Critical Load exceedance; A progress report on base line heavy metal approach, estimation of the extent of metal turnover in European forest catchments over the last decades; A final report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites in Europe; National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.

  12. Problems of Translation of Provisions of International Treaties Illustrated by The Example of Article 6 of the European Convention for Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrońska Iwona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of these reflections is the analysis of issues concerning language translation of the treaty and connotations connected therewith of the meaning of legal regulations. As an example here one can cite Article 6 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950, prepared in the two official languages of the Council of Europe, i.e. English and French. The problems of interpretation of Article 6, which regulates the right to a fair trial, resulted from the official translation of the term “prawo do sprawiedliwego procesu sądowego” (the right to a just trial. This triggered a quite widespread discussion in the Polish doctrine as to whether the English term “fair” should be translated as “sprawiedliwy”. Moreover, on the basis of a translation so constructed other proposals of the concept in Article 6 appeared in the literature on the subject, such as “uczciwy” (honest, “słuszny” (right or “praworządny” (lawful trial. The article presents the argumentation of Polish lawyers on adopting the aforementioned terms, demonstrating how the language used in translation of the treaty may affect the accurate understanding of legal terminology.

  13. The VICI-trial: high frequency oscillation versus conventional mechanical ventilation in newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: an international multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Hout Lieke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH is a severe congenital anomaly of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. It is associated with a high risk of mortality and pulmonary morbidity. Previous retrospective studies have reported high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO to reduce pulmonary morbidity in infants with CDH, while others indicated HFO to be associated with worse outcome. We therefore aimed to develop a randomized controlled trial to compare initial ventilatory treatment with high-frequency oscillation and conventional ventilation in infants with CDH. Methods/design This trial is designed as a multicentre trial in which 400 infants (200 in each arm will be included. Primary outcome measures are BPD, described as oxygen dependency by day 28 according to the definition of Jobe and Bancalari, and/or mortality by day 28. All liveborn infants with CDH born at a gestational age of over 34 weeks and no other severe congenital anomalies are eligible for inclusion. Parental informed consent is asked antenatally and the allocated ventilation mode starts within two hours after birth. Laboratory samples of blood, urine and tracheal aspirate are taken at the first day of life, day 3, day 7, day 14 and day 28 to evaluate laboratory markers for ventilator-induced lung injury and pulmonary hypertension. Discussion To date, randomized clinical trials are lacking in the field of CDH. The VICI-trial, as the first randomized clinical trial in the field of CDH, may provide further insight in ventilation strategies in CDH patient. This may hopefully prevent mortality and morbidity. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR1310

  14. The VICI-trial: high frequency oscillation versus conventional mechanical ventilation in newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: an international multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Lieke; Tibboel, Dick; Vijfhuize, Sanne; te Beest, Harma; Hop, Wim; Reiss, Irwin

    2011-11-02

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe congenital anomaly of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. It is associated with a high risk of mortality and pulmonary morbidity. Previous retrospective studies have reported high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) to reduce pulmonary morbidity in infants with CDH, while others indicated HFO to be associated with worse outcome. We therefore aimed to develop a randomized controlled trial to compare initial ventilatory treatment with high-frequency oscillation and conventional ventilation in infants with CDH. This trial is designed as a multicentre trial in which 400 infants (200 in each arm) will be included. Primary outcome measures are BPD, described as oxygen dependency by day 28 according to the definition of Jobe and Bancalari, and/or mortality by day 28. All liveborn infants with CDH born at a gestational age of over 34 weeks and no other severe congenital anomalies are eligible for inclusion. Parental informed consent is asked antenatally and the allocated ventilation mode starts within two hours after birth. Laboratory samples of blood, urine and tracheal aspirate are taken at the first day of life, day 3, day 7, day 14 and day 28 to evaluate laboratory markers for ventilator-induced lung injury and pulmonary hypertension. To date, randomized clinical trials are lacking in the field of CDH. The VICI-trial, as the first randomized clinical trial in the field of CDH, may provide further insight in ventilation strategies in CDH patient. This may hopefully prevent mortality and morbidity. Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1310.

  15. Health Care Providers in War and Armed Conflict: Operational and Educational Challenges in International Humanitarian Law and the Geneva Conventions, Part II. Educational and Training Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L; Giannou, Christos; Paterson, Mary A; Wren, Sherry M; Burnham, Gilbert

    2018-05-07

    ABSTRACTNo discipline has been impacted more by war and armed conflict than health care has. Health systems and health care providers are often the first victims, suffering increasingly heinous acts that cripple the essential health delivery and public health infrastructure necessary for the protection of civilian and military victims of the state at war. This commentary argues that current instructional opportunities to prepare health care providers fall short in both content and preparation, especially in those operational skill sets necessary to manage multiple challenges, threats, and violations under international humanitarian law and to perform triage management in a resource-poor medical setting. Utilizing a historical framework, the commentary addresses the transformation of the education and training of humanitarian health professionals from the Cold War to today followed by recommendations for the future. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 14).

  16. Right and access to healthcare for undocumented children: addressing the gap between international conventions and disparate implementations in North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Rousseau, Cécile; Derluyn, Ilse; Watters, Charles; Crépeau, François

    2010-01-01

    Limited access to healthcare for vulnerable immigrant children in Europe and North America is increasingly worrisome as immigration policies harden. This paper analyzes the gap between States' obligations under international human rights law and the disparate local implementations in diverse countries. Studies that are both multidisciplinary and incorporate micro and macro level indicators are needed to reveal discrepancies between entitlements and access. It is argued that the lack of available data on the magnitude of the problem and on its individual and public health consequences stems from the conflicting situation faced by health institutions required to simultaneously protect the best interest of each child and allocate limited resources. Collaboration in research is urgently needed to assist policy-makers and institutions make informed decisions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental study on bio-leaching of high sulphuric acid consumption uranium ore by adding sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yunsheng; Zheng Ying; Liu Hui; Cheng Hao; Zhou Lei; Liu Chao; Fan Baotuan; Li Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    In order to decrease acid consumption and increase leaching rate, an experiment on bio-leach-ing of low grade uranium ore by adding sulphide was done. Compared with conventional leaching method, the leaching rate of uranium is improved by 3% and the leaching period was reduced to 60 days from 90 days by bio-leaching method of adding sulphide. In order to decrease acid consumption with bio-leaching by adding sulphide obviously, robust bacteria to sulphide should be chosen. (authors)

  18. Lovkommentar i Karnovs Lovsamling af Lovbekendtgørelse 2014-11-21 nr. 1224 International købelov (CISG: Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    CISG er en international konvention, som indeholder regler om købsaftaler i international handel. CISG regulerer blandt andet, hvornår en international købsaftale er indgået, købers og sælgers rettigheder, forpligtelser samt misligholdelsesbeføjelser mm. CISG finder anvendelse, dels når såvel...... sælgers som købers hjemland har tiltrådt konventionen, dels når international privatrets regler fører til anvendelsen af en kontraherende stats ret. CISG trådte i kraft 1988-01-01. Den danske ratifikation skete 1989-02-04. CISG er ratificeret af godt 85 andre lande (2017). Som et led i den danske...

  19. Comparison of the CoaguChek XS handheld coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory methods measuring international normalised ratio (INR) values during the time to therapeutic range after mechanical valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakci, Hasmet; Altıntaş, Garip; Çiçek, Omer Faruk; Kervan, Umit; Yilmaz, Sevinc; Kaplan, Sadi; Birincioglu, Cemal Levent

    2013-05-01

    To compare the international normalised ratio (INR) value of patients evaluated using the CoaguChek XS versus conventional laboratory methods, in the period after open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement until a therapeutic range is achieved using vitamin K antagonists (VKA) together with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). One hundred and five patients undergoing open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from patients before surgery, and on the second and fifth postoperative days, simultaneously for both the point of care device and conventional laboratory techniques. Patients were administered VKA together with LMWH at therapeutic doses (enoxaparin 100 IU/kg twice daily) subcutaneously, until an effective range was achieved on approximately the fifth day after surgery. The mean INR values using the CoaguChek XS preoperatively and on the second and fifth days postoperatively were 1.20 (SD ± 0.09), 1.82 (SD ± 0.45), and 2.55 (SD ± 0.55), respectively. Corresponding results obtained using conventional laboratory techniques were 1.18 (SD ± 0.1), 1.81 (SD ± 0.43), and 2.51 (SD ± 0.58). The correlation coefficient was r = 0.77 preoperatively, r = 0.981 on postoperative day 2, and r = 0.983 on postoperative day 5. Results using the CoaguChek XS Handheld Coagulation Analyzer correlated strongly with conventional laboratory methods, in the bridging period between open-heart surgery for mechanical valve replacement and the achievement of a therapeutic range on warfarin and LMWH. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...

  1. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Hoffmann, Jessica; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study on hydrotreatment of ligno-cellulosic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) bio-crude to achieve a bio-feed compatible for co-processing at a refinery was made to investigate the effect of operating temperature, pressure and hydrogen to oil ratio. Using a conventional NiMo/Al2O3 h...

  2. Production of biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. seed oil using bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two agricultural residues, cocoa pod ash (CPA) and rice husk ash (RHA), were investigated as bio-based catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results obtained using these bio-based catalysts were compared with potassium hydroxide which is a conventional catalyst. Oil was extracted ...

  3. Detection of HIV-1 p24 Gag in plasma by a nanoparticle-based bio-barcode-amplification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Stanton, Jennifer; Korber, Bette T M; Krebs, Kendall; Bogdan, Derek; Kunstman, Kevin; Wu, Samuel; Phair, John P; Mirkin, Chad A; Wolinsky, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Detection of HIV-1 in patients is limited by the sensitivity and selectivity of available tests. The nanotechnology-based bio-barcode-amplification method offers an innovative approach to detect specific HIV-1 antigens from diverse HIV-1 subtypes. We evaluated the efficacy of this protein-detection method in detecting HIV-1 in men enrolled in the Chicago component of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). The method relies on magnetic microparticles with antibodies that specifically bind the HIV-1 p24 Gag protein and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the microparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes (hundreds per target) were identified by a nanoparticle-based detection method that does not rely on PCR. Of 112 plasma samples from HIV-1-infected subjects, 111 were positive for HIV-1 p24 Gag protein (range: 0.11-71.5 ng/ml of plasma) by the bio-barcode-amplification method. HIV-1 p24 Gag protein was detected in only 23 out of 112 men by the conventional ELISA. A total of 34 uninfected subjects were negative by both tests. Thus, the specificity of the bio-barcode-amplification method was 100% and the sensitivity 99%. The bio-barcode-amplification method detected HIV-1 p24 Gag protein in plasma from all study subjects with less than 200 CD4(+) T cells/microl of plasma (100%) and 19 out of 20 (95%) HIV-1-infected men who had less than 50 copies/ml of plasma of HIV-1 RNA. In a separate group of 60 diverse international isolates, representative of clades A, B, C and D and circulating recombinant forms CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG, the bio-barcode-amplification method identified the presence of virus correctly. The bio-barcode-amplification method was superior to the conventional ELISA assay for the detection of HIV-1 p24 Gag protein in plasma with a breadth of coverage for diverse

  4. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  5. BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in the field of Microsystem Technology has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. 'Biomes' is a discipline which focuses on microsystems for living systems. This work presents the exciting field of bio-microsystems.

  6. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  7. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  8. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  9. Comparative reliability and diagnostic performance of conventional 3T magnetic resonance imaging and 1.5T magnetic resonance arthrography for the evaluation of internal derangement of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, A. [Chapel Allerton Hospital, Radiology Department, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J.; Robinson, Philip [Chapel Allerton Hospital, Radiology Department, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds (United Kingdom); Chapel Allerton Hospital, University of Leeds and NHIR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Centre, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dube, B.; Evans, R.; Hodgson, R. [Chapel Allerton Hospital, University of Leeds and NHIR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Centre, Leeds (United Kingdom); Conroy, J. [Harrogate and District NHS Trust, Trauma and Orthopaedics Department, Harrogate (United Kingdom); Macdonald, D. [Chapel Allerton Hospital, Trauma and Orthopaedics Department, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2018-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional 3T MRI against 1.5T MR arthrography (MRA) in patients with clinical femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Sixty-eight consecutive patients with clinical FAI underwent both 1.5T MRA and 3T MRI. Imaging was prospectively analysed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, blinded to patient outcomes and scored for internal derangement including labral and cartilage abnormality. Interobserver variation was assessed by kappa analysis. Thirty-nine patients subsequently underwent hip arthroscopy and surgical results and radiology findings were analysed. Both readers had higher sensitivities for detecting labral tears with 3T MRI compared to 1.5T MRA (not statistically significant p=0.07). For acetabular cartilage defect both readers had higher statistically significant sensitivities using 3T MRI compared to 1.5T MRA (p=0.02). Both readers had a slightly higher sensitivity for detecting delamination with 1.5T MRA compared to 3T MRI, but these differences were not statistically significant (p=0.66). Interobserver agreement was substantial to perfect agreement for all parameters except the identification of delamination (3T MRI showed moderate agreement and 1.5T MRA substantial agreement). Conventional 3T MRI may be at least equivalent to 1.5T MRA in detecting acetabular labrum and possibly superior to 1.5T MRA in detecting cartilage defects in patients with suspected FAI. circle Conventional 3T MRI is equivalent to 1.5T MRA for diagnosing labral tears. (orig.)

  10. Bioética. El final del consenso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa LÓPEZ DE LA VIEJA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El Convenio de Oviedo, de 1997, demuestra la dificultad de llegar a acuerdos internacionales sobre cómo regular la investigación biomédica, en especial los límites de la investigación con embriones. Algunos temas de Bioética muestran la pluralidad de doctrinas y de sistemas morales; es más, pueden indicar el final de la era del consenso. El final de la pax bioetica, que tanto significó para el éxito de la disciplina a lo largo de tres décadas. Tender puentes, forjar consenso ha sido, en efecto, una de las contribuciones más valiosas del discurso bioético y de los nuevos expertos en Bioética. Desde los años setenta, los principios del Liberalismo y las actitudes pragmáticas han sido el núcleo de su ideología, un tipo de consenso «americano» para poner fronteras a las ideologías políticas o radicales. Sin embargo, la actual agenda ampliada de la Bioética, así su expansión internacional, están minando el consenso básico. Un giro más político de la Bioética podría, tal vez, ofrecer algunos acuerdos sobre temas específicos. Este tipo de consenso estaría también más cerca de los intereses de los ciudadanos, así como del nuevo contexto, global y social: sería un consenso «republicano», por así decirlo. El artículo analiza la evolución desde la etapa del consenso –tender puentes, principios comunes, procedimientos «no densos»– hacia los acuerdos plurales –contextuales, «densos»–, teniendo en cuenta la pluralidad de los valores morales y de las fronteras culturales.ABSTRACT: The Oviedo Convention proved in 1997 how difficult could be an international agreement concerning the regulation of biomedical research, particularly the limits of research on human embryos. Some bioethical issues show the plurality of doctrines and moral systems; moreover they could detect the end of the consensus’s era. It could be the end of the pax bioetica, which determined the wide success of the discipline during

  11. The potential for second generation bio-ethanol production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of possible bio-sources that can be used for bioethanol production with emphasis on those that have potential of replacing conventional fuels with little or minor modification of existing biomass production capacity and trend is presented. Data analysis indicates that the straw from maize, sorghum and wheat can ...

  12. BioPhotonics Workstation: a university tech transfer challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Tauro, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Conventional optical trapping or tweezing is often limited in the achievable trapping range because of high numerical aperture and imaging requirements. To circumvent this, we are developing a next generation BioPhotonics Workstation platform that supports extension modules through a long working...

  13. Combustion Characterization of Individual Bio-oil Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavior...

  14. EAP artificial muscle actuators for bio-inspired intelligent social robotics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, David F.

    2017-04-01

    Bio-inspired intelligent robots are coming of age in both research and industry, propelling market growth for robots and A.I. However, conventional motors limit bio-inspired robotics. EAP actuators and sensors could improve the simplicity, compliance, physical scaling, and offer bio-inspired advantages in robotic locomotion, grasping and manipulation, and social expressions. For EAP actuators to realize their transformative potential, further innovations are needed: the actuators must be robust, fast, powerful, manufacturable, and affordable. This presentation surveys progress, opportunities, and challenges in the author's latest work in social robots and EAP actuators, and proposes a roadmap for EAP actuators in bio-inspired intelligent robotics.

  15. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  16. SCR at bio fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Odenbrand, I.; Andersson, L.H.

    1998-10-01

    In this project the cause for and the extent of catalyst deactivation has been investigated when using 100 % wood as fuel. The trend of deactivation has been studied as a function of the flue gas temperature, the type of catalyst and the type of combustion technique used. The field tests have been performed in the CFB boiler in Norrkoeping, firing forest residues, and in the boiler in Jordbro, firing pulverized wood (PC). Samples of four different commercial catalyst types have been exposed to flue gas in a test rig connected to the convection section of the boiler. The samples have been analysed at even time intervals. The results after 2 100 hours show a large difference in deactivation trend between the two plants; when using a conventional honeycomb catalyst 80 % of the original activity remains in the CFB boiler but only 20 % remains in the PC boiler. The deactivation in the CFB boiler is about 3 - 4 times faster than what is expected for a conservative design for a coal fired boiler. The results show that the general deactivation trend is similar for the plate and the honeycomb catalyst types. With a catalyst optimised for bio fuels the deactivation rate was about 2/3 compared with a conventional catalyst. At an operating temperature of 315 deg C the deactivation was not as rapid as at 370 deg C. The amount of easily dissolved potassium increases on the surface of the catalyst, especially in the PC boiler, and this is probably the reason for the deactivation. The total amount of potassium in the flue gas is about 5 times higher in the CFB boiler compared with the PC boiler. This indicates that only a certain form of potassium attacks the catalyst and that the total alkali content of the fuel is not a good indicator of the deactivation tendency. The potassium on the catalyst dissolves easily in both water and sulphuric acid. A wash of deactivated catalyst samples with water resulted in higher activity than for the fresh samples if the washing was supplemented

  17. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  18. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H.; Farmer, Thomas J.; Hunt, Andrew J.; Sherwood, James

    2015-01-01

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents. PMID:26225963

  19. Bio energy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  20. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  1. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    assays, adapted from conventional crude oil assays, have been obtained, including fractionation of the bio-crude through 15:5 vacuum distillation. The bio-crude and its fractions have been analyzed with respect to heating value, elemental composition, density and oxygen-containing functional groups....... Results show a highly promising bio-crude quality, with a higher heating value of 40.4 MJ/kg, elemental oxygen content of 5.3 wt.%, a specific gravity of 0.97 and a distillation recovery of ∼53.4 wt.% at an atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET) of 375 °C, . Results show that only minor upgrading......This study presents detailed chemical and thermophysical analysis of bio-crude from a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction research plant. Current research on bio-crude focuses mainly on specific biomass feedstocks and conversion process conditions and resulting yields rather than on bio-crude...

  2. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  3. Scafom International BV v. Lorraine Tubes S.A.S.: a case review of changing circumstances under the United Nations Convention on International Sale of Goods (CISG of 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalina AHMAD TAJUDIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Belgium Supreme Court decision of Scafom International BV v. Lorraine Tubes S.A.S. The case involved a contract of sale of volatile goods ie steel tubes whereby a fixed-price contract caused it to be unenforceable because of the 70% market price increase just before the goods were delivered to the buyer. While the seller requested for renegotiation, for a higher contract price, the buyer refused to come to terms with the former. The court, by virtue of the United Nations sales law, held that renegotiation was the appropriate remedy in such a situation. In addition, the paper tests the different possible outcomes of this decision under the English Sale of Goods Act 1979, as well as the US Uniform Commercial Code. The finding of this test proves that these two sales laws would have tackled the issue of volatile market differently from that of the United Nations’.

  4. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  5. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  6. Chemical Weapons Convention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  7. The prospect of conventional disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, O.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of conventional disarmament in Europe holds out great consequences not only for the continent but also for the entire world. The arms race both in its nuclear and conventional aspects has been the single most important element of the destabilizing factors in international relations since 1945. Though initially borne out of the ideological division of Europe and the consequent quest for strategic military superiority, it soon developed a technological momentum of its own, becoming more the cause than the effect of the distrust in the relationship of the two alliances. The issue of conventional weapons was raised for negotiations side by side with that of nuclear weapons when the United Nations took up the question of disarmament in 1946. Due, however, to the unforeseen and most dangerous advance in nuclear weaponry, the fear engendered shifted all attention at the multilateral level to nuclear weapons. Except in Europe where the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction Talks in Central Europe were initiated, conventional weapons disarmament did not attract multilateral attention again until the First Special Session of the United nations General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament in 1978. The Final Document of the Special Session did accord highest priority to negotiations on nuclear weapons. However, it also affirmed that side by side with negotiations on nuclear weapons, the limitation and gradual reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons should be resolutely pursued within the framework of general and complete disarmament. States with the largest military arsenals, it was stated, had a special responsibility in pursuing conventional armaments reduction. Underscoring the central role of Europe further, the Final Document postulated that the achievement of a more stable situation at a lower level of military potential would contribute toward strengthening of security in Europe and constitute a significant step toward international peace and security

  8. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  9. BIOS Security Analysis and a Kind of Trusted BIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenliu; Xu, Rongsheng

    The BIOS's security threats to computer system are analyzed and security requirements for firmware BIOS are summarized in this paper. Through discussion about TCG's trust transitivity, a new approach about CRTM implementation based on BIOS is developed. In this paper, we also put forward a new trusted BIOS architecture-UTBIOS which is built on Intel Framework for EFI/UEFI. The trustworthiness of UTBIOS is based on trusted hardware TPM. In UTBIOS, trust encapsulation and trust measurement are used to construct pre-OS trust chain. Performance of trust measurement is also analyzed in the end.

  10. Decision no. 2011-DC-0214 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering CIS bio international company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of its basic nuclear facility in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to CIS bio international company, operator of the radiopharmaceuticals fabrication facility (INB 29) of Saclay (France). (J.S.)

  11. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  12. Combinatorial Nano-Bio Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pingqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yun-Long; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-06-08

    Nano-bio interfaces are emerging from the convergence of engineered nanomaterials and biological entities. Despite rapid growth, clinical translation of biomedical nanomaterials is heavily compromised by the lack of comprehensive understanding of biophysicochemical interactions at nano-bio interfaces. In the past decade, a few investigations have adopted a combinatorial approach toward decoding nano-bio interfaces. Combinatorial nano-bio interfaces comprise the design of nanocombinatorial libraries and high-throughput bioevaluation. In this Perspective, we address challenges in combinatorial nano-bio interfaces and call for multiparametric nanocombinatorics (composition, morphology, mechanics, surface chemistry), multiscale bioevaluation (biomolecules, organelles, cells, tissues/organs), and the recruitment of computational modeling and artificial intelligence. Leveraging combinatorial nano-bio interfaces will shed light on precision nanomedicine and its potential applications.

  13. Tax exemption for bio fuels in Germany: is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, J.M.; Klepper, G.; Schmitz, N.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable resources. The paper takes a closer look at bio-ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. It analyzes the underlying basic German, European, and worldwide conditions that provide the setting for the production and promotion of biofuels. It is shown that the production of bio-ethanol in Germany is not competitive and that imports are likely to increase. Using energy and greenhouse-gas balances we then demonstrate that the promotion and a possible increased use of bio-ethanol to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions are economically inefficient and that there are preferred alternative strategies. In addition, scenarios of the future development of the bio-ethanol market are derived from a model that allows for variations in all decisive variables and reflects the entire production and trade chain of bio-ethanol, from the agricultural production of wheat and sugar beet to the consumption of bio-ethanol in the fuel sector. (author)

  14. Tax exemption for bio fuels in Germany: is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, J.M.; Klepper, G. [Kiel Institute for World Economics, Kiel (Germany); Schmitz, N. [Meo Consulting Team, Koeln (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable resources. The paper takes a closer look at bio-ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. It analyzes the underlying basic German, European, and worldwide conditions that provide the setting for the production and promotion of biofuels. It is shown that the production of bio-ethanol in Germany is not competitive and that imports are likely to increase. Using energy and greenhouse-gas balances we then demonstrate that the promotion and a possible increased use of bio-ethanol to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions are economically inefficient and that there are preferred alternative strategies. In addition, scenarios of the future development of the bio-ethanol market are derived from a model that allows for variations in all decisive variables and reflects the entire production and trade chain of bio-ethanol, from the agricultural production of wheat and sugar beet to the consumption of bio-ethanol in the fuel sector. (author)

  15. Structure and physical properties of bio membranes and model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibor Hianik

    2006-01-01

    Bio membranes belong to the most important structures of the cell and the cell organelles. They play not only structural role of the barrier separating the external and internal part of the membrane but contain also various functional molecules, like receptors, ionic channels, carriers and enzymes. The cell membrane also preserves non-equilibrium state in a cell which is crucial for maintaining its excitability and other signaling functions. The growing interest to the bio membranes is also due to their unique physical properties. From physical point of view the bio membranes, that are composed of lipid bilayer into which are incorporated integral proteins and on their surface are anchored peripheral proteins and polysaccharides, represent liquid s crystal of smectic type. The bio membranes are characterized by anisotropy of structural and physical properties. The complex structure of bio membranes makes the study of their physical properties rather difficult. Therefore several model systems that mimic the structure of bio membranes were developed. Among them the lipid monolayers at an air-water interphase, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes are most known. This work is focused on the introduction into the physical word of the bio membranes and their models. After introduction to the membrane structure and the history of its establishment, the physical properties of the bio membranes and their models are stepwise presented. The most focus is on the properties of lipid monolayers, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes that were most detailed studied. This lecture has tutorial character that may be useful for undergraduate and graduate students in the area of biophysics, biochemistry, molecular biology and bioengineering, however it contains also original work of the author and his co-worker and PhD students, that may be useful also for specialists working in the field of bio membranes and model

  16. Amphiphilic Bio-molecules/ZnO Interface: Enhancement of Bio-affinity and Dispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiu-Qing; Fang Yun-Zhang; Wu Feng-Min

    2012-01-01

    The dispersibility of bio-molecules such as lecithins on the surface of ZnO nanowires are investigated for biosensor applications. Lecithins can be absorbed on an as-synthesized ZnO nanowire surface in the form of sub-micro sized clusters, while scattering well on those annealed under oxygen atmosphere. Wettability analysis reveals that the as-synthesized ZnO nanowires bear a super-hydrophobic surface, which convents to superhydrophilic after oxygen annealing. First-principles calculations indicate that the adsorption energy of ZnO with water is about 0.2 eV at a distance of 2 Å when it is superhydrophilic, suggesting that lecithin can be absorbed on the hydrophilic surface stably at this distance and the bio-affinity can be enhanced under this condition. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  17. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anu, Sharma, E-mail: issaranu@gmail.com; Gayatri, Sharma, E-mail: sharmagayatri@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College of Engineering & Technology, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  18. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  19. Development of a bio-mechanical model of the spine based on 3D internal-external relationships: bi-planar radiography and Moire fringes; Developpement d'un modele biomecanique du rachis base sur les relations 3D internes - externes: radiographie bi-planaire et franges de Moire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunier-Koell, P.

    2010-11-15

    Nowadays, radiography is the gold standard for the follow up of spinal pathologies. Furthermore, bi-planar radiography allows the assessment of vertebrae configuration, by 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. However, multiple radiographic examinations during childhood and adolescence increase the risk of breast cancer among women. To reduce radiation doses, some radiographic assessments could be replaced by the back surface evaluation. This kind of non-invasive procedure allows for acquisition of many clinical parameters useful for spinal pathologies diagnosis and follow-up. Moreover, with an appropriate bio mechanical model, the back surface measurements could be used to estimate the spine configuration. The aim of this thesis is to develop and implement such a model based on personalized internal and external data. The Biomod 3S device has been developed by the company AXS MEDICAL SAS, Bordeaux, France. It offers the possibility of simultaneous acquisitions of X-rays and Moire fringes to obtain 3D reconstructions of the spine and the back surface. Such acquisitions on fifteen scoliotic subjects have enabled us to assess several relationships between internal 3D parameters (for example axial rotation of vertebrae) and external 3D parameters (for example rib hump). The spine configuration and the back surface obtained during this acquisition will also be used as initial position to develop (with Scilab) the multi-body model. The other data used by the model are the back surface in a second position and constraints obtained from the surface in both positions (for example displacement of C7 vertebra). The model has been validated on nine healthy subjects, whose 3D spine and back surface were reconstructed in several positions (standing, leaning forward, sitting) from MRI acquisitions. Moreover, the model has been operated on a pathological subject. This work has explored and utilized many spine and back surface information and leads the way to non-invasive diagnosis

  20. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA) [fr

  1. Bio-tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field.

  2. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  3. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  4. Bio-fouling and its control in the cooling water system of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, K.K.; Kannan, S.E.

    2004-06-01

    This report gives an overview of the bio-fouling problems that could be visualized in the different sections of the cooling system of PFBR, which is based on the experience observed at MAPS as well as from the experience of some of the work carried out at Kalpakkam. International as well as the MAPS practices of bio-fouling control are discussed. Based on these, an appropriate method for bio-fouling control is suggested. In addition, a few time bound, field, as well as laboratory experiments are proposed to be carried out, for deciding precise and accurate method of bio-fouling control for PFBR cooling water system. (author)

  5. A convenção internacional sobre os direitos da criança: debates e tensões The international convention on the child's rights: debates and tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvia Rosemberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, revisitamos a literatura sobre o contexto sociopolítico e o texto da Convenção Internacional sobre os Direitos da Criança, bem como algumas de suas repercussões no Brasil. Nosso interesse de apresentar e discutir a literatura sobre a Convenção decorre não só da escassez da bibliografia brasileira, apesar da célere ratificação do documento pelo Brasil e de ele ter inspirado a elaboração do art. 227 da Constituição Brasileira de 1988 e do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. Deriva, sobretudo, de sua inovação na representação de infância e dos direitos da criança e, em consequência, da intensa e instigante produção acadêmica que tem provocado no hemisfério norte. Além disso, parece-nos urgente que a sociedade brasileira disponha de embasamento mais consistente sobre os marcos legais que adotaIn this article, we look again at literature relating to socio-political contexts and the text of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as some of its repercussions in Brazil. Our interest in presenting and discussing the literature on the Convention stems not only from the fact that little has been written in Brazil on this theme, despite its speedy ratification of the document, and the fact that it inspired the drafting of Article 227 of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution and the Statute of the Child and Adolescent. It derives above all, from the way it innovated in representing childhood and children's rights and, as a consequence, the intense and challenging academic production it provoked in the northern hemisphere. Furthermore, it seems for us that Brazilian society urgently needs to have a more consistent basis for the legal frameworks it adopts

  6. Report made on the behalf of the Commission of foreign affairs, defence and armed forces on the bill project authorizing the ratification of the international convention for the repression of acts of nuclear terrorism - Nr 215

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintat, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    In a first part, this report recalls that the terrorist threat has already been addressed by texts which have been negotiated within the United Nations. It describes how the content of the convention has been elaborated while taking into account existing conventions related to nuclear issues. It outlines that this text is the fruit of the efforts made by a special committee created by the U N, and by the Lyons-Rome group within the G8. The second part comments how this convention is based on other conventions already ratified by France, notably the conventions of 1980 and 1997 on the physical protection of nuclear material. It outlines the important progress contained by this convention regarding incriminations of acts of nuclear terrorism and their crackdown

  7. Nr 703 - Report made on the behalf of the Foreign affairs Commission on the bill project adopted by the Senate authorizing the ratification of the International Convention for the Repression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and Appendix: text of the Foreign affairs Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameline, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This report first explains that the threat of nuclear terrorism requires a resolute action by the international community. It evokes the various forms nuclear terrorism can have: misappropriation of nuclear weapons, fabrication of nuclear explosive devices, use of radiological bombs, or malevolent acts against nuclear installations or against nuclear material transports. It gives an overview of the various international initiatives regarding this issue: resolutions 1540 and 1977 by the UNO Security Council, G8 global partnership, the global initiative to combat nuclear terrorism (GICNT), and the action of the IAEA in the field of prevention and detection. Then, the report addresses the content of the International Convention for the Repression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, briefly discusses the main obligations for member states (repression aspects, international cooperation, prevention aspects) and the follow-up of its application (opportunities given by the Convention, assessment performed by the IAEA)

  8. Bio-prospecting of distillery yeasts as bio-control and bio-remediation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals.

  9. In Vitro Comparison of Marginal and Internal Fit of Press-on-Metal Ceramic (PoM) Restorations with Zirconium-Supported and Conventional Metal Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures Before and After Veneering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Seda; Kulak-Özkan, Yasemin

    2015-07-01

    To compare marginal and internal fit between 3- and 4-unit press-on-metal (PoM) ceramic, zirconia-supported, and conventional metal ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs) before and after veneering. Ten pieces for each 3- and 4-unit MC, IPS InLine PoM, and IPS e.max ZirCAD/Zir Press FPDs were produced. Cross-sections from silicone replicas were examined and measured with a light microscope. Occlusal, axial, intermarginal, and marginal mean adaptation scores of cross-sectioned replicas and means of measurements obtained from 4 sites were calculated independently. Mean values for molars were 78.44 ± 32.01 μm (MC), 89.84 ± 29.20 μm (PoM), and 85.17 ± 28.49 μm (Zir). Premolar values were 76.08 ± 27.92 μm (MC), 89.94 ± 23.49 μm (PoM), and 87.18 ± 28.25 μm (Zir). No difference existed between the means of 3- and 4-unit FPDs except the molar-intermarginal region. The mean value of 4-unit FPDs (93.88 ± 25.41 μm) was less than the 3-unit FPDs (103.68 ± 24.55 μm) at the molar-inter marginal region. A gap increase was observed in all sites except the molar-axio-occlusal region after veneering. According to the mean difference, gap increases at the molar-marginal, molar-intermarginal, and premolar-intermarginal regions were statistically significant. A statistical difference was found at the molar-marginal region for 4-unit MCR (p = 0.041) and 4-unit PoM FPDs (p = 0.042) before and after veneering. Gap increase after veneering of 4-unit metal ceramics at molar-intermarginal, premolar-marginal, and premolar-intermarginal regions (p = 0.020; p = 0.015; p = 0.004) was significant. The gap measurements of the IPS InLine PoM and IPS e.max ZirCAD/Zir Press groups were all clinically acceptable. No studies on marginal and internal fit in the IPS InLine PoM system have been published to date. This study should be supported with future studies. No significant increase was observed after press-veneering the IPS e.max ZirCAD frameworks with an IPS e.max ZirPress material

  10. Report of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project (no.1510) authorizing the protocol approbation at the convention of the 27 november 1992 concerning the creation of a compensation international Fund for damages resulting from the hydrocarbons pollution; Rapport au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de loi (no. 1510) autorisant l'approbation du protocole a la convention du 27 novembre 1992 portant creation d'un fonds international d'indemnisation pour les dommages dus a la pollution par les hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charette, H. de

    2004-05-01

    This law project (no 1510), deposed at the National Assembly the 2 april 2004, aims to authorize the protocol approbation at the convention of the 27 november 1992, creating the FIPOL. This evaluation constitutes an opportunity to take stock on the maritime transport safety and above the compensation question, on the inadequacy of the concerned international regulation and the difficulty to engage the intervenors liability. The liabilities financial limits are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  12. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khola, G.; Ghazala, B.

    2011-01-01

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  13. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives of bio methane as a substitute for natural gas. Economic, ecologic and technical potential; Perspektiven von Biomethan als Erdgassubstitut. Oekonomisches, oekologisches und technisches Potenzial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachar, Jan-Claudio

    2012-11-01

    A possibility to supply energy from gaseous biomass is the generation of biogas and bio-SNG, respectively, with a subsequent conditioning to bio methane which can be fed in into the natural gas distribution system. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on how the conventionally used natural gas can be substituted by the biogas. It is investigated whether the transformation of biogas or bio-SNG to bio methane is worthwhile under economic and ecologic aspects. It is also investigated to what extend natural gas can be exchanged by bio methane under consideration of the technical and legal frameworks.

  15. Bio-Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In: Proceedings of the 20th Convention of The Institute of Brewing (Australia and New ... The publishers reserve the right to reduce or enlarge line drawings. ... are requested to pay $ 50 (US dollars) to the Editor-in-Chief in certified bank draft.

  16. Nr 215 - Report made on the behalf of the Foreign affairs, defence and armed forces Commission on the bill project authorizing the approval of the International Convention for the Repression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintat, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This report first recalls that the suppression of terrorist threat has already been the object of several texts negotiated under the aegis of UNO, that the current convention has been elaborated by taking existing conventions related to nuclear into account, and that this convention is the result of efforts made by the special committee created by the UNO and the G8 'Lyon-Rome' group. In a second part, the author shows that this text is based on conventions already ratified by France. As shown in a table containing the convention articles and the associated obligations for states after ratification, this agreement contains important progresses in terms of incriminations of acts of nuclear terrorism and their suppression

  17. Bio-energy in Europe: changing technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-energy is seen as one of the key options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and substitute fossil fuels. This is certainly evident in Europe, where a kaleidoscope of activities and programs was and is executed for developing and stimulating bio-energy. Over the past 10-15 years in the European Union, heat and electricity production from biomass increased with some 2% and 9% per year, respectively, between 1990 and 2000 and biofuel production increased about eight-fold in the same period. Biomass contributed some two-thirds of the total renewable energy production in the European Union (EU) (2000 PJ) or 4% of the total energy supply in 1999. Given the targets for heat, power and biofuels, this contribution may rise to some 10% (6000 PJ) in 2010. Over time, the scale at which bio-energy is being used has increased considerably. This is true for electricity and combined heat and power plants, and how biomass markets are developing from purely regional to international markets, with increasing cross-border trade-flows. So far, national policy programs proved to be of vital importance for the success of the development of bio-energy, which led to very specific technological choices in various countries. For the future, a supra-national approach is desired: comprehensive research development, demonstration and deployment trajectories for key options as biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle and advanced biofuel concepts, develop an international biomass market allowing for international trade and an integral policy approach for bio-energy incorporating energy, agricultural, forestry, waste and industrial policies. The Common Agricultural Policy of the (extended) EU should fully incorporate bio-energy and perennial crops in particular

  18. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  19. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  20. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  1. The factors which influence the consumption of bio products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleană, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of ecological products is an expensive “fashion” on the international market. However, the production and processing of the row BIO materials represent a complex problem, which demands solutions. The Romanian BIO products market has a favourable image, even though consumption represents only 1% of the total consumption. 90% of the raw materials are exported. Unfortunately, the products exported return to Romania, processed, with 4-5 times higher prices. The direction for a clean and healthier life style is designed. Its evolution will decide the future.

  2. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  3. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing; U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute

    2000-01-01

    The Contracting parties recognize the importance of the measures provided in the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third party liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as well as in national legislation on compensation for nuclear damage consistent with the principles of these conventions. The Contracting parties desire to establish a worldwide liability regime to supplement and enhance these measures with a view to increasing the amount of compensation for nuclear damage and encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principle of international partnership and solidarity

  4. Project of law authorizing the adhesion to the protocol of 1997 modifying the international convention of 1973 for the prevention of the pollution by ships, such as modified by the related protocol of 1978; Projet de loi autorisant l'adhesion au protocole de 1997 modifiant la convention internationale de 1973 pour la prevention de la pollution par les navires, telle que modifiee par le protocole de 1978 y relatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    The first international agreement of May 12, 1954, for the protection of the marine and coastal environments against pollution was replaced on November 2, 1973 by a more detailed convention for the prevention of the pollution by ships. The 25 rules defined in the appendix 1 of this last document were modified and completed by the protocol of February 17, 1978. To make this system even more constraining for the atmospheric pollution, a diplomatic conference took place in September 1997 at the head office of the international maritime organization in London (UK). This conference has adopted a protocol which introduced a new appendix no. 6 in the text of the 1973 convention for the abatement of the emissions of sulfur compounds and other polluting combustion products in case of oil-tank burning. This document is a project of law authorizing the adhesion of France to the protocol of 1997. It summarizes the main content of the articles of this protocol, and in particular the rules introduced in the new appendix. The full text of the protocol and of its appendixes are also attached. (J.S.)

  5. Decision no 2009-DC-0158 of the 15. of September 2009 by the Nuclear Safety Authority specifying instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installation n. 29 operated by the CIS Bio International on the district of Saclay (Essonne department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After references to the different legal and official documents (codes, orders, minister's opinion, public surveys, administrative authorizations, local community opinion), this document specifies the instructions related to modalities of water sampling and consumption, and of release in the environment of liquid and gaseous effluents from the base nuclear installation operated by CIS Bio International in Saclay. These instructions and provisions concern the general means implemented by the operator, records, the control by authorities, the limits of water sampling and consumption, the water sampling process, the sampling works and their maintenance and control, the release of liquid, gaseous and radioactive effluents, their control and their transfer, the limit values for different compounds and species, the control of environment around the site, the information of authorities and of population

  6. Upgrading the lubricity of bio-oil via homogeneous catalytic esterification under vacuum distillation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yufu; Zheng, Xiaojing; Peng, Yubin; Li, Bao; Hu, Xianguo; Yin, Yanguo

    2015-01-01

    In order to accelerate the application of bio-oil in the internal combustion engines, homogeneous catalytic esterification technology under vacuum distillation conditions was used to upgrade the crude bio-oil. The lubricities of the crude bio-oil (BO) and refined bio-oil with homogeneous catalytic esterification (RBO hce ) or refined bio-oil without catalyst but with distillation operation (RBO wc ) were evaluated by a high frequency reciprocating test rig according to the ASTM D 6079 standard. The basic physiochemical properties and components of the bio-oils were analyzed. The surface morphology, contents and chemical valence of active elements on the worn surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that RBO hce has better lubricities than those of BO, but RBO wc has worse lubricities than those of BO. The tribological mechanisms of the bio-oils are attributed to the combined actions of lubricating films and factors that will break the film. Compared with BO, plenty of phenols in RBO wc results in corrosion of the substrate and destroys the integrity of the lubricating films, which is responsible for its corrosive wear. However, more esters and alkanes in RBO hce contribute to forming a complete boundary lubricating film on the rubbed surfaces which result in its excellent antifriction and antiwear properties. - Highlights: • Refined bio-oil was prepared through homogeneous catalytic esterification technology. • Properties of the bio-oils before and after refining were assessed by HFRR. • Refined bio-oil showed better lubricities than crude bio-oil. • More esters and alkanes in refined bio-oil contributed to forming superior boundary lubrication

  7. The Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, often referred to as the New York Convention, has established itself as a regulatory and enforcement instrument which is crucial to international trade. This is evident from the fact that more than 150 countries have so far ratified the convention.

  8. Feasibility study of utilizing jatropha curcas oil as bio-diesel in an oil firing burner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful, A. I. M.; Jaafar, M. N. Mohd; Sahar, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Jatropha oil derived from the Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus is one of the high potential plants to be use as bio-diesel. The purpose of this research is to carry out a feasibility study of using jatropha oil as bio-diesel on oil firing burner system. Like other bio-diesels, jatropha oil can also be used in any combustion engine and the performance and emissions such as NOx, SO2, CO and CO2 as well as unburned hydocarbon (UHC) from the engine will vary depending on the bio-diesel blends. The properties of Conventional Diesel Fuel (CDF) obtained will be used as baseline and the jatropha oil properties will be compared as well as other bio-diesels. From several researches, the properties of jatropha oil was found to be quite similar with other bio-diesel such as palm oil, neem, keranja and pongamia bio-diesel and complying with the ASTM standard for bio-diesel. Still, there are factors and issues concerning the use of jatropha oil such as technology, economy, legislation and resource. Plus, there several challenges to the growth of bio-diesel industry development since the world right now do not totally depend on the bio-diesel.

  9. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International...

  10. 48th Annual Convention of Computer Society of India

    CERN Document Server

    Avadhani, P; Udgata, Siba; Lakshminarayana, Sadasivuni; ICT and Critical Infrastructure

    2014-01-01

      This volume contains 85 papers presented at CSI 2013: 48th Annual Convention of Computer Society of India with the theme “ICT and Critical Infrastructure”. The convention was held during 13th –15th December 2013 at Hotel Novotel Varun Beach, Visakhapatnam and hosted by Computer Society of India, Vishakhapatnam Chapter in association with Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant, the flagship company of RINL, India. This volume contains papers mainly focused on Data Mining, Data Engineering and Image Processing, Software Engineering and Bio-Informatics, Network Security, Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime, Internet and Multimedia Applications and E-Governance Applications.

  11. Heterogeneous Deformable Modeling of Bio-Tissues and Haptic Force Rendering for Bio-Object Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyong; Lee, Yuan-Shin; Narayan, Roger J.

    This paper presents a novel technique for modeling soft biological tissues as well as the development of an innovative interface for bio-manufacturing and medical applications. Heterogeneous deformable models may be used to represent the actual internal structures of deformable biological objects, which possess multiple components and nonuniform material properties. Both heterogeneous deformable object modeling and accurate haptic rendering can greatly enhance the realism and fidelity of virtual reality environments. In this paper, a tri-ray node snapping algorithm is proposed to generate a volumetric heterogeneous deformable model from a set of object interface surfaces between different materials. A constrained local static integration method is presented for simulating deformation and accurate force feedback based on the material properties of a heterogeneous structure. Biological soft tissue modeling is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed techniques. By integrating the heterogeneous deformable model into a virtual environment, users can both observe different materials inside a deformable object as well as interact with it by touching the deformable object using a haptic device. The presented techniques can be used for surgical simulation, bio-product design, bio-manufacturing, and medical applications.

  12. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  13. Bio-technology drawing attention for solution of environmental problems. Kankyo mondai kaiketsu demo chumokusareru bio technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, A [Bank of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-06-01

    Explanations are given on the recent movements in the bio-technology applications. In the United States, gene therapy has been applied to patients having damaged immune system, while in Japan the first outdoor experiment is about to begin this year on gene recombined tomatoes. In the area of the marine bio-technology, researches carried out by the industrial, governmental, and academic sectors combined, led by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have begun, which include such an attractive subject as finding out new kinds of algae living on carbon dioxide as their special favorite diet to use them to prevent the earth warming-up. On the other hand, the difficulty of bio-business is represented by the fact that venture business groups are absorbed into larger chemical companies. In Japan, the bio-business established in individual regions related to soy bean paste and Shoyu sauce industry is a distinct feature. Deregulations and review on the patent system are in progress in the United States and Germany aiming at strengthening the business competitiveness. Expectation is placed on the bio-technology that it will contribute largely in the future to solving such a critical environmental problem as experienced in the Persian Gulf war. 1 tab.

  14. Tritium and OSPAR convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The missions and the organisation of the OSPAR convention on protection of the NE Atlantic marine environment are given. The OSPAR strategy for the radioactive substances is stated. The results of work programme of the radioactive Substances committee are described and the consensus reached by contracting parties on the appropriate arrangements for this radionuclide is presented. (authors)

  15. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  16. Alternative scenarios for implementing the E U bio fuels directive in Italy: the potential of bio ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Tucci, F.; Lodi, A.; Massarutto, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the perspective scenarios of the Italian market for bi oethanol, face to the Eu 2003/30 directive and more generally to the world market for oil and fuels. We examine first the convenience of substituting bio ethanol for gasoline; we discuss alternative scenarios for gathering ethanol to the Italian market, comparing import with internal production. We finally try to forecast the impact on the final price of gasoline for final consumption. We show that rising oil prices, more than the internalization of environmental cost, is the main driver that increases the convenience of introducing bio fuels. We also argue that for the Italian market imports are actually cheaper than internal product, although this judgment might change in the future in case the world price of agricultural commodities increases and/or tropical ethanol from sugar cane will not be sufficient to satisfy demand. [it

  17. BioAir: Bio-Inspired Airborne Infrastructure Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    must also minimize resource usage due to limitations on the amount of processing , memory and power onboard a node. BioAIR assumes the availability of...subsequent maintenance of tentacles, each node will take one of the following roles: “ orphan ”, “free”, “tip”, “backbone” or “extra”. The BioAIR...algorithm dictates that when a node is disconnected from the tentacle or origin it is an orphan , and as such it will change its target to the nearest

  18. From marine bio-corrosion to new bio-processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergel, A.; Dasilva, S.; Basseguy, R.; Feron, D.; Mollica, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: From the middle of the last century it has been observed that the development of marine bio-films on the surface of stainless steels and different metallic materials induces the ennoblement of their free corrosion potential. A main step in deciphering the mechanisms of aerobic marine bio-corrosion has been achieved around 1976 with the demonstration that the potential ennoblement was due to the modification of the cathodic process. Since this date, the catalysis of oxygen reduction by marine bio-films has been the topic of numerous controversies, but it is now commonly agreed as a basic phenomena in aerobic corrosion. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the fine mechanisms of the bio-film-catalysed reduction of oxygen: intermediate formation of hydrogen peroxide, modification of the oxide layer on the stainless steel surface, involvement of manganese species and manganese oxidising bacteria, catalysis by proteins produced by the micro-organisms... Recent results may confirm the possible involvement of hemic enzymes or proteins. Whatever the mechanisms, very promising results have been obtained with the possible application of bio-film-catalysed oxygen reduction to conceive innovative biofuel cells with stainless steel electrodes. Actually, the catalysis of oxygen reduction is a key step that still drastically hinders the development of economically efficient hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells. The current technology requires high amounts of platinum or platinum-based materials to catalyze oxygen reduction on the cathode of these cells. The prohibitive cost of platinum is a main obstacle to the commercialization of low-cost fuel cells. Unpublished results recently showed that adapting the enzyme-catalysed reaction that was assumed for bio-corrosion on the cathode of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells may lead to a significant decrease in the charge of platinum. Moreover, it was demonstrated on a laboratory-scale fuel cell pilot that

  19. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed.

  20. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  1. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauke, M.K.

    1983-05-01

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  2. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  3. Manado Convention Centre (Megastructures)

    OpenAIRE

    Anggianto, Rio M; Rate, Johannes Van

    2013-01-01

    Proyek Manado Convention Center ini pada dasarnya merupakan wadah atau sarana komunikasi antara dua pihak dengan penerapkan berbagai metode komunikasi langsung tatap muka baik itu dari perorangan terhadap kelompok, kelompok terhadap kelompok atau kelompok terhadap masyarakat. Dan pada era kini hal ini menjadi suatu kebutuhan yang dianganggap penting. Kota Manado seringkali menjadi tuan rumah suatu konverensi dengan jumlah peserta yang tergolong besar karena cakupannya sampai manca negara....

  4. The conventional quark picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    For baryons, mesons and deep inelastic phenomena the ideas and the problems of the conventional quark picture are pointed out. All observed baryons fit in three SU(3)-multiplets which cluster into larger SU(6)-multiplets. No mesons are known which have quantum numbers inconsistent with belonging to a SU(3) nonet or octet. The deep inelastic phenomena are described in terms of six structure functions of the proton. (BJ) [de

  5. Refugees in Conflict: Creating a Bridge Between Traditional and Conventional Health Belief Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Bonucci, Massimo; Daher, Michel; Kebudi, Rejin; Saad, Bashar; Breitkreuz, Thomas; Rassouli, Maryam; Rossi, Elio; Gafer, Nahla; Nimri, Omar; Hablas, Mohamed; Kienle, Gunver Sophia; Samuels, Noah; Silbermann, Michael

    2018-06-01

    The recent wave of migration from Middle Eastern countries to Europe presents significant challenges to the European health profession. These include the inevitable communication gap created by differences in health care beliefs between European oncologists, health care practitioners, and refugee patients. This article presents the conclusions of a workshop attended by a group of clinicians and researchers affiliated with the Middle East Cancer Consortium, as well as four European-based health-related organizations. Workshop participants included leading clinicians and medical educators from the field of integrative medicine and supportive cancer care from Italy, Germany, Turkey, Israel, Palestine, Iran, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Sudan. The workshop illustrated the need for creating a dialogue between European health care professionals and the refugee population in order to overcome the communication barriers to create healing process. The affinity for complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) among many refugee populations was also addressed, directing participants to the mediating role that integrative medicine serves between CTM and conventional medicine health belief models. This is especially relevant to the use of herbal medicine among oncology patients, for whom an open and nonjudgmental (yet evidence-based) dialogue is of utmost importance. The workshop concluded with a recommendation for the creation of a comprehensive health care model, to include bio-psycho-social and cultural-spiritual elements, addressing both acute and chronic medical conditions. These models need to be codesigned by European and Middle Eastern clinicians and researchers, internalizing a culturally sensitive approach and ethical commitment to the refugee population, as well as indigenous groups originating from Middle Eastern and north African countries. European oncologists face a communication gap with refugee patients who have recently immigrated from Middle Eastern and

  6. Linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO2 emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan M.; Stromman, Anders H.; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bio-energy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bio-energy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO 2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO 2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO 2 emissions from bio-energy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bio-energy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bio-energy CO 2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO 2 emissions from bio-energy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 C by 2100, early emissions from bio-energy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bio-energy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years). (authors)

  7. Bio fertilizer development incorporating nuclear technologies - Challenges and potentials to the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Phua, Choo Kwai Hoe; Ahmad Nazrul Abdul Wahid; Pauline, Liew Woan Ying; Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Mat Rasol Awang

    2010-01-01

    The development of bio fertilizer products, which involve incorporation of known microorganisms with desired functions, requires sterilisation of the carriers or substrates. Conventional sterilisation method using heat treatment or autoclaving has its limitations, especially in mass production of bio fertilizers. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) through its Bio fertilizer Project Group encourages the use of gamma irradiation for carrier sterilisation, capitalising on the quality of the final products following proper sterilisation. Gamma irradiation at doses of 30 to 50 kGy was found suitable for sterilisation, depending on the carrier materials. More deliberation is needed for bio fertilizer companies far away from the gamma irradiation facilities to utilise gamma irradiation services for their bio fertilizer carriers, on aspects of cost of transportation, sterilisation, storage and convenience of use. Evaluation of bio fertilizer products on crops in the field need to be conducted to assess their efficacy. Several isotope-aided trials have been conducted to evaluate nutrient use efficiency of several formulations of Nuclear Malaysia bio fertilizer products, involving vegetable and herbal crops, with varying results. The paper highlights trials in Nuclear Malaysia and Cameron Highlands. Presently, product evaluation is limited to use of the stable isotope, nitrogen-15, in particular when considering radiation safety in field trials. Having joint trials involving potential end users is still a challenge. (author)

  8. Bio-Organic Electronics—Overview and Prospects for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Mühl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, both biodegradable and bio-based electronics have attracted increasing interest, but are also controversially discussed at the same time. Yet, it is not clear whether they will contribute to science and technology or whether they will disappear without major impact. The present review will address several aspects while showing the potential opportunities of bio-organic electronics. An overview about the complex terminology of this emerging field is given and test methods are presented which are used to evaluate the biodegradable properties. It will be shown that the majority of components of organic electronics can be substituted by biodegradable or bio-based materials. Moreover, application scenarios are presented where bio-organic materials have advantages compared to conventional ones. A variety of publications are highlighted which encompass typical organic devices like organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells and organic thin film transistors as well as applications in the field of medicine or agriculture.

  9. MaxSynBio - Avenues towards creating cells from the bottom up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Petra; Spatz, Joachim; Landfester, Katharina; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Herminghaus, Stephan; Sourjik, Victor; Erb, Tobias; Bastiaens, Philippe; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Hyman, Anthony; Dabrock, Peter; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Bieling, Peter; Dimova, Rumiana; Mutschler, Hannes; Robinson, Tom; Tang, Dora; Wegner, Seraphine; Sundmacher, Kai

    2018-05-11

    A large Max Planck-based German research consortium ('MaxSynBio') was formed to investigate living systems from a fundamental perspective. The research program of MaxSynBio relies solely on the bottom-up approach to Synthetic Biology. MaxSynBio focuses on the detailed analysis and understanding of essential processes of life, via their modular reconstitution in minimal synthetic systems. The ultimate goal is to construct a basic living unit entirely from non-living components. The fundamental insights gained from the activities in MaxSynBio can eventually be utilized for establishing a new generation of biotechnological processes, which would be based on synthetic cell constructs that replace natural cells currently used in conventional biotechnology. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Electron microscopy study of the deactivation of nickel based catalysts for bio oil hydrodeoxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Carvalho, Hudson W. P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is proposed as an efficient way to remove oxygen in bio-oil, improving its quality as a more sustainable alternative to conventional fuels in terms of CO2 neutrality and relative short production cycle [1]. Ni and Ni-MoS2 nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 show potential...... as high-pressure (100 bar) catalysts for purification of bio-oil by HDO. However, the catalysts deactivate in presence of sulfur, chlorine and potassium species, which are all naturally occurring in real bio-oil. The deactivation mechanisms of the Ni/ZrO2 have been investigated through scanning...... transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Catalytic testing has been performed using guaiacol in 1-octanol acting as a model compound for bio-oil. Addition of sulphur (0.3 vol% octanethiol) in the feed...

  11. Bio-based products from solar energy and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Producing bio-based products directly from CO₂ and solar energy is a desirable alternative to the conventional biorefining that relies on biomass feedstocks. The production paradigm is based on an artificial photosynthetic system that converts sunlight to electricity and H₂ via water electrolysis. An autotrophic H₂-oxidizing bacterium fixes CO₂ in dark conditions. The assimilated CO₂ is stored in bacterial cells as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), from which a range of products can be derived. Compared with natural photosynthesis of a fast-growing cyanobacterium, the artificial photosynthetic system has much higher energy efficiency and productivity of bio-based products. The new technology looks promising because of possible cost reduction in feedstock, equipment, and operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The capacity, capabilities and needs of the who BioDoseNet member laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maznyk, N. A.; Wilkins, R. C.; Carr, Z.; Lloyd, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-dosimetry is an essential tool for providing timely assessments of radiation exposure, particularly when physical dosimetry is unavailable or unreliable. For mass-casualty events involving public exposure to ionising radiation, it is paramount to rapidly provide this dose information for medical management of casualties. The dicentric chromosome assay is currently the most reliable accepted method for bio-dosimetry; however, in a mass-casualty scenario, the throughput of this assay will be challenged by its time-consuming nature and the specific expertise required. To address this limitation, many countries have established expertise in cytogenetic bio-dosimetry and started developing surge capabilities through setting up regional networks to deal with emergency situations. To capitalise on this growing expertise and organise it into an internationally coordinated laboratory network, the World Health Organization has created and launched a global bio-dosimetry network (BioDoseNet). In order to determine the existing capacity of BioDoseNet member laboratories, including their expertise and in vivo experience, involvement in national and international activities, problems, needs and prospects, an in-depth survey was conducted. These survey results provide significant information on the current state of emergency cytogenetic bio-dosimetry capabilities around the world. (authors)

  13. HSP as bio dosemeters; HSP como biodosimetros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares A, E; Vega C, H R [Grupo Academico de Radiobiologia, UAZ, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  14. BioMagResBank.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, E.L.; Akutsu, H.; Doreleijers, J.; Harano, Y.; Ioannidis, Y.E.; Lin, J.; Livny, M.; Mading, S.; Maziuk, D.; Miller, Z.; Nakatani, E.; Schulte, C.F.; Tolmie, D.E.; Wenger, R.K.; Yao, H.; Markley, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The BioMagResBank (BMRB: www.bmrb.wisc.edu) is a repository for experimental and derived data gathered from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies of biological molecules. BMRB is a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB). The BMRB archive consists of four main data

  15. (Bio)electrochemical ammonia recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Rodríguez Arredondo, M.; Georg, S.; Barbosa, S.G.; Heijne, Ter A.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, (bio)electrochemical systems (B)ES have emerged as an energy efficient alternative for the recovery of TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, including ammonia and ammonium) from wastewater. In these systems, TAN is removed or concentrated from the wastewater under the influence of an

  16. Bio-actives and Drug

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bio-actives. have an effect on or elicit a response from living tissue. Refer to a substance that can be acted upon by a living organism or by an extract from a living organism. are constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic nutritional needs, that are responsible for changes in health ...

  17. The Future of Bio-technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Hosts of technologies, most notably in electronics, have been on the path of miniaturization for decades and in 2005 they have crossed the threshold of the nano-scale. Crossing the nano-scale threshold is a milestone in miniaturization, setting impressive new standards for component-packing densities. It also brings technology to a scale at which quantum effects and fault tolerance play significant roles and approaches the feasible physical limit form many conventional "top-down" manufacturing methods. I will suggest that the most formidable manufacturing problems in nanotechnology will be overcome and major breakthroughs will occur in a host of technologies, when nanotechnology converges with bio-technology; i.e. I will argue that the future of bio-technology is in nanotechnology. In 2005, methods in molecular biology, microscopy, bioinformatics, biochemistry, and genetic engineering have focused considerable attention on the nano-scale. On this scale, biology is a kind of recursive chemistry in which molecular recognition, self-assembly, self-organization and self-referencing context-control lead to the emergence of the complexity of structures and processes that are fundamental to all life forms. While we are still far from understanding this complexity, we are on the threshold of being able to use at least some of these biological properties for .technology. I will discuss the use of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins as "tools" for the bio-technologist of the future. More specifically, I will present in some detail an example of how we are using a genetically engineered 60-kDa protein (HSP60) from an organism living in near boiling sulfuric acid to build nano-scale templates for arranging metallic nanoparticles. These "extremophile" HSP60s self-assemble into robust double-ring structures called "chaperonins," which further assemble into filaments and arrays with nanometer accuracy. I will discuss our efforts to use chaperonins to organize quantum

  18. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  19. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  20. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  1. Digitization of conventional radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Blum, U.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Gufler, H.; Meyer, E.; Ruediger, K.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a digitization system for analogue films based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) scanner with adjustable resolution of 2.5 or 5 lp/mm was assessed. Some 110 skeletal radiographs, 50 contrast studies, including 25 of patients with Crohn's disease, and 70 abdominal plain films before and after successful lithotripsy for renal stones were digitized. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies showed improved detection of cortical and trabecular defects with contrast-optimized digitized films. Edge enhancement algorithms yielded no additional information. Inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by conventional films and digitized images. A statistically significant improvement (p [de

  2. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  3. Conventional magnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of conventional, steel-cored, direct-current magnets are discussed. Laplace's equation and the associated cylindrical harmonic solutions in two dimensions are established. The equations are used to define the ideal pole shapes and required excitation for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Standard magnet geometries are then considered and criteria determining the coil design are presented. The use of codes for predicting flux density distributions and the iterative techniques used for pole face design are then discussed. This includes a description of the use of two-dimensional codes to generate suitable magnet end geometries. Finally, standard constructional techniques for cores and coils are described. (orig.)

  4. IERS Conventions (2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Service International de la Rotation Terrestre et des Systèmes de Référence IERS...Equation for the determination of the density of moist air (1981/91),” Metrologia , 29, pp. 67–70. Giacomo, P., 1982, “Equation for the determination of...the density of moist air (1981),” Metrologia , 18, pp. 33–40. Herring, T. A., 1992, “Modeling Atmospheric Delays in the Analysis of Space Geodetic Data

  5. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  6. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    1998-01-01

    In the first stage of the revision process, the only goal was to amend certain provisions of the Vienna Convention. Later, in what might be called the second stage, the question was seriously raised of establishing a new supplementary convention by which additional funds were to be provided by the international community of States. Most experts felt that the nuclear liability regime of the Vienna Convention, as amended, would really serve the interests of potential victims of nuclear incidents only if it were supported by an international supplementary fund providing additional compensation for nuclear damage to that provided by the operator. Thus, the Standing Committee started to consider the establishment, under the Vienna Convention, of a mechanism for mobilizing additional funds for compensation of nuclear damage. During the negotiations it was deemed necessary to establish a separate treaty for such a supplementary fund, and indeed, efforts were undertaken to draw up such an instrument concurrently with the revision of the Vienna Convention. (K.A.)

  7. Agrice 2004. Activity report - from bio-resources to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been ten years since AGRICE was founded to support technological research in the field of bio-products. Even if bio-products are indeed a commercial reality, and growing in diversity, they are still marginal in the marketplace. However, the amplification of the greenhouse effect, our increasing energy dependence, the inexorable rise in oil prices, international competition and the emergence of a genuine political awareness are all factors that converge in favour of bio-products, offering a promising future. Of course, the development of bio-products is dependent on a number of conditions: biomass resources, technological advances, mobilisation of actors through dynamic research programmes (conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for alternative fuels or hydrogen, bio-technology applied to chemicals), new agro-industrial supply chains, financial instruments to bridge the cost gap with fossil fuels, a national strategy supported by a public authority dedicated to non-food uses. In the immediate future, the recent decision to open up the biofuels market via implementation of the European biofuels directive (5.75% of the market in 2010) provides an opportunity to lay the groundwork for a veritable industry of plant-based products, opening the way to the bio-refineries of the future. There is considerable potential for the development of bio-products in France. An additional 25 to 30 million tonnes-oil-equivalent (toe) of agricultural and forestry biomass could be processed into energy and industrial bio-products in France. Accordingly we can set our sights on an overall objective of substituting plant feedstocks for petroleum used in fuels and chemicals, on the order of 10% in 2020, and 20 to 30% by 2030-2050. To achieve these goals many technological advances will be necessary, with constant attention to the requirements of sustainable development. In this respect AGRICE is an invaluable tool for guiding, catalysing and supporting research efforts in these fields

  8. Interactive Learning Environment for Bio-Inspired Optimization Algorithms for UAV Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haibin; Li, Pei; Shi, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiangyin; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of BOLE, a MATLAB-based interactive learning environment, that facilitates the process of learning bio-inspired optimization algorithms, and that is dedicated exclusively to unmanned aerial vehicle path planning. As a complement to conventional teaching methods, BOLE is designed to help students consolidate the…

  9. Archaeology and the World Heritage Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cleere

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available International efforts to designate outstanding examples of the world's cultural and natural heritage began after the Second World War. The World Heritage Convention was signed at the General Conference of UNESCO in 1972 and the first cultural sites were selected in 1978. Now over 600 have been inscribed on the World Heritage List. The author, who is an honorary visiting professor at the Institute, acted as an advisor to the World Heritage Committee from 1992 to 2002 and here describes how the Convention came into being and discusses the representation of archaeological sites on the List.

  10. Convention on nuclear safety. Final act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Diplomatic Conference, which was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994, adopted the Convention on Nuclear Safety reproduced in document INFCIRC/449 and the Final Act of the Conference. The text of the Final Act of the Conference, including an annexed document entitled ''Some clarification with respect to procedural and financial arrangements, national reports, and the conduct of review meetings, envisaged in the Convention on Nuclear Safety'', is reproduced in the Attachment hereto for the information of all Member States

  11. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Development of simplified analysis system by using bio-markers of internal secretion disturbing substances - environmental hormone acting substances); 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu (kankyo hormone sayo busshitsu) no bio marker ni yoru kanben bunseki system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Using the vitellogenin levels in male fishes as a parameter of pollution caused by internal secretion disturbing substances would allow collective measurement of compounding action of pollutants, acquisition of time averaged values, and large reduction in analysis cost. The present research and development works are intended to put such technological seeds into practical use, and promote its proliferation. The following subjects were implemented: (1) fabrication of effective anti-bodies, (2) their application to fresh water fishes, salmon, and trout, (3) their application to sea water fishes, (4) effects on mummichog and medaka, (5) correlation between spawning actions and vitellogenin manifestation in male fish, (6) discussions on chemical analysis methods and the correlativity therewith, and (7) establishment of methods for field investigation and evaluation. In Item (1), an ELISA system using vitellogenin anti-bodies of different fishes was established. A universal anti-body reacting commonly to all of fish vitellogenins was developed. In Items (2), (3) and (4), an evaluation system was established on actions of internal secretion disturbing substances on sea water fish and fresh water fish by using fish vitellogenins. In Item (5), effects on spawning of medaka, and effects on procreation activities (sterility) were evaluated by using vitellogenin. (NEDO)

  12. Nuclear liability: Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol

  13. Understanding the Role of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: An Analysis of the Legal, Social, and Practical Implications for Policy Makers and Disability and Human Rights Advocates in the United States. White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet E.

    This White Paper by the National Council on Disability urges the support and participation of American policymakers and organizations representing people with disabilities in the drafting of an international human rights treaty specifically addressing the rights of people with disabilities. Following an executive summary and an introductory…

  14. BioTfueL Project: Targeting the Development of Second-Generation Bio-diesel and Bio-jet Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguie, J.C.; Ullrich, N.; Porot, P.; Bournay, L.; Hecquet, M.; Rousseau, J.

    2013-01-01

    2. generation biofuels will have an important part to take in the energy transition as far as fuels are concerned. Using non edible biomass, they will avoid any direct competition with food usage. Within second generation biofuels, the BTL route consists in the production of middle distillates (Diesel and jet fuel) via gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. These fuels are called 'drop in' fuels; this means that to be used they technically do not request any modification in the vehicle whatever the blending rate with conventional fuels. This route is currently at the pre-industrial phase where demonstration is required. This article presents the BioTfueL project which has been created by Axens, CEA, IFP Energies Nouvelles, Sofiproteol, ThyssenKrupp Uhde and Total. This project is focused on the original concept of co-processing (biomass can be gasified together with fossil feedstock) and proposes to develop and demonstrate a full process chain to be commercialized worldwide via licensing. (authors)

  15. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  16. Bio technologies in extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.

    1995-01-01

    The bio technologies processes used (or used in the future) in extractive metallurgy are presented. The most advanced one is the degradation of the metals sulfides (bacteria catalyzing the sulfides oxidation of Au, Cu, U). Two other applications outside the extractive metallurgy are also described: metals fixation by living or dead organic matter and the biological destruction of organic reactants such as cyanides. (A.B.)

  17. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  18. Algae for Bio diesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravi, M.; De Filippis, P.; Balestrieri, M.

    2008-01-01

    A sustainable bio fuels production cannot ignore the competition between the food and agroenergy chains for the cultivable land, and many advocate oleaginous microbial biomass as a possible solution to this problem. Their advantages include fast growth, significant oil content, productivity significantly larger than that featured by higher plants but, most importantly, the possibility of exploiting marginal lands. Before they can be deployed on a large scale, some remaining critical points must be solved

  19. Bio-Research: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Bio-Research · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1596-7409. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  20. Perspectives of Biogas Conversion into Bio-CNG for Automobile Fuel in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for liquid and gaseous fuel for transportation application is growing very fast. This high consumption trend causes swift exhaustion of fossil fuel reserve as well as severe environment pollution. Biogas can be converted into various renewable automobile fuels such as bio-CNG, syngas, gasoline, and liquefied biogas. However, bio-CNG, a compressed biogas with high methane content, can be a promising candidate as vehicle fuel in replacement of conventional fuel to resolve this problem. This paper presents an overview of available liquid and gaseous fuel commonly used as transportation fuel in Bangladesh. The paper also illustrates the potential of bio-CNG conversion from biogas in Bangladesh. It is estimated that, in the fiscal year 2012-2013, the country had about 7.6775 billion m3 biogas potential equivalent to 5.088 billion m3 of bio-CNG. Bio-CNG is competitive to the conventional automobile fuels in terms of its properties, economy, and emission.

  1. Evaluation of bio-materials’ rejuvenating effect on binders for high-reclaimed asphalt content mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez del Barco-Carrión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in using bio-materials in pavement engineering has grown significantly over the last decades due to environmental concerns about the use of non-recoverable natural resources. In this paper, bio-materials are used together with Reclaimed Asphalt (RA to restore some of the properties of the aged bitumen present in mixtures with high RA content. For this purpose, two bio-materials are studied and compared to conventional and polymer modified bitumens. Blends of these materials with RA bitumen were produced and studied to simulate a 50% RA mixture. The rejuvenating effect of the two bio-materials on RA has been assessed and compared with the effect of the conventional binders. Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution of the samples (obtained by the ?-method and different rheological parameters were used for this purpose. Results revealed the power of bio-materials to rejuvenate RA bitumen, showing their capability to be used as fresh binders in high-RA content mixtures.

  2. Effect of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch on bitumen properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chia Chin; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Raman, Noor Azah Abdul; Shukry, Nurul Athma Mohd; Warid, Muhammad Naqiuddin Mohd; Satar, Mohd Khairul Idham Mohd; Ros Ismail, Che; Asmah Hassan, Sitti; Mashros, Nordiana

    2018-04-01

    Bitumen shortage has triggered the exploration of another alternative waste material that can be blended with conventional bitumen. This study presents the performance of pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) as an alternative binder in modified bitumen mixtures. The palm oil EFB was first pyrolyzed using auger pyrolyzer to extract the bio-oil. Conventional bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used as a control sample and compared with samples that were modified with different percentages, i.e., 5% and 10%, of pyrolysis EFB bio-oil. The physical and rheological properties of the control and modified bitumen samples were investigated using penetration, softening point, viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests. Results showed that the addition of EFB bio-oil softened the bitumen with high penetration and a reduction in softening point, penetration index, and viscosity. However, the DSR results showed a comparable rutting resistance between the bitumen samples containing EFB bio-oil and virgin bitumen with a failure temperature achieved greater than 64°C.

  3. Evaluation of bio-materials’ rejuvenating effect on binders for high-reclaimed asphalt content mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez del Barco-Carrión, A.; Pérez-Martínez, M.; Themeli, A.; Lo Presti, D.; Marsac, P.; Pouget, S.; Hammoum, F.; Chailleux, E.; Airey, G.D.

    2017-01-01

    The interest in using bio-materials in pavement engineering has grown significantly over the last decades due to environmental concerns about the use of non-recoverable natural resources. In this paper, bio-materials are used together with Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) to restore some of the properties of the aged bitumen present in mixtures with high RA content. For this purpose, two bio-materials are studied and compared to conventional and polymer modified bitumens. Blends of these materials with RA bitumen were produced and studied to simulate a 50% RA mixture. The rejuvenating effect of the two bio-materials on RA has been assessed and compared with the effect of the conventional binders. Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution of the samples (obtained by the ?-method) and different rheological parameters were used for this purpose. Results revealed the power of bio-materials to rejuvenate RA bitumen, showing their capability to be used as fresh binders in high-RA content mixtures. [es

  4. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Lauer, M.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness

  5. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness. (author)

  6. Bio fertilizer Application in a Fertigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Latiffah Noordin; Hoe, P.C.K.

    2011-01-01

    Bio fertilizers contain live beneficial microorganisms that provide nutrients and other benefits to crops. At present, bio fertilizers can be found in solid and liquid forms. Liquid bio fertilizer can be one of the alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Liquid bio fertilizer is produced through culturing of microorganisms that are known to have specific capabilities in helping plant growth. However, application of bio fertilizers in the form of solution is more tedious than that of solid bio fertilizers, which can be applied directly to plants, whereas the liquid form requires several stages of preparation before it can be applied to crops. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, a study on the distribution of liquid bio fertilizers to crops through the fertigation system has been conducted. In Malaysia, this study has not been conducted in depth, since the present fertigation system is associated to delivery of solubilised mineral fertilizers. This paper discusses the application of liquid bio fertilizers through a fertigation system. Discussions cover technical aspects of bio fertilizer preparation and its application via the said system. Tomato plant was used as test crop to determine the capability and efficiency of bio fertilizer application through the fertigation system. (author)

  7. Material requirements for bio-inspired sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter; Lloyd, Peter; Salmond, David; Kusterbeck, Anne

    2008-10-01

    The aim of developing bio-inspired sensing systems is to try and emulate the amazing sensitivity and specificity observed in the natural world. These capabilities have evolved, often for specific tasks, which provide the organism with an advantage in its fight to survive and prosper. Capabilities cover a wide range of sensing functions including vision, temperature, hearing, touch, taste and smell. For some functions, the capabilities of natural systems are still greater than that achieved by traditional engineering solutions; a good example being a dog's sense of smell. Furthermore, attempting to emulate aspects of biological optics, processing and guidance may lead to more simple and effective devices. A bio-inspired sensing system is much more than the sensory mechanism. A system will need to collect samples, especially if pathogens or chemicals are of interest. Other functions could include the provision of power, surfaces and receptors, structure, locomotion and control. In fact it is possible to conceive of a complete bio-inspired system concept which is likely to be radically different from more conventional approaches. This concept will be described and individual component technologies considered.

  8. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  9. Lateral ridge augmentation with Bio-Oss alone or Bio-Oss mixed with particulate autogenous bone graft: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aludden, H C; Mordenfeld, A; Hallman, M; Dahlin, C; Jensen, T

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcomes when using Bio-Oss alone or Bio-Oss mixed with particulate autogenous bone grafts for lateral ridge augmentation. A search of the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted. Human studies published in English from 1 January 1990 to 1 May 2016 were included. The search provided 337 titles and six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Considerable variation prevented a meta-analysis from being performed. The two treatment modalities have never been compared within the same study. Non-comparative studies demonstrated a 3-year implant survival of 96% with 50% Bio-Oss mixed with 50% autogenous bone graft. Moreover, Bio-Oss alone or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone graft seems to increase the amount of newly formed bone as well as the width of the alveolar process. Within the limitations of this systematic review, lateral ridge augmentation with Bio-Oss alone or in combination with autogenous bone graft seems to induce newly formed bone and increase the width of the alveolar process, with high short-term implant survival. However, long-term studies comparing the two treatment modalities are needed before final conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-integrated electronics and sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Webb, R. Chad; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sungyoung; Rogers, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Skin-mounted epidermal electronics, a strategy for bio-integrated electronics, provide an avenue to non-invasive monitoring of clinically relevant physiological signals for healthcare applications. Current conventional systems consist of single-point sensors fastened to the skin with adhesives, and sometimes with conducting gels, which limits their use outside of clinical settings due to loss of adhesion and irritation to the user. In order to facilitate extended use of skin-mounted healthcare sensors without disrupting everyday life, we envision electronic monitoring systems that integrate seamlessly with the skin below the notice of the user. This manuscript reviews recent significant results towards our goal of wearable electronic sensor systems for long-term monitoring of physiological signals. Ultra-thin epidermal electronic systems (EES) are demonstrated for extended use on the skin, in a conformal manner, including during everyday bathing and sleeping activities. We describe the assessment of clinically relevant physiological parameters, such as electrocardiograms (ECG), electromyograms (EMG), electroencephalograms (EEG), temperature, mechanical strain and thermal conductivity, using examples of multifunctional EES devices. Additionally, we demonstrate capability for real life application of EES by monitoring the system functionality, which has no discernible change, during cyclic fatigue testing.

  11. Bio-organic materials in the atmosphere and snow: measurement and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P A; Kos, G; Mortazavi, R; Hudson, E D; Kanthasamy, V; Eltouny, N; Sun, J; Wilde, C

    2014-01-01

    Bio-organic chemicals are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and at air-snow interfaces, as well as in aerosols and in clouds. It has been known for centuries that airborne biological matter plays various roles in the transmission of disease in humans and in ecosystems. The implication of chemical compounds of biological origins in cloud condensation and in ice nucleation processes has also been studied during the last few decades, and implications have been suggested in the reduction of visibility, in the influence on oxidative potential of the atmosphere and transformation of compounds in the atmosphere, in the formation of haze, change of snow-ice albedo, in agricultural processes, and bio-hazards and bio-terrorism. In this review we critically examine existing observation data on bio-organic compounds in the atmosphere and in snow. We also review both conventional and cutting-edge analytical techniques and methods for measurement and characterisation of bio-organic compounds and specifically for microbial communities, in the atmosphere and snow. We also explore the link between biological compounds and nucleation processes. Due to increased interest in decreasing emissions of carbon-containing compounds, we also briefly review (in an Appendix) methods and techniques that are currently deployed for bio-organic remediation.

  12. Implementation of the Aarhus convention - A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Malis Sazdovska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legislation on global and regional level in the field of environmental protection is characterized by the adoption of international conventions and agreements that attempt to regulate this matter legally. As an extremely important area, which exceeds the boundaries of nation-state and as a global environmental problem, the issues of environmental protection are a major concern to international organizations. It is directly linked to reducing the jurisdiction of the States and transfer of competences to international organizations and institutions in order to solve the problems in a global experience. In order to overcome the problems regarding the implementation of international documents, the creation of certain policies by international organizations and institutions is required to promote the idea of environmental protection as a basic mo$ o of the global world. Taking into account the recommendations of Brundtland Commission, humanity has a moral obligation to preserve natural resources for future generations. Main objective of this article is the presentation of research on the implementation of the Aarhus Convention and the proposal of measures for the creation of ideas and policies on improving access to information in the field. The research is done with the students from the faculty of Security which accessed the information in environmental matters.

  13. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwong, K.; Kiatsiriroat, T.; Vorayos, N.; Thararax, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  14. The history of double tax conventions in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Arbutina; Nataša Žunić Kovačević

    2014-01-01

    After a short introduction, the authors briefly describe the national experience in handling the problems of international double taxation through double tax conventions. This chapter is divided according to stages in the history of double tax conventions identified. The authors analyse the goals of tax treaty policies in differentiated stages with a survey of the economic implications. Special focus is placed on inter-country influences and the impact on and of international institutions and...

  15. Preliminary assessment on the differences of nuclear terrorism convention from the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material and amendment to the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midiana Ariethia; Muhamad Ilman A A; Mas Pungky Hendrawijaya

    2011-01-01

    The threat of acts of nuclear terrorism in all its forms and manifestations create the urgent need to enhance international cooperation between countries in designing and following practical and effective measures for the prevention of acts of terrorism and to counter and punish its offenders. Several United Nations Security Council Resolutions, such as UNSCR Number 1373 (2001), and UNSCR Number 1540 (2005), and the result of Nuclear Security Summit in 2010 that encourage the member countries of IAEA to ratify nuclear conventions as soon as possible, are the reasons that the Indonesian Government planning on ratifying The International Convention for The Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (Nuclear Terrorism Convention). Nuclear Terrorism Convention is one of the 16 (sixteen) international instruments that must be ratified by the member countries of IAEA. Of the 16 (sixteen) international instruments, 3 (three) conventions are related to nuclear; Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, dan Nuclear Terrorism Convention. This paper presents the preliminary assessment on the differences of Nuclear Terrorism Convention to The Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Amendment to The Convention on The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This assessment is important due to the plan of the Indonesian Government to ratify the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. The result of this assessment could be used by BAPETEN in the ratification process of the Nuclear Terrorism Convention. The method used in this assessment is references assessment. (author)

  16. Ontology-Based Querying with Bio2RDF's Linked Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Alison; Cruz-Toledo, José; Dumontier, Michel

    2013-04-15

    A key activity for life scientists in this post "-omics" age involves searching for and integrating biological data from a multitude of independent databases. However, our ability to find relevant data is hampered by non-standard web and database interfaces backed by an enormous variety of data formats. This heterogeneity presents an overwhelming barrier to the discovery and reuse of resources which have been developed at great public expense.To address this issue, the open-source Bio2RDF project promotes a simple convention to integrate diverse biological data using Semantic Web technologies. However, querying Bio2RDF remains difficult due to the lack of uniformity in the representation of Bio2RDF datasets. We describe an update to Bio2RDF that includes tighter integration across 19 new and updated RDF datasets. All available open-source scripts were first consolidated to a single GitHub repository and then redeveloped using a common API that generates normalized IRIs using a centralized dataset registry. We then mapped dataset specific types and relations to the Semanticscience Integrated Ontology (SIO) and demonstrate simplified federated queries across multiple Bio2RDF endpoints. This coordinated release marks an important milestone for the Bio2RDF open source linked data framework. Principally, it improves the quality of linked data in the Bio2RDF network and makes it easier to access or recreate the linked data locally. We hope to continue improving the Bio2RDF network of linked data by identifying priority databases and increasing the vocabulary coverage to additional dataset vocabularies beyond SIO.

  17. The BioHub Knowledge Base: Ontology and Repository for Sustainable Biosourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Warren J; Demetriou, George; Nenadic, Goran; Ruddock, Noel; Stevens, Robert; Winter, Jerry

    2016-06-01

    The motivation for the BioHub project is to create an Integrated Knowledge Management System (IKMS) that will enable chemists to source ingredients from bio-renewables, rather than from non-sustainable sources such as fossil oil and its derivatives. The BioHubKB is the data repository of the IKMS; it employs Semantic Web technologies, especially OWL, to host data about chemical transformations, bio-renewable feedstocks, co-product streams and their chemical components. Access to this knowledge base is provided to other modules within the IKMS through a set of RESTful web services, driven by SPARQL queries to a Sesame back-end. The BioHubKB re-uses several bio-ontologies and bespoke extensions, primarily for chemical feedstocks and products, to form its knowledge organisation schema. Parts of plants form feedstocks, while various processes generate co-product streams that contain certain chemicals. Both chemicals and transformations are associated with certain qualities, which the BioHubKB also attempts to capture. Of immediate commercial and industrial importance is to estimate the cost of particular sets of chemical transformations (leading to candidate surfactants) performed in sequence, and these costs too are captured. Data are sourced from companies' internal knowledge and document stores, and from the publicly available literature. Both text analytics and manual curation play their part in populating the ontology. We describe the prototype IKMS, the BioHubKB and the services that it supports for the IKMS. The BioHubKB can be found via http://biohub.cs.manchester.ac.uk/ontology/biohub-kb.owl .

  18. Bio fuels. Environment and Energy Aspects and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, D.; Grassi, G.; Tondi, G.; Martelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims at describing some of the most important bio fuels (bio diesel, bio methanol, bi oethanol, bio-crude-oil). Environmental effects are also presented, as well as some cost data. Europe and USA are compared, when appropriate. The motivations for a justified and beneficial market penetration of bio fuels in urban areas are reported [it

  19. Plan for the active utilization of incentive system for preserving bio-diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Park, Yong Ha; Kim, Seung Woo; Choi, Yong Jae [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The issue on bio diversity becomes an important subject of 21C environmental problem with UNFCCC. As {sup A}greements on bio diversity{sup b}ecame effective in December 1993, the establishment of information exchange system, use and limit of intellectual property right, financial support on developing countries, and adoption of protocols on life science stability are discussed as pending issues in major international conferences. This study examined international trends related to this issue and case studies in foreign countries and then recommended a fundamental direction and a method of introducing policy after understanding domestic policy situation. 39 refs., 5 figs., 37 tabs.

  20. Bio energy - Environment, technique and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohle, Erik Eid

    2001-01-01

    Leading abstract. In this book, a group of experts discusses everything about the use of bio fuels, from the briquettes of dry alder used in automobile gas generators during World War II to the most advanced present-day use. The chapters are: (1) Energy and society, (2) Production of biomass, (3) Bio fuel - properties and production, (4) Bio fuel - conversion and use, (5) Environment and environmental engineering, (6) Economy and planning and (7) Bio energy in the energy system of the future. There is a list of literature and a glossary at the end of the book

  1. Socio-economic impact in a region in the southern part of Jutland by the establishment of a plant for processing of bio ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Henning; Hjort-Gregersen, K.

    2005-09-15

    The Farmers Association of Southern Jutland took an interest in the establishment of a plant for processing of Ethanol primarily due to the wish to contribute to the business development in the western part of Southern Jutland. A large plant for production of bio ethanol will bring along a significant number of local jobs with positive derived economic effects in the local community. Further the plant will also form the basis for a new possibility of marketing of cereal crops. From asocial point of view the request to produce ethanol and other biomass based propellants are motivated by the international obligation to reduce emission of greenhouse gasses, which primarily originate from energy production from conventional fossil fuels. A certain amount of fossil fuels is required in the production of crops, but it has been estimated that the net emission of CO{sub 2} by production of ethanol only constitutes 10% of the emission by fossil energy. (au)

  2. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein-protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators' feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. International købelov (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomard, Bernhard; Henschel, René Franz

    Commentary in Danish on the 1980 United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG)......Commentary in Danish on the 1980 United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG)...

  4. Bio-methane & Bio-hydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Janssen, M.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eerst wordt het kader geschetst voor de potentiële rol van bio-methaan en bio-waterstof in de energiehuishouding en de invloeden daarop van de ontwikkeling van eindgebruikstechnologie en infrastructuur, en het energiebeleid. Daarna wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op de technieken voor bio-methaan en

  5. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  6. The history of double tax conventions in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Arbutina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a short introduction, the authors briefly describe the national experience in handling the problems of international double taxation through double tax conventions. This chapter is divided according to stages in the history of double tax conventions identified. The authors analyse the goals of tax treaty policies in differentiated stages with a survey of the economic implications. Special focus is placed on inter-country influences and the impact on and of international institutions and organisations through an examination of the influence of bilateral tax treaties on model tax conventions and vice versa. The fifth chapter presents concluding observations.

  7. Drug, devices, technologies, and techniques for blood management in minimally invasive and conventional cardiothoracic surgery: a consensus statement from the International Society for Minimally Invasive Cardiothoracic Surgery (ISMICS) 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Alan H; Martin, Janet; Cheng, Davy C H; Fitzgerald, David C; Freedman, John J; Gao, Changqing; Koster, Andreas; Mackenzie, G Scott; Murphy, Gavin J; Spiess, Bruce; Ad, Niv

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this consensus conference were to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy and safety of perioperative drugs, technologies, and techniques in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion for adults undergoing cardiac surgery and to develop evidence-based recommendations for comprehensive perioperative blood management in cardiac surgery, with emphasis on minimally invasive cardiac surgery. The consensus panel short-listed the potential topics for review from a comprehensive list of potential drugs, devices, technologies, and techniques. The process of short-listing was based on the need to prioritize and focus on the areas of highest importance to surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, hematologists, and allied health care involved in the management of patients who undergo cardiac surgery whether through the conventional or minimally invasive approach. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched from their date of inception to May 2011, and supplemental hand searches were also performed. Detailed methodology and search strategies are outlined in each of the subsequently published systematic reviews. In general, all relevant synonyms for drugs (antifibrinolytic, aprotinin, [Latin Small Letter Open E]-aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid [TA], desmopressin, anticoagulants, heparin, antiplatelets, anti-Xa agents, adenosine diphosphate inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], factor VIIa [FVIIa]), technologies (cell salvage, miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits, biocompatible circuits, ultrafiltration), and techniques (transfusion thresholds, minimally invasive cardiac or aortic surgery) were searched and combined with terms for blood, red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, transfusion, and allogeneic exposure. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology system was used to label the level of evidence and class of each recommendation. Database search identified more than 6900 articles, with 4423 full

  8. Application of the Aarhus Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention has been adopted in 1998 and entered into force three years later. It envisages three elements for strengthening democratic procedures in decision-making: access to information, public participation and access to justice. At the first meeting of the Member States the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee was founded. The European Union is a party of the Convention and it has implemented the provisions in its legal order. After entering into force of the Convention, several Directives that regulate these issues in the EU have been enacted. Republic of Serbia has ratified the Convention in 2009 and it is currently in the process of its implementation by involving private subjects in decision-making on environmental issues.

  9. Use of palm oil decanter cake as a new substrate for the production of bio-oil by vacuum pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewayanto, Nugroho; Isha, Ruzinah; Nordin, Mohd Ridzuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vacuum pyrolysis has been employed to produce bio-oil from palm oil waste. • Effect of the pyrolysis temperature was investigated in this study. • Bio-oil properties of cellulosic and oily based material were determined. • Bio-oil from decanter cake has potential to be used as fuel. - Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of palm oil decanter cake (PDC) for bio-oil production at various temperatures by vacuum pyrolysis. PDC was first dried in oven at 105 °C for 24 h to remove moisture and ground to particle size of 0.85–2 mm. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out at 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C, with heating rate of 15 °C/min. The highest yield of bio-oil (22.12 wt%) was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C. The chemical characterization of bio-oil was studied using 1 H NMR, FTIR, CHNS analyzer and GC–MS. The other properties like pH, calorific value and thermal volatilization were also determined. The pH value recorded to be 6.38, which is found to be higher as compared to other bio-oils. The calorific value of PDC bio-oil found to be 36.79 MJ/kg, which is slightly lower than that of conventional liquid fuel such as gasoline and diesel fuel. However, the bio-oil obtained from PDC has better fuel characteristics than that of bio-oil derived from palm kernel shell (PKS)

  10. Project of law authorizing the approval of the protocol at the convention of November 27, 1992 dealing with the creation of an international indemnification fund for the damages due to the pollution by hydrocarbons; Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation du protocole a la convention du 27 novembre 1992 portant creation d'un fonds international d'indemnisation pour les dommages dus a la pollution par les hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    A series of recent tanker-ship wrecks has shown the insufficiency of the international indemnification fund (FIPOL 71) created in December 18, 1971 by the international maritime organization for victims of oil spill damages. The total available amount of the fund was raised to about 160 million euros by the protocols adopted in 1992, but despite this improvement, the fund remained far below the real damage costs of the recent maritime catastrophes. For this reason, a new protocol has been created which implements a complementary fund which can mobilize an additional amount of about 662 million euros. This new protocol has also redefined the rules of the financial participation of the contracting states. The present document is a project of law authorizing the approval of this protocol by France. It recalls the historical events that led to its creation, the changes added with respect to the previous protocol and its juridical framework inside the European Community. The text of the new protocol is attached. (J.S.)

  11. Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management Systems on the Performance and Carcass Yield of Broiler Chickens. ... TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or ...

  12. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: http://www.marinespecies.org). Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: http://www.cmecscatalog.org) Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies (http://www.seadatanet.org/Standards-Software/Common-Vocabularies). This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  13. TO APPLICATION OF BIO-GAS UNITS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Nga Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the published papers written by national and foreign researchers reveals that an increasing global energy deficit, exhaustion of  fossil organic and nuclear fuels, chemical and radio-active contamination of the environment are main reasons in favour of  thorough investigation  and wide introduction of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Nowadays Vietnamese Institute of Energy Science has been developing the state-of-the-art bio-gas technologies on the  basis of application and modernization of Chinese and Dutch family-style technologies. The most rational technologies are combined ones which operate using various types of energy raw materials, for example, solar and bio-gas energy because usage of solar energy expands operational possibilities of the bio-gas system, ensures its operation within wide temperature range creating necessary parameters for the required technological task.

  14. Integração financeira internacional e crescimento econômico: uma crítica à abordagem convencional International financial integration and economic growth: a critique to the conventional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Oliveira Damasceno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A defesa de um desenho institucional para as economias domésticas que permita a livre circulação de capitais entre as fronteiras é fundamentada por modelos teóricos que sublinham um conjunto de canais por meio dos quais a Integração Financeira Internacional levaria à melhoria na eficiência da alocação de recursos, estimulando o crescimento econômico de longo prazo dos países. O objetivo do trabalho é realizar uma crítica a essa abordagem, mostrando as fragilidades das teorias que estabelecem essa relação, a ausência de evidências empíricas a corroborá-la e, tendo por base fundamentos de inspiração (pós Keynesiana acerca do comportamento do mercado financeiro, esboçar uma abordagem alternativa.ABSTRACT The arguments in favor of developing an institutional framework for the liberalization of capital flows among countries are based on theoretical models that underline a set of channels through which the International Financial Integration would lead to a better resource allocation, stimulating long run economic growth. The aim of this work is to make a critical evaluation of those models, emphasizing their main fragilities and the lack of empirical evidence to support them. In addition, this paper outline an alternative approach, a Post-Keynesian point of view.

  15. Core ethical values: EuropaBio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    EuropaBio, the European Association for BioIndustries, represents 40 companies operating world wide and 14 national association (totaling around 600 small and medium-sized enterprises) involved in the research, development, testing, manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution of biotechnology products and services in the fields of healthcare, agriculture, food and the environment.

  16. The evolution of formula-bio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Formula-Bio started out as a dream of building a race car with only three students and thereby showing the world that everything is possible if you put your passion into it. In this internship report the story of Formula-Bio and the reasoning behind the FB01 can be found. A large part of the report

  17. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  18. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  19. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...

  20. Bio-Research: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-Research: About this journal. Journal Home > Bio-Research: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. People. » Contact. Policies. » Focus and ...

  1. Life cycle assessment of bio-jet fuel from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, Marie-Odile P.; Roberts, Griffin W.; Stagg-Williams, Susan M.; Sturm, Belinda S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of bio-jet fuel from wastewater algae was performed. • We used experimental data from algae cultivation through hydrothermal liquefaction. • We performed Monte Carlo and sensitivity analyses with ranges of parameter values. • Transport of moderately dewatered algae increased life cycle climate change impacts. • Collocation and heat integration reduce life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 76%. - Abstract: Bio-jet fuel is increasingly being produced from feedstocks such as algae and tested in flight. As the industry adopts bio-jet fuels from various feedstocks and conversion processes, life cycle assessment (LCA) is necessary to determine whether these renewable fuels result in lower life cycle greenhouse gas (LC-GHG) emissions than conventional jet fuel. An LCA was performed for a functional unit of 1 GJ of bio-jet fuel produced through thermochemical conversion (hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL)) of microalgae cultivated in wastewater effluent. Two pathways were analyzed to compare the impacts of siting HTL at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to those of siting HTL at a refinery. Base cases for each pathway were developed in part using primary data from algae production in wastewater effluent and HTL experiments of this algae at the University of Kansas. The LC-GHG emissions of these cases were compared to those of conventional jet fuel, and a sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo analyses were performed. When algal conversion using HTL was modeled at a refinery versus at the WWTP site, the transportation steps of biomass and waste nutrients were major contributors to the LC-GHG emissions of algal bio-jet fuel. The LC-GHG emissions were lower for the algal bio-jet fuel pathway that performs HTL at a WWTP (35.2 kg CO 2eq /GJ for the base case) than for the pathway for HTL at a refinery (86.5 kg CO 2eq /GJ for the base case). The LCA results were particularly sensitive to the extent of heat integration, the source of

  2. Bio-Park Pereira [Colombia]: Flora and Fauna Parkland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos de León Naranjo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The project aims to build a parkland in the sub-urban area of Pereira, (Cerritos sector in the center of the Coffee Region of Colombia, which in addition to its tourism and recreation, contributes to the conservation of wildlife through education, research, and ecologically viable actions, economically viable and socially equitable. This project is considered a major project for the city of Pereira, as it strives to be a tourist attraction level not just regionally but nationally and internationally, which will close and friendly interaction with native flora and fauna and exotic providing healthy recreation while promoting the preservation of biodiversity. In Bio-parque be plotted four bio-regions: African Savanna, African Rainforest, Asian mangroves, South American Cliffs, and three bio-regions of Colombia: Andean Forest, Arid Caribbean and Amazon. Human cultures of each of these regions are also highlighted as examples of the wide adaptability of human beings. The main objective of the educational message in Bioparque is to show how the survival and welfare of living beings, both human and of animal and plant species depend on the knowledge and awareness of natural history, dynamics and accurate management of their different living conditions interaction.

  3. World Trade Organization, ILO conventions, and workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The World Trade Organization, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund can assist in the implementation of ILO Conventions relating to occupational safety and health in developing countries. Most countries that seek to trade globally receive permission to do so from the WTO. If the WTO required member countries to accept the core ILO Conventions relating to occupational safety and health and workers' compensation, it could accomplish something that has eluded international organizations for decades. International workers' compensation standards are seldom discussed, but may at this time be feasible. Acceptance of a minimum workers' compensation insurance system could be a requirement imposed on applicant nations by WTO member states.

  4. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A philosophical Study (Lewis 1969). Besides exciting the logical community by providing the seminal analysis work on common knowledge, it also laid the foundations for the formal approach to the study of social conventions by means of game the...

  5. Investigation of Non-Conventional Bio-Derived Fuels for Hybrid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    substances (26- 28). The exact chemical composition is dependent on what type of bee produces the beeswax and the type of pollen consumed by the bees ...2007. 27. Bogdanov, Stefan, “Quality and Standards of Pollen and Beeswax,” Swiss Bee Research Centre, Bern Switzerland, 2004. 28. Krell, R. “Value...Digital Ae Nozzle exit cross-sectional area Ap Combustion port cross-sectional area At Nozzle throat cross-sectional area c

  6. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have been presented showing comparative trends in pollutant emissions generation, flame blowout stability, and combustion efficiency. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  7. Bio-fuels: energies between decline and revival; Les biocombustibles: des energies entre declin et renouveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, A.

    1999-12-01

    The development of bio-fuels is highly dependent of the variations of the prices of major energies, of the agriculture prices and of the situation of the environmental concerns. Thus at the crossroad of various sectors of activity one can question the relevance of the use of bio-fuels, today marginalized. Their development is always taken into consideration during crisis periods (agriculture, energy and pollution). However, once the crisis is gone, it remains the question of the economical viability and sustainability of the infatuation for these non-conventional energies. This paper presents some modalities of valorization of bio-fuels in France and in foreign countries: 1 - the renewable energy sources in France and in the European Union; 2 - the development of bio-fuels at the service of foresters and agriculturists: present day situation and perspectives of wood fuel in France (individual and collective uses), perspectives of biomass energy after the common agricultural policy reform, the objectives of the European Union; 3 - the energy valorization of biomass at the service of environment: forestry exploitation (land planning, pollution abatement), management of public dumps and water processing plants (incineration of household wastes, biogas generation); 4 - the bio-fuels competitiveness. (J.S.)

  8. Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-oil Model Compounds over Pt/HY Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heejin; Kim, Hannah; Yu, Mi Jin; Ko, Chang Hyun; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jae, Jungho; Park, Sung Hoon; Jung, Sang-Chul; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-06-01

    The hydrodeoxygenation of a model compound of lignin-derived bio-oil, guaiacol, which can be obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, has attracted considerable research attention because of its huge potential as a substitute for conventional fuels. In this study, platinum-loaded HY zeolites (Pt/HY) with different Si/Al molar ratios were used as catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol, anisole, veratrole, and phenol to a range of hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane. The cyclohexane (major product) yield increased with increasing number of acid sites. To produce bio-oil with the maximum level of cyclohexane and alkylated cyclohexanes, which would be suitable as a substitute for conventional transportation fuels, the Si/Al molar ratio should be optimized to balance the Pt particle-induced hydrogenation with acid site-induced methyl group transfer. The fuel properties of real bio-oil derived from the fast pyrolysis of cork oak was improved using the Pt/HY catalyst.

  9. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  10. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  11. Data harmonization and federated analysis of population-based studies : the BioSHaRE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doiron, Dany; Burton, Paul; Marcon, Yannick; Gaye, Amadou; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Perola, Markus; Stolk, Ronald P; Foco, Luisa; Minelli, Cosetta; Waldenberger, Melanie; Holle, Rolf; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Hillege, Hans L; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Ferretti, Vincent; Fortier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTS BACKGROUND: Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union) project aims to address these

  12. BioMoby extensions to the Taverna workflow management and enactment software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senger Martin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As biology becomes an increasingly computational science, it is critical that we develop software tools that support not only bioinformaticians, but also bench biologists in their exploration of the vast and complex data-sets that continue to build from international genomic, proteomic, and systems-biology projects. The BioMoby interoperability system was created with the goal of facilitating the movement of data from one Web-based resource to another to fulfill the requirements of non-expert bioinformaticians. In parallel with the development of BioMoby, the European myGrid project was designing Taverna, a bioinformatics workflow design and enactment tool. Here we describe the marriage of these two projects in the form of a Taverna plug-in that provides access to many of BioMoby's features through the Taverna interface. Results The exposed BioMoby functionality aids in the design of "sensible" BioMoby workflows, aids in pipelining BioMoby and non-BioMoby-based resources, and ensures that end-users need only a minimal understanding of both BioMoby, and the Taverna interface itself. Users are guided through the construction of syntactically and semantically correct workflows through plug-in calls to the Moby Central registry. Moby Central provides a menu of only those BioMoby services capable of operating on the data-type(s that exist at any given position in the workflow. Moreover, the plug-in automatically and correctly connects a selected service into the workflow such that users are not required to understand the nature of the inputs or outputs for any service, leaving them to focus on the biological meaning of the workflow they are constructing, rather than the technical details of how the services will interoperate. Conclusion With the availability of the BioMoby plug-in to Taverna, we believe that BioMoby-based Web Services are now significantly more useful and accessible to bench scientists than are more traditional

  13. D-Amino acid oxidase bio-functionalized platforms: Toward an enhanced enzymatic bio-activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Elisa; Valdez Taubas, Javier; Giacomelli, Carla E.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the adsorption process and surface bio-activity of His-tagged D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) from Rhodotorula gracilis (His6-RgDAAO) as the first step for the development of an electrochemical bio-functionalized platform. With such a purpose this work comprises: (a) the His6-RgDAAO bio-activity in solution determined by amperometry, (b) the adsorption mechanism of His6-RgDAAO on bare gold and carboxylated modified substrates in the absence (substrate/COO-) and presence of Ni(II) (substrate/COO- + Ni(II)) determined by reflectometry, and (c) the bio-activity of the His6-RgDAAO bio-functionalized platforms determined by amperometry. Comparing the adsorption behavior and bio-activity of His6-RgDAAO on these different solid substrates allows understanding the contribution of the diverse interactions responsible for the platform performance. His6-RgDAAO enzymatic performance in solution is highly improved when compared to the previously used pig kidney (pk) DAAO. His6-RgDAAO exhibits an amperometrically detectable bio-activity at concentrations as low as those expected on a bio-functional platform; hence, it is a viable bio-recognition element of D-amino acids to be coupled to electrochemical platforms. Moreover, His6-RgDAAO bio-functionalized platforms exhibit a higher surface activity than pkDAAO physically adsorbed on gold. The platform built on Ni(II) modified substrates present enhanced bio-activity because the surface complexes histidine-Ni(II) provide with site-oriented, native-like enzymes. The adsorption mechanism responsible of the excellent performance of the bio-functionalized platform takes place in two steps involving electrostatic and bio-affinity interactions whose prevalence depends on the degree of surface coverage.

  14. Overview of the IAEA Joint Convention and Implementation Status of the Obligation as the Contracting Party of the 5th Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ken; Lee, Youn Keun; Ahn, Sang Myeon

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) was adopted on 5 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Joint Convention was opened for signature at Vienna in September 1997 and will remain open for signature until its entry into force. Korean government signed the Joint Convention in 1997 and this Convention was effective in 2002 as the Convention No. 1612. This paper will show overview of the Joint Convention and implementation status of the obligation as a Contracting Party of the 5th Joint Convention. The Joint Convention is the inter-national convention organized by the IAEA. All contracting parties shall comply with rules of the Joint Convention and conduct the obligation of this convention. Korean government successfully conducted all obligation (attending Organization Meeting and Review Meeting, submitting paper including National Report, question paper and answer paper) of the 5th Joint Convention from May 2014 to May 2015, and will prepare the obligation of the 6th Joint Convention

  15. The concept of ''pollution damage'' in the maritime conventions governing liability and compensation for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Compensation for pollution damage caused by spills from oil tankers is governed by an international regime elaborated under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (I.M.O.). The framework for the regime was originally by the 1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (1969 Civil liability convention) and the 1971 International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (1971 Fund Convention). This old regime was amended in 1992 by two protocols, and the amended Conventions are known as 1992 Civil Liability Convention and the 1992 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability conventions govern the liability of ship-owners for oil pollution damage. The Conventions lay down the principle of strict liability for ship-owners and create a system of compulsory liability insurance. The ship-owner is normally entitled to limit his liability to an amount which is linked to the tonnage of his ship. The regime of liability and the funds created by the 1971 and 1992 Conventions are analyzed in detail. Are studied as following: the concepts of pollution damage and the safeguard measures or preventive measures, the question of receivability for compensation demands (damage to properties, cleansing operations, costs, economic loss). The question of compensation conditions for the only economic loss and the damage to environment are tackled. This expose is concluded by enlightening the contribution brought by the previously named Conventions to the International law about the civil liability. (N.C.)

  16. Evaluation of bio-materials’ rejuvenating effect on binders for high-reclaimed asphalt content mixtures; Evaluación del efecto rejuvenecedor de bio-materiales sobre ligantes para mezclas con alto contenido de asfalto recuperado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez del Barco-Carrión, A.; Pérez-Martínez, M.; Themeli, A.; Lo Presti, D.; Marsac, P.; Pouget, S.; Hammoum, F.; Chailleux, E.; Airey, G.D.

    2017-07-01

    The interest in using bio-materials in pavement engineering has grown significantly over the last decades due to environmental concerns about the use of non-recoverable natural resources. In this paper, bio-materials are used together with Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) to restore some of the properties of the aged bitumen present in mixtures with high RA content. For this purpose, two bio-materials are studied and compared to conventional and polymer modified bitumens. Blends of these materials with RA bitumen were produced and studied to simulate a 50% RA mixture. The rejuvenating effect of the two bio-materials on RA has been assessed and compared with the effect of the conventional binders. Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution of the samples (obtained by the ?-method) and different rheological parameters were used for this purpose. Results revealed the power of bio-materials to rejuvenate RA bitumen, showing their capability to be used as fresh binders in high-RA content mixtures. [Spanish] El interés en la utilización de bio-materiales en ingeniería de pavimentos ha crecido significantemente en las últimas décadas debido a la conciencia ambiental sobre el uso de recursos naturales no renovables. En este artículo, se utilizan bio-materiales para recuperar las propiedades iniciales del betún envejecido presente en mezclas con alto contenido de asfalto reciclado (RA). Para ello, se ha estudiado y comparado el comportamiento de dos bio-materiales con betunes convencionales y betunes modificados con polímeros. Con este objetivo, se fabricaron mezclas de bio-materiales y betún reciclado simulando mezclas asfálticas con 50% de contenido de reciclado. El efecto rejuvenecedor de los bio-materiales se ha evaluado y comparado con el efecto rejuvenecedor de ligantes convencionales mediante el cálculo de las distribuciones de peso molecular aparente y diferentes pará-metro reológicos. Los resultados muestran el poder rejuvenecedor de los bio-materiales, poniendo de

  17. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  18. 3D Bio-Printing Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianbin

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace pathological or necrotic body tissue or organ by artificial tissue or organ and tissue engineering is a very promising research field. 3D bio-printing is a kind of emerging technologies and a branch of tissue engineering. It has made significant progress in the past decade. 3D bio-printing can realize tissue and organ construction in vitro and has wide application in basic research and pharmacy. This paper is to make an analysis and review on 3D bio-printing from the perspectives of bioink, printing technology and technology application.

  19. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  20. Bio energy: Environment and Environmental Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Morten; Noreng, Katrina; Soerensen, Heidi; Teslo, Einar; Daehlen, Knut; Liodden, Ole Joergen; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Hohle, Erik Eid

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 5 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Environmental issues in the use of energy, (2) Environmental issues in the production of biomass, (3) Forestry, (4) Agriculture, (5) Environmental issues in fuel production and storage, (6) Environmental issues in combustion, (7) Environmental issues in using bio fuel, (8) Life cycle analyses, (9) Laws, regulations and norms for the use of bio fuel. Unlike the other sections, the one on laws is mostly concerned with Norwegian conditions

  1. BioSig - An application of Octave

    OpenAIRE

    Schlögl, Alois

    2006-01-01

    BioSig is an open source software library for biomedical signal processing. Most users in the field are using Matlab; however, significant effort was undertaken to provide compatibility to Octave, too. This effort has been widely successful, only some non-critical components relying on a graphical user interface are missing. Now, installing BioSig on Octave is as easy as on Matlab. Moreover, a benchmark test based on BioSig has been developed and the benchmark results of several platforms are...

  2. BioBlend.objects: metacomputing with Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Simone; Pireddu, Luca; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Lianas, Luca; Soranzo, Nicola; Afgan, Enis; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2014-10-01

    BioBlend.objects is a new component of the BioBlend package, adding an object-oriented interface for the Galaxy REST-based application programming interface. It improves support for metacomputing on Galaxy entities by providing higher-level functionality and allowing users to more easily create programs to explore, query and create Galaxy datasets and workflows. BioBlend.objects is available online at https://github.com/afgane/bioblend. The new object-oriented API is implemented by the galaxy/objects subpackage. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    -defined metaphors of individual learning and social imitation processes, from which a revised theory of convention may be erected (see Sugden 2004, Binmore 1993 and Young 1998). This paper makes a general argument in support of the evolutionary turn in the theory of convention by a progressive exposition of its...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around......Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...

  4. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  5. For a convention for nuclear weapon elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document contains two texts linked with the project of an international convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons (the text of this project has been sent to the UN General Secretary and is part of an international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, ICAN). These two texts are contributions presented in London at the Global Summit for a Nuclear Weapon-free World. The first one calls into question the deterrence principle and the idea of a nuclear weapon-based security. It calls for different forms of action to promote a nuclear weapon-free world. The second text stresses the role and the responsibility of states with nuclear weapons in nuclear disarmament and in the reinforcement of the nuclear non proliferation treaty (NPT)

  6. Evolving BioAssay Ontology (BAO): modularization, integration and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyruwan, Saminda; Vempati, Uma D; Küçük-McGinty, Hande; Visser, Ubbo; Koleti, Amar; Mir, Ahsan; Sakurai, Kunie; Chung, Caty; Bittker, Joshua A; Clemons, Paul A; Brudz, Steve; Siripala, Anosha; Morales, Arturo J; Romacker, Martin; Twomey, David; Bureeva, Svetlana; Lemmon, Vance; Schürer, Stephan C

    2014-01-01

    The lack of established standards to describe and annotate biological assays and screening outcomes in the domain of drug and chemical probe discovery is a severe limitation to utilize public and proprietary drug screening data to their maximum potential. We have created the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project (http://bioassayontology.org) to develop common reference metadata terms and definitions required for describing relevant information of low-and high-throughput drug and probe screening assays and results. The main objectives of BAO are to enable effective integration, aggregation, retrieval, and analyses of drug screening data. Since we first released BAO on the BioPortal in 2010 we have considerably expanded and enhanced BAO and we have applied the ontology in several internal and external collaborative projects, for example the BioAssay Research Database (BARD). We describe the evolution of BAO with a design that enables modeling complex assays including profile and panel assays such as those in the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS). One of the critical questions in evolving BAO is the following: how can we provide a way to efficiently reuse and share among various research projects specific parts of our ontologies without violating the integrity of the ontology and without creating redundancies. This paper provides a comprehensive answer to this question with a description of a methodology for ontology modularization using a layered architecture. Our modularization approach defines several distinct BAO components and separates internal from external modules and domain-level from structural components. This approach facilitates the generation/extraction of derived ontologies (or perspectives) that can suit particular use cases or software applications. We describe the evolution of BAO related to its formal structures, engineering approaches, and content to enable modeling of complex assays and integration with other ontologies and

  7. 78 FR 79465 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; Single Convention on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... harmful physical, mental, and social consequences for the user or to others. Harmful use of drugs by an...... --Please provide any information on the extent/magnitude of public health or social harm from the use of... medical illnesses caused by this substance in your country? (Yes/ No) If ``yes,'' please provide details...

  8. Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for the analysis of raw and upgraded pyrolysis bio-oils. These standard procedures have been validated and allow for reliable bio-oil analysis. Procedures Determination

  9. Methyl Ester (Bio diesel) Production from Waste Cooking Vegetable Oil by Microwave Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatun, M.S.; Khatun, M.A.; Khan, M.Z.H.; Debnath, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tried to develop, test and optimize a batch microwave system using waste cooking vegetable oil (WCVO) that was used as bio diesel feedstock. Two catalysts, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were tested in this study. Transesterification reactions between oil and methanol were carried out in presence of microwaves. It was observed that by using of microwaves, the reaction times were drastically reduced. As high as 99.5 % conversions could be achieved for 0.5% KOH concentration. Moreover, quality analysis of bio diesels according to international standards was performed and the samples were found to meet the necessary specifications. (author)

  10. IAEA Director General welcomes landmark convention to combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the adoption of an International convention against nuclear terrorism. 'This is a landmark achievement which will bolster global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism,' Dr. ElBaradei said. 'It will be a key part of international efforts to prevent terrorists from gaining access to nuclear weapons'. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the convention, The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, on 13 April 2005. The Convention strengthens the global legal framework to counter terrorist threats. Based on a proposal by the Russian Federation in 1998, the Convention focuses on criminal offences related to nuclear terrorism and covers a broad range of possible targets, including nuclear reactors as well as nuclear material and radioactive substances. Under its provisions, alleged offenders - for example any individual or group that unlawfully and intentionally possesses or uses radioactive material with the intent to cause harm - must be either extradited or prosecuted. States are also encouraged to cooperate with each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings. The Convention further requires that any seized nuclear or radiological material be held in accordance with IAEA safeguards, and handled in keeping with the IAEA's health, safety and physical protection standards. Dr. ElBaradei also recalled that the Agency is in the process of amending the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, in order to broaden its scope, and in so doing, strengthen the current legal framework for securing nuclear material against illicit uses. A conference will be held from 4 to 8 July in Vienna to consider and adopt the amendments. The Convention opens for signature in September this year. Dr ElBaradei urged all States to 'sign and ratify the Convention without delay so nuclear terrorism will have no chance'. (IAEA)

  11. Effectiveness of the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) has been established after the Chernobyl accident with the primary objective of achieving and maintaining a high level of nuclear safety worldwide, through the enhancement of national measures and international cooperation. The CNS is an incentive convention. It defines the basic safety standard which shall be met by the Contracting Parties. The verification of compliance is based on a self-assessment by the Countries and a Peer Review by the other Contracting Parties. As of July 2015, there are 78 Contracting Parties. Among the Contracting Parties of the Convention are all countries operating nuclear power plants except the Islamic Republic of Iran and Taiwan, all countries constructing nuclear power plants, all countries having nuclear power plants in long term shutdown and all countries having signed contracts for the construction of nuclear power plants. The National Reports under the CNS therefore cover almost all nuclear power plants of the world. The peer review of reports, questions and answers that are exchanged in connection with the Review Meetings provided a unique overview of nuclear safety provisions and issues in countries planning or operating nuclear power plants. This is especially important for neighbouring countries to those operating nuclear power plants.

  12. Purifying, concentrating and anhydriding bio-ethanol: Alternative process schemes and innovative separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreri, G.; Lovati, A.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the conventional process scheme for bio-ethanol production, this paper illustrates how the anhydriding section, which incorporates an azeotropic distillation process, can be conveniently substituted with a plate and frame pervaporation process which makes use of optimum heat exchange with the stripping section. This technical feasibility study, which proves the superior energy efficiency of the pervaporation scheme as compared with the conventional scheme, is followed by a cost benefit analysis which evidences the economic benefits also to be had with pervaporation

  13. [Preface for special issue on bio-based materials (2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yunxuan

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based materials are new materials or chemicals with renewable biomass as raw materials such as grain, legume, straw, bamboo and wood powder. This class of materials includes bio-based polymer, biobased fiber, glycotechnology products, biobased rubber and plastics produced by biomass thermoplastic processing and basic biobased chemicals, for instance, bio-alcohols, organic acids, alkanes, and alkenes, obtained by bio-synthesis, bio-processing and bio-refinery. Owing to its environmental friendly and resource conservation, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry taking the lead in the world scientific and technological innovation and economic development. An overview of bio-based materials development is reported in this special issue, and the industrial status and research progress of the following aspects, including biobased fiber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable mulching film, bio-based polyamide, protein based biomedical materials, bio-based polyurethane, and modification and processing of poly(lactic acid), are introduced.

  14. [Current status of bio-based materials industry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiaoqian; Weng, Yunxuan; Huang, Zhigang; Yang, Nan; Wang, Xiyuan; Zhang, Min; Jin, Yujuan

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry leading the scientific and technological innovation, and economic development of the world. We reviewed the new development of bio-based materials industry in China, analyzed the entire market of bio-based materials products comprehensively, and also stated the industry status of bio-based chemicals, such as lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, and succinic acid; biodegradable bio-based polymers, such as co-polyester of diacid and diol, polylactic acid, carbon dioxide based copolymer, polyhydroxyalknoates, polycaprolactone, and thermoplastic bio-based plastics; non-biodegradable bio-based polymers, such as bio-based polyamide, polytrimethylene terephthalate, bio-based polyurethane, and bio-based fibers.

  15. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  16. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  17. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  18. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  19. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  20. 2nd generation biogas. BioSNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, R.W.R.

    2008-11-01

    The substitution of natural gas by a renewable equivalent is an interesting option to reduce the use of fossil fuels and the accompanying greenhouse gas emissions, as well as from the point of view of security of supply. The renewable alternative for natural gas is green natural gas, i.e. gaseous energy carriers produced from biomass comprising both biogas and Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG). Via this route can be benefited from all the advantages of natural gas, like the existing dense infrastructure, trade and supply network, and natural gas applications. In this presentation attention is paid to the differences between first generation biogas and second generation bioSNG; the market for bioSNG: grid injection vs. transportation fuel; latest update on the lab- and pilot-scale bioSNG development at ECN; and an overview is given of ongoing bioSNG activities worldwide

  1. Wireless MEMs BioSensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  2. BIO PROSPECTING IN NIGERIA: EVALUATING THE ADEQUACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in strategic planning and policy formulation on bio prospecting, amongst ... into the challenging field of exploring biological diversity for commercially ...... sions of these regulations, such body corporate, or any person who was purporting to act.

  3. Generator Inspection Report: Bio - Lab, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains report from Georgia Department of Natural Resources of July 21, 1999 inspection of the Bio - Lab Incorporated Plant 4 in Conyers, Rockdale County, Georgia, reporting that no violations were observed.

  4. BioSampling Data from LHP Cruises

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes separate bioSampling logs from each LHP Bottomfishing cruise both within and outside of the Main Hawaiian Islands, as well as a master file...

  5. Bio-methane. Challenges and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaisonneau, Laurent; Carlu, Elieta; Feuillette, Vincent

    2012-06-01

    Among the new energy sectors in development, biogas has many benefits: several valorization possibilities (bio-methane, electricity and heat), continuous production, easy storage. In Europe, and particularly in France, the bio-methane market will be in the next years a driver for the improvement of the economic, environmental and social performance of the actors of the value chain of biogas. ENEA releases a report on the current state of the bio-methane market in Europe. This publication mainly describes: An outlook of the market evolution and the corresponding stakes for the actors of this sector, the technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each biogas upgrading process, An analysis of the French regulatory framework for bio-methane injection into the grid

  6. Program of environmental and bio monitoring sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, H.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about the importance of the biological signs to determine the environmental features characteristics.The low level of taxonomic resolution and the environmental perturbation is determined by the bio monitoring techniques

  7. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST), and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event extraction systems. The

  8. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  9. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  10. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  11. The NCBI BioSystems database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Lewis Y; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Geer, Renata C; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Liu, Chunlei; Shi, Wenyao; Bryant, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    The NCBI BioSystems database, found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosystems/, centralizes and cross-links existing biological systems databases, increasing their utility and target audience by integrating their pathways and systems into NCBI resources. This integration allows users of NCBI's Entrez databases to quickly categorize proteins, genes and small molecules by metabolic pathway, disease state or other BioSystem type, without requiring time-consuming inference of biological relationships from the literature or multiple experimental datasets.

  12. A Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Tauro, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials.......We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials....

  13. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sednin; О. F. Kraetskaya; I. N. Prokoрenia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  14. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  15. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  16. Bio optofluidics cell sorter: cell-BOCS concept and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Tue; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-03-01

    The cell-BOCS is a novel microfluidics based cell-sorting instrument utilizing next generation optical trapping technology developed at the Technical University of Denmark. It is targeted emerging bio-medical research and diagnostics markets where it for certain applications offers a number of advantages over conventional fluorescence activated cell-sorting (FACSTM) technology. Advantages include gentle handling of cells, sterile sorting, easy operation, small footprint and lower cost allowing out-of-core-facility use. Application examples are found within sorting of fragile transfected cells, high value samples and primary cell lines, where traditional FACS technology has limited application due to it's droplet-based approach to cell-sorting. In the diagnostics field, in particular applying the cell-BOCS for isolating pure populations of circulating tumor cells is an area that has generated a lot of interest.

  17. Wireless synapses in bio-inspired neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Wireless (virtual) synapses represent a novel approach to bio-inspired neural networks that follow the infrastructure of the biological brain, except that biological (physical) synapses are replaced by virtual ones based on cellular telephony modeling. Such synapses are of two types: intracluster synapses are based on IR wireless ones, while intercluster synapses are based on RF wireless ones. Such synapses have three unique features, atypical of conventional artificial ones: very high parallelism (close to that of the human brain), very high reconfigurability (easy to kill and to create), and very high plasticity (easy to modify or upgrade). In this paper we analyze the general concept of wireless synapses with special emphasis on RF wireless synapses. Also, biological mammalian (vertebrate) neural models are discussed for comparison, and a novel neural lensing effect is discussed in detail.

  18. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  19. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Julia; Norppa, Hannu

    2017-12-01

    Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi-cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues.

  20. Round table on bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  1. Bio diesel, v. 15(58)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubitsa

    2007-01-01

    The history of bio-fuels/bio-diesel is more political and economical than it is technological. The technology of the production is the same as it was 200 years ago. The economy closed the usage of bio-fuels in the middies of the 20 Th century and put it back on the agenda of the world economy at the beginning of the 21 st century. With price of more then 70 US$ per barrel of grudge oil, production and usage of bio-fuels becomes more economical category rather than political and ecological. If we, additionally, add secondary, yet nowadays very important factors, as ecological protection, recycling the emission of poisonous gasses, exploitation of agro sector, then the reincarnation of bio-fuels is very interesting, and for Macedonia a potentially strategic category. The basics of the biography is to follow in the article paying special attention on the characteristics, standards, production, processing and usage of the bio-diesel fuel as well as the blended B20 and B5. (Author)

  2. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Catalán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi­cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues.

  3. Bio diesel, v. 15(59)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubitsa

    2007-01-01

    The history of bio-fuels/bio-diesel is more political and economical than it is technological. The technology of the production is the same as it was 200 years ago. The economy closed the usage of bio-fuels in the middies of the 20 Th century and put it back on the agenda of the world economy at the beginning of the 21 st century. With price of more then 70 US$ per barrel of grudge oil, production and usage of bio-fuels becomes more economical category rather than political and ecological. If we, additionally, add secondary, yet nowadays very important factors, as ecological protection, recycling the emission of poisonous gasses, exploitation of agro sector, then the reincarnation of bio-fuels is very interesting, and for Macedonia a potentially strategic category. The basics of the biography is to follow in the article paying special attention on the characteristics, standards, production, processing and usage of the bio-diesel fuel as well as the blended B20 and B5. (Author)

  4. Ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on GMR in self-suspended-membrane-type germanium grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jianyong; Zhang, Dawei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on the GMR effect in self-suspended-membrane-type gratings (SSGs) is proposed using multilayer plane waveguide theory. It is demonstrated from our calculations that the sensitivity of our bio-sensor is near the theoretical limit compared with a conventional GMR sensor. Based on the normalized eigenfunction of a single-layer homogeneous grating, the resonance curves with respect to different refractive indices of surrounding media are calculated, which confirm the estimated sensitivity. In addition, we design a highly sensitive bio-sensor in the near- and mid-IR wavelength region for liquid and gas detection respectively, the sensor can deliver a resolution over 1 × 10 −5 in the near-IR region in a large refractive index (1.3–1.7) range and provide better than 1 × 10 −6 in the mid-IR region, which is enough for various bio-material detections. Therefore, the bio-sensor we proposed is one or two orders more sensitive than conventional GMR sensors. (paper)

  5. National legislation, international conventions and exposure to harmful chemicals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hietkamp, S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available to be teratogenic in rats and rabbits at low doses according to the information available to Canada at the time. It is used in orchards and greenhouses to control mites on apples, pears, peaches, nectarines, strawberries, hops, non- bearing raspberries...

  6. What is life? Bio-physical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, G P

    2009-01-01

    Life arises and develops in gravitationally bound atomic systems, under certain conditions, in the presence of the inflow of energy. A condition of structural dynamic reactivity to the energy inflow qualifies what are anthropomorphically considered as "alive objects". Alive objects, in this perspective, include such rudimentary animate atomic structures as the retinal molecule C20H28o to the herpes simplex virus C102H152N26o29 to the human being, a twenty-six element atomic structure, which can be quantified further as thermodynamic quasi-closed supramolecular systems, which are part of natural open systems. These systems appear and evolve in periodic conditions near to internal equilibrium. This systems attribute of dynamic life can be understood further by the determination and use of mathematical "state functions", which are functions that quantify the state of a system defined by the ensemble of physical quantities: temperature, pressure, composition, etc., which characterize the system, but neither by its surroundings nor by its history. In this view, the phenomenon of a life is easily understood as a general consequence of the laws of the universe, in particular, the laws of thermodynamics, which in the geocentric perspective translate to a formulation of "hierarchical thermodynamics" and a "principle of substance stability". The formation of living thermodynamic structures, in short, arises on the nanolevel by a constantly varying environment that causes variety of living forms. The definition of a life as the bio-chemical-physical phenomenon can thus be given on the basis of the exact sciences, i. e. chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics, without mention of numerous private attributes of a living substance and without physically baseless models of mathematical modeling, such as Prigoginean thermodynamics.

  7. 77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and Report Handbook and Forms AGENCY: Bureau of Industry.... Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998 and Commerce Chemical Weapons... Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), an international arms control treaty. II. Method of Collection Submitted...

  8. Cooperação internacional para a preservação do meio ambiente: o direito brasileiro e a convenção de Aarhus International cooperation for the preservation of the environment: the Brazilian law and the Aarhus convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio de Oliveira Mazzuoli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina a cooperação internacional para a preservação do meio ambiente na Lei dos Crimes Ambientais e propõe o seu entendimento à luz das regras do Direito Internacional Público, especialmente sob a óptica da Convenção de Aarhus de 1998 sobre acesso à informação, participação do público no processo de tomada de decisão e acesso à justiça em matéria ambiental. Trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, sendo utilizadas legislação e doutrina, tanto produzida no Brasil quanto no direito comparado. Os resultados alcançados demonstram que o acesso à informação de cunho ambiental é fundamental ao aperfeiçoamento de uma cultura global de cooperação, sendo fundamental a informação, participação e interferência da coletividade nos processos de decisão ambientalmente relevantes. O ensaio conclui que a Convenção de Aarhus, conquanto ainda não ratificada pelo Brasil, serve de paradigma à legislação doméstica com relação ao dever de cooperar internacionalmente para fins de preservação do meio ambiente.This article examines the international cooperation for environmental preservation in the Environmental Crimes Law, and suggests that the law can be understood in light of the rules of International Public Law, especially from the viewpoint of the Aarhus Convention of 1998 regarding access to information, public participation in the decisionmaking and access to justice in environmental matters. The results show that access to information of environmental nature is essential to the development of a global culture of cooperation is fundamental to information, participation and interference of the community in decision-making environmentally relevant. The essay concludes that the Aarhus Convention, while still not ratified by Brazil, should serve as a paradigm for domestic legislation in terms of the obligation for international cooperation in order to protect the environment.

  9. An economic analysis of a major bio-fuel program undertaken by OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel are creating a new demand for agricultural output and for agriculture land in Canada. However, the participation of other large countries with a large demand potential is necessary for bio-fuels to have a significant impact on the price of grains and oilseeds. This paper quantified the potential impact that a major bio-fuel program initiated by OECD countries has on grain and oilseed prices. The program was initiated for the period 1999 to 2006. There is considerable interest by Canadian producers to stimulate grain and oilseed prices by increasing demand of biofuels. This renewable energy source produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions than petroleum products. The analysis presented in this paper only considered ethanol from corn or wheat and bio-diesel from vegetable oils. It also focused only on the use of bio-fuels in the OECD transportation sector. The analysis was undertaken with AGLINK, a multi-commodity multi-country policy-specific dynamic model of the international agricultural markets built by the OECD with member countries. It was shown that the increase in world and domestic prices for grains and vegetable oils will remain strong, particularly toward 2006. It was also shown that a major bio-fuel program for all OECD countries would be beneficial to Canadian agriculture. It was concluded that ultimately, an increase in OECD bio-fuels usage has a direct impact on the demand for grains and oilseeds which are important feed-stocks in biofuel production. The analysis presumes an increase in renewable fuel use, but does not consider factors such as financial incentives and regulatory requirements that could bring about this increase. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Bio-energetic rehabilitation of human health with use of therapeutic fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kechutkina, E.M.; Inyushin, V.M.; Asanov, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The work devoted to study of mothers' and children's coming from ecologically unfavorable regions rehabilitation measures effectiveness and health improvement in condition of sanatorium-resort conditions. Comprehensive approach was developed in this direction. The approach includes of bio-energetic, psychologic, clearing measures in combination with weight-out faltering and observation of health status with help of electro-physiological methods. In result of conducted study and following analysis positive influence of hunger (in complex with resonance photoactivation bio-energetic excesses, psycho-training) process of bio-energetic rehabilitation of human health. It is concluded that most powerful energizing of reserve opportunities of body takes place at complete refusal from food and transition on internal nourishment (endogenous) that was confirm at 7-day festering by indexes of homeostasis shift

  11. Bio-camouflage of anatase nanoparticles explored by in situ high-resolution electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Mukherjee, Arijita; Hu, Xuan; Shafien, Shayan; Ghodsi, Reza; He, Kun; Gemini-Piperni, Sara; Wang, Canhui; Klie, Robert F; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Borojevic, Radovan; Rocha, Luis A; Granjeiro, José M

    2017-08-03

    While titanium is the metal of choice for most prosthetics and inner body devices due to its superior biocompatibility, the discovery of Ti-containing species in the adjacent tissue as a result of wear and corrosion has been associated with autoimmune diseases and premature implant failures. Here, we utilize the in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a liquid flow holder and graphene liquid cells (GLCs) to investigate, for the first time, the in situ nano-bio interactions between titanium dioxide nanoparticles and biological medium. This imaging and spectroscopy methodology showed the process of formation of an ionic and proteic bio-camouflage surrounding Ti dioxide (anatase) nanoparticles that facilitates their internalization by bone cells. The in situ understanding of the mechanisms of the formation of the bio-camouflage of anatase nanoparticles may contribute to the definition of strategies aimed at the manipulation of these NPs for bone regenerative purposes.

  12. Novel versus conventional antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R C

    1996-01-01

    Novel antipsychotic agents differ from conventional ones in several key characteristics, including effectiveness, adverse reactions, and receptor-binding profile. Most of the newer agents have an affinity for the serotonin 5HT2 receptor that is at least 10 times greater than that for the dopamine D2 receptor. This increased affinity for the serotonin receptor may be responsible for another distinguishing characteristic of novel antipsychotic agents--decreased frequency of extrapyramidal side effects. These side effects, which include pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystonias, and akathisia, frequently are the reason for noncompliance with conventional drug therapy. The newer drugs are often effective in patients resistant to treatment with conventional agents. They also appear to reduce the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in many patients.

  13. Security of feedstocks supply for future bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the security of feedstock supply to satisfy the increased demand for bio-ethanol production based on the recent 15 years biofuels development plan and target (year 2008-2022) of the Thai government. Future bio-ethanol systems are modeled and the feedstock supply potentials analyzed based on three scenarios including low-, moderate- and high-yields improvement. The three scenarios are modeled and key dimensions including availability; diversity; and environmental acceptability of feedstocks supply in terms of GHG reduction are evaluated through indicators such as net feedstock balances, Shannon index and net life cycle GHG emissions. The results show that only the case of high yields improvement scenario can result in a reliable and sufficient supply of feedstocks to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. Cassava is identified as the critical feedstock and a reduction in cassava export is necessary. The study concludes that to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Thailand, increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock, improved yields of existing feedstocks and promoting production of bio-ethanol derived from agricultural residues are three key recommendations that need to be urgently implemented by the policy makers. - Research highlights: →Bioethanol in Thailand derived from molasses, cassava, sugarcane juice could yield reductions of 64%, 49% and 87% in GHGs when compared to conventional gasoline. →High yields improvement are required for a reliable and sufficient supply of molasses, cassava and sugarcane to satisfy the long-term demands for bio-ethanol and other related industries. →Other factors to enhance long-term security of feedstocks supply for sustainable bioethanol production in Thailand include increasing use of sugarcane juice as feedstock and promoting production of bioethanol derived from agricultural residues.

  14. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, M.; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options

  15. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M. E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options.

  16. The European Convention on bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1993-03-01

    Benefiting from a widely recognised experience of the field of bioethics, the Council of Europe which represents all the democratic countries of Europe, has embarked on the ambitious task of drafting a European Convention on bioethics. The purpose of this text is to set out fundamental values, such as respect for human dignity, free informed consent and non-commercialisation of the human body. In addition to this task, protocols will provide specific standards for the different fields concerned with the application of biomedical sciences. The convention and the first two protocols (human experiments and organ transplants) are due to be ready for signature by mid 1994.

  17. Conventional and unconventional political participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    A non-recursive model is proposed and empirically tested with data of opponents of nuclear power. In explaining conventional and unconventional participation the theory of collective action is applied and modified in two respects: the perceived influence on the elimination of collective evils are taken into account; the selective incentives considered are non-material ones. These modifications proved to be valid: the collective good variables and non-material incentives were important determinants for the two forms of participation. Another result was that there is a reciprocal causal relationship between conventional and unconventional participation. (orig./PW) [de

  18. Sensory, yield and quality differences between organically and conventionally grown winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arncken, Christine M; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Weibel, Franco P

    2012-11-01

    Consumers expect organic produce to have higher environmental, health and sensory related qualities than conventional produce. In order to test sensory differences between bio-dynamically, bio-organically and conventionally grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Runal), we performed double-blinded triangle tests with two panels on dry wholemeal flour from the harvest years 2006, 2007 and 2009 and from two field replicates of the 'DOK' long-term farming system comparison field trial near Basel, Switzerland. Yield and quality parameters were also assessed. Significant farming system effects were found for yield (up to 42% reduction in the organic system), thousand kernel weight, hectolitre weight and crude protein content across the three years. In the triangle tests one out of 12 pair-wise farming system comparisons (PFSCs) on wholemeal flour made from the different wheat samples showed significant sensory differentiation (between bio-dynamically and conventionally grown wheat). When all data from the three harvest years and two panels were aggregated, a statistically significant effect (P = 0.045) of PFSCs on the number of correct answers became evident. Although testing of dry wholemeal flour was very challenging for panellists, we were able to show that sensory differences between farming systems can occur. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Bio gasification of industrial bio waste and sewage sludge-management of biogas quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymalainen, M.; Lahde, K.; Kaarnakoski, M.; Pirttijarvi, T.; Arnold, M.; Kurola, J.; Kautola, H.

    2009-07-01

    Bio gasification, i. e. anaerobic digestion, is a well known sustainable option for the management of organic solid wastes and sludges. the produced biogas is a valuable bio fuel to replace fossil fuels in different technical applications (like heating, electricity, transport fuel generation) which in turn determine its quality requirements. (Author)

  20. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…