Jacobus, J.; McQueeny, T.; Bava, S.; Schweinsburg, B. C.; Frank, L.R.; Yang, T. T.; Tapert, S. F.
Structural brain abnormalities have been observed in adolescents with alcohol use disorders but less is known about neuropathological brain characteristics of teens with subdiagnostic binge drinking or the common pattern of binge drinking combined with marijuana use. The goal of this study was to examine white matter integrity in adolescents with histories of binge drinking and marijuana use.
Cunradi, Carol B; Ames, Genevieve M; Xiao, Hong
This study analyzed the role of women's labor force participation in relation to binge drinking, smoking and marijuana use among employment age married/cohabiting women. The sample consisted of 956 women who were employed as construction workers (n=104), or were unemployed (n=101), homemakers (n=227) or employed in non-physically demanding occupations (n=524). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women construction workers were at elevated risk for smoking and monthly binge drinking; unemployed women were more likely to use marijuana. Women in both categories were at risk for polysubstance use. Additional research is needed to explicate how labor force participation influences women's substance use.
Boman, John H; Stogner, John; Miller, Bryan Lee
While it is commonly understood that the substance use of peers influences an individual's substance use, much less is understood about the interplay between substance use and friendship quality. Using a sample of 2,148 emerging adults nested within 1,074 dyadic friendships, this study separately investigates how concordance and discordance in binge drinking and marijuana use between friends is related to each friend's perceptions of friendship quality. Because "friendship quality" is a complex construct, we employ a measure containing five sub-elements--companionship, a lack of conflict, willingness to help a friend, relationship security, and closeness. Results for both binge drinking and marijuana use reveal that individuals in friendship pairs who are concordant in their substance use perceive significantly higher perceptions of friendship quality than individuals in dyads who are dissimilar in substance use. Specifically, concordant binge drinkers estimate significantly higher levels of companionship, relationship security, and willingness to help their friend than concordant non-users, discordant users, and discordant non-users. However, the highest amount of conflict in friendships is found when both friends engage in binge drinking and marijuana use. Several interpretations of these findings are discussed. Overall, concordance between friends' binge drinking and marijuana use appears to help some elements of friendship quality and harm others.
Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...
Wilkinson, Andra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Shanahan, Meghan; Ennett, Susan T; Hussey, Jon M; Harris, Kathleen Mullan
Both substance use and depression are common in adolescence and often comorbid. Past research has produced conflicting results on whether there is a temporal relationship, and if so, in which direction it operates and how it may vary by sex. We examined the longitudinal associations between substance use frequency and depressive symptoms from adolescence into young adulthood and whether the associations were moderated by sex. With data from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 9,816), we used growth curve models to test if depressive symptoms predicted marijuana use or binge drinking frequency (Self-Medication Model) or if substance use frequency predicted depressive symptoms (Stress Model). Moderation by sex and age was tested for both potential pathways. Increases in adolescent depressive symptoms, compared to no symptoms, were associated with a steeper predicted increase in marijuana use frequency from adolescence to young adulthood. Increases in persistent binge drinking or marijuana use frequency had concurrent positive associations with depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood, and these associations were significantly stronger for females compared to males. The results not only support the Self-Medication Model for marijuana use but also provide modest support for the Stress Model, that substance use is associated with depressive symptoms, especially for females. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milicic, Sandra; Leatherdale, Scott T
Use of e-cigarettes by youth is proliferating worldwide, but little is known about the behavioral profile of youth e-cigarette users and the association of e-cigarette use with other health-risky behaviors. This study examines the associations between e-cigarette use and tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use among a large sample of Canadian youth. Using Canadian data from 39,837 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in year 3 (2014-2015) of the COMPASS study, logistic regression models were used to examine how current use of e-cigarettes were associated with tobacco, marijuana, binge drinking, and energy drinks mixed with alcohol. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine subgroup differences by sex. Overall, 9.75% of respondents were current e-cigarette users. Current cigarette smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.009), current marijuana users (OR = 5.549), and noncurrent marijuana users (OR = 3.653) were more likely to report using e-cigarettes than noncigarette smokers and nonmarijuana users. Gender differences among males and females showed higher risk of e-cigarette use among female current marijuana users (OR = 7.029) relative to males (OR = 4.931) and female current smokers (OR = 3.284) compared to males (OR = 2.862). Compared to nonbinge drinkers, weekly (OR = 3.253), monthly (OR = 3.113), and occasional (OR = 2.333) binge drinkers were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Similarly, students who consume energy drinks mixed with alcohol (OR = 1.650) were more likely to use e-cigarettes compared to students who do not consume them. We identify that youth who binge drink or use marijuana have a greater increased risk for using e-cigarettes compared to cigarette smokers. These data suggest that efforts to prevent e-cigarette use should not only be discussed in the domain of tobacco control. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.
This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death. Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/5/2010.
This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it. Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/13/2010.
Howard, Andrea L.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Harty, Seth C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wigal, Timothy
Aims To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21). Design Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9, and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8, and 12 years after randomization. Setting Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. Participants 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years old at baseline (M=8.5, SD=.80). Measurements Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (M age 21). Findings Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, 22 p-values delinquency during adolescence are associated with increased-levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. PMID:25664657
Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...
Howard, Andrea L; Molina, Brooke S G; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Harty, Seth C; Arnold, L Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Wigal, Timothy
To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16 years) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21 years). Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9 and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8 and 12 years after randomization. Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. A total of 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years at baseline (mean = 8.5, SD = 0.80). Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (mean age 21 years). Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, all P-values delinquency during adolescence are were associated with higher levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.
This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death. Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/5/2010.
... costs include health care expenses, crime, and lost productivity. Binge drinking cost federal, state, and local governments ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Division of Population Health , Alcohol and Public Health , ...
Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls. Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 8/1/2013.
... result in dangerous driving, risky sexual behavior, and violent behavior. Over time, binge drinking also increases the ... Am J Prev Med 2018; 54(4). Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...
Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst
estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption as well as frequency of binge drinking at any time during pregnancy was not associated with risk of cryptorchidism. Binge drinking in gestational weeks 7-15 was associated with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism with adjusted......BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested gestational weeks 8-14 as a time window of particular importance to the intrauterine development of the male genitalia, and prenatal exposure to alcohol is under suspicion as a risk factor for cryptorchidism. We examined if prenatal exposure to alcohol...... of cryptorchidism were identified and 398 of these were orchiopexy verified. Maternal alcohol consumption including number and timing of binge drinking episodes was assessed in two computer-assisted telephone interviews around gestational weeks 17 and 32. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of cryptorchidism were...
Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.
Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and
Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Donald F; Barnes, Grace M
Previous research has suggested a link between athletic involvement and elevated levels of adolescent violence outside the sport context. The present study expanded on this literature by positing differences in the sport-violence relationship across dimensions of athletic involvement (athletic participation vs. jock identity), type of violence (family vs. nonfamily), and gender as well as by examining the impact of binge drinking on the sport-violence relationship. Regression analyses using a sample of 608 Western New York adolescents indicated that (a) jock identity (but not athletic participation) was associated with more frequent violence, (b) jock identity predicted nonfamily violence (but not family violence), and (c) the link between jock identity and nonfamily violence was stronger for boys than for girls. Binge drinking predicted family violence among nonjocks only.
Pedersen, Daphne E.
College binge drinking has been linked to student stress. Which among a variety of stressors are more likely to result in problem drinking? In this paper, the relative influence of three types of stressors on college binge drinking is considered, including the academic, interpersonal, and developmental (e.g., making decisions about the future,…
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.
Trolian, Teniell L.; An, Brian P.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
For this study we considered the influence of binge drinking behavior in college on students' critical thinking gains. Findings suggest that binge drinking has a negative influence on students' critical thinking gains over 4 years of college and that this effect was driven by students with the lowest levels of precollege critical thinking. In both…
This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.
Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L
This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.
Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F
Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.
Tomie, Arthur; di Poce, Jason; Derenzo, Christopher C; Pohorecky, Larissa A
To examine the hypothesis that Pavlovian autoshaping provides an animal learning model of drug abuse, two studies evaluated the induction of ethanol drinking by autoshaping procedures. In Experiment 1, the sipper tube conditioned stimulus (CS) contained saccharin/ethanol solution and was repeatedly paired with food as an unconditioned stimulus (US). The CS-US paired group consumed more of the 0.1% saccharin-6% ethanol solution than did the CS-US random group, revealing that autoshaping conditioned responses (CR) induce ethanol drinking not attributable to pseudo-conditioning. Experiment 2 employed saccharin-fading procedures and showed that the paired vs random group differences in ethanol drinking were maintained, even as the saccharin was eliminated from the solution. The results show that Pavlovian autoshaping procedures induce high volumes of ethanol drinking when the presentation of a sipper tube containing an ethanol solution precedes the response-independent delivery of food. The high volume of ethanol consumed in a brief period of time suggests that Pavlovian autoshaping may be a model of binge drinking.
This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking. Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 1/3/2012.
Pedersen, Maria; Kragh Andersen, Per; Sabroe, Svend
of pocket money) predict binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark. Methods: This study is based on the Danish data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, which took place in 2011. This cross-sectional survey obtained data from 2765 adolescents who were in grade 9 in Denmark...... at that time. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the outcome variable of binge drinking and the exposure variables of alcohol-drinking peers, pocket money, and mother’s/father’s approval of intoxication. Results: The risk of binge drinking increased with the number of alcohol......-drinking peers (trend test, p pocket money spent (trend test, p
Berridge, Virginia; Herring, Rachel; Thom, Betsy
Binge drinking is a matter of current social, political and media concern. It has a long-term, but also a recent, history. This paper discusses the contemporary history of the concept of binge drinking. In recent years there have been significant changes in how binge drinking is defined and conceptualised. Going on a ‘binge’ used to mean an extended period (days) of heavy drinking, while now it generally refers to a single drinking session leading to intoxication. We argue that the definitional change is related to the shifts in the focus of alcohol policy and alcohol science, in particular in the last two decades, and also in the role of the dominant interest groups. The paper is a case study in the relationship between science and policy. We explore key themes, raise questions and point to a possible agenda for future research.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy. Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 1/8/2013.
Smerz, Kelly E; Guastello, Stephen J
A cusp catastrophe model for binge drinking behavior was developed and tested with attitude toward alcohol consumption and peer influence as the two control parameters. Similar models were also developed for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Participants were 1,247 students who completed the Long Form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. The results were strongest for the binge drinking criterion (R(2) = .90), compared to a linear model (R(2) = .34) that is usually associated with the Theory of Planned Behavior or Theory of Reasoned Action. The results have numerous implications for the development of interventions and for future research.
An, Brian P.; Loes, Chad N.; Trolian, Teniell L.
Using longitudinal data from multiple institutions, we focused on the relation between binge drinking and academic performance. Binge drinking exerts a negative influence on grade point average, even after accounting for a host of precollege confounding variables. Furthermore, the number of times a student binge drinks in college is less…
Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N; Olmstead, Mary C
Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, which was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than in earlier studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared with men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both the sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more, and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for sex-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses.
Nelson, Suzy; McHugh Engstrom, Cathy
The present study builds on previous findings and analyzes how social climate (Moos, 1988), chapter advisement, and living status differ for members of high- and low-achieving fraternities (as measured by cumulative chapter GPA) and how the interplay of personal and environmental factors influence binge drinking and GPA among college men in…
Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio
According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.
Adverse effects of BD on cognitive functions such as psychomotor skills negatively impact on women's daily living. Methodology: Using a matched-pairs design and snowball sampling method, the present study investigated the relationship between binge drinking and psychomotor performance in a population of female ...
Castillo, Javier Malda; Jivraj, Stephen; Ng Fat, Linda
Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Rod Nielsen, Naja; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie
Consumption of high doses of alcohol on a single occasion (binge drinking) may harm the developing foetus and pregnant women are advised to avoid binge drinking while pregnant. We present characteristics of Danish women who binge drank in the pre-and post recognised part of their pregnancy....
Olthuis, Janine V.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Van Tyne, Kathryne
Objective: Although binge drinking is commonly defined as the consumption of at least 5 drinks in 1 sitting for men and 4 for women, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) defines binge drinking as the consumption of 6 or more drinks in 1 sitting for both men and women. This study examined the effect of using gender-specific binge…
Raposo, Jakelline Cipriano Dos Santos; Costa, Ana Carolina de Queiroz; Valença, Paula Andréa de Melo; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Colares, Viviane; Franca, Carolina da
To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolescents. The Chi-square test (≤ 0.05) and Poisson regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Use in life of illicit drugs was four times more prevalent among students who reported binge drinking (95%CI 3.19-5.45). Being in the age group of 16 to 19 years, being male, and having no religion were also significantly associated with illicit drug use. The prevalence of use in life of illicit drugs was higher in this study than in other studies carried out in Brazil and it was strongly associated with binge drinking. This factor was associated with gender, age, and religion. Estimar a prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas e sua associação com binge drinking e fatores sociodemográficos entre estudantes adolescentes. Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, envolvendo 1.154 estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino, no município de Olinda, PE, 2014. Foi utilizado o questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey, validado para uso com adolescentes brasileiros. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o teste do Qui-quadrado (≤ 0,05) e análise de regressão de Poisson, para estimar razões de prevalência, com intervalos com 95% de confiança. O uso na vida de drogas ilícitas foi quatro vezes mais prevalente entre os estudantes que relataram o binge drinking (IC95% 3,19-5,45). Estar na faixa etária de 16 a 19 anos, ser do sexo masculino e não ter religião também foram significativamente associados ao uso de drogas
Bonar, Erin E; Young, Kathleen M; Hoffmann, Erica; Gumber, Shinakee; Cummings, Jeremy P; Pavlick, Michelle; Rosenberg, Harold
This study was designed to assess undergraduates' (N = 424) definitions of binge drinking and to evaluate whether the number of drinks they said comprise a binge varied as a function of beverage type, respondent gender, and respondent binge drinking status. When asked to designate the specific number of drinks that comprise a binge for each of four beverage types, students reported that the number of beers constituting a binge was significantly larger than the number of glasses of wine, shots of hard liquor, and servings of any combination of alcoholic beverage types; men reported that a larger number of drinks constitute a binge than did women; and those who had engaged in 3 or more binges in the past 2 weeks reported that more drinks comprise a binge than those who had binged less often. Responses to an open-ended question asking their definition of a binge revealed that students sometimes characterize a binge in terms of motivations for and unhealthy consequences of drinking, in addition to defining a binge as comprising consumption of a large amount of alcohol in a limited (though often unspecified) time period. Furthermore, students attributed their open-ended definitions of binge drinking to informal sources of information and observation of others' drinking almost as often as they did to school-based or media-based sources. This suggests that educators might look for innovative ways to use both formal and informal social networking, and video illustrations of restrained drinking, as ways to influence young people's views of binge drinking.
Jakelline Cipriano dos Santos Raposo; Ana Carolina de Queiroz Costa; Paula Andréa de Melo Valença; Patrícia Maria Zarzar; Alcides da Silva Diniz; Viviane Colares; Carolina da Franca
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolesc...
Han, Benjamin H; Moore, Alison A; Sherman, Scott E; Palamar, Joseph J
Binge drinking among older adults has increased in the past decade. Binge drinking is associated with unintentional injuries, medical conditions, and lower health-related quality of life. No studies have characterized multimorbidity among older binge drinkers. We examined past 30-day binge alcohol use and lifetime medical conditions among adults age ≥50 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2005 to 2014. Self-reported lifetime prevalence of 13 medical conditions and medical multimorbidity (≥2 diseases) among binge drinkers were compared to non-binge drinkers. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine correlates of binge alcohol use among older adults with medical multimorbidity. Among adults aged ≥50, 14.4% reported past-month binge drinking. Estimated prevalence of medical multimorbidity was lower (21.4%) among binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers (28.3%; p older adults with multimorbidity, higher income (AOR = 1.44, p older adults in good health are apt to drink more than adults in poorer health. Current use of tobacco and substance use disorder were associated with an increased risk for binge drinking among older adults with multimorbidity. Binge drinking by older adults with multimorbidity may pose significant health risks especially with the concurrent use of other substances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Piano, Mariann R; Mazzuco, Adriana; Kang, Minkyung; Phillips, Shane A
Worldwide, consequences of binge drinking are a major health and policy concern. This article reviews contemporary binge drinking definitions as well as different questionnaires and biomarkers that have been used in research settings to examine binge drinking behavior among young adults. A review of electronic databases was conducted for binge drinking definitions, questionnaires, and biomarkers for the measurement of binge drinking in young adults (18-30 years). Binge drinking is often defined as four or more drinks for females and five or more drinks for males on an occasion or in one sitting within a designated time frame (2 weeks vs. past 30 days). Several tools and questionnaires are available to identify young adult repeated binge drinkers. Biomarkers have been used to corroborate self-reported alcohol consumption, of which direct biomarkers such as phosphatidylethanol may be useful in confirming recent heavy drinking. It is important to measure binge drinking along a continuum and to use questions that allow for assessment of intensity, frequency, duration, and daily versus weekend consumption patterns. Open-ended questions that allow for intensity (number of drinks) and frequency can be used to determine dose-response relationships with respect to specific outcome measures. Direct alcohol biomarkers reflecting alcohol consumption over a period of several days are useful in conjunction with questionnaire data for identifying young adult binge drinkers.
Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn
in question. As the report of binge drinking was highest in the first of two interviews referring to the same period, as well as women who participated in the first interview in pregnancy week 12 or earlier reported more binge drinking compared to women who participated in the interview later in pregnancy......OBJECTIVE: To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Cohort study.Setting:The Danish National Birth Cohort. SUBJECTS: The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated...... information on binge drinking during the early part of pregnancy and 8933 pregnant women with information on binge drinking during pregnancy weeks 30-36, obtained while pregnant and 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: More women reported binge drinking, if the interview took place close to the period...
This podcast is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.
Rush, Christina C; Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F
Elevated rates of comorbidity between binge eating and alcohol use problems have been widely documented. Prior studies have examined specific personality traits associated with the co-occurrence of these problems. The current study explores comprehensive personality factors that are associated with the co-occurrence of binge eating and binge drinking among a diverse sample of 208 college undergraduates. Using the Five Factor Model of personality, the authors assessed both comprehensive personality factors and style of impulse control, a personality style defined by different combinations of neuroticism and conscientiousness. On the basis of responses to a screening instrument, college students were assigned to one of four groups: binge eat, binge drink, binge eat and drink, and non-binge. The binge eat and drink group reported a higher level of neuroticism than did students in the binge drink and non-binge groups. Additionally, the binge eat and drink group was more likely to report an undercontrolled style of impulse control than were other groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina
Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.
Full Text Available The pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking (BD or heavy episodic drinking has increased notably worldwide in recent years, especially among adolescent and young people, being currently recognized as a global health problem. Although only a minority of binge drinkers will develop a substance use disorder, BD may have negative personal and social consequences in the short and medium term. The objective of this article is to review the findings on personality traits related to binge drinkers and to emphasize the aspects that should be examined in order to make progress in this area. The main characteristics of personality related to the practice of BD, regardless of the theoretical model used, are high Impulsivity and high Sensation seeking, as well as Anxiety sensitivity, Neuroticism (Hopelessness, Extraversion and low Conscientiousness. The data obtained may have theoretical implications to elucidate the endophenotype of BD, but they are especially useful for their preventive applications. Integration into prevention programs of emotional self-control skills, decision-making, social skills, and strategies to manage negative emotions will minimize the risk factors or consequences of BD associated with personality and will improve their effectiveness. In the future, it is necessary to harmonize a common measurement instrument for the assessment of personality, develop longitudinal studies with large samples that also integrate biological and neurocognitive measurements, and determine the reciprocal relationship between personality and BD together with its modulating variables, as well as the possible cultural differences.
Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Lemola, Sakari; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Deriaz, Olivier; Gerber, Stefan
Heavy drinking and smoking during pregnancy are known to have a negative impact on the unborn child. However, the impact of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking has been debated recently. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of moderate prenatal drinking and binge drinking with birthweight, being small for gestational age (SGA) at birth, preterm birth, and neonatal asphyxia. Moderate alcohol drinking, binge drinking, and several possible confounders were assessed in 1,258 pregnant women; information on neonatal health was obtained at birth. Results indicate that 30.8% of the women drank at low levels (6.35 mmol and/or Apgar score drugs, illicit drug use, and child gender moderate drinking was related to lower birthweight (p < 0.01), and moderate drinking and binge drinking were associated with neonatal asphyxia at trend level (p = 0.06 and p = 0.09). Moderate drinking and binge drinking were not related to length of gestation. In contrast to recent reviews in the field, our results assume that moderate drinking and binge drinking are risk factors for neonatal health. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine
To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....
This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.
Nourse, R; Adamshick, P; Stoltzfus, J
Binge drinking is a significant public health problem across college campuses in the United States. Despite substantial research and the use of evidence-based methods, the binge drinking culture remains an obstinate health crisis on campuses. This study examined the current binge drinking rate on a selected college campus, the association between binge drinking and anxiety and depression as well as the associated consequences of students' alcohol use. A sample of 201 students from a small, private Mid-Atlantic college completed validated scales as well as demographics and questionnaires. Primary outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, 7-item Generalised Anxiety Questionnaire, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Secondary measures were the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire, questionnaires, and demographics. Descriptive outcomes, frequencies and percentages, and separate Chi-square tests methodologies were utilised for analyses. According to the AUDIT, 93% of students engaged in hazardous drinking, with a binge drinking rate of 38.8%. No significant associations were found between hazardous drinking and depression (p = 0.20) or anxiety (p = 0.68) levels in students. A significant relationship was found between their amount of drinking and negative consequences (p students reported moderate and severe levels of anxiety and depression. Our student sample engaged in binge drinking, suffered negative consequences, and presented with anxiety and depression issues along with gender implications as females had higher rates of depression and anxiety. Males drank significantly more and binged more often than females. The majority of students who binged experienced memory loss. Both females and males reported taking foolish risks and being impulsive when drinking. Students are vulnerable to harmful consequences when binging and have poor insight regarding binge drinking.
Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Sweeting, Helen; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Mathis, Federica; Hanewinkel, Reiner
To investigate the association between having a favourite alcohol advertisement and binge drinking among European adolescents. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on relationships between smoking and drinking and film tobacco and alcohol exposures. State-funded schools. Baseline survey of 12 464 German, Italian, Polish and Scottish adolescents (mean age 13.5 years), of whom 10 259 (82%) were followed-up 12 months later. Pupils were asked the brand of their favourite alcohol advertisement at baseline. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regressions assessed relationships between having a favourite alcohol advertisement ('alcohol marketing receptivity') and (i) binge drinking at baseline; and (ii) initiating binge drinking during follow-up among a subsample of 7438 baseline never binge drinkers. Life-time binge drinking prevalence at baseline was 29.9% and 25.9% initiated binge drinking during follow-up. Almost one-third of the baseline sample (32.1%) and 22.6% of the follow-up sample of never-bingers named a branded favourite alcohol advertisement, with high between-country variation in brand named. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics and drinking behaviour of peers, parents and siblings, alcohol marketing receptivity was related significantly to both binge drinking at baseline [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92, 2.36] and binge drinking initiation in longitudinal analysis (AOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.66). There was no evidence for effect heterogeneity across countries. Among European adolescents naming a favourite alcohol advertisement was associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking during 1-year follow-up, suggesting a relationship between alcohol marketing receptivity and adolescent binge drinking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Razvodovsky, Yury; Ruchkin, Vladislav
Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours. Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours. Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Canham, Sarah L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Mauro, Pia M; Mojtabai, Ramin; Spira, Adam P
Alcohol use in later life has been linked to poor sleep. However, the association between binge drinking, which is common among middle-aged and older adults, and insomnia has not been previously assessed. We studied participants aged 50 years and older (n = 6027) from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study who reported the number of days they had ≥4 drinks on one occasion in the prior 3 months. Participants also reported the frequency of four insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association between binge drinking frequency and insomnia. Overall, 32.5% of participants had >0 to ≤2 binge drinking days/week; and 3.6% had >2 binge drinking days/week. After adjusting for demographic variables, medical conditions, body mass index, and elevated depressive symptoms, participants who binged >2 days/week had a 64% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.47, p = 0.017). Participants reporting >0 to ≤2 binge days/week also had a 35% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.15-1.59, p = 0.001). When smoking was added to the regression model, these associations fell just below the level of significance. Results suggest that binge drinking is associated with a greater risk of insomnia among adults aged 50 years and older, although this relationship may be driven in part by current smoking behavior. The relatively high prevalence of both binge drinking and sleep complaints among middle-aged and older populations warrants further investigation into binge drinking as a potential cause of late-life insomnia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: The main aim of this study is to improve our knowledge on binge drinking behavior in adolescents. In particular, we tested a model of predictors of binge drinking focusing on boredom proneness; we also examined the predictive and mediating role of drinking expectancies on binge drinking. Methods: A questionnaire designed to assess current drinking behavior, such as binge drinking, drinking expectancies and boredom proneness, was administered to 721 Italian adolescents (61% females aged between 13 and 19 years (M = 15.98, SD = 1.61. Results: Structural equation modeling confirmed the evidence on drinking expectancies as predicted by boredom proneness and as predictive of adolescents' binge drinking. Interestingly, disinhibition and relief from pain seem to play a more important mediating role between boredom and alcohol outcome. Conversely, no mediation was found for interpersonal and social confidence expectancies on binge drinking. Conclusions: In general, the results suggest that preventative interventions on alcohol misuse should focus on personality traits and underlying drinking expectancies.
Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking, on child motor function at age 5. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, participation in organized sport, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers reporting isolated episodes of binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes. No association was observed with respect to the number of binge episodes (maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. In this study, we found no systematic association between isolated episodes of binge drinking during early pregnancy and child motor function at age 5. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Townshend, Julia M; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Griffin, Alison; Hunt, Frances J; Milani, Raffaella M
The repeated pattern of heavy intoxication followed by withdrawal from alcohol (i.e., "binge drinking") has been found to have substantial adverse effects on prefrontal neural systems associated with decision-making and impulse control. Repeated binge drinking has been linked to risky and unplanned sexual behavior; however few studies have examined the role of impulsivity and related cognitive processes in understanding this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking, "reflection impulsivity" (deficits in gathering and evaluating information during decision-making), alcohol-related expectancies, and unplanned sexual behavior in a sample of young social drinkers. Ninety-two university students completed the alcohol use questionnaire (AUQ) to measure alcohol intake and binge drinking. Two groups (low-binge and high-binge) were generated from the AUQ data. The Information Sampling Task (IST) was used to measure reflection impulsivity; the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) for alcohol outcome expectancies; and an unplanned sexual behavior questionnaire, which asked about the number of unplanned sexual events. When compared to the low-binge drinking group, the high-binge drinkers had significantly more unplanned sexual encounters and were impaired on the IST, reflection-impulsivity task. They scored higher on the alcohol expectancy factors of sociability, risk and aggression, negative self-perception, and in particular liquid courage. In a regression analysis, number of unplanned sexual encounters, binge drinking score, and liquid courage were all significantly related. These results support the role of binge drinking in reduced impulse control and decision-making deficits. The findings indicate that high-binge drinkers demonstrate impairments on an impulse control task similar to that observed in dependent samples and this may be a factor in understanding the negative behavioral consequences associated with excessive
Kilburn, Tina R.
Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...... and number of episodes) and between simple reaction time (SRT) and alcohol intake or binge drinking (timing and number of episodes) during pregnancy. Conclusion This was one of the first studies investigating IPT and prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking in early pregnancy. Daily prenatal...
Oh, Jung Eun
Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008-December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07-1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence ( P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking.
This podcast is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy. Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 1/8/2013.
Full Text Available Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90 meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking.
Zhai, Zu Wei; Yip, Sarah W; Steinberg, Marvin A; Wampler, Jeremy; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
The study systematically examined the relative relationships between perceived family and peer gambling and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. It also determined the likelihood of at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking as a function of the number of different social groups with perceived gambling. A multi-site high-school survey assessed gambling, alcohol use, presence of perceived excessive peer gambling (peer excess-PE), and family gambling prompting concern (family concern-FC) in 2750 high-school students. Adolescents were separately stratified into: (1) low-risk, at-risk, and problem/pathological gambling groups; and, (2) non-binge-drinking, low-frequency-binge-drinking, and high-frequency-binge-drinking groups. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to each other, FC and PE were associated with greater likelihoods of at-risk and problem/pathological gambling. However, only FC was associated with binge-drinking. Logistic regression revealed that adolescents who endorsed either FC or PE alone, compared to no endorsement, were more likely to have at-risk and problem/pathological gambling, relative to low-risk gambling. Adolescents who endorsed both FC and PE, compared to PE alone, were more likely to have problem/pathological gambling relative to low-risk and at-risk gambling. Relative to non-binge-drinking adolescents, those who endorsed both FC and PE were more likely to have low- and high-frequency-binge-drinking compared to FC alone or PE alone, respectively. Family and peer gambling individually contribute to adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. Strategies that target adolescents as well as their closely affiliated family and peer members may be an important step towards prevention of harm-associated levels of gambling and alcohol use in youths.
Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi
Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.
Fish, Jessica N; Hughes, Tonda L; Russell, Stephen T
To estimate sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking. Cross-sectional US adult health survey from 2014 and 2015. US adults aged 18 and older (n = 215 684; n = 203 562 heterosexual, n = 2784 lesbian/gay, n = 2892 bisexual, n = 686 'other' and n = 1947 don't know/unsure). Self-reported past 30-day standard binge and high-intensity binge drinking. Standard binge drinking cut-off values were 4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively. High-intensity binge drinking was measured as two and three times the standard level (8+ and 12+ drinks for women and 10+ and 15+ drinks for men). Lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to report consuming 4+ drinks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.57, confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.09 and aOR = 1.83, CI = 1.45, 2.30 for lesbian and bisexual women, respectively); 8+ drinks (aOR = 3.86, CI = 2.39, 6.24, aOR = 2.07, CI = 1.39, 3.07); and 12+ drinks (aOR = 3.81, CI = 1.77, 8.19, aOR = 2.54, CI = 1.25, 5.14) on a single occasion in the past 30 days. Generally, gay and bisexual men were no more likely than heterosexual men to report standard or high-intensity binge drinking. However, bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to consume 15+ drinks (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.01, 3.06). Rates of standard and high-intensity binge drinking were similar between heterosexual and unsure men and women. Men and women who indicated 'other' sexual identities were generally less likely than heterosexuals to report standard and high-intensity binge drinking, with the exception of 4+ drinks for women and 10+ drinks for men. In the United States, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high-intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
McClure, Auden C; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Sargent, James D
Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. This study describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1,734 U.S. 15- to 20-year-old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including TV time, Internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30-day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies, and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for sociodemographics, personality, and peer drinking. Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30-day binge drinking. Correlations between mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 to 0.47), and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand to drink, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on
McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.
The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship…
McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.
Background Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. Methods This paper describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1734 U.S. 15–20 year old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including television time, internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30 day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for socio-demographics, personality and peer drinking. Results Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30 day binge drinking. Correlations among mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 – 0.47) and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Conclusions Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. PMID:23256927
Full Text Available To investigate whether binge drinking pattern influences blood pressure independently from drinking volume or whether it modifies the effect of volume of drinking.We used cross-sectional data from population samples of 7559 men and 7471 women aged 45-69 years in 2002-05, not on antihypertensive medication, from Russia, Poland and Czech Republic. Annual alcohol intake, drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥ 100 g in men and ≥ 60 g in women in one session at least once a month were estimated from graduated frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was analysed as continuous variables (systolic and diastolic pressure and a binary outcome (≥ 140/90 mm Hg.In men, annual alcohol intake and drinking frequency were strongly associated with blood pressure. The odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking in men was 1.62 (95% CI 1.45-1.82 after controlling for age, country, body mass index, education and smoking; additional adjustment for annual alcohol intake reduced it to 1.20 (1.03-1.39. In women, the fully adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking was 1.31 (1.05-1.63. Binge drinking did not modify the effect of annual alcohol intake. Consuming alcohol as wine, beer or spirits had similar effects.The results suggest that the independent long-term effect of binge drinking was modest, that binge drinking did not modify the effect of alcohol intake, and that different alcoholic beverages had similar effects on blood pressure.
5 standard drinks on an average drinking day. Results. Current alcohol use (any amount) in 2014 - 2015 was reported by 33.1% of the population (47.7% males, 20.2% females). Of drinkers, 43.0% reported binge drinking (48.2% males, ...
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Jang, Jisun; Swenson, Theadora; Bhindarwala, Asma Moiz
This study investigates an association between social network characteristics and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood, utilizing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,966) and employing social network and longitudinal analysis. Lower integration and socialization with alcohol-using peers had immediate risks of binge drinking during adolescence; however, over time, the effects of socialization with alcohol-using peers had the most dramatic reduction. The most p...
This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking. Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 1/3/2012.
Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown.
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption in adolescents causes negative effects on familiar, social, academic life, as well as neurocognitive alterations. The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol is characterized by the alternation of episodes of heavy drinking in a short interval of time, and periods of abstinence, a practice that can result in important brain alterations; even more than regular alcohol consumption. The prefrontal cortex, which acts as neural support for the executive processes, is particularly affected by alcohol; however, not all studies are in agreement about how BD alcohol consumption affects executive functioning. Some research has found that alcohol consumption in adolescence does not significantly affect executive functioning while others found it does. It is possible that these discrepancies could be due to the history of alcohol consumption, that is, at what age the subjects started drinking. The aim of our study is to assess the performance on executive functioning tasks of 13–19-year-old adolescents according to their pattern of alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that BD adolescents will perform worse than non-BD subjects in tasks that evaluate executive functions, and these differences will increase depending on how long they have been consuming alcohol. Three hundred and twenty-two students (48.14% females; age range 13–22 years; mean aged 16.7 ± 2.59 participated in the study; all of them had begun drinking at the age of 13 years. Participant were divided into three groups, according to their age range (13–15, 16–18, and 19–22 years and divided according to their pattern of alcohol consumption (BD and control groups. Then, the subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tasks that assess executive functions like working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, or self-control among others. The entire sample showed a normal improvement in their executive performance, but this improvement was more stable and robust in
Chainey, Timothy A; Stephens, Christine
Teenage binge drinking is a significant health issue. To explore teenagers talk about binge drinking, four peer-group interviews were conducted with 20 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, with experience of excessive alcohol use. A discourse analysis showed that a 'drinking is cool' discourse constructed 'getting wasted' as an integral part of social life, while a 'drinking as a social lubricant' discourse described the behavioural functions of alcohol use. Participants also actively resisted an 'alcohol is bad' discourse, which acknowledges the risks of alcohol use. The findings illustrate how teenagers use these resources in sophisticated ways to position the teen drinker positively and negatively. © The Author(s) 2014.
DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Meisel, Matthew K; Balestrieri, Sara G; Ott, Miles Q; Cox, Melissa J; Clark, Melissa A; Barnett, Nancy P
Adolescent and young adult binge drinking is strongly associated with perceived social norms and the drinking behavior that occurs within peer networks. The extent to which an individual is influenced by the behavior of others may depend upon that individual's resistance to peer influence (RPI). Students in their first semester of college (N=1323; 54.7% female, 57% White, 15.1% Hispanic) reported on their own binge drinking, and the perceived binge drinking of up to 10 important peers in the first-year class. Using network autocorrelation models, we investigated cross-sectional relationships between participant's binge drinking frequency and the perceived and actual binge drinking frequency of important peers. We then tested the moderating role of RPI, expecting that greater RPI would weaken the relationship between perceived and actual peer binge drinking on participant binge drinking. Perceived and actual peer binge drinking were statistically significant predictors of participant binge drinking frequency in the past month, after controlling for covariates. RPI significantly moderated the association between perceptions of peer binge drinking and participant's own binge drinking; this association was weaker among participants with higher RPI compared to those with lower RPI. RPI did not interact with the actual binge drinking behavior of network peers. RPI may function to protect individuals from the effect of their perceptions about the binge drinking of peers, but not from the effect of the actual binge drinking of peers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Julia E. Cohen-Gilbert
Full Text Available The transition to college is associated with an increase in heavy episodic alcohol use, or binge drinking, during a time when the prefrontal cortex and prefrontal-limbic circuitry continue to mature. Traits associated with this immaturity, including impulsivity in emotional contexts, may contribute to risky and heavy episodic alcohol consumption. The current study used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to assess brain activation during a task that required participants to ignore background images with positive, negative, or neutral emotional valence while performing an inhibitory control task (Go-NoGo. Subjects were 23 college freshmen (seven male, 18–20 years who engaged in a range of drinking behavior (past 3 months’ binge episodes range = 0–19, mean = 4.6, total drinks consumed range = 0–104, mean = 32.0. Brain activation on inhibitory trials (NoGo was contrasted between negative and neutral conditions and between positive and neutral conditions using non-parametric testing (5000 permutations and cluster-based thresholding (z = 2.3, p ≤ 0.05 corrected. Results showed that a higher recent incidence of binge drinking was significantly associated with decreased activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, brain regions strongly implicated in executive functioning, during negative relative to neutral inhibitory trials. No significant associations between binge drinking and brain activation were observed for positive relative to neutral images. While task performance was not significantly associated with binge drinking in this sample, subjects with heavier recent binge drinking showed decreased recruitment of executive control regions under negative versus neutral distractor conditions. These findings suggest that in young adults with heavier recent binge drinking, processing of negative emotional
Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J
We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate problems associated with alcohol use among university students who reported binge drinking in comparison to students who consumed alcohol without binging. Method: a cross-sectional study among university students (N=2,408 who accessed the website about alcohol use. Logistic and linear regression models were included in the statistical analyzes. Results: alcohol use in the last three months was reported by 89.2% of university students; 51.6% reported binge drinking. Compared to students who did not binge drink, university students who presented this pattern were more likely to report all evaluated problems, among them: black out (aOR: 5.4; having academic problems (aOR: 3.4; acting impulsively and having regrets (aOR: 2.9; getting involved in fights (aOR: 2.6; drinking and driving (aOR: 2.6 and accepting a ride with someone who had drunk alcohol (aOR: 1.8. Students who binged also had higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (b=4.6; p<0.001, more negative consequences (b=1.0; p<0.001 and a reduced perception of the negativity of the consequences (b=-0.5; p<0.01. Conclusion: binge drinking was associated with an increase in the chances of manifesting problems related to alcohol use. The conclusions of this study cannot be generalized for all of the Brazilian population.
Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Sordo, Luis; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Puigcorbé, Susanna; Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M Teresa; Belza, María José J; Espelt, Albert
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of binge drinking by regions in Spain and assess the effect of individual and contextual factors related to this drinking pattern in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the 2014 Spanish School Survey on Drug Use (ESTUDES) in students aged 14-18 years (N = 34,259). The outcome was binge drinking in adolescents during the last 30 days. Individual independent variables were socioeconomic variables and variables related to access to alcohol and its availability. Contextual variables consisted of adult alcohol consumption, public policies on alcohol, and socioeconomic factors. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals. The results showed that the prevalence of youth binge drinking by region of residence was similar for both sexes (r = 0.72). At the individual level, binge drinking was mainly associated with the perception of easy access to alcohol (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23-1.55), consumption in open areas [(PR: 3.82; 95% CI: 3.44-4.24) < once a month and (PR: 6.57; 95% CI: 5.85-7.37) ≥ once a month], at least one parent allowing alcohol consumption (PR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.37-1.47), and receiving >30 euros weekly (PR :1.51; 95% CI: 1.37-1.67). Contextual variables were not associated with youth binge drinking when individual variables were considered. In conclusion, youth binge drinking was associated with individual variables related to high alcohol accessibility and availability, regardless of contextual variables. These variables explained the variability in binge drinking among Spanish regions.
Parada, María; Corral, Montserrat; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
Binge drinking (BD) is prevalent among college students. Studies on alcoholism have shown that the prefrontal cortex is vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. The prefrontal cortex undergoes both structural and functional changes during adolescence and young adulthood. Sex differences have been observed in brain maturation and in alcohol-induced damage. The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship between BD and cognitive functions subserved by the prefrontal cortex in male and female university students. The sample comprised 122 undergraduates (aged 18 to 20 years): 62 BD (30 females) and 60 non-BD (29 females). Executive functions were assessed by WMS-III (Backward Digit Span and Backward Spatial Span), SOPT (abstract designs), Letter Fluency (PMR), BADS (Zoo Map and Key Search) and WCST-3. BD students scored lower in the Backward Digit Span Subtest and generated more perseverative responses in the SOPT In relation to interaction BD by sex, BD males scored lower in the Backward Digit Span test than BD females and non-BD males. BD is associated with poorer performance of executive functions subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The results do not support enhanced vulnerability of women to alcohol neurotoxic effects. These difficulties may reflect developmental delay or frontal lobe dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity and alcohol drinking are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, few studies show the relationship between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome according to varying degrees of obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Korean male adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study included 5,867 males aged ≥ 20 years who were examined at the Soonchunhyang University health promotion center during June 2008–December 2010. The subjects were divided into non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 14 drinks/week) groups. The subjects were also categorized into binge drinking and non-binge drinking groups. To obtain odds ratios (ORs) for metabolic syndrome, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS The overall metabolic syndrome prevalence was 27.3% (12.8%, non-obese group; 50.4%, obese group). After adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking, in the non-obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking (reference: nondrinking) was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12–2.18), with a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. In the obese group, the OR for heavy drinking with binge drinking was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.07–1.88), showing a significant increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence (P metabolic syndrome. Thus, both non-obese and obese males should restrict their alcohol intake and not indulge in binge drinking. PMID:29629034
... does marijuana affect the brain? Marijuana has both short-and long-term effects on the brain. THC acts on numerous ... movement difficulty with thinking and problem-solving impaired memory ... Long-Term Effects Marijuana also affects brain development. When people ...
... and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the marijuana plant as a medicine. However, there have been scientific studies of cannabinoids, the chemicals in marijuana. This has led to two FDA-approved medicines. They contain THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. ...
Izenberg, Jacob M; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Yen, Irene H
Neighborhood context plays a role in binge drinking, a behavior with major health and economic costs. Gentrification, the influx of capital and residents of higher socioeconomic status into historically-disinvested neighborhoods, is a growing trend with the potential to place urban communities under social and financial pressure. Hypothesizing that these pressures and other community changes resulting from gentrification could be tied to excessive alcohol consumption, we examined the relationship between gentrification and binge drinking in California neighborhoods. California census tracts were categorized as non-gentrifiable, stable (gentrifiable), or gentrifying from 2006 to 2015. Outcomes and covariates were obtained from the California Health Interview Survey using combined 2013-2015 data (n = 60,196). Survey-weighted logistic regression tested for associations between gentrification and any binge drinking in the prior 12 months. Additional models tested interactions between gentrification and other variables of interest, including housing tenure, federal poverty level, race/ethnicity, sex, and duration of neighborhood residence. A third of respondents reported past-year binge drinking. Controlling for demographic covariates, gentrification was not associated with binge drinking in the population overall (AOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.95-1.34), but was associated with binge drinking among those living in the neighborhood gentrification is associated with binge drinking. Further understanding the relationship between gentrification and high-risk alcohol use is important for policy and public health interventions mitigating the impact of this process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag
This study examines the relative contribution of exposure to entertainment and music magazines on binge drinking among a group of teenagers under the supervision of a juvenile court system in a medium-sized western United States community. Despite having a large proportion of adolescent readers, entertainment and music magazines typically include a substantial number of advertisements for alcoholic beverages in each issue. Data were collected via a self-report questionnaire administered to 342 juvenile offenders (ages 12-18 years). Three-quarters of our respondents reported they have used alcohol and about 37% indicated they were binge drinkers. As anticipated, binge drinkers were more frequent readers of entertainment and music magazines than non-binge drinkers. Binge drinkers also estimated that larger portions of their classmates used alcohol and would be more accepting of regular drinking than non-binge drinkers. Results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict whether our subjects typically consumed five or more drinks during a drinking episode indicated that perceived ease of access, age, gender, the number of best friends who drink, parental drinking (inversely), and entertainment and music magazine reading frequency were significant predictors of binge drinking. We conclude that the predictive influence entertainment and music magazine reading frequency may actually reflect a selectivity bias among a segment of the youth sub-culture already inclined toward alcohol use and abuse. We recommend that entertainment and music magazine reading should be considered only within the constellation of other risk factors when assessing risk for potential alcohol abuse.
Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh
We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…
Smeaton, G L; Josiam, B M; Dietrich, U C
Four hundred forty-two women and 341 men were surveyed at Panama City Beach, Florida, to assess the effects of gender, age, fraternity or sorority membership, and travel motivation on alcohol consumption and binge drinking during spring break. The mean number of drinks consumed the previous day was 18 for men and 10 for women; 91.7% of the men and 78.1% of the women had participated in a binge-drinking episode during the previous day. Respondents less than 21 years old consumed less alcohol and reported significantly lower frequencies of intoxication than those over 21. The men's reported levels of alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and intoxication to the point of sickness were significantly higher than the women's, but fraternity or sorority membership was not associated with higher levels of consumption. Students motivated to visit the specific destination because of its "party" reputation consumed significantly more alcohol than students who cited other reasons for going there.
Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa
BACKGROUND: The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking......, on child motor function at age 5. METHODS: We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home...
Ana Karina Rocha Hora Mendonça
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption and the prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking among university students of health-related courses in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of 865 female students from two universities in the Brazilian Northeast. The instruments used were the AUDIT and a questionnaire used to collect sociodemographic data. The chi-square test and logistic regression were used, with statistical significance set at p-value < 0.05. Results: Risky alcohol consumption was evidenced in 16.4%, while the prevalence of binge drinking was 48.0%. Binge drinking was strongly associated with drunk driving (OR = 12.24 and living in a conflicting family environment (OR = 6.33. Binge drinking was a constant in students who engaged in fights, those who had problems with the law and among smokers. Conclusion: The high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, binge drinking and the association of these with risky behaviors in students serve to guide future public policies on prevention.
Gómez, Raúl Ángel; Luque, Leticia Elizabeth; Tomas, María Teresa Cortés; Tort, Begoña Espejo; Giménez, José Antonio
The current alcohol consumption pattern among youngsters and adolescents, characterized by heavy drinking during a few hours, several days a week, or binge drinking (binge drinking, concentrated drinking or long-gulp drinking) is a reality in many countries, including Spain and Argentina. To describe cognitive determinants in the behavior regarding excessive alcohol consumption (binge drinking) in 16-25 year subjects in Argentina. An ad hoc survey was conducted to assess cognitive determinants influencing heavy alcohol consumption, according to I. Ajzen's guidelines. There are significant statistic differences between the group of heavy drinkers and the group that does not reach such level of consumption in relation to behavioral beliefs, and control beliefs. Both groups recognized consumption is noxious and not safe; no differences were observed concerning normative beliefs. There is a complex interaction mong attitudinal factors, motivational and behavior control factors. Instruments require greater sensitivity and further in-depth analysis is required regardomg short, middle and long consequences generated by binge drinking and its role as a positive or negative reinforment. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G
Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.
Juliana Gabrielle Martins
Full Text Available Adolescence is characterized by heightened susceptibility to peer influence, which makes adolescents vulnerable to initiating or maintaining risky habits such as heavy drinking. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of social capital with longitudinal changes in the frequency of binge drinking among adolescents at public and private high schools in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. This longitudinal study used two waves of data collected when the adolescents were 12 and 13 years old. At the baseline assessment in 2013 a classroom survey was carried out with a representative sample of 588 students. In 2014, a follow-up survey was carried out with the same adolescents when they were aged 13 years. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-C (AUDIT C was employed for the evaluation of alcohol intake. Our predictor variables included sociodemographic and economic characteristics (gender, type of school, mother's education, family income and Social Capital. For evaluation of social capital, we used the Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students (SCQ-AS. Descriptive and bivariate analyzes were performed (p <0.05. The log-binomial model was used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals. The two-tailed p value was set at <0.05. The prevalence of binge drinking in 2013 was 23.1% and in 2014 the prevalence had risen to 30.1%. Gender (PR 1.48; 95% CI 0.87-2.52 and socioeconomic status (type of school and mother's education were not associated with the increase in the frequency of binge drinking. However, higher social capital was significantly associated with an increase in binge drinking by students. Adolescents who reported that they had an increase in social cohesion in the community/neighborhood subscale were 3.4 times more likely (95%CI 1.96-6.10 to binge drink themselves. Our results provide new evidence about the "dark side" of social cohesion in promoting binge drinking among adolescents.
Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.
among female social drinkers; to compare motor skills performance between ... Harmful alcohol use is high in males but women ... mean different things in different contexts . Binge ... occasionally thereby putting their brains at risk of damage.
Woodruff, Susan I; Hurtado, Suzanne L; Simon-Arndt, Cynthia M
Alcohol misuse, in particular binge drinking, is a serious concern among military personnel because it is strongly associated with adverse consequences and has a deleterious effect on readiness. Although most alcohol misuse studies have focused on individual risk factors, studies are increasingly examining environmental influences and strategies for reducing alcohol risks. The purpose of this study is to address gaps in what is known about how service members' perceptions of environmental factors are related to binge drinking in the U.S. Marine Corps. The relationship between Marines' self-reports of environmental factors and alcohol binge drinking was assessed in this correlational study using data from three large Marine Corps installations drawn from the Department of Defense 2011 Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel (N = 2,933). We proposed several directional hypotheses based on existing civilian and military studies of alcohol use and misuse, as well as health behavior theory. Agreement with the statements that alcoholic beverages cost too much, that drinking might negatively affect one's military career, and that one's immediate supervisor and installation discourage alcohol use were independently associated with decreased odds of binge drinking (i.e., protective factors). Perceptions that alcoholic beverages are difficult to get was particularly protective; the odds of having binged were lower for participants who endorsed this belief than for those who did not. Perceptions that drinking is part of being in one's unit was a risk factor for binge drinking (odds ratio = 1.29). Even after accounting for strong sociodemographic correlates, binge drinking was independently associated with a number of environmentally oriented perceptions. Beliefs that alcohol is affordable and easy to access were the strongest environmental correlates of increased risk of binge drinking. Addressing the threat alcohol misuse poses to both Marines and
Plucker, Jonathan A; Teed, Carla M
Recent research suggests that leaders in Greek organizations use alcohol more frequently and more heavily than non-leaders in Greek organizations. These results carry considerable implications for the majority of existing alcohol education programs that rely heavily on peer modeling. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a more complex and realistic assessment of leadership involvement produced different results than the previous study. Results from 327 women in five randomly selected sororities provide evidence that binge drinking is related to some negative academic outcomes, but that a significant relationship between binge drinking and leadership involvement in Greek organizations does not exist. Furthermore, the results provide evidence that leadership styles do not influence the leadership involvement-binge drinking relationship.
Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn
A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…
In the Netherlands binge drinking among vocational community college students is a serious problem. Among this group, binge drinking is a serious health problem. Recent statistics show that 31% of vocational community students consume on average 5-10 alcoholic units, 19% consumes 11-20 alcoholic
Full Text Available Abstract Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9% than for girls (47.5%. The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p p Conclusions Whereas some of the risk and protective factors for binge drinking are not surprising since they are known for substance abuse in general, there are two points that
Truong, Khoa D; Reifsnider, Odette S; Mayorga, Maria E; Spitler, Hugh
The objective of this study was to estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. To estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. A simulation model was developed to estimate the number of PTB and LBW cases due to maternal binge drinking. Data inputs for the model included number of births and rates of preterm and LBW from the National Center for Health Statistics; female population by childbearing age groups from the U.S. Census; increased relative risks of preterm and LBW deliveries due to maternal binge drinking extracted from the literature; and adjusted prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant women estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. The most conservative estimates attributed maternal binge drinking to 8,701 (95% CI: 7,804-9,598) PTBs (1.75% of all PTBs) and 5,627 (95% CI 5,121-6,133) LBW deliveries in 2008, with 3,708 (95% CI: 3,375-4,041) cases of both PTB and LBW. The estimated rate of PTB due to maternal binge drinking was 1.57% among all PTBs to White women, 0.69% among Black women, 3.31% among Hispanic women, and 2.35% among other races. Compared to other age groups, women ages 40-44 had the highest adjusted binge drinking rate and highest PTB rate due to maternal binge drinking (4.33%). Maternal binge drinking contributed significantly to PTB and LBW differentially across sociodemographic groups.
Squeglia, Lindsay M; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F
Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Forty binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males), aged 16 to 19 years, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and an SWM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant binge drinking status × gender interactions were found (p working memory performances (p performance (p gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during an SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that blood oxygen level-dependent activation is affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive marker of alcohol impact to the brain on future behaviors, such as driving safety, academic performance, and neuropsychological performance. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
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Levinson, Daphna; Rosca, Paola; Vilner, Doron; Brimberg, Idit; Stall, Yael; Rimon, Ayelet
Alcohol use is a major preventable public health problem with serious health and social consequences especially among youth. In Israel, alcohol use has become an emerging problem during the last decade, and its use has increased among adolescents and young adults. Binge drinking is the common pattern of alcohol consumption among young adults who drink for recreational purposes. The present survey was conducted among 16-35 years old visitors to the ED. The aim was specifically to identify binge drinkers in order to assess the scope of the need for a brief counseling intervention among young people who arrive intoxicated to a large tertiary care urban ED in Israel. The survey was conducted throughout a 1 week period (24 h per day) at the general EDs in a large, tertiary care center, situated in Tel Aviv. During the survey week, 946 individuals, aged 16-35, visited the ED and 573 (63%) of them were approached for an interview. 89% of those approached agreed to be interviewed. Consenting patients [N = 348] were asked whether they drink any alcohol, how often they drink and how much. About one fifth of those interviewed were in the habit of consuming more than four units of alcohol per occasion. Drinking several times a week or every day was reported by 19% of the males and 26% of the females. Frequency of the drinking episodes was highly correlated with the number of units of drink per occasion. The study found a very high rate of binge drinking among ED visitors, and this suggests a need for large scale ED-based interventions. As binge drinkers are at elevated risk for accidents, violence and related problems, effective ED-based interventions could make an important contribution to public health. Accordingly, Israel is in the process of assessing the effectiveness of a large-scale ED-based counseling intervention. Trial registration number 0230-13-TLV.
Yang, Bo; Zhao, Xinyan
Many studies to date have examined how media influence health-related behavior through social norms. However, most studies focused on traditional media. In the era of traditional and social media integration, our study advances health and mass communication scholarship by examining the influence of both traditional and social media mediated through social norms. Also, we examined a boundary condition for the norms-mediated media influence process. Namely, in the context of college binge drinking, we predict that exposure to TV and social media prodrinking messages can influence college students' binge drinking intentions through perceived peer descriptive and injunctive norms. We also predict that group identification will moderate this indirect effect. Our moderated mediation models were tested via structural equation modeling (N = 609). We found that college students' exposure to social media prodrinking messages indirectly influenced their binge drinking intentions via perceived injunctive norms, and students' identification with their peers moderated this indirect effect. However, neither descriptive nor injunctive norms mediated the influence of students' exposure to TV prodrinking messages on their binge drinking intentions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Rozensher, Susan G.; Seal, David S.
The experiential learning approach has been gathering substantial momentum and support in educational circles. In the team-based experiential learning project presented here, which effectively integrated theory and application, students were charged with creating an integrated marketing communications plan to demarket binge drinking on the college…
D'Angelo, Jonathan; Kerr, Bradley; Moreno, Megan A
Given the prevalence of social media, a nascent but important area of research is the effect of social media posting on one's own self. It is possible that an individual's social media posts may have predictive capacity, especially in relation to health behavior. Researchers have long utilized concepts from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to predict health behaviors. The theory does not account for social media, which may influence or predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test a model including Facebook alcohol displays and constructs from the TRA to predict binge drinking. Incoming college freshmen from two schools (312 participants between the ages of 18 and 19) were interviewed prior to (T1) and one year into college (T2), and their Facebook profiles were evaluated for displayed alcohol content. Path modeling was used to evaluate direct and indirect paths predicting binge drinking. Path analysis suggested that Facebook alcohol displays at T1 directly predict binge drinking at T2, while alcohol attitude both directly and indirectly predicts binge drinking. Based on these results, a preliminary model of social media presentation and action is discussed.
January 2018, Vol. 108, No. 1. RESEARCH. Of the 48 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO). African region, South Africa (SA) had the highest per capita alcohol .... SA, focusing primarily on demographics, labour market participation, ..... of male drinkers reported binge drinking, while 32.4% of female drinkers ...
D'Angelo, Jonathan; Kerr, Bradley; Moreno, Megan A
Given the prevalence of social media, a nascent but important area of research is the effect of social media posting on one's own self. It is possible that an individual's social media posts may have predictive capacity, especially in relation to health behavior. Researchers have long utilized concepts from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to predict health behaviors. The theory does not account for social media, which may influence or predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test a model including Facebook alcohol displays and constructs from the TRA to predict binge drinking. Incoming college freshmen from two schools (312 participants between the ages of 18 and 19) were interviewed prior to (T1) and one year into college (T2), and their Facebook profiles were evaluated for displayed alcohol content. Path modeling was used to evaluate direct and indirect paths predicting binge drinking. Path analysis suggested that Facebook alcohol displays at T1 directly predict binge drinking at T2, while alcohol attitude both directly and indirectly predicts binge drinking. Based on these results, a preliminary model of social media presentation and action is discussed. PMID:26412923
Guo, Guang; Li, Yi; Wang, Hongyu; Cai, Tianji; Duncan, Greg J
The authors draw data from the College Roommate Study (ROOM) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to investigate gene-environment interaction effects on youth binge drinking. In ROOM, the environmental influence was measured by the precollege drinking behavior of randomly assigned roommates. Random assignment safeguards against friend selection and removes the threat of gene-environment correlation that makes gene-environment interaction effects difficult to interpret. On average, being randomly assigned a drinking peer as opposed to a nondrinking peer increased college binge drinking by 0.5-1.0 episodes per month, or 20%-40% the average amount of binge drinking. However, this peer influence was found only among youths with a medium level of genetic propensity for alcohol use; those with either a low or high genetic propensity were not influenced by peer drinking. A replication of the findings is provided in data drawn from Add Health. The study shows that gene-environment interaction analysis can uncover social-contextual effects likely to be missed by traditional sociological approaches.
Davis, Jordan P; Dumas, Tara M; Berey, Benjamin; Merrin, Gabriel J; Tan, Kevin; Madden, Danielle R
Justice involved youth exposed to multiple forms of victimization (i.e., poly-victimization) may be at risk for long term substance use problems and difficulty in self-regulation, placing them at higher risk of long-term problematic behaviors. This study empirically identifies victimization classifications in a sample of justice involved youth and how long-term binge drinking is related to victimization experiences. We further sought to understand how self-regulatory abilities such as impulse control and emotion regulation effect emergent profiles and binge drinking trajectories. Based on a sample of 1354 justice involved youth from 15 to 25 years old, classes of victimization were extracted. Emergent classes were examined in relationship to their binge drinking trajectories using latent growth models. Finally, self-regulation was examined as a predictor of binge drinking trajectories across emergent classes. The analyses indicated three classes of victimization: poly-victimized, indirectly victimized, and lowly victimized. Latent growth models revealed that the poly-victimized class had significantly steeper growth in binge drinking as compared to the indirect and low victimized patterns. Impulse and emotional regulation both significantly decelerated binge drinking only for the indirect victimization group. Findings highlight the need to focus on poly-victimization in understanding binge drinking trajectories as well as the role impulse control and emotional regulation play among justice involved youth. Findings are discussed through the lens of adolescent development, coping strategies, and early traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. TEN-D by Night is an international, multicentre, cross-sectional portal survey conducted on a large sample of young people in six European countries. This paper aims to investigate the alcohol and psychoactive drug consumption of this sample, with a focus on the prevalence of binge drinking and the poly-drug habits of the TEN-D cohort. Design and Methods. The study population consisted of 4695 young people attending recreational sites on weekend nights. The intervention included two questionnaires and two psychoactive substance detection tests performed at the entry and exit of the recreational sites. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to predict the probability of binge drinking. Results. Binge drinking was reported by 20% of the males and 13% of the females (P=0.001 before entry into the recreational sites and by 18% of the males and 11% of the females before entry into the clubs (P<0.001. Poly-drug use was reported by 71% of the males and 66% of the females. Living with a parent (OR 1.57; P=0.01, seeking employment (OR 1.66; P=0.005 and cannabis consumption (several times per month and several times per week, OR 1.94 and 3.66, respectively, P<0.05 were associated with binge drinking. Conclusions. Our survey showed that it is possible to identify individuals and groups at higher risk of binge drinking. This identification would allow for a focus on specific targets and would facilitate the redesign of prevention programmes. The increased use of psychoactive substances among youths should be studied extensively to promote successful prevention campaigns.
Patte, Karen A; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T
The longitudinal relationship between binge drinking and academic engagement, performance, and future aspirations and expectations was examined among a cohort of secondary school students. In separate multinomial generalized estimating equations models, linked data from Year 1 (Y1: 2012-2013), Year 2 (Y2: 2013-2014), and Year 3 (Y3: 2014-2015) of the COMPASS study (N = 27 112) were used to test the relative likelihood of responses to seven academic indices when binge drinking was initiated in varying frequencies, adjusting for gender, grade, race/ethnicity, tobacco use, and the individual mean of the predictor and all time-varying covariates. Among students who had never engaged in binge drinking at baseline, those who reported regular binge drinking at follow-up were relatively less likely to complete their homework, attend class, and value and achieve high grades, with more frequent binge drinking at follow-up generally resulting in larger relative risk ratios. Interestingly, shifting from "never" to "rare/sporadic" binge drinking one to two years later resulted in an increased relative risk of wanting to pursue all levels of postsecondary education. Beginning binge drinking on a "monthly" basis also increased the likelihood of college/ trade or bachelor degree ambitions, relative to high school, but not graduate/professional pathways; while degree aspirations were not associated with initiating weekly binge drinking. Results suggest students who initiate binge drinking have poor school performance and engagement, which may interfere with achieving their future academic goals. This study reinforces the reasons substance use prevention should be considered an academic priority, as such efforts may also prove beneficial for educational achievement.
Zhao, Yu-Ying; Yang, Rui; Xiao, Mo; Guan, Min-Jie; Zhao, Ning; Zeng, Tao
Kupffer cells (KCs) have been suggested to play critical roles in chronic ethanol induced early liver injury, but the role of KCs in binge drinking-induced hepatic steatosis remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the roles of KCs inhibitor (GdCl 3 ) and TNF-α antagonist (etanercept) on binge drinking-induced liver steatosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to three doses of ethanol (6g/kg body weight) to mimic binge drinking-induced fatty liver. The results showed that both GdCl 3 and etanercept partially but significantly alleviated binge drinking-induced increase of hepatic triglyceride (TG) level, and reduced fat droplets accumulation in mice liver. GdCl 3 but not etanercept significantly blocked binge drinking-induced activation of KCs. However, neither GdCl 3 nor etanercept could affect binge drinking-induced decrease of PPAR-α, ACOX, FAS, ACC and SCD protein levels, or increase of the LC3 II/LC3 I ratio and p62 protein level. Interestingly, both GdCl 3 and etanercept significantly suppressed binge drinking-induced phosphorylation of HSL in epididymal adipose tissues. Results of in vitro studies with cultured epididymal adipose tissues showed that TNF-α could increase the phosphorylation of HSL in adipose tissues and upgrade the secretion of free fatty acid (FFA) in the culture medium. Taken together, KCs inhibitor and TNF-α antagonist could partially attenuate binge drinking-induced liver steatosis, which might be attributed to the suppression of mobilization of white adipose tissues. These results suggest that KCs activation may promote binge drinking-induced fatty liver by TNF-α mediated activation of lipolysis in white adipose tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Karen A. Patte
Full Text Available Introduction: The longitudinal relationship between binge drinking and academic engagement, performance, and future aspirations and expectations was examined among a cohort of secondary school students. Methods: In separate multinomial generalized estimating equations models, linked data from Year 1 (Y1: 2012-2013, Year 2 (Y2: 2013-2014, and Year 3 (Y3: 2014-2015 of the COMPASS study (N = 27 112 were used to test the relative likelihood of responses to seven academic indices when binge drinking was initiated in varying frequencies, adjusting for gender, grade, race/ethnicity, tobacco use, and the individual mean of the predictor and all time-varying covariates. Results: Among students who had never engaged in binge drinking at baseline, those who reported regular binge drinking at follow-up were relatively less likely to complete their homework, attend class, and value and achieve high grades, with more frequent binge drinking at follow-up generally resulting in larger relative risk ratios. Interestingly, shifting from “never” to “rare/sporadic” binge drinking one to two years later resulted in an increased relative risk of wanting to pursue all levels of postsecondary education. Beginning binge drinking on a “monthly” basis also increased the likelihood of college/trade or bachelor degree ambitions, relative to high school, but not graduate/professional pathways; while degree aspirations were not associated with initiating weekly binge drinking. Conclusions: Results suggest students who initiate binge drinking have poor school performance and engagement, which may interfere with achieving their future academic goals. This study reinforces the reasons substance use prevention should be considered an academic priority, as such efforts may also prove beneficial for educational achievement.
Rolland, Benjamin; Naassila, Mickael; Duffau, Céline; Houchi, Hakim; Gierski, Fabien; André, Judith
Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q),...
Nicholas W Gilpin
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects
Full Text Available While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530 were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking, at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking. There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35 and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90. After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR=1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women. Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.
Amanda J Mason-Jones
Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.
Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France
The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardised interviews were conducted in 2002-2003, among women aged 18-54 years drawn from the electoral rolls. Childhood sexual abuse before 15 years of age was reported by 11.6% of respondents. Nearly all the perpetrators (96%) were known to the victims (63% being a close relative). The rate of frequent binge drinking amongst the women within the last 12 months was 34%. After controlling for social and demographic factors, an independent association was found between childhood sexual abuse and current binge drinking. This study is the first to analyse the contribution of childhood sexual abuse to the likelihood of later heavy alcohol use in an indigenous population in the South Pacific. The findings call for improving and giving priority to care for children who are victims of violence to prevent long-term health consequences and to develop prevention programs aimed at alcohol-related behaviour in women, while taking into account simultaneous individual and collective factors.
Tutenges, Sébastien; Hesse, Morten
and drug use was surveyed using a short questionnaire. Findings: Most individuals surveyed were regular drinkers in Denmark, and the use of most illicit drugs was rare. Patterns of substance use in SB revealed heavy drinking was common, both in adolescents and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: International...
Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
Heavy drinking among university students has been globally recognized as a major public health burden. In the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, studies on this issue have been scant, country-specific and in different time frames. The aim of this study was to identify social and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 8809 undergraduate university students from 13 universities in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam using self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the associated factors. More than half (62.3%) of the study sample were female with a mean age of 20.5 (SD = 2.0) years. Of total, 12.8% were infrequent (
Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Riegler, Lea; Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian
Binge drinking is an increasing problem in Western societies, but we are still only beginning to unravel the effects of binge drinking on a cognitive level. While common sense suggests that all cognitive functions are compromised during high-dose ethanol intoxication, several studies suggest that the effects might instead be rather specific. Moreover, some results suggest that the degrees of automaticity and complexity of cognitive operations during response control modulate effects of binge drinking. However, this has not been tested in detail. In the current study, we therefore parametrically modulate cognitive/"mental" workload during response inhibition and examine the effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication (~1.1 ‰) in n = 18 male participants. The results suggest that detrimental effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication strongly depend on the complexity of processes involved in response inhibition. The results revealed strong effects (η (2) = .495) and are in line with findings showing that even high doses of ethanol have very specific effects on a cognitive level. Opposed to common sense, more complex cognitive operations seem to be less affected by a high-dose ethanol intoxication. Complementing this, high-dose ethanol intoxication is increasingly detrimental for action control, as stronger automated response tendencies are in charge and need to be controlled. Binge-like ethanol intoxication may take a heavier toll on cognitive control processes than on automated responses/response tendencies. Therefore, ethanol effects are more pronounced in supposedly "easier" control conditions because those facilitate the formation of automated response tendencies.
Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D.; Watson-Thompson, Jomella; Chaney, Lisa; Jones, Marvia
The Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) is a conceptual model that supports coalition-driven efforts to address underage drinking and related consequences. Although the SPF has been promoted by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Center for Substance Abuse Prevention and implemented in multiple U.S. states and territories, there is limited research on the SPF’s effectiveness on improving targeted outcomes and associated influencing factors. The present quasi-experimental study examines the effects of SPF implementation on binge drinking and enforcement of existing underage drinking laws as an influencing factor. The intervention group encompassed 11 school districts that were implementing the SPF with local prevention coalitions across eight Kansas communities. The comparison group consisted of 14 school districts that were matched based on demographic variables. The intervention districts collectively facilitated 137 community-level changes, including new or modified programs, policies, and practices. SPF implementation supported significant improvements in binge drinking and enforcement outcomes over time (p .05). Overall, the findings provide a basis for guiding future research and community-based prevention practice in implementing and evaluating the SPF. PMID:27217310
Robinson, Lillian D.
Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…
Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens
Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of > or = 5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy......, and febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...
Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette
Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...... education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity...
Kaziya M. Lee
Full Text Available Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41 are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOHadolescents influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience. For additional comparison, adult mice (EtOHadults with comparable drinking history (PND56-69 were subdivided into groups tested for anxiety/drinking either on PND70 (24 h withdrawal or PND98 (28 days withdrawal. Tissue from the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA was examined by immunoblotting for changes in the expression of glutamate-related proteins. EtOHadults exhibited some signs of hyperanxiety during early withdrawal (PND70, but not during protracted withdrawal (PND98. In contrast, EtOHadolescents exhibited robust signs of anxiety-l and depressive-like behaviors when tested as adults on PND70. While all alcohol-experienced animals subsequently consumed more alcohol than mice drinking for the first time, alcohol intake was greatest in EtOHadolescents. Independent of drinking age, the manifestation of withdrawal-induced hyperanxiety was accompanied by reduced Homer2b expression within the CeA and increased Group1 mGlu receptor expression within the AcbSh. The present data provide novel evidence that binge-drinking during adolescence produces a state characterized by profound negative affect and excessive alcohol consumption that incubates with the passage of time in withdrawal. These data extend our prior studies on the
Jones, Scott A; Steele, Joel S; Nagel, Bonnie J
To test whether binge drinking, the density of familial alcoholism (FHD) and their interaction are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence, and whether more life-time drinks are associated with a greater change in impulsive choice across age. Alcohol-naive adolescents, with varying degrees of FHD, were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescent development, and were grouped based on whether they remained non-drinkers (n = 83) or initiated binge drinking (n = 33) during follow-up. During all visits, adolescents completed a monetary delay discounting task to measure impulsive choice. The effects of binge-drinking status, FHD and their interaction on impulsive choice across adolescence were tested. Developmental Brain Imaging Laboratory, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA. A total of 116 healthy male and female adolescents (ages 10-17 years at baseline) completed two to four visits between July 2008 and May 2016. Discounting rates were obtained based on adolescents' preference for immediate or delayed rewards. FHD was based on parent-reported prevalence of alcohol use disorder in the participant's first- and second-degree relatives. Binge-drinking status was determined based on the number of recent binge-drinking episodes. There was a significant interaction effect of binge-drinking status and FHD on impulsive choice across age (b = 1.090, P alcohol-naive, greater FHD was associated with a steeper decrease in discounting rates across adolescence (b = -0.633, P alcoholism is associated with a steeper decline in impulsive choice across adolescence, but only in those who remain alcohol-naive. Meanwhile, more life-time drinks during adolescence is associated with increases in impulsive choice across age. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Andersson, Annika; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel
Leisure activities and drinking patterns are factors that can affect health and ability to return to work after a sick-leave. Associations between participation in leisure activities and binge drinking among sick-listed individuals have been paid little attention in the research literature. The aim of this study was to examine associations between leisure activities and binge drinking in a sample of newly sick-listed women and men. The study included 2,888 individuals aged 19-64 years. Cross-sectional questionnaire data from the Health Assets Project, Sweden, was used. Participation in 18 leisure activities was estimated. Binge drinking was defined as consuming alcohol at least once a month, and typically consuming five or more glasses. Among women aged 19-30 years who regularly went to concerts (OR 2.36) and wrote (OR 2.39) associations were found with binge drinking. Lower OR was found among women aged 31-64 who regularly went to the cinema (OR 0.43), out in the nature (OR 0.46) or participated in sports (OR 0.57). Among men, associations were found between socializing with friends and binge drinking in both age groups (OR 3.83 respectively 1.63). Among younger men who attended sporting events OR was 2.31, and among older men participating in religious communities OR was 0.28. This study contributes to understanding the interplay between leisure activities and health behavior. In particular, social activities in men were associated with binge drinking while the opposite was true for recreational activities in older women.
Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars
The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.
Spain (June, 2010). Talk titled A Role for Central Neuropeptides in Binge Alcohol Drinking. 4. Departamento de Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud...Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud (JML-C, FC, IC), University of Almerı́a, Almerı́a, Spain. Received...Low, 2008). From the Department of Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud (IC, FC, JML-C), University of Almerı́a, Almerı́a, Spain; and Department of
Cantacorps, Lídia; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L; Valverde, Olga; Conejo, Nélida M
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of maternal alcohol binge drinking on brain function and behaviour. To address this issue, we used pregnant C57BL/6 female mice with time-limited access to a 20% v/v alcohol solution as a procedure to model alcohol binge drinking during gestation and lactational periods. Male offspring were behaviourally tested during adolescence (30 days) and adulthood (60 days), and baseline neural metabolic capacity of brain regions sensitive to alcohol effects were also evaluated in adult animals from both groups. Our results show that prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure caused age-dependent changes in spontaneous locomotor activity, increased anxiety-like behaviour and attenuated alcohol-induced conditioned place preference in adults. Also, significant changes in neural metabolic capacity using cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) quantitative histochemistry were found in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, the mammillary bodies, the ventral tegmental area, the lateral habenula and the central lobules of the cerebellum in adult mice with prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure. In addition, the analysis of interregional CCO activity correlations in alcohol-exposed adult mice showed disrupted functional brain connectivity involving the limbic, brainstem, and cerebellar regions. Finally, increased neurogenesis was found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of
Full Text Available Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults.Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765 drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men, but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F, SMS Assessments (SA, or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79, lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98], less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15 and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88. Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses.An interactive
Irvine, Linda; Crombie, Iain K; Swanson, Vivien; Dimova, Elena D; Melson, Ambrose J; Fraser, Tracey M; Barbour, Rosaline; Rice, Peter M; Allan, Sheila
Young women frequently drink alcohol in groups and binge drinking within these natural drinking groups is common. This study describes the design of a theoretically and empirically based group intervention to reduce binge drinking among young women. It also evaluates their engagement with the intervention and the acceptability of the study methods. Friendship groups of women aged 18-35 years, who had two or more episodes of binge drinking (>6 UK units on one occasion; 48g of alcohol) in the previous 30 days, were recruited from the community. A face-to-face group intervention, based on the Health Action Process Approach, was delivered over three sessions. Components of the intervention were woven around fun activities, such as making alcohol free cocktails. Women were followed up four months after the intervention was delivered. The target of 24 groups (comprising 97 women) was recruited. The common pattern of drinking was infrequent, heavy drinking (mean consumption on the heaviest drinking day was UK 18.1 units). Process evaluation revealed that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity and acceptability of the study methods was high. The women engaged positively with intervention components and made group decisions about cutting down. Twenty two groups set goals to reduce their drinking, and these were translated into action plans. Retention of individuals at follow up was 87%. This study successfully recruited groups of young women whose patterns of drinking place them at high risk of acute harm. This novel approach to delivering an alcohol intervention has potential to reduce binge drinking among young women. The high levels of engagement with key steps in the behavior change process suggests that the group intervention should be tested in a full randomised controlled trial.
Thiele, Todd E.; Navarro, Montserrat
This review provides an overview of an animal model of binge-like ethanol drinking that has come to be called “drinking in the dark” (DID), a procedure that promotes high levels of ethanol drinking and pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in ethanol-preferring strains of mice. Originally described by Rhodes et al. (2005), the most common variation of the DID procedure, using singly housed mice, involves replacing the water bottle with a bottle containing 20% ethanol for 2 to 4 hours, beginning 3 hours into the dark cycle. Using this procedure, high ethanol drinking strains of mice (e.g., C57BL/6J) typically consume enough ethanol to achieve BECs greater than 100 mg/dL and to exhibit behavioral evidence of intoxication. This limited access procedure takes advantage of the time in the animal’s dark cycle in which the levels of ingestive behaviors are high, yet high ethanol intake does not appear to stem from caloric need. Mice have the choice of drinking or avoiding the ethanol solution, eliminating the stressful conditions that are inherent in other models of binge-like ethanol exposure in which ethanol is administered by the experimenter, and in some cases, potentially painful. The DID procedure is a high throughput approach that does not require extensive training or the inclusion of sweet compounds to motivate high levels of ethanol intake. The high throughput nature of the DID procedure makes it useful for rapid screening of pharmacological targets that are protective against binge-like drinking and for identifying strains of mice that exhibit binge-like drinking behavior. Additionally, the simplicity of DID procedures allows for easy integration into other paradigms, such as prenatal ethanol exposure and adolescent ethanol drinking. It is suggested that the DID model is a useful tool for studying the neurobiology and genetics underlying binge-like ethanol drinking, and may be useful for studying the transition to ethanol
Patterson, C; Emslie, C; Mason, O; Fergie, G; Hilton, S
In the UK, men's alcohol-related morbidity and mortality still greatly exceeds women's, despite an increase in women's alcohol consumption in recent decades. New UK alcohol guidelines introduce gender-neutral low-risk alcohol consumption guidance. This study explores how UK newspaper and online news represent women's and men's 'binge' drinking to identify opportunities to better align reporting of harmful drinking with evidence. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 308 articles published in 7 UK national newspapers and the BBC News website between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Articles associated women with 'binge' drinking more frequently than men, and presented women's drinking as more problematic. Men were more frequently characterised as violent or disorderly, while women were characterised as out of control, putting themselves in danger, harming their physical appearance and burdening men. Descriptions of female 'binge' drinkers' clothing and appearance were typically moralistic. The UK news media's disproportionate focus on women's 'binge' drinking is at odds with epidemiological evidence, may reproduce harmful gender stereotypes and may obstruct public understandings of the gender-neutral weekly consumption limits in newly proposed alcohol guidelines. In order to better align reporting of harmful drinking with current evidence, public health advocates may engage with the media with a view to shifting media framing of 'binge' drinking away from specific groups (young people; women) and contexts (public drinking) and towards the health risks of specific drinking behaviours, which affect all groups regardless of context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Rolland, Benjamin; Gierski, Fabien; Martinetti, Margaret P; Naassila, Mickael
Binge drinking (BD), i.e., consuming a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time, is an increasing public health issue. Though no clear definition has been adopted worldwide the speed of drinking seems to be a keystone of this behavior. Developing relevant animal models of BD is a priority for gaining a better characterization of the neurobiological and psychobiological mechanisms underlying this dangerous and harmful behavior. Until recently, preclinical research on BD has been conducted mostly using forced administration of alcohol, but more recent studies used scheduled access to alcohol, to model more voluntary excessive intakes, and to achieve signs of intoxications that mimic the human behavior. The main challenges for future research are discussed regarding the need of good face validity, construct validity and predictive validity of animal models of BD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quadir, Sema G; Guzelian, Eugenie; Palmer, Mason A; Martin, Douglas L; Kim, Jennifer; Szumlinski, Karen K
Alcohol use disorders, affective disorders and their comorbidity are sexually dimorphic in humans. However, it is difficult to disentangle the interactions between subject factors influencing alcohol sensitivity in studies of humans. Herein, we combined murine models of unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) and voluntary binge-drinking to examine for sex differences in the interactions between prior histories of excessive ethanol-drinking and stress upon ethanol-induced changes in motor behavior and subsequent drinking. In Experiment 1, female mice were insensitive to the UCMS-induced increase in ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol intake under continuous alcohol-access. Experiment 2 revealed interactions between ethanol dose and sex (females>males), binge-drinking history (water>ethanol), and UCMS history (UCMS>controls), with no additive effect of a sequential prior history of both binge drinking and UCMS observed. We also observed an interaction between UCMS history and sex for righting recovery. UCMS history potentiated subsequent binge-drinking in water controls of both sexes and in male binge-drinking mice. Conversely, a prior binge-drinking history increased subsequent ethanol intake in females only, irrespective of prior UCMS history. In Experiment 3, a concurrent history of binge-drinking and UCMS did not alter ethanol intake, nor did it influence the ethanol dose-locomotor response function, but it did augment alcohol-induced sedation and reduced subsequent alcohol intake over that produced by binge-drinking alone. Thus, the subject factors of biological sex, prior stressor history and prior binge-drinking history interact in complex ways in mice to impact sensitivity to alcohol's motor-stimulating, -incoordinating and intoxicating effects, as well as to influence subsequent heavy drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than
Chen, Yixin; Yang, Z. Janet
We conducted an experiment to examine whether risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer influence college students' binge-drinking intention and to explore how message formats (text, table, and graph) and numeracy influence risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer. We found that a majority of participants (87%) perceive some risks of…
Jager, Justin; Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.
This study examines historical variation in age 18–26 binge drinking trajectories, focusing on differences in both level of use and rates of change (growth) across cohorts of young adults over three decades. As part of the national Monitoring the Future Study, over 64,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976–2004 were surveyed at biennial intervals between ages 18 and 26. We found that, relative to past cohorts, recent cohorts both enter the age 18–26 age band engaging in lower levels and exit the age 18–26 age band engaging in higher levels of binge drinking. The reason for this reversal is that, relative to past cohorts, binge drinking among recent cohorts accelerates more quickly across ages 18–22 and decelerates more slowly across ages 22–26. Moreover, we found that historical increases in minimum legal drinking age account for a portion of the historical decline in age 18 level, while historical variation in social role acquisition (e.g., marriage, parenthood, and employment) accounts for a portion of the historical acceleration in age 18–22 growth. We also found that historical variation in the age 18–22 and age 22–26 growth rates was strongly and positively connected, suggesting common mechanism(s) underlie historical variation of both growth rates. Findings were generally consistent across gender and indicate that historical time is an important source of individual differences in young adult binge drinking trajectories. Beyond binge drinking, historical time may also inform the developmental course of other young adult risk behaviors, highlighting the interplay of epidemiology and etiology. PMID:26010381
Jager, Justin; Keyes, Katherine M.; Schulenberg, John E.
This study examines historical variation in age 18 to 26 binge drinking trajectories, focusing on differences in both levels of use and rates of change (growth) across cohorts of young adults over 3 decades. As part of the national Monitoring the Future Study, over 64,000 youths from the high school classes of 1976 to 2004 were surveyed at…
McCalman, Janya; Tsey, Komla; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Singleton, Michele; Doran, Christopher
While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and
Daniel F. Hermens
Full Text Available Binge drinking has significant effects on memory, particularly with regards to the transfer of information to long-term storage. Partial or complete blocking of memory formation is known as blackout. Youth represents a critical period in brain development that is particularly vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Animal models show that the adolescent brain is more vulnerable to the acute and chronic effects of alcohol compared with the adult brain. This mini-review addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of binge drinking and associated memory loss (blackout in the adolescent and young adult period. Although the extent to which there are pre-existing versus alcohol-induced neurobiological changes remains unclear, it is likely that repetitive binge drinking in youth has detrimental effects on cognitive and social functioning. Given its role in learning and memory, the hippocampus is a critical region with neuroimaging research showing notable changes in this structure associated with alcohol misuse in young people. There is a great need for earlier identification of biological markers associated with alcohol-related brain damage. As a means to assess in vivo neurochemistry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has emerged as a particularly promising technique since changes in neurometabolites often precede gross structural changes. Thus, the current paper addresses how MRS biomarkers of neurotransmission (glutamate, GABA and oxidative stress (indexed by depleted glutathione in the hippocampal region of young binge drinkers may underlie propensity for blackouts and other memory impairments. MRS biomarkers may have particular utility in determining the acute versus longer-term effects of binge drinking in young people.
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function.Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e.g., gray and white matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure and investigated brain response using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Results: Binge and heavy-drinking adolescents and young adults have systematically thinner and lower volume in prefrontal cortex and cerebellar regions, and attenuated white matter development. They also show elevated brain activity in fronto-parietal regions during working memory, verbal learning, and inhibitory control tasks. In response to alcohol cues, relative to controls or light-drinking individuals, binge and heavy drinkers show increased neural response mainly in mesocorticolimbic regions, including the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, hippocampus, and amygdala. Mixed findings are present in risky decision-making tasks, which could be due to large variation in task design and analysis.Conclusions: These findings suggest altered neural structure and activity in binge and heavy-drinking youth may be related to the neurotoxic effects of consuming alcohol in large quantities during a highly plastic neurodevelopmental period, which could result in neural reorganization, and increased risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD.
Nelson, Jon P
Heavy episodic ("binge") drinking of alcohol has serious public health implications, especially for youth and young adults. Previous summaries and surveys have failed to address in a comprehensive manner the effects of alcohol prices on binge drinking by gender or age group. A qualitative systematic review is performed for effects of alcohol prices (or tax surrogates) on binge drinking for three age groups: youth, young adults, and adults. Outcomes examined include binge participation, intensity and frequency. Criteria for data collection and potential sources of bias are discussed, including adequacy of price data. Price-binge relationships are judged using a 95% confidence interval (p ≤ 0.05) for statistical significance. Fifty-six relevant econometric studies were found, with studies and results distributed equally among three age groups. Also found were five natural experiments for tax reductions and six field studies. Null results or mixed results are found in more than half of the studies. The body of evidence indicates that binge drinkers are not highly-responsive to increased prices. Non-responsiveness holds generally for younger and older drinkers and for male and female binge drinkers alike. A limitation of the current literature is that results are only available for higher-income countries. Increased alcohol taxes or prices are unlikely to be effective as a means to reduce binge drinking, regardless of gender or age group.
Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J; Blanchette, Jason G; Nguyen, Thien H; Heeren, Timothy C; Nelson, Toben F; Naimi, Timothy S
U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (-0.09, P = 0.02 versus -0.005, P = 0.63) and price elasticity (-1.40, P tax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P = 0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (P tax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Blanchette, Jason G.; Nguyen, Thien H.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Nelson, Toben F.; Naimi, Timothy S.
Aims U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Design Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Findings In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (−0.09, P=0.02 versus −0.005, P=0.63) and price elasticity (−1.40, Ptax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P=0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (Ptax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. PMID:25428795
Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M
This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boers, Elroy; Zebregs, Simon; Hendriks, Hanneke; Van Den Putte, Bas
Previous work has revealed that interventions aiming to reduce adolescent binge drinking commonly focus on cognitive attitudes, but are insufficiently effective in changing binge-drinking intentions. The focus on these cognitive attitudes might be the reason for this insufficient success. That is, other work has revealed that affective attitudes have a stronger influence on binge-drinking intention than cognitive attitudes. However, this relation has so far only been found among traditional college students and pre-vocational school students, therewith neglecting another important population at risk, namely vocational community college students. This study examines whether affective attitudes are also significantly stronger influencers of binge-drinking intentions among vocational community college students. Using a sample of 298 vocational community college students (M age = 17.63), the current study shows that affective attitudes were more strongly related to vocational community college students' intention to engage in binge drinking than cognitive attitudes. This finding indicates that the effectiveness of interventions targeting adolescent binge drinking can be improved by incorporating content elements concerning affective attitudes.
Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine
The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were...... expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group...... included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising...
Haroldo Neves de Paiva
Full Text Available Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother's schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively.The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588. Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010, those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001 and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235-6.466, p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654-8.535, p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21-3.06, p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury.The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended.
Song, Sunmi; Marcum, Christopher Steven; Wilkinson, Anna V; Shete, Sanjay; Koehly, Laura M
Despite prevalent binge drinking and alcohol-dependent symptoms among Hispanics, few studies have examined how multidimensional factors influence Hispanic adolescents' binge drinking. Purpose This study examines the effects of genetic, psychological, and social network factors on binge drinking over time among Mexican heritage adolescents in the USA and whether there are correlations among genetic variants that are associated with binge drinking and psychological and network characteristics. Mexican heritage adolescents (n = 731) participated in a longitudinal study, which included genetic testing at baseline, alcohol use assessments at first and second follow-ups, and questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, and peer and family network characteristics at second follow-up. Logistic regression and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, underlying genetic clustering, and binge drinking at first follow-up, two genetic variants on tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2; rs17110451, rs7963717), sensation seeking and impulsivity, and having a greater fraction of peers who drink or encourage drinking alcohol were associated with greater risk whereas another genetic variant on TPH2 (rs11178999) and having a greater fraction of close family relationships were associated with reduced risk for binge drinking at second follow-up. Genetic variants in TPH1 (rs591556) were associated with sensation seeking and impulsivity, while genetic variants in TPH2 (rs17110451) were associated with the fraction of drinkers in family. Results reveal that genetic variants in the serotonin pathway, behavioral disinhibition traits, and social networks exert joint influences on binge drinking in Mexican heritage adolescents in the USA.
Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid
Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…
Rolland, Benjamin; Naassila, Mickael; Duffau, Céline; Houchi, Hakim; Gierski, Fabien; André, Judith
Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire. BD score was calculated using the AUQ. Three items of the EDE-Q were used to construct a BE score. The predictors of the BD score were determined using a linear regression model. Our results showed that the BE score was correlated with the BD score (β 0 = 0.051 ± 0.022; p = 0.019), but no other DES was associated with BD, including purging behaviors. The severity of BD was also correlated with younger age, male gender, tobacco and cannabis use, and with the 'positive urgency,' 'premeditation,' and 'sensation seeking' UPPS subscores ( R 2 of the model: 25%). Within DES, BE appeared as an independent determinant of the BD severity. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that BE is not a subtype of DES, but more a general vulnerability factor of emotional dysregulation, which could be shared by different behavioral and addictive disorders.
Full Text Available Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE and other disordered eating symptoms (DES are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q, and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire. BD score was calculated using the AUQ. Three items of the EDE-Q were used to construct a BE score. The predictors of the BD score were determined using a linear regression model. Our results showed that the BE score was correlated with the BD score (β0 = 0.051 ± 0.022; p = 0.019, but no other DES was associated with BD, including purging behaviors. The severity of BD was also correlated with younger age, male gender, tobacco and cannabis use, and with the ‘positive urgency,’ ‘premeditation,’ and ‘sensation seeking’ UPPS subscores (R2 of the model: 25%. Within DES, BE appeared as an independent determinant of the BD severity. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that BE is not a subtype of DES, but more a general vulnerability factor of emotional dysregulation, which could be shared by different behavioral and addictive disorders.
Holmes, Louisa M; Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M
California may vote on marijuana legalization in 2016. Young adults have the highest rates of marijuana use, but little is known about the correlates of use in this age group, including factors that may be affected by policy change. We investigated whether there are differences in marijuana use by sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, loneliness and social support, controlling for risk factors such as alcohol and cigarette use as well as perceived harm of marijuana. Bivariate and multivariable analysis of past 30day marijuana use using the 2014 San Francisco Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multi-mode survey of (N=1324) young adults (aged 18-26years) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties, stratified by race/ethnicity. 291 (27%) sample participants reported current marijuana use. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (referent) Asian/Pacific Islander respondents were less likely to use marijuana (AOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80) while multiracial participants were twice as likely (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-4.85). Psychological distress was not related to marijuana use, but social support (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88) and loneliness (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86) were. Perceived harm of marijuana was inversely related to marijuana use (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70), while smoking cigarettes (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.28-6.84) and binge drinking (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) were positively related. Legalization policies should include public education campaigns addressing potential harms of marijuana use particularly targeting multiracial young adults who also engage in other risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and binge drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gray, Josephine; Nosa, Vili
The aim of this paper is to explore the binge drinking behaviours and attitudes of nine New Zealand born Niuean women aged 18 to 45 plus years living in Auckland who are heavy binge drinkers. Taped interviews were conducted individually with nine Niuean participants, utilising a semi-structured interviewing schedule in both Niuean and English languages. This study argues that excessive drinking style of binge drinking commonly practised with the younger generation of Niuean women. The study highlighted the important role of supportive friends and women within a drinking circle compared to the cultural and gender restrictions when drinking with males. NZ born Niuean women outlined there were fewer limitations on alcohol use and behaviour associated with drunkenness; the reason for drinking was to reach a level of intoxication. Alcohol consumption was seen as a way of socialising, having fun, being happy and feeling safe primarily when drinking with other women, even though participants experienced negative behaviour when safety was threatened. The Niuean community needs to address alcohol related issues affecting Niuean women through education awareness within social and cultural gatherings. This study is not a representative study and it cannot be generalised to all New Zealand born Niuean women because the sampling size is too small. The aim of this paper is to look at the binge drinking behaviours of nine New Zealand born Niuean women living in Auckland. A qualitative research methodology offace to face interviews was used to interview NZ born Niuean women and their alcohol consumption. Participants were recruited by using a snow ball methodology. Participants were also approached throughout the community on the telephone and via email/internet about the research. Participants were also from Niuean gatherings such as Niuean cultural workshops, weaving groups, church groups, and sports groups, Niuean websites. A semi-structured interview format was used making it
Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte
BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy....... Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge...... and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the potential associated risk factors (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)). RESULTS: Questionnaires from 3,238 women were included. A majority of 70 %, reported weekly alcohol consumption before pregnancy. The prevalence decreased to 3 % during early...
Carbia, Carina; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montse
Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol.
Welch, Alice E.; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Stellman, Steven D.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Background Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Methods Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003–2004) and Wave 2 (2006–2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0–1), medium (2–3), high (4–5) and very high (6+). Results Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. PMID:24831753
Newman, Emily L; Gunner, Georgia; Huynh, Polly; Gachette, Darrel; Moss, Stephen J; Smart, Trevor G; Rudolph, Uwe; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A
Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABA A receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABA A receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABA A receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively. Social approach by mutant and Wt mice in forced alcohol abstinence was compared to approach by EtOH-naïve controls. Social deficits in forced abstinence were treated with allopregnanolone (0, 3.0, 10.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) or midazolam (0, 0.56, 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Mice with BZD-insensitive α2-containing GABA A receptors (H101R) escalated their binge-like drinking. Mutants harboring the Q241M point substitution in Gabra2 showed blunted chronic intake in the CA and IA protocols. S270H/L277A mutants consumed excessive amounts of alcohol but, unlike wild-types, they did not show forced abstinence-induced social deficits. These findings suggest a role for: (i) H101 in species-typical binge-like drinking, (ii) Q241 in escalated chronic drinking, and (iii) S270 and/or L277 in the development of forced abstinence-associated social deficits. Clinical findings report reduced BZD-binding sites in the cortex of dependent patients; the present findings suggest a specific role for BZD-sensitive α2-containing receptors. In addition, amino acid residue 241 in Gabra2 is
Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark
To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....
Under the Influence: The Binge Drinking Epidemic on College Campuses. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (May 15, 2002).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.
A hearing was held to explore the problem of binge drinking on campus and to consider possible responses to this problem. Following an opening statement by Senator Joseph Lieberman, a panel of witness who have done research and work in the field gave testimony. These witnesses commented on the problem of binge drinking: (1) Raynard S. Kingston,…
Sonneville, Kendrin R; Horton, Nicholas J; Micali, Nadia; Crosby, Ross D; Swanson, Sonja A; Solmi, Francesca; Field, Alison E
To investigate the association between overeating (without loss of control) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control) and adverse outcomes. Prospective cohort study. Adolescents and young adults living throughout the United States. Sixteen thousand eight hundred eighty-two males and females participating in the Growing Up Today Study who were 9 to 15 years old at enrollment in 1996. Overeating and binge eating assessed via questionnaire every 12 to 24 months between 1996 and 2005. Risk of becoming overweight or obese, starting to binge drink frequently, starting to use marijuana, starting to use other drugs, and developing high levels of depressive symptoms. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations. All models controlled for age and sex; additional covariates varied by outcome. Among this large cohort of adolescents and young adults, binge eating was more common among females than males. In fully adjusted models, binge eating, but not overeating, was associated with incident overweight/obesity (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.11-2.69) and the onset of high depressive symptoms (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.40-3.45). Neither overeating nor binge eating was associated with starting to binge drink frequently, while both overeating and binge eating predicted starting to use marijuana and other drugs. Although any overeating, with or without loss of control, predicted the onset of marijuana and other drug use, we found that binge eating is uniquely predictive of incident overweight/obesity and the onset of high depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that loss of control is an important indicator of severity of overeating episodes.
Allyson L. Dir
Full Text Available Alcohol use, particularly binge drinking (BD, is a major public health concern among adolescents. Recent national data show that the gender gap in alcohol use is lessening, and BD among girls is rising. Considering the increase in BD among adolescent girls, as well as females’ increased risk of experiencing more severe biopsychosocial negative effects and consequences from BD, the current review sought to examine gender differences in risk factors for BD. The review highlights gender differences in (1 developmental-related neurobiological vulnerability to BD, (2 psychiatric comorbidity and risk phenotypes for BD, and (3 social-related risk factors for BD among adolescents, as well as considerations for BD prevention and intervention. Most of the information gleaned thus far has come from preclinical research. However, it is expected that, with recent advances in clinical imaging technology, neurobiological effects observed in lower mammals will be confirmed in humans and vice versa. A synthesis of the literature highlights that males and females experience unique neurobiological paths of development, and although there is debate regarding the specific nature of these differences, literature suggests that these differences in turn influence gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity and risk for BD. For one, girls are more susceptible to stress, depression, and other internalizing behaviors and, in turn, these symptoms contribute to their risk for BD. On the other hand, males, given gender differences across the lifespan as well as gender differences in development, are driven by an externalizing phenotype for risk of BD, in part, due to unique paths of neurobiological development that occur across adolescence. With respect to social domains, although social and peer influences are important for both adolescent males and females, there are gender differences. For example, girls may be more sensitive to pressure from peers to fit in and
... defined as consuming 4 ormore alcohol drinks (beer, wine, or liquor) on an occasion. Problem Drinking too ... more frequently on the basis of potential health benefits. If you do choose to drink, do so ...
Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Talk, Andrew; Montañés, Adriana; Duque, Aránzazu; Monleón, Santiago
Binge drinking (BD) is characterized by intermittent consumption of large quantities of alcohol in short periods. This pattern of drinking is prevalent among adolescents, and has been associated with undermined learning and memory ability. This study investigates the relationships between a history of BD and the effects of acute exposure to alcohol on learning and memory performance in adolescent men and women. A high, acute dose of alcohol or control refreshment was administered to a sample of 172 adolescent undergraduate students, some of which had a history of BD and others of which had refrained from alcohol consumption. Subsequently, immediate visual memory (IVM) and working memory (WM) was measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale in females and males with different BAC (Experiment 1) and similar BAC (Experiment 2). In both experiments, IVM was reduced after acute alcohol consumption and there was no significant main effect of Drinking Pattern. Furthermore, an effect of cognitive alcohol tolerance on IVM was observed in women but not in men. WM was not affected by alcohol, but a gender difference was evident in that performance was superior in men than in women. In adolescents, IVM is more sensitive than WM to impairment by alcohol, and women are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than men, since the cognitive tolerance effect of alcohol on IVM develops in BD women but not in BD men. These findings emphasize the need to investigate the neurotoxic effects of alcohol in adolescent women. In adolescents, immediate visual memory (IVM) is more sensitive than working memory to impairment by alcohol, and women are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol than men, because the cognitive tolerance effect of alcohol on IVM develops in binge drinking (BD) women but not in BD men. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Luquiens, A; Falissard, B; Aubin, H J
The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of binge drinking, its intensity and frequency, and drinker self-concept on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in students. This cross-sectional online survey included 16,930 students. We collected sociodemographics, environmental data, and drinking behaviors. We assessed HRQOL using the Alcohol Quality-of-Life scale, which explicitly explores the subjective negative impact on quality of life one attributes to his relationship with alcohol and the degree to which drinking is a part of an individual's self-concept. Data analyses were performed in 2015 and 2016. We described and compared binge drinkers and non-binge drinkers. Using a regression model we identified the independent factors associated with HRQOL. The impact on HRQOL attributed to alcohol was significantly greater among binge drinkers. Factors of impact on HRQOL subjectively attributed to alcohol by students were: AUDIT-C score, interaction between gender and AUDIT-C score, strong individual identity as a drinker, binge-drinking frequency, financial difficulties, being a foreigner, fewer years since diploma, chronic condition, recent use of cannabis, psychostimulant, poppers or gambling. Sleep quality, ability to work, expenditure on alcohol, shame, and health-related concerns were the most strongly impacted quality of life areas. Binge-drinking frequency should be considered as an important target in prevention programs. In addition, integrating findings on students' subjective perceptions of impairment of HRQOL by alcohol could enable the development of more acceptable and more relevant prevention messages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jander, Astrid; Crutzen, Rik; Mercken, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein
In The Netherlands, excessive alcohol use (e.g., binge drinking) is prevalent among adolescents. Alcohol use in general and binge drinking in particular comes with various immediate and long term health risks. Thus, reducing binge drinking among this target group is very important. This article describes a two-arm Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (CRCT) of an intervention aimed at reducing binge drinking in this target group. The intervention is a Web-based, computer-tailored game in which adolescents receive personalized feedback on their drinking behavior aimed at changing motivational determinants related to this behavior. The development of the game is grounded in the I-Change Model. A CRTC is conducted to test the effectiveness of the game. Adolescents are recruited through schools, and schools are randomized into the experimental condition and the control condition. The experimental condition fills in a baseline questionnaire assessing demographic variables, motivational determinants of behavior (attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, intention) and alcohol use. They are also asked to invite their parents to take part in a short parental component that focusses on setting rules and communicating about alcohol. After completing the baseline questionnaire, the experimental condition continues playing the first of three game scenarios. The primary follow-up measurement takes place after four months and a second follow-up after eight months. The control condition only fills in the baseline, four and eight month follow-up measurement and then receives access to the game (i.e., a waiting list control condition). The effectiveness of the intervention to reduce binge drinking in the previous 30 days and alcohol use in the last week will be assessed. Furthermore, intention to drink and binge drink are assessed. Besides main effects, potential subgroup differences pertaining to gender, age, and educational background are explored. The study described in this
Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Patrick, Megan E
Alcohol use is a key risk factor for young adult mortality and disease, but limited research has focused on high-risk alcohol use among individuals moving from early young adulthood into building and maintaining an initial structure of adult life. This study estimated the prevalence of a range of alcohol use behaviors among US young adults aged 25/26, examined evidence for historical change in prevalence rates, and estimated associations between alcohol use and key demographic, substance use, and adult social role characteristics. Data were obtained from 3542 individuals selected for follow-up from the nationally representative 12th-grade student Monitoring the Future study. Respondents self-reported alcohol use behaviors at age 25/26 during calendar years 2005-2014. Two fifths (39.9%) of young adults aged 25/26 reported being intoxicated at least once in the past 30 days; 25.6% reported usually experiencing a sustained high of 3 or more hours when drinking alcohol. Past-2-week binge drinking (5+ drinks in a row) was reported by 36.3% of respondents. Past-2-week high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks in a row) was reported by 12.4%. These age 25/26 alcohol use prevalence rates remained stable over the 10 years of data examined, in contrast to significant declines over historical time in alcohol prevalence rates among these same individuals at age 18. High-risk drinking was particularly associated with being male, white, unmarried, employed, a nonparent, and an alcohol user before finishing high school. Among US young adults in their mid-20s, alcohol use was highly normative and frequently included participation in high-risk drinking behaviors. High-risk alcohol use prevention approaches developed specifically to reach young adults in their mid-20s are needed, as well as efforts to increase proactive clinician screening to identify young adults participating in high-risk alcohol use.
Woo, Bongki; Wang, Kaipeng; Tran, Thanh
Racial and ethnic minorities often suffer from poorer health than Whites given their exposure to more stressors and fewer resources that buffer the effects of stress. Given that alcohol is often consumed to alleviate the negative moods, the present study hypothesized that psychological distress may impact the involvement in binge drinking differently across racial and ethnic groups. We used data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2007 to 2012. The sample consisted of 130,556 adults including African Americans (N=6541), Asians (N=13,508), Latinos (N=18,128), and Whites (N=92,379). Binary logistic regression analysis was used with consideration for complex survey design. The results indicated that psychological distress was significantly associated with binge drinking across all racial and ethnic groups. However, this association differed by race and ethnicity adjusting for age, gender, marital status, education, poverty, and employment status. The results revealed that psychological distress had the largest effect on binge drinking for Asian Americans, particularly Filipinos and South Asians, compared to Whites. This study highlights the importance of examining racial and ethnic differences in the impacts of psychological distress on alcohol consumption. Future research is needed to better understand the potential factors that mediate the effects of psychological distress on binge drinking specific to each racial and ethnic group in order to develop culturally sensitive interventions and hence decrease the alcohol-related racial health disparities. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cisler, Josh M; Begle, Angela M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Interpersonal violence (IPV) is associated with a range of subsequent negative outcomes; however, research has yet to test whether IPV operates as a specific risk factor for separate psychopathology outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, or binge drinking. To address this, cumulative exposure to IPV and non-IPV-related traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, delinquent acts, and binge drinking were measured 3 times over approximately 3 years among a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 12-17 (N = 3,614 at Wave 1). Results demonstrated that cumulative IPV exposure predicted subsequent PTSD, depression, delinquency, and binge drinking (βs = .07, .12, .10, and .09, respectively; all ps < .01) when all cross-relationships (e.g., the effect of delinquency on future binge drinking) were in the model. Exposure to non-IPV traumatic events generally did not confer vulnerability to subsequent psychopathology outcomes. Overall, findings from this study advance the literature in this area by exploring consequences for adolescents following cumulative IPV exposure. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A
Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.
Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina
This study analyzed whether discrepant (husband or wife use only) or concordant (both partners use) patterns of heavy drinking, marijuana use, and smoking are associated with increased risk for male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among adult couples. Based on a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples…
Hagger, Martin S; Lonsdale, Adam J; Hein, Vello; Koka, Andre; Lintunen, Taru; Pasi, Heidi; Lindwall, Magnus; Rudolfsson, Lisa; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D
This study tested an integrated model of the psychosocial determinants of alcohol-related behaviour among company employees from four nations. A motivational sequence was proposed in which motivational orientations from self-determination theory influenced intentions to consume alcohol within guideline limits and alcohol-related behaviour via the mediation of the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). A three-wave prospective design using self-reported psychological and behavioural measures. Company employees (N= 486, males = 225, females = 261; M age = 30.41, SD= 8.31) from four nations (Estonia, Finland, Sweden, and UK) completed measures of autonomous and controlled motivation from self-determination theory, attitudes, subjective norms, PBC, intentions from the theory of planned behaviour, and self-reported measures of past alcohol consumption and binge-drinking occasions at the first time point (time 1). Follow-up psychological and behavioural measures were taken one month later (time 2) and follow-up behavioural measures taken a further 2 months later (time 3). Path analyses supported the motivational sequence with identified regulation (time 1), predicting intentions (time 1), and alcohol units consumed (time 2). The effects were indirect via the mediation of attitudes and PBC (time 1). A similar pattern of effects was found for the effect of time 2 psychological variables on time 3 units of alcohol consumed. There was little support for the effects of the psychological variables on binge-drinking behaviour. Findings provide new information on the psychosocial determinants of alcohol behaviour in company employees and the processes involved. Results may provide impetus for the development of interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Hoffmann, Sven; Beste, Christian
Effects of binge drinking on cognitive control and response selection are increasingly recognized in research on alcohol (ethanol) effects. Yet, little is known about how those processes are modulated by hangover effects. Given that acute intoxication and hangover seem to be characterized by partly divergent effects and mechanisms, further research on this topic is needed. In the current study, we hence investigated this with a special focus on potentially differential effects of alcohol intoxication and subsequent hangover on sub-processes involved in the decision to select a response. We do so combining drift diffusion modeling of behavioral data with neurophysiological (EEG) data. Opposed to common sense, the results do not show an impairment of all assessed measures. Instead, they show specific effects of high dose alcohol intoxication and hangover on selective drift diffusion model and EEG parameters (as compared to a sober state). While the acute intoxication induced by binge-drinking decreased the drift rate, it was increased by the subsequent hangover, indicating more efficient information accumulation during hangover. Further, the non-decisional processes of information encoding decreased with intoxication, but not during hangover. These effects were reflected in modulations of the N2, P1 and N1 event-related potentials, which reflect conflict monitoring, perceptual gating and attentional selection processes, respectively. As regards the functional neuroanatomical architecture, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as well as occipital networks seem to be modulated. Even though alcohol is known to have broad neurobiological effects, its effects on cognitive processes are rather specific. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Skogerbø, A; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Wimberley, Theresa
Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers...
Sarkar, Sraboni; Chang, Sulie L
Binge drinking of high ethanol (EtOH) concentration beverages is common among young adults and can be a risk factor for exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1. We used a novel noninfectious HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat model that mimics HIV-1 patients in terms of altered immune responses and deficits in cognitive learning and memory to investigate EtOH concentration-dependent effects on 48 alcohol-modulated genes during binge EtOH administration. HIV-1Tg and control F344 rats were administered water, 8% EtOH, or 52% EtOH by gavage (i.g.) for 3 days (2.0 g/kg/d). Two hours after final treatment, blood, liver, and spleen were collected from each animal. Serum blood EtOH concentration (BEC) was measured, and gene expression in the liver and spleen was determined using a specifically designed PCR array. The BEC was significantly higher in the 52% EtOH-treated HIV-1Tg rats compared with the 8% EtOH group; however, the BEC was higher in the 8% EtOH-treated control rats compared with the 52% EtOH group. There was no change in expression of the EtOH metabolism-related genes, Adh1, Adh4, and Cyp2e1, in either the 8 or 52% EtOH-treated HIV-1Tg rats, whereas expression of those genes was significantly higher in the liver of the 52% EtOH control rats, but not in the 8% EtOH group. In the HIV-1Tg rats, expression of the GABAA , metabotropic glutamate, and dopamine neurotransmitter receptor genes was significantly increased in the spleen of the 52% EtOH group, but not in the 8% EtOH group, whereas no change was observed in those genes in either of the control groups. Our data indicate that, in the presence of HIV-1 infection, EtOH concentration-dependent binge drinking can have significantly different molecular effects. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Jander, Astrid; Crutzen, Rik; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein
Binge drinking among Dutch adolescents is among the highest in Europe. Few interventions so far have focused on adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Because binge drinking increases significantly during those years, it is important to develop binge drinking prevention programs for this group. Web-based computer-tailored interventions can be an effective tool for reducing this behavior in adolescents. Embedding the computer-tailored intervention in a serious game may make it more attractive to adolescents. The aim was to assess whether a Web-based computer-tailored intervention is effective in reducing binge drinking in Dutch adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Secondary outcomes were reduction in excessive drinking and overall consumption during the previous week. Personal characteristics associated with program adherence were also investigated. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 34 Dutch schools. Each school was randomized into either an experimental (n=1622) or a control (n=1027) condition. Baseline assessment took place in January and February 2014. At baseline, demographic variables and alcohol use were assessed. Follow-up assessment of alcohol use took place 4 months later (May and June 2014). After the baseline assessment, participants in the experimental condition started with the intervention consisting of a game about alcohol in which computer-tailored feedback regarding motivational characteristics was embedded. Participants in the control condition only received the baseline questionnaire. Both groups received the 4-month follow-up questionnaire. Effects of the intervention were assessed using logistic regression mixed models analyses for binge and excessive drinking and linear regression mixed models analyses for weekly consumption. Factors associated with intervention adherence in the experimental condition were explored by means of a linear regression model. In total, 2649 adolescents participated in the baseline assessment. At follow
Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Sauton, Pierre; Jeanblanc, Virginie; Legastelois, Rémi; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Lebourgeois, Sophie; Gonzalez-Marin, Maria Del Carmen; Naassila, Mickaël
Binge drinking (BD) is often defined as a large amount of alcohol consumed in a 'short' period of time or 'per occasion'. In clinical research, few researchers have included the notion of 'speed of drinking' in the definition of BD. Here, we aimed to describe a novel pre-clinical model based on voluntary operant BD, which included both the quantity of alcohol and the rapidity of consumption. In adult Long-Evans male rats, we induced BD by regularly decreasing the duration of ethanol self-administration from 1-hour to 15-minute sessions. We compared the behavioral consequences of BD with the behaviors of rats subjected to moderate drinking or heavy drinking (HD). We found that, despite high ethanol consumption levels (1.2 g/kg/15 minutes), the total amounts consumed were insufficient to differentiate HD from BD. However, consumption speed could distinguish between these groups. The motivation to consume was higher in BD than in HD rats. After BD, we observed alterations in locomotor coordination in rats that consumed greater than 0.8 g/kg, which was rarely observed in HD rats. Finally, chronic BD led to worse performance in a decision-making task, and as expected, we observed a lower stimulated dopaminergic release within nucleus accumbens slices in poor decision makers. Our BD model exhibited good face validity and can now provide animals voluntarily consuming very rapidly enough alcohol to achieve intoxication levels and thus allowing the study of the complex interaction between individual and environmental factors underlying BD behavior. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Still Smoking, Dorothy; Bull Shoe, Debbie Whitegrass
The Pikanii Action Team project addressed the issues of teenage drinking and drunk driving on the Blackfeet Reservation. Basing their actions on locally-generated research, the Pikanii Action Team conducted a series of activities and initiatives to promote public awareness and action related to high-risk activities related to drinking. The team's…
Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W
Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during
Underbjerg, Mette; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Landrø, Nils Inge
Please cite this paper as: Underbjerg M, Kesmodel U, Landrø N, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn T, Svaerke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children. BJOG...... 2012;119:1211-1221. Objective The aim was to examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's attention at 5 years of age. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003......-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the recently developed Test of Everyday Attention for Children...
Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Acciaro, Carla; Lobina, Carla; Loi, Barbara; Zaru, Alessandro; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi
Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption using the standard 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with unlimited access; under this regimen, sP rats daily consume 6-7 g/kg alcohol. The present study assessed a new paradigm of alcohol intake in which sP rats were exposed to the 4-bottle "alcohol (10%, 20%, and 30%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen during one of the 12 h of the dark phase of the daily light/dark cycle; the time of alcohol exposure was changed daily in a semi-random order and was unpredictable to rats. Alcohol intake was highly positively correlated with the time of the drinking session and averaged approximately 2 g/kg when the drinking session occurred during the 12th hour of the dark phase. Alcohol drinking during the 12th hour of the dark phase resulted in (a) blood alcohol levels averaging approximately 100 mg% and (b) severe signs of alcohol intoxication (e.g., impaired performance at a Rota-Rod task). The results of a series of additional experiments indicate that (a) both singular aspects of this paradigm (i.e., unpredictability of alcohol exposure and concurrent availability of multiple alcohol concentrations) contributed to this high alcohol intake, (b) alcohol intake followed a circadian rhythm, as it decreased progressively over the first 3 h of the light phase and then maintained constant levels until the beginning of the dark phase, and (c) sensitivity to time schedule was specific to alcohol, as it did not generalize to a highly palatable chocolate-flavored beverage. These results demonstrate that unpredictable, limited access to multiple alcohol concentrations may result in exceptionally high intakes of alcohol in sP rats, modeling - to some extent - human binge drinking. A progressively increasing emotional "distress" associated to rats' expectation of alcohol might be the neurobehavioral basis of this drinking behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier
Sanchez, Zila M; Martins, Silvia S; Opaleye, Emerita S; Moura, Yone G; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R
Binge drinking (BD) seems to be related to health and social complications among adolescents. Considering that knowledge about BD in developing countries is limited and that in Brazil high socioeconomic status is a risk factor for alcohol abuse, this study sheds light about this phenomenon among adolescents from a different cultural background than prior North-American and European studies. Brazilian students (n = 2691) selected through a representative, stratified and clustered sampling method were asked to answer a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about patterns of alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, leisure activities, family structure and relationships. Data were analyzed with basic contingency tables with Chi-square tests followed by a decision tree analysis and weighted logistic regression. Almost thirty-five percent of the students reported recent binge drinking. BD in the past month was positively associated with older age (aOR = 1.5[1.2-1.7]), male gender (aOR = 1.5[1.2-2.0]) going out with friends almost every night (aOR = 33.9[14.2-80.7]), not living with mother (aOR = 2.4[1.3-4.7]), believing in God with little conviction (aOR = 1.6[1.2-2.0]) and rarely talking to parents about anything (aOR = 1.7[1.3-2.2]) or always about drugs (aOR = 1.8[1.3-2.5]). Factors inversely associated with BD were: paying lower monthly tuition fees (aOR = 0.5[0.4-0.9]), living with people who do not get drunk (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.7]) and frequent engagement in worships (aOR = 0.7[0.5-0.9]). The habit of BD in adolescents enrolled in private high schools in Brazil is strongly linked to the frequency with which they go out with friends at night. Factors such as religiosity, expressed by trust in God and participation in worship, and being enrolled in a school with cheaper tuition fees were associated with avoidance of BD in this population.
Locatelli Danilo P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking (BD seems to be related to health and social complications among adolescents. Considering that knowledge about BD in developing countries is limited and that in Brazil high socioeconomic status is a risk factor for alcohol abuse, this study sheds light about this phenomenon among adolescents from a different cultural background than prior North-American and European studies. Methods Brazilian students (n = 2691 selected through a representative, stratified and clustered sampling method were asked to answer a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about patterns of alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, leisure activities, family structure and relationships. Data were analyzed with basic contingency tables with Chi-square tests followed by a decision tree analysis and weighted logistic regression. Results Almost thirty-five percent of the students reported recent binge drinking. BD in the past month was positively associated with older age (aOR = 1.5[1.2-1.7], male gender (aOR = 1.5[1.2-2.0] going out with friends almost every night (aOR = 33.9[14.2-80.7], not living with mother (aOR = 2.4[1.3-4.7], believing in God with little conviction (aOR = 1.6[1.2-2.0] and rarely talking to parents about anything (aOR = 1.7[1.3-2.2] or always about drugs (aOR = 1.8[1.3-2.5]. Factors inversely associated with BD were: paying lower monthly tuition fees (aOR = 0.5[0.4-0.9], living with people who do not get drunk (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.7] and frequent engagement in worships (aOR = 0.7[0.5-0.9]. Conclusion The habit of BD in adolescents enrolled in private high schools in Brazil is strongly linked to the frequency with which they go out with friends at night. Factors such as religiosity, expressed by trust in God and participation in worship, and being enrolled in a school with cheaper tuition fees were associated with avoidance of BD in this population.
Bekman, Nicole M; Winward, Jennifer L; Lau, Lily L; Wagner, Chase C; Brown, Sandra A
While it is clear that affect is negatively impacted by heavy drinking in adulthood and that it improves with abstinence, little is known about effects of heavy drinking on mood during adolescence. This study examined negative mood states among 2 groups of 16- to 18-year-old high school students; youth with a history of recent heavy episodic drinking (HED; n = 39) and comparison youth with limited lifetime drinking experience (CON; n = 26). Affect was assessed at 3 time points during a 4- to 6-week period of monitored abstinence using the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression; self-reports were obtained with the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and experience sampling of current affect was assessed via daily text messages sent at randomly determined times in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Youth with a recent history of HED reported more negative affect compared with nondrinking youth during early stages of abstinence (days since last HED at assessment 1: M = 6.46; SD = 5.06); however, differences in affect were not observed after 4 to 6 weeks of abstinence. Sex differences were evident, with HED girls reporting greater depression and anxiety than HED male peers. Although not significant, response patterns indicated that boys may experience faster resolution of negative emotional states than girls with sustained abstinence. Findings suggest that high-dose drinking is associated with elevated negative affect for adolescents and that negative mood states may take longer to resolve for girls than for boys following heavy drinking episodes. Future research clarifying naturally occurring changes in affective response during early and sustained abstinence is necessary for improving programs designed to promote adolescent decision-making and to reduce risk for relapse. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.
Sanchez, Zila M.; Ribeiro, Karen J.; Wagner, Gabriela A.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons’ BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954
Zila M Sanchez
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%, the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4% and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%. The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.
Tina R Kilburn
Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander
Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.
Adan, Ana; Navarro, José Francisco; Forero, Diego A
The prevalence of binge drinking (BD), found especially among young people, is increasing worldwide and has become an important social and health concern. We studied, for the first time, the personality profile, using the Alternative Five Factor Model, among university students with BD and healthy controls, taking into account the possible influence of sex. 70 participants with BD (30 men) and 70 healthy controls (30 men) were included, selected to control for characteristics that are known to be related to BD (physical and mental disorders, consumption of other drugs, circadian rhythms), completed the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). The scores on Neuroticism-Anxiety and Impulsive Sensation-Seeking were higher in the BD group compared to the controls (pAnxiety are due to higher scores in the women's group (p=0.014), while those in Impulsive Sensation-Seeking are due to higher scores in the men's group (p=0.009), both in the Impulsivity and in the Sensation-Seeking subscales (p<0.045). Sex could be a factor that modulates the endophenotype of drug dependence (impulsive and anxious personality) and the prevention and/or treatment programs for BD should include not only the management of the personality risk factors but also different tailored approaches according to sex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi,; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi
Background Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. Methods The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they wer...
Patrick, Megan E; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Griffin, Jamie
Daily affect and substance use covary among college students, but little is known about these associations among young adults not in college. The current pilot study examines associations between positive and negative affect and alcohol and marijuana use, with a focus on differences between college student and nonstudent young adults. High school seniors completed a baseline survey during the spring of 2012 and were then randomly selected to participate in an intensive measurement follow-up. Participants in the follow-up (N = 72, 40.3% men, 77.8% White, 66.7% full-time college students) completed up to 14 consecutive web-based daily surveys during the fall after high school completion. Multilevel models in which days (Level 1) were nested in persons (Level 2) were estimated. Weekend days were associated with increased alcohol use among all young adults, increased marijuana use among college students, and decreased marijuana use among nonstudents. For young adults not in college, greater daily positive affect was associated with increased likelihood of binge drinking, consuming a greater number of drinks, and lower odds of marijuana use; greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of alcohol use and lower odds of binge drinking for non-students. For college students, greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of marijuana use. Daily affect and alcohol and marijuana use covary among young adults, though these associations differ between students and non-students. Results highlight the need to examine predictors of alcohol and marijuana use among young adults who do not attend college.
Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Williams, Brian; Sniehotta, Falko F; Petrie, Dennis; Evans, Josie Mm; Emslie, Carol; Jones, Claire; Ricketts, Ian W; Humphris, Gerry; Norrie, John; Rice, Peter; Slane, Peter W
Socially disadvantaged men are at a substantially higher risk of developing alcohol-related problems. The frequency of heavy drinking in a single session is high among disadvantaged men. Brief alcohol interventions were developed for, and are usually delivered in, healthcare settings. The group who binge drink most frequently, young to middle-aged disadvantaged men, have less contact with health services and there is a need for an alternative method of intervention delivery. Text messaging has been used successfully to modify other adverse health behaviours. This study will test whether text messages can reduce the frequency of binge drinking by disadvantaged men. Disadvantaged men aged 25 to 44 years who drank >8 units of alcohol at least twice in the preceding month will be recruited from the community. Two recruitment strategies will be used: contacting men listed in primary care registers, and a community outreach method (time-space sampling). The intended sample of 798 men will be randomised to intervention or control, stratifying by recruitment method. The intervention group will receive a series of text messages designed to reduce the frequency of binge drinking through the formation of specific action plans. The control group will receive behaviourally neutral text messages intended to promote retention in the study. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of men consuming >8 units on at least three occasions in the previous 30 days. Secondary outcomes include total alcohol consumption and the frequency of consuming more than 16 units of alcohol in one session in the previous month. Process measures, developed during a previous feasibility study, will monitor engagement with the key behaviour change components of the intervention. The study will incorporate an economic evaluation comparing the costs of recruitment and intervention delivery with the benefits of reduced alcohol-related harm. This study will assess the effectiveness of a brief
Crocamo, Cristina; Bartoli, Francesco; Montomoli, Cristina; Carrà, Giuseppe
Binge drinking (BD) among young people has significant public health implications. Thus, there is the need to target users most at risk. We estimated the discriminative accuracy of an innovative model nested in a recently developed e-Health app (Digital-Alcohol RIsk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and young adults [D-ARIANNA]) for BD in young people, examining its performance to predict short-term BD episodes. We consecutively recruited young adults in pubs, discos, or live music events. Participants self-administered the app D-ARIANNA, which incorporates an evidence-based risk estimation model for the dependent variable BD. They were re-evaluated after 2 weeks using a single-item BD behavior as reference. We estimated D-ARIANNA discriminative ability through measures of sensitivity and specificity, and also likelihood ratios. ROC curve analyses were carried out, exploring variability of discriminative ability across subgroups. The analyses included 507 subjects, of whom 18% reported at least 1 BD episode at follow-up. The majority of these had been identified as at high/moderate or high risk (65%) at induction. Higher scores from the D-ARIANNA risk estimation model reflected an increase in the likelihood of BD. Additional risk factors such as high pocket money availability and alcohol expectancies influence the predictive ability of the model. The D-ARIANNA model showed an appreciable, though modest, predictive ability for subsequent BD episodes. Post-hoc model showed slightly better predictive properties. Using up-to-date technology, D-ARIANNA appears an innovative and promising screening tool for BD among young people. Long-term impact remains to be established, and also the role of additional social and environmental factors.
Davis, Alan K; Bonar, Erin E; Goldstick, Jason E; Walton, Maureen A; Winters, Jamie; Chermack, Stephen T
Gambling is relatively under-assessed in Veterans Affairs (VA) substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings, yet shared characteristics with substance addiction suggest the importance of understanding how gambling behaviors present in Veterans seeking SUD care. We evaluated substance use, mental health, and violence-related correlates of past 30-day gambling among 833 Veterans (93% male, M age 48years, 72% Caucasian) seeking treatment in VA outpatient mental health and SUD clinics who completed screening for a randomized clinical trial. A total of 288 (35%) Veterans reported past 30-day gambling. Among those who gambled, 79% had cravings/urges to gamble, whereas between 20%-27% of gamblers reported perceived relationship, legal, and daily life problems related to gambling, as well as difficulty controlling gambling. A logistic regression analysis revealed that age, recent binge-drinking, and non-partner physical aggression were associated with recent gambling. Gambling was associated with binge-drinking and non-partner physical aggression, supporting potential shared characteristics among these behaviors such as impulsivity and risk-taking, which may complicate SUD treatment engagement and effectiveness. Findings support the need to screen for gambling in the VA, and to adapt treatments to include gambling as a potential behavioral target or relapse trigger, particularly among heavy drinking patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kay-Lambkin, F J; Baker, A L; Geddes, J; Hunt, S A; Woodcock, K L; Teesson, M; Oldmeadow, C; Lewin, T J; Bewick, B M; Brady, K; Spring, B; Deady, M; Barrett, E; Thornton, L
Depression and binge drinking behaviours are common clinical problems, which cause substantial functional, economic and health impacts. These conditions peak in young adulthood, and commonly co-occur. Comorbid depression and binge drinking are undertreated in young people, who are reluctant to seek help via traditional pathways to care. The iTreAD project (internet Treatment for Alcohol and Depression) aims to provide and evaluate internet-delivered monitoring and treatment programs for young people with depression and binge drinking concerns. Three hundred sixty nine participants will be recruited to the trial, and will be aged 18-30 years will be eligible for the study if they report current symptoms of depression (score 5 or more on the depression subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) and concurrent binge drinking practices (5 or more standard drinks at least twice in the prior month). Following screening and online baseline assessment, participants are randomised to: (a) online monthly self-assessments, (b) online monthly self-assessments + 12-months of access to a 4 week online automated cognitive behaviour therapy program for binge drinking and depression (DEAL); or (c) online monthly assessment + DEAL + 12-months of access to a social networking site (Breathing Space). Independent, blind follow-up assessments occur at 26, 39, 52 and 64-weeks post-baseline. The iTreAD project is the first randomised controlled trial combining online cognitive behaviour therapy, social networking and online monitoring for young people reporting concerns with depression and binge drinking. These treatments represent low-cost, wide-reach youth-appropriate treatment, which will have significantly public health implications for service design, delivery and health policy for this important age group. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000310662. Date registered 24 March 2014.
Risk Estimation Modeling and Feasibility Testing for a Mobile eHealth Intervention for Binge Drinking Among Young People: The D-ARIANNA (Digital-Alcohol RIsk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and young adults) Project.
Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Schivalocchi, Alessandro; Bartoli, Francesco; Carretta, Daniele; Brambilla, Giulia; Clerici, Massimo
Binge drinking is common among young people but often relevant risk factors are not recognized. eHealth apps, attractive for young people, may be useful to enhance awareness of this problem. We aimed at developing a current risk estimation model for binge drinking, incorporated into an eHealth app--D-ARIANNA (Digital-Alcohol RIsk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and young adults)--for young people. A longitudinal approach with phase 1 (risk estimation), phase 2 (design), and phase 3 (feasibility) was followed. Risk/protective factors identified from the literature were used to develop a current risk estimation model for binge drinking. Relevant odds ratios were subsequently pooled through meta-analytic techniques with a random-effects model, deriving weighted estimates to be introduced in a final model. A set of questions, matching identified risk factors, were nested in a questionnaire and assessed for wording, content, and acceptability in focus groups involving 110 adolescents and young adults. Ten risk factors (5 modifiable) and 2 protective factors showed significant associations with binge drinking and were included in the model. Their weighted coefficients ranged between -0.71 (school proficiency) and 1.90 (cannabis use). The model, nested in an eHealth app questionnaire, provides in percent an overall current risk score, accompanied by appropriate images. Factors that mostly contribute are shown in summary messages. Minor changes have been realized after focus groups review. Most of the subjects (74%) regarded the eHealth app as helpful to assess binge drinking risk. We could produce an evidence-based eHealth app for young people, evaluating current risk for binge drinking. Its effectiveness will be tested in a large trial.
Naimi, Timothy S; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; O'Doherty, Catherine; Jernigan, David
Binge drinking is a common and risky pattern of alcohol consumption among youth; beverage and brand-specific consumption during binge drinking is poorly understood. The objective was to characterize beverage- and brand-specific consumption associated with binge drinking among underage youth in the U.S. An internet panel was used to obtain a sample of 1,032 underage youth aged 13-20, who drank alcohol in the past 30 days. For each brand consumed, youth reported drinking quantity and frequency, and whether they engaged in binge drinking with that brand (≥5 drinks for males, ≥4 for females). Each youth reporting binge drinking with a brand constituted a binge drinking report. Overall, 50.9% of youth binge drank with ≥1 brand, and 36.5% of youth who consumed any particular brand reported binge drinking with it. Spirits accounted for 43.8% of binge drinking reports. Twenty-five brands accounted for 46.2% of binge drinking reports. Many of these brands were disproportionately associated with binge drinking relative to their youth market share. Binge drinking among youth is most commonly involves spirits, and binge drinking is concentrated within a relatively small number of brands. Understanding factors underlying beverage and brand preference among binge drinking youth could assist prevention efforts.
Nygren, Karina; Hammarström, Anne; Rolandsson, Olov
Studies have indicated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower incidence of diabetes in women. However, not only the amount but also the drinking pattern could be of importance when assessing the longitudinal relation between alcohol and glucose. Also, there is a lack of studies on alcohol use beginning in adolescence on adult glucose levels. The aim was to examine the association between total alcohol consumption and binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 and fasting plasma glucose at age 43. Data were retrieved from a 27-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. In 1981, all 9th grade students (n = 1083) within a municipality in Sweden were invited to participate. There were re-assessments at ages 18, 21, 30 and 43. This particular study sample consisted of 897 participants (82.8%). Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) was measured at a health examination at age 43. Total alcohol consumption (in grams) and binge drinking were calculated from alcohol consumption data obtained from questionnaires. Descriptive analyses showed that men had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose as compared to women. Men also reported higher levels of alcohol consumption and binge drinking behavior. Linear regressions showed that total alcohol consumption in combination with binge drinking between ages 16 and 43 was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose at age 43 in women (beta = 0.14, p = 0.003) but not in men after adjustment for BMI, hypertension and smoking at age 43. Our findings indicate that reducing binge drinking and alcohol consumption among young and middle-aged women with the highest consumption might be metabolically favorable for their future glucose metabolism.
Ahn, Ho-Young; Wu, Lei; Kelly, Stephanie; Haley, Eric
The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students deal with conflicting health messages in advertising regarding binge drinking and wine promotion. Phenomenological in-depth long interviews were conducted beyond the point of redundancy (N = 16). The results of this study indicated that students' meaning making regarding the conflicting messages relied greatly upon how consistent either message was with their prior beliefs about alcohol. Additionally, not all students perceived the messages to be contradictory; these students saw the messages as being constructed for different purposes and as such incomparable. Overall, students who perceived conflict responded to the topic with apathy fueled by advertising skepticism. Employing qualitative methodology to understand how college students respond to conflicting messages will assist health promotion practitioners develop more effective alcohol abuse prevention messages and provide suggestions for researchers for studying this phenomenon from other perspectives in the future. Implications are further discussed within.
... Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... drugs that have more serious side effects than marijuana. These side effects may include: Sudden high blood pressure with headache ...
Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E
Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker
Marmor, J B
Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several...
Kirill V. Istomin
Full Text Available Although the notion of responsibility is often invoked by mass-media reports, activists and lay people when discussing alcoholism and suicides, anthropological discussions of this topic seem to deliberately avoid the notion. Based on the example of the Taz Nenets of western Sibera, this paper explores how cross-cultural differences in the notion of responsibility, if approached in a non-moralising way, can enrich our understanding of several aspects of the drinking and suicidal behaviours of native northerners. The Nenets seem to believe that both positive and negative events in their lives happen more due to chance or for highly localised reasons that they do not control rather than being caused by their own informed and wilful actions (external locus of control. Particularly, acts of suicide and binge drinking episodes just happen to people and, therefore, people cannot be held responsible for them. This attitude can be a compensatory mechanism for the flat attribution style observed among Nenets in previous studies. It should be taken into account in programs of suicide prevention and the treatment of alcoholism.
Ortiz, Ana P; González, Daisy; Ramos, Jeslie; Muñoz, Cristina; Reyes, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Cynthia M
Despite limited data, research suggests that marijuana use is associated with oral HPV infection and periodontitis, two potential oropharyngeal cancer risk factors. We assessed these associations in a Hispanic adult population in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study of 735 adults assessed marijuana use, determined through an audio computer-assisted self-interview, and periodontitis and self-collection of oral HPV samples following the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey methodology. The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology definition was used for periodontitis. HPV typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction with modified L1 consensus primers (MY09/MY11). 26.5% of adults reported lifetime use of marijuana, 2.7% were frequent users (lifetime use ≥ 26 times, past year use ≥ 6 times, and past 30-day use ≥2 times), 5.7% had oral HPV infection, and 20.1% had severe periodontitis. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that frequent marijuana users were more likely to have severe periodontitis (OR = 2.91, 95%CI = 1.06 - 7.96) than never/once lifetime users after adjusting for age, sex, healthcare coverage, smoking, binge drinking, number of oral sex partners, and oral HPV infection. However, frequent marijuana use was not associated with oral HPV infection. Marijuana use was associated with periodontitis, but not with oral HPV infection. Further evaluation of the role of marijuana use in oral HPV infection and periodontitis may inform novel preventive public health strategies, as marijuana users could be at increased risk of oral cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Monica C. Skewes
Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.
Carla J. Berg
Full Text Available Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6% were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having
This correlational study tested the efficacy of the social-ecological theory (Moos, 1979) by employing the University Residential Environmental Scale and multiple regression analysis to examine the influences of personal attributes (SAT, parents' level of education, race/ethnicity, and high school drinking) and environmental factors (high/low…
... different amounts of cannabinoids. This sometimes makes the effects of medical marijuana hard to predict or control. The effects also ... wasting syndrome) Severe muscle spasms Multiple sclerosis Side Effects ... physical symptoms from using marijuana include: A fast or irregular heartbeat Dizziness Slow ...
Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Bartoli, Francesco; Carretta, Daniele; Schivalocchi, Alessandro; Bebbington, Paul E; Clerici, Massimo
Binge drinking (BD) is common among young people. E-Health apps are attractive to them and may be useful for enhancing awareness. We aimed to investigate the impact of a publicly available evidence-based e-Health app (Digital-Alcohol Risk Alertness Notifying Network for Adolescents and Young Adults [D-ARIANNA]), estimating current risk of BD by questions, matching identified risk factors, and providing in percent an overall risk score, accompanied by appropriate images showing mostly contributing factors in summary graphics. A natural, quasi-experimental, pre-/post-test study was conducted. Subjects were recruited in pubs, clubs, discos, or live music events. They were requested to self-administer D-ARIANNA and were re-evaluated after two further weeks. Young (18-24 years) people (N = 590) reported reduced BD at follow-up (18% vs. 37% at baseline). To exclude systematic errors involving those lost at follow-up (14%), the diminution in BD was confirmed in an appropriate generalized estimating equation model with unweighted data on a last observation carried forward basis. Our study provides evidence of population-level benefit at 2 weeks, attained with D-ARIANNA. This can be disseminated easily and economically among young people. However, additional components, including regular feedback and repeated administration by gamification, may be required to make this app suitable for longer term impact. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dinitto, Diana M; Choi, Namkee G
Epidemiological studies show that the number of older adults using marijuana is increasing. This study aimed to determine the correlates and patterns of marijuana use among older adults that might help health and social service providers better assist this group. Data are from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration in the U.S.A. The sample consisted of 5,325 adults aged 50 years and older. Of the sample, 2.8% were past-year marijuana users. Of them, 23% had used marijuana on at least half the days of the year. Past-year users were more likely to be younger (50-64 years old), black, and not married, and they had significantly higher psychological distress scores, but they did not rate their health as poorer than others in the sample, nor did they attribute many problems, including psychological problems, as being related to their marijuana use. Nevertheless, past-year users present a high-risk profile because, in addition to frequent marijuana use, they also are more likely to smoke cigarettes, engage in binge drinking, and use other illicit drugs. Health and social service providers should be alert to the small number of routine marijuana users among the younger members of the older adult population, especially those suffering significant psychological distress, so that these individuals can be encouraged to utilize services that will help alleviate this distress and promote a healthier lifestyle and increase general well being.
Full Text Available The transition from high school to college is a high-risk stage for the initiation and escalation of substance use. Substance use and its associated risk factors have been thoroughly described in developed countries, such as the United States, but largely neglected in Argentina, a South American country with patterns of a collectivist culture. The present cross-sectional study describes the occurrence of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and the association between these behaviors and the age of onset of substance use and cognitive (i.e., risk perception and social (i.e., prescriptive variables in a large sample of Argentinean college freshmen (n = 4083, 40.1% men; mean age = 19.39 ± 2.18 years. The response rate across courses was ≥90% and was similarly distributed across sex. Participants completed a survey that measured substance use (alcohol [with a focus on heavy drinking and binge drinking behaviors], tobacco, and marijuana, age of onset of the use of each substance, perceived risk associated with various substance use behaviors, prescriptive norms associated with substance use, and descriptive norms for alcohol use (AU. The results indicated that AU is nearly normative (90.4 and 80.3% with last year and last month use, respectively in this population, and heavy drinking is highly prevalent (68.6 and 54.9% with heavy episodic and binge drinking, respectively, especially among those with an early drinking onset (97.8 and 93.6% with last year and last month use and 87.8 and 76.3% with heavy episodic and binge drinking, respectively. The last-year occurrence of tobacco and marijuana use was 36 and 28%, respectively. Early substance use was associated with the greater use of that specific substance. The students overestimated their same-sex friend’s AU, and women overestimated the level of AU of their best male friend. At the multivariate level, all of the predictors, with the exception of the parents’ prescriptive norms
Full Text Available Background: Brief intervention (BI to reduce hazardous drinking and negative consequences such as injury has been effective when given in the emergency department (ED. The effectiveness and effect of BI has varied between injured and uninjured ED patients. This study compares injured and uninjured ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use to determine their need and their readiness for BI. Patients and Methods: Participants volunteered to enter a randomized controlled trial of BI to reduce hazardous alcohol and marijuana use. Adult ED patients who had had alcohol in the last month and smoked marijuana in the last year were recruited. Those patients who were admitted to hospital, were under police custody, or were seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorder were excluded. Research assistants interviewed participants using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.1. Binominal tests of proportions, t-test analyses, and transformations were conducted as appropriate. Results: Injured (n = 249 and uninjured (n = 266 study participants reported very high, statistically equivalent (P > 0.05, rates of binge drinking (4-5 days/month, marijuana use (13 days/month, driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol (>49% in the last 3 months, injury (>83% in the last year, and other negative consequences (>64% in the last 3 months prior to their ED visit. These behaviors and the consequences demonstrate a need for change. Both injured and uninjured subjects were ready to change (>56% and confident they could change (>91% alcohol and marijuana use. Discussion: ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use also use other hazardous substances and participate in high-risk behaviors. In both injured and uninjured patients who admit using alcohol and marijuana, the ED visit is an opportunity to deliver BI to reduce alcohol and marijuana use and associated risk behaviors and the subsequent injury and
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna
State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.
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Carter, R Colin; Wainwright, Helen; Molteno, Christopher D; Georgieff, Michael K; Dodge, Neil C; Warton, Fleur; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W
Animal studies have demonstrated adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on placental development, but few studies have examined these effects in humans. Little is known about effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine, marijuana, and cigarette smoking on placental development. Placentas were collected from 103 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-six heavy drinkers and 37 nondrinkers were interviewed about their alcohol, cigarette smoking, and drug use at 3 antenatal visits. A senior pathologist, blinded to exposure status, performed comprehensive pathology examinations on each placenta using a standardized protocol. In multivariable regression models, effects of prenatal exposure were examined on placental size, structure, and presence of infections and meconium. Drinkers reported a binge pattern of heavy drinking, averaging 8.0 drinks/occasion across pregnancy on 1.4 d/wk. 79.6% smoked cigarettes; 22.3% used marijuana; and 17.5% used methamphetamine. Alcohol exposure was related to decreased placental weight and a smaller placenta-to-birthweight ratio. By contrast, methamphetamine was associated with larger placental weight and a larger placenta-to-birthweight ratio. Marijuana was also associated with larger placental weight. Alcohol exposure was associated with increased risk of placental hemorrhage. Prenatal alcohol, drug, and cigarette use were not associated with chorioamnionitis, villitis, deciduitis, or maternal vascular underperfusion. Alcohol and cigarette smoking were associated with a decreased risk of intrauterine passing of meconium, a sign of acute fetal stress and/or hypoxia; methamphetamine, with an increased risk. This is the first human study to show that alcohol, methamphetamine, and marijuana were associated with distinct patterns of pathology, suggesting different mechanisms mediating their effects on placental development. Given the growing
Nguyen-Louie, Tam T; Tracas, Ashley; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Matt, Georg E; Eberson-Shumate, Sonja; Tapert, Susan F
Binge drinking has been linked to neurocognitive disadvantages in youth, but it is unclear whether drinking at particularly heavy levels uniquely affects neurocognitive performance. This study prospectively examined (1) whether initiating moderate, binge, or extreme-binge drinking in adolescence differentially influences subsequent learning and memory performances, and (2) whether dosage of alcohol consumption is linearly associated with changes in learning and memory over 6 years of adolescence. Participants, who later transitioned into drinking, were administered verbal learning and memory (VLM) assessments at project intake prior to the onset of substance use (age 12 to 16 years), and at follow-up approximately 6 years later (N = 112). Participants were grouped based on alcohol involvement at follow-up as follows: moderate (≤4 drinks per occasion), binge (5+ drinks per occasion), or extreme-binge (10+ drinks per occasion) drinkers. Despite equivalent performances prior to onset of drinking, extreme-binge drinkers performed worse than moderate drinkers on verbal learning, and cued and free short delayed recall (ps learning (β^ = -0.24), and immediate (β^ = -0.27), short delay free (β^ = -0.28) and cued (β^ = -0.30), and long delay free (β^ = -0.24) and cued (β^ = -0.27) recall (ps < 0.05). Drinking quantity during adolescence appears to adversely affect VLM in a dose-dependent manner. The acquisition of new verbal information may be particularly affected, notably for those who initiated drinking 10+ drinks in an occasion. Although classification of drinkers into categories remains critical in the study of alcohol, it is important to consider that subtle differences may exist within drinking categories. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann
This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)
... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... binge eating, doctors may prescribe medications along with therapy and nutrition advice. People with binge eating disorder ...
Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L; Wang, Weijun; Leonard, Kenneth E; Kubiak, Audrey; Brown, Whitney C; Collins, R Lorraine
Although patterns of marijuana use are positively associated with intimate partner aggression, there is little evidence that episodes of marijuana use contribute to the occurrence of episodes of relationship conflict and aggression. The present ecological momentary assessment study considered the temporal relationship between marijuana use episodes and the occurrence of conflict, verbal aggression, and physical aggression between intimate partners in the next 2 hours. A sample of 183 cohabiting marijuana-using couples (ages 18-30) were recruited from the community. For 30 consecutive days, each partner independently reported episodes of marijuana use and partner conflict, including verbal and physical aggression perpetration and victimization within conflicts. Temporal associations between each partner's marijuana use and subsequent conflict and aggression were examined using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Analyses accounted for between-person effects of marijuana use frequency and total conflicts. We observed temporal effects of actor (but not partner) marijuana use on men's and women's reports of conflict and verbal aggression perpetration and victimization within 2 hours of use. Marijuana use episodes did not alter the likelihood of physical aggression in the next 2 hours. Partner concordance in marijuana use had no effect on verbal or physical aggression or victimization. The positive temporal effects of marijuana on conflict and verbal aggression remained significant after accounting for the effect of drinking episodes. Within generally concordant, marijuana-using young couples, marijuana use episodes contribute to the occurrence of relationship conflict and verbal aggression.
Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L
The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence
Anderson, D. Mark; Hansen, Benjamin; Rees, Daniel I.
While at least a dozen state legislatures in the United States have recently considered bills to allow the consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the federal government is intensifying its efforts to close medical marijuana dispensaries. Federal officials contend that the legalization of medical marijuana encourages teenagers to use marijuana and have targeted dispensaries operating within 1,000 feet of schools, parks and playgrounds. Using data from the national and state Youth Ris...
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005
Research has shown that persons who engage in binge alcohol use as teenagers are at increased risk for binge drinking as young adults. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update asks respondents aged 12 or older to report their frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the month before the survey. NSDUH defines binge…
Too many people are overindulging in alcohol and putting themselves at risk for death from alcohol poisoning. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking, including alcohol poisoning death.
Wilhite, Emily R; Ashenhurst, James R; Marino, Elise N; Fromme, Kim
This study examined how freshman year substance use prospectively predicted time to college graduation, and whether delayed graduation predicted postponed adoption of adult roles and future substance use. Participants were part of a longitudinal study that began in 2004. The first analyses focused on freshman year (N = 2,050). The second analyses corresponded to a subset of participants at age 27 (N = 575). Measures included self-reported substance use, adult role adoption, and university reported graduation dates. Results indicated that frequent binge drinking and marijuana use during freshman year predicted delayed college graduation. Those who took longer to graduate were more likely to have lower incomes and were less likely to obtain a graduate degree. Taking 5-6 years to graduate was associated with greater likelihood of alcohol-related problems. Findings support the importance of interventions during freshman year of college to decrease substance use and promote timely graduation.
... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...
Vargas-Martínez, Ana Magdalena; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Gil-García, Eugenia; Lima-Serrano, Marta
Nowadays, one of the most prevalent patterns of alcohol consumption is called binge drinking (BD). In 2015, the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) Group estimated that about 35% of adolescents of 15-16 years old have had at least one BD occasion in the past 30 days while at national level, the series of surveys on the use of drugs in adolescents of secondary education (ESTUDES, 2014-2015) determined that 32.2% of adolescents stated having performed BD in the last month. The aim of this editorial was to update the context of adolescence drinking and analysing the impact of BD by ages, including health and social costs derived. Once the magnitude of the problem was set, some research and action lines have been established in order to guide future work for the prevention of alcohol misuse and for establishing future preventive policies on alcohol. Finally, the need for evaluating these interventions from the efficiency point of view was discussed and assessed.
Joshi, Manish; Joshi, Anita; Bartter, Thaddeus
Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is used throughout the world, and its use is increasing. In much of the world, marijuana is illicit. While inhalation of smoke generated by igniting dried components of the plant is the most common way marijuana is used, there is concern over potential adverse lung effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies that explore the impact upon the respiratory system of inhaling marijuana smoke. Smoking marijuana is associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms and large airway inflammation. Occasional use of marijuana with low cumulative use is not a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heavy use of marijuana alone may lead to airflow obstruction. The immuno-histopathologic and epidemiologic evidence in marijuana users suggests biological plausibility of marijuana smoking as a risk for the development of lung cancer; at present, it has been difficult to conclusively link marijuana smoking and cancer development. There is unequivocal evidence that habitual or regular marijuana smoking is not harmless. A caution against regular heavy marijuana usage is prudent. The medicinal use of marijuana is likely not harmful to lungs in low cumulative doses, but the dose limit needs to be defined. Recreational use is not the same as medicinal use and should be discouraged.
... of medical care and advice from your health care provider. What is marijuana? Marijuana, also called pot, weed, or cannabis, is a drug that comes from the hemp plant. Parts of the plant are dried and smoked ...
Bauer, Biljana; Kostik, Vesna; Kavrakovski, Zoran
Marijuana is very popular nowadays because of its medical use. This paper gives a short survey and review on the historical development of the ideas associated with marijuana. The aim of this paper is to look inside all faces of marijuana through history. Marijuana represents the dried top parts of female hemp plant in flower, which contains up to 6% tetrahidrocanabinol THC. Throughout human history hemp has been used for many purposes such as recreation, therapy, art, religion, medicine as a...
Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.
The document presents a collection of articles about marijuana. Article 1 reports on the results of a study by the National Academy of Sciences on the health effects of marijuana. A summary report of adverse health and behavioral consequences of cannabis (marijuana) use is provided in article 2. Article 3 presents the Surgeon General's warnings on…
Expectativas positivas com o uso de álcool e o beber se embriagando: diferenças de gênero em estudo do Projeto GENACIS, São Paulo, Brasil Positive expectations towards alcohol use and binge drinking: gender differences in a study from the GENACIS project, São Paulo, Brazil
Mariana Braga Cavariani
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as expectativas de homens e mulheres com relação ao uso do álcool e a associação dessas com o comportamento de beber com embriaguez. Foi realizado inquérito epidemiológico, domiciliar, transversal, de base populacional, com amostra probabilística estratificada por conglomerados, na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram entrevistadas 2.083 pessoas de ambos os sexos utilizando-se o questionário GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study. Beber com embriaguez foi considerada variável dependente, e foram construídos modelos de regressão logística para cada sexo, ajustando-se os modelos para idade, escolaridade e renda. Todas as expectativas, exceto achar mais fácil falar com companheiro, associaram-se ao comportamento de beber com embriaguez. Nosso estudo mostrou que beber com embriaguez pode estar associado a expectativas com uso do álcool. Compreender essas expectativas pode contribuir para elaboração de estratégias mais efetivas de prevenção do beber excessivo.The objective was to investigate expectations towards alcohol use among men and women and the association between these expectations and binge drinking (or heavy episodic drinking. An epidemiological cross-sectional population-based household survey with a stratified probabilistic sample was conducted in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Males and females were interviewed (n = 2,083 with the GENACIS questionnaire (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study. The dependent variable was binge drinking, and logistic regression models were constructed for each gender, adjusting for age, schooling, and income. All expectations, with the exception of increased ease in talking with one's partner, were associated with binge drinking. The study shows that binge drinking can be associated with expectations towards alcohol use. Understanding such expectations can contribute to the design of
Ren, Zhenhua [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China 230032 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)
Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3 days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3 days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas. - Highlights: • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking causes more pancreatic injury. • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking induces more pancreatic inflammation. • Chronic plus binge alcohol causes more endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.
Ren, Zhenhua; Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Ke, Zun-ji; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia
Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3 days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3 days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas. - Highlights: • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking causes more pancreatic injury. • Chronic plus binge alcohol drinking induces more pancreatic inflammation. • Chronic plus binge alcohol causes more endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress.
Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E
Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.
Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Meyer, Rachel A.; Brown, Sandra A.
Background Binge drinking is common among adolescents. Alcohol use, and binge-drinking in particular, has been associated with neurocognitive deficits as well as risk-taking behaviors, which may contribute to negative driving outcomes among adolescents even while sober. Objectives To examine differences in self-reported driving behaviors between adolescent binge-drinkers and a matched sample of controls, including (a) compliance with graduated licensing laws, (b) high risk driving behaviors, and (c) driving outcomes (crashes, traffic tickets). Methods The present study examined driving behaviors and outcomes in adolescent recent binge drinkers (n=21) and demographically and driving history matched controls (n=17), ages 16-18. Results Binge drinkers more frequently violated graduated licensing laws (e.g., driving late at night), and engaged in more “high risk” driving behaviors, such as speeding and using a cell-phone while driving. Binge drinkers had more traffic tickets, crashes and “near crashes” than the control group. In a multivariate analysis, binge drinker status and speeding were the most robust predictors of a crash. Conclusion Binge drinking teens consistently engage in more dangerous driving behaviors and experience more frequent crashes and traffic tickets. They are also less compliant with preventative restrictions placed on youth while they are learning critical safe driving skills. Scientific Significance These findings highlight a need to examine the contribution of underlying traits (such as sensation seeking) and binge-related cognitive changes to these high-risk driving behaviors, which may assist researchers in establishing alternative prevention and policy efforts targeting this population. PMID:22324748
Tashkin, Donald P
As marijuana smoking prevalence increases in the U.S. concern regarding its potential risks to lung health has also risen, given the general similarity in the smoke contents between marijuana and tobacco. Most studies have found a significant association between marijuana smoking and chronic bronchitis symptoms after adjustment for tobacco. While reports are mixed regarding associations between marijuana smoking and lung function, none has shown a relationship to decrements in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and few have found a relationship to a decreased ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), possibly related to an association between marijuana and an increased FVC. A few studies have found a modest reduction in specific airway conductance in relation to marijuana, probably reflecting endoscopic evidence of bronchial mucosal edema among habitual marijuana smokers. Diffusing capacity in marijuana smokers has been normal and two studies of thoracic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) have not shown any association of marijuana smoking with emphysema. Although bronchial biopsies from habitual marijuana smokers have shown precancerous histopathological changes, a large cohort study and a pooled analysis of six well-designed case-control studies have not found evidence of a link between marijuana smoking and lung cancer. The immunosuppressive effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol raise the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia, but further studies are needed to evaluate this potential risk. Several cases series have demonstrated pneumothoraces/pneumomediastinum, as well as bullous lung disease, in marijuana smokers, but these associations require epidemiologic studies for firmer evidence of possible causality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Roth, Cheryl K; Satran, Lori A; Smith, Shauna M
With the legalization of both medical and recreational use of marijuana in some U.S. states, nurses and other clinicians should be prepared to care for pregnant women who have used marijuana during pregnancy. This column describes the prevalence of cannabis use among women, the effect cannabis has on the body and the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. © 2015 AWHONN.
Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.
A translational systems biology approach in both animals and humans identifies a functionally related module of accumbal genes involved in the regulation of reward processing and binge drinking in males.
Stacey, David; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Ruggeri, Barbara; Maroteaux, Matthieu; Jia, Tianye; Cattrell, Anna; Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Band, Hamid; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Buchel, Christian; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Easton, Alanna; Fauth-Buehler, Mira; Fernandez-Medarde, Alberto; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavanh, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Rotter, Andrea; Santos, Eugenio; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Mameli, Manuel; Spanagel, Rainer; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Mueller, Christian; Schumann, Gunter
The mesolimbic dopamine system, composed primarily of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area that project to striatal structures, is considered to be the key mediator of reinforcement-related mechanisms in the brain. Prompted by a genome-wide association meta-analysis implicating the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) gene in the regulation of alcohol intake in men, we have recently shown that male Rasgrf2(-/-) mice exhibit reduced ethanol intake and preference accompanied by a perturbed mesolimbic dopamine system. We therefore propose that these mice represent a valid model to further elucidate the precise genes and mechanisms regulating mesolimbic dopamine functioning. Transcriptomic data from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of male Rasgrf2(-/-) mice and wild-type controls were analyzed by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). We performed follow-up genetic association tests in humans using a sample of male adolescents from the IMAGEN study characterized for binge drinking (n = 905) and ventral striatal activation during an fMRI reward task (n = 608). The WGCNA analyses using accumbal transcriptomic data revealed 37 distinct "modules," or functionally related groups of genes. Two of these modules were significantly associated with Rasgrf2 knockout status: M5 (p reward task (pempirical < 0.001). It was not possible to determine the extent to which the M5 module was dysregulated in Rasgrf2(-/-) mice by perturbed mesolimbic dopamine signalling or by the loss of Rasgrf2 function in the NAcc. Taken together, our findings indicate that the accumbal M5 module, initially identified as being dysregulated in male Rasgrf2(-/-) mice, is also relevant for human alcohol-related phenotypes potentially through the modulation of reinforcement mechanisms in the NAcc. We therefore propose that the genes comprising this module represent important candidates for further elucidation within the context of alcohol-related phenotypes.
Di Giovanni, Giuseppe
Marijuana has been used for centuries for medical reasons. In the early 20th century it was first linked to treatment for epilepsy. Over the last few decades researchers have been unravelling the truth behind the drug. Prof. Giuseppe Di Giovanni tells us more about using marijuana for medical research and his own research on this controversial drug.
Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady
Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…
Steers, Mai-Ly N; Neighbors, Clayton; Hove, M Christina; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M
Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults' passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention.
Metrik, Jane; Gunn, Rachel L; Jackson, Kristina M; Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Borsari, Brian
The study aims were to examine daily associations between marijuana and alcohol use and the extent to which the association differs as a function of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis. Timeline Followback interview data was collected in a study of veterans (N = 127) recruited from a Veterans Affairs hospital who reported at least 1 day of co-use of marijuana and alcohol in the past 180 days (22,860 observations). Participants reported 40% marijuana use days, 28% drinking days, with 37% meeting DSM-5 criteria for CUD, 40% for AUD, and 15% for both. Use of marijuana on a given day was used to predict a 3-level gender-adjusted drinking variable (heavy: ≥5 (men)/4 (women) drinks; moderate: 1 to 4/3 drinks; or none: 0 drinks). A categorical 4-level variable (no diagnosis, AUD, CUD, or both) was tested as a moderator of the marijuana-alcohol relationship. Multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated that participants were more likely to drink heavily compared to moderately (OR = 2.34) and moderately compared to not drinking (OR = 1.61) on marijuana use days relative to nonuse days. On marijuana use days, those with AUD and those with AUD + CUD were more likely to drink heavily (OR = 1.91; OR = 2.51, respectively), but those with CUD were less likely to drink heavily (OR = 0.32) compared to moderately, nonsignificant differences between any versus moderate drinking in interaction models. Heavy drinking occurs on days when marijuana is also used. This association is particularly evident in individuals diagnosed with both AUD and CUD and AUDs alone but not in those with only CUDs. Findings suggest that alcohol interventions may need to specifically address marijuana use as a risk factor for heavy drinking and AUD. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.
Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639
Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W; Biglan, Anthony
While the legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use has raised concerns about potential influences on marijuana use and beliefs among youth, few empirical studies have addressed this issue. We examined the association between medical marijuana patients and licensed growers per 1000 population in 32 Oregon counties from 2006 to 2015, and marijuana use among youth over the same period. We obtained data on registered medical marijuana patients and licensed growers from the Oregon Medical Marijuana Program and we obtained data on youth marijuana use, perceived parental disapproval, and demographic characteristics from the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey. Across 32 Oregon counties, the mean rate of marijuana patients per 1000 population increased from 2.9 in 2006 to 18.3 in 2015, whereas the grower rate increased from 3.8 to 11.9. Results of multi-level analyses indicated significant positive associations between rates of marijuana patients and growers per 1000 population and the prevalence of past 30-day marijuana use, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. The marijuana patient and grower rates were also inversely associated with parental disapproval of marijuana use, which decreased from 2006 to 2015 and acted as a mediator. These findings suggest that a greater number of registered marijuana patients and growers per 1000 population in Oregon counties was associated with a higher prevalence of marijuana use among youth from 2006 to 2015, and that this relationship was partially attributable to perceived norms favorable towards marijuana use.
Jones, Jacob; Nicole Jones, K; Peil, Jenny
In January of 2014 the Regulate Marijuana like Alcohol Act or, Amendment 64, went into effect in Colorado. Even though it was the first state to enact recreational legalization, attitudes towards marijuana use have been changing for decades. Prompted by medical marijuana legalization, studies have found mixed results in regards to the impact that legalization has on frequency of use and abuse. With college students having the highest rates of use in the United States (U.S.), whether legal or not, it was important to explore the impact that legalization has on this population. In the current study, rates of marijuana and alcohol use in college students before and after recreational legalization were explored. Data was collected in four waves from October 2013 to March 2015, to be able to determine the trends in marijuana and alcohol use, and relationship between the substances. In addition, grade point average was measured as a possible consequence of marijuana use. We found the frequency of marijuana use in Colorado college students is much higher than the national average t(94445)=24.424, pmarijuana non-users and the once a week or more often but not daily marijuana users in grade point average, F(6, 227)=2.935, pmarijuana use in general is decreasing since the passing of Amendment 64, but not among the binge drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poulton, Antoinette; Mackenzie, Caitlyn; Harrington, Kaitlyn; Borg, Sarah; Hester, Robert
Cognitive control deficits, as captured by inhibitory control measures, are indicative of increased impulsivity and are considered a marker for substance use disorder vulnerability. While individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) typically exhibit inhibitory control dysfunction, evidence of impaired inhibitory control among harmful drinkers, who are at increased risk of developing an AUD, is mixed. This study examined the response inhibition of binge drinkers using a task that employed neutral, as well as both immediate and delayed reward contingencies, to determine whether reward induced heightened impulsivity in this population. Binge alcohol users (n = 42) and controls (n = 42) were administered a Monetary Incentive Control Task that required participants to successfully inhibit a prepotent motor response to both neutral and immediately rewarding stimuli in order to secure a large delayed reward. Binge drinkers had significantly worse response inhibition than controls irrespective of trial condition and even after controlling for differences in weekly intake. Although both binge and control participants exhibited significantly worse inhibitory control in the presence of immediate reward, the control group showed a greater reduction in inhibition accuracy compared to the binge group in reward relative to neutral conditions. Both groups demonstrated significantly enhanced control when forewarned there was an increased chance response inhibition would be required. Control participants secured the delayed reward more often than binge participants. Despite the variability in the literature, this study demonstrated consistent generalized impulse control deficits among binge-drinking individuals that were unrelated to reward manipulations. These findings point to mechanisms that may confer vulnerability for transition from binge drinking to AUD. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
... called a joint) or a cigar (called a blunt). Marijuana can also be smoked in a pipe. ... Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact Us | Site Map | Accessibility | Privacy | ...
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Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...
Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav
Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mai...
James, J S
The Cannabis Buyers' Club in San Francisco remains closed after it was raided by the office of California Attorney General Dan Lungren. Many individuals with serious illnesses such as AIDS and cancer are without safe access to medical marijuana to relieve the symptoms of their diseases. The need for access to medicinal marijuana, the return of the confiscated confidential medical records held at the buyers' club, and the passage of California Proposition 215 in the November election, which allows for the legitimate use of marijuana for medical purposes are of immediate concern. Since the raid, the Cannabis Buyers' Club has denied charges that it sold marijuana to teenagers, saying the drug was sold to a teen's mother, an undercover narcotics officer. However, the club admitted to sales to non-medical individuals who used fraudulent documents in order to obtain the drug and acknowledges the need to tighten procedures. Individuals may be able to obtain marijuana at other buyers' clubs if they have documentation of a medical need. While literature on the medical use of marijuana is lacking, the Federal government continues to block any efforts toward medical research on this issue. A list of other cannabis buyers' clubs in California is included, as well as a list of organizations working for Proposition 215.
Ushang Desai; Paras Patel
Over the few years medical marijuana is growing in the United States. Because of the medical marijuana legislators able to legalized recreational marijuana in the two states in the US. Marijuana has several potential benefits that help in certain disease. The delivery of marijuana is also important because smoking marijuana has severe side effects. Physicians also play important role in medical marijuana, physicians also divided on the use of medical marijuana. Their attitude towards medical ...
Too many people are overindulging in alcohol and putting themselves at risk for death from alcohol poisoning. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking, including alcohol poisoning death. Created: 1/15/2015 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/15/2015.
The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…
Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...
Estoup, Ashley C; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Varma, Malini; Stewart, David G
Currently, only four states have legalized recreational marijuana use for adults over 21 years of age. Therefore, little is known about the influence that legalization will have on adolescent marijuana use. This study examines how marijuana legalization has impacted the frequency and consequences of adolescent use in a sample of participants in a school-based, substance use intervention. We hypothesized that adolescents enrolled in the intervention in years after marijuana legalization would present with more problematic use compared to those enrolled prior, and that changes in the perceived risk of marijuana would be a mechanism of problematic use. Participants were 262 students enrolled in a school-based substance use intervention in 2010 to 2015. The Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record, Alcohol and Drug Use Consequences Questionnaire, and a decisional balance matrix were used to assess marijuana frequency, negative consequences, and perceived risk of use. A mediation model was used to test the degree to which marijuana legalization may lead to increased frequency and consequences of use through perceived risk. Findings indicated a significantly positive correlation between marijuana-related consequences and perceived risk post legalization. Despite relatively equal use between both groups, adolescents in the legalization group experienced higher levels of perceived risk and increased negative consequences. Due to the rising legalization status of marijuana in the United States, it is imperative that psychoeducation is provided to adults and adolescents about the consequences of underage marijuana use.
Wang, George Sam; Roosevelt, Genie; Heard, Kennon
An increasing number of states are decriminalizing the use of medical marijuana, and the effect on the pediatric population has not been evaluated. To compare the proportion of marijuana ingestions by young children who sought care at a children's hospital in Colorado before and after modification of drug enforcement laws in October 2009 regarding medical marijuana possession. Retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2011. Tertiary-care children's hospital emergency department in Colorado. A total of 1378 patients younger than 12 years evaluated for unintentional ingestions: 790 patients before September 30, 2009, and 588 patients after October 1, 2009. Marijuana ingestion. Marijuana exposure visits, marijuana source, symptoms, and patient disposition. The proportion of ingestion visits in patients younger than 12 years (age range, 8 months to 12 years)that were related to marijuana exposure increased after September 30, 2009, from 0 of 790 (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.6%) to 14 of 588 (2.4%; 95% CI, 1.4%-4.0%) (P patients had lethargy, 1 had ataxia, and 1 had respiratory insufficiency. Eight patients were admitted, 2 to the intensive care unit. Eight of the 14 cases involved medical marijuana, and 7 of these exposures were from food products. We found a new appearance of unintentional marijuana ingestions by young children after modification of drug enforcement laws for marijuana possession in Colorado. The consequences of unintentional marijuana exposure in children should be part of the ongoing debate on legalizing marijuana.
This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...
... progression of MS: Effect of oral dronabinol (a synthetic Cannabis/marijuana derivative) on progression in progressive MS: Previous ... the evidence regarding marijuana and its derivatives: Oral cannabis extract and synthetic THC (tetrahydrocannabinol — a major active component of cannabis) ...
Feeney, Kathleen E.; Kampman, Kyle M.
Marijuana has consistently been reported as the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States each year. Currently, the legalization of marijuana is up for debate across the nation. While marijuana use is prevalent among the adolescent population, research has shown that there can be devastating effects on health and well-being. A review of the literature shows that marijuana use can have a negative impact on physical health, psychological well-being, and multiple psychosocial out...
Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette
Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...
Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.
Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav
Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211
Fillmore, Mark T.; Jude, Rebecca
Heavy episodic or “binge” drinking is commonly defined as drinking 4–5 drinks per occasion (5/4 definition) or drinking that results in a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08%. The present study compared the validity of each binge definition as an indicator of at-risk, problem drinking. 251 college students were classified as non-binge drinkers or as binge drinkers based on the 5/4 definition or the 0.08% BAC definition. The two definitions of binge drinking were examined in terms of their sensitivity and specificity as indicators of alcohol-related problems as determined by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Over half the sample (56%) were at-risk drinkers according to the AUDIT. The 0.08% definition detected only one-half of these individuals. Gender differences were also evident. Female binge drinkers actually achieved significantly higher estimated BACs per episode than their male binge drinking counterparts. The findings suggest that drinking to a sub-threshold BAC (i.e., risk independent of the BAC achieved during drinking episodes. The findings also highlight the importance of considering frequency of consumption in determining risky drinking versus relying solely on quantity measures. PMID:21838847
Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Ramchand, Rajeev; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
Among high-risk youth, those who may be at increased risk for adverse alcohol and other drug (AOD) use outcomes may benefit from targeted prevention efforts; how youth acquire AOD may provide an objective means of identifying youth at elevated risk. We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180) at two time points (prior to the program and 180 days from baseline). Participants were predominantly White and Hispanic/Latino(a). In cross-sectional analyses among alcohol and marijuana users, purchasing marijuana was associated with more frequent marijuana use and consequences, time spent around teens who use marijuana, higher likelihood of substance use disorders, and lower resistance self-efficacy compared to non-purchasers. Teens who purchased both alcohol and marijuana experienced similar outcomes to those who purchased only marijuana, and also reported more frequent and higher quantity of drinking, greater alcohol-related consequences, time spent around teens who use other drugs, and prescription drug misuse. Longitudinally, purchasing alcohol and marijuana at baseline was associated with more frequent and higher quantity of drinking compared to non-purchasers at follow-up. Marijuana only purchasers had a greater likelihood of substance use disorders at follow-up compared to non-purchasers. In an era where drinking is commonplace and attitudes towards marijuana use are becoming more tolerant, it is essential to evaluate how accessibility to AOD and subsequent purchasing behaviors affect youth consumption and intervene accordingly to prevent future consequences.
Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H
Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.
Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Schlauch, Robert C; Leonard, Kenneth E
Self-reported marijuana use has been associated with poor relationship functioning and decreased stability over time. The present study examined the behavioral interactions of couples with concordant and discordant patterns of marijuana use during conflict, using individual self-reports and observation by independent coders. Heavy drinking community couples (N = 149) participated in a conflict resolution paradigm. Interactions were recorded and coded by naïve coders. Approximately 30% of the sample reported past year marijuana use. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of dyadic marijuana use on maladaptive relationship functioning. A Robust Actor × Partner Marijuana Use interaction was detected for a range of behavioral outcomes, assessed by both self-report and direct observation, including relationship satisfaction, anger experience, patterns of demand and withdrawal during conflict, constructive behaviors, and overall relationship quality. Specifically, couples in which both partners used or abstained from marijuana displayed more adaptive relationship functioning across indicators relative to couples in which only 1 partner identified as a marijuana user. This pattern was particularly strong for couples in which the female partner used marijuana and the male partner did not. Couples with discordant, rather than concordant, marijuana use displayed distinct conflict resolution behaviors that were consistent with the long-term negative relationship outcomes that have been observed in previous studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Iversen, Leslie L
... 1930s, which essentially eliminated all medical research in the field for almost 30 years. This action was tragic for science, as chemists were extremely close to isolating the active chemical ingredient of marijuana prior to World War II. The identification of delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) had to wait for the elegant efforts of Raphael ...
Kramer, Joan L
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Lamarine, Roland J.
Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…
... Mary Jane, Blunt, Joint, Trees Get the Facts… Marijuana affects your brain. THC (the active ingredient in marijuana) affects the nerve cells in the part of the brain where memories are formed. Marijuana affects your self- ...
Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan
Compared to their non-using age peers, older marijuana users are known to have lower marijuana risk perceptions. We examined associations of older marijuana users' risk perceptions with their marijuana use patterns and substance use disorders. Data are from 2013 to 2015 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (N = 24,057 respondents aged 50+ years). Bivariate logistic regression was used to compare risk perceptions among never users, former users, and past-year users aged 50+ years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between risk perception and marijuana use status and between risk perception and marijuana use patterns. Among the total sample, former (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.27-0.32) and past-year (AOR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.04-0.06) marijuana users had significantly lower odds of moderate/great risk perception (as opposed to no/slight risk perception) than never users. Among past-year users, odds of moderate/great risk perception were lower among those who used marijuana more frequently (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.07-0.28 for 300+ days of use compared to 1-11 days of use) and who reported any medical marijuana use (AOR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.14-0.51). However, those who had marijuana use disorder were 3.5 times more likely to report moderate/great risk perception (AOR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.62-7.58). Those who had a college education, had higher incomes, and resided in states with medical marijuana laws also had lower risk perceptions. Public health education on scientific evidence about marijuana's benefits and harms and age-appropriate treatment for older adults with substance use problems are needed. Research on risk perception formation using longitudinal data among older adults is also needed.
Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Feng, Tianshu; Keyes, Katherine M; Sarvet, Aaron; Schulenberg, John; O'Malley, Patrick M; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S
Historical shifts are occurring in marijuana policy. The effect of legalizing marijuana for recreational use on rates of adolescent marijuana use is a topic of considerable debate. To examine the association between the legalization of recreational marijuana use in Washington and Colorado in 2012 and the subsequent perceived harmfulness and use of marijuana by adolescents. We used data of 253 902 students in eighth, 10th, and 12th grades from 2010 to 2015 from Monitoring the Future, a national, annual, cross-sectional survey of students in secondary schools in the contiguous United States. Difference-in-difference estimates compared changes in perceived harmfulness of marijuana use and in past-month marijuana use in Washington and Colorado prior to recreational marijuana legalization (2010-2012) with postlegalization (2013-2015) vs the contemporaneous trends in other states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use in this period. Perceived harmfulness of marijuana use (great or moderate risk to health from smoking marijuana occasionally) and marijuana use (past 30 days). Of the 253 902 participants, 120 590 of 245 065(49.2%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 15.6 (1.7) years. In Washington, perceived harmfulness declined 14.2% and 16.1% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, while marijuana use increased 2.0% and 4.1% from 2010-2012 to 2013-2015. In contrast, among states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use, perceived harmfulness decreased by 4.9% and 7.2% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, and marijuana use decreased by 1.3% and 0.9% over the same period. Difference-in-difference estimates comparing Washington vs states that did not legalize recreational drug use indicated that these differences were significant for perceived harmfulness (eighth graders: % [SD], -9.3 [3.5]; P = .01; 10th graders: % [SD], -9.0 [3.8]; P = .02) and marijuana use (eighth graders: % [SD], 5.0 [1.9]; P = .03; 10th graders
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Bierut, Laura J
Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use.
Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Bierut, Laura J.
Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use. PMID:27262456
O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol
In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.
Kolotkin, Ronette L.; And Others
Determined Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) characteristics' association with binge-eating severity among obese women. Indicated much variability in binge severity among obese women seeking treatment. MMPI characteristics were significantly related to binge severity. As binge severity increased, so did psychological disturbance,…
Full Text Available Due to ongoing development, adolescence may be a period of heightened vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Binge drinking may alter reward-driven behavior and neurocircuitry, thereby increasing risk for escalating alcohol use. Therefore, we compared reward processing in adolescents with and without a history of recent binge drinking. At their baseline study visit, all participants (age = 14.86 ± 0.88 were free of heavy alcohol use and completed a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF functional magnetic resonance imaging task. Following this visit, 17 youth reported binge drinking on ≥3 occasions within a 90 day period and were matched to 17 youth who remained alcohol and substance-naïve. All participants repeated the WOF task during a second visit (age = 16.83 ± 1.22. No significant effects were found in a region of interest analysis of the ventral striatum, but whole-brain analyses showed significant group differences in reward response at the second study visit in the left cerebellum, controlling for baseline visit brain activity (p/α < 0.05, which was negatively correlated with mean number of drinks consumed/drinking day in the last 90 days. These findings suggest that binge drinking during adolescence may alter brain activity during reward processing in a dose-dependent manner.
DuPont, Robert L.
Citing harmful physiological effects of marijuana, the author asserts that it is the single most serious new threat to our nation's health. He urges parents and school personnel to learn about marijuana and take a strong stand against it. (Condensed from "PTA Today," May 1981, p3-5.) (Author/SJL)
Lobato, Mónica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Mariet
The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the
Lobato, Monica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Margriet
Purpose The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the
Full Text Available When the theory of reasoned action is perceived in relation to the reduction of binge drinking among West Chester students it will be important to consider the drinking as a behavior which is in need of imminent change.
Schauer, Gillian L; King, Brian A; Bunnell, Rebecca E; Promoff, Gabbi; McAfee, Timothy A
Policies legalizing marijuana for medical and recreational use have been increasing in the U.S. Considering the potential impact of these policies, important knowledge gaps exist, including information about the prevalence of various modes of marijuana use (e.g., smoked in joints, bowls, bongs; consumed in edibles or drinks) and about medical versus recreational use. Accordingly, this study assessed (1) prevalence and correlates of modes of current and ever marijuana use and (2) prevalence of medicinal and recreational marijuana use in U.S. adults. Data came from Summer Styles (n=4,269), a nationally representative consumer panel survey of adults aged ≥18 years, collected in 2014. The survey asked about past 30-day (current) and ever mode of marijuana use and current reason for use (medicinal, recreational, both). Weighted prevalence estimates were computed and correlates were assessed in 2014 using logistic regression. Overall, 7.2% of respondents reported current marijuana use; 34.5% reported ever use. Among current users, 10.5% reported medicinal-only use, 53.4% reported recreational-only use, and 36.1% reported both. Use of bowl or pipe (49.5%) and joint (49.2%) predominated among current marijuana users, with lesser use of bong, water pipe, or hookah (21.7%); blunts (20.3%); edibles/drinks (16.1%); and vaporizers (7.6%); 92.1% of the sample reported combusted-only marijuana use. Combusted modes of marijuana use are most prevalent among U.S. adults, with a majority using marijuana for recreation. In light of changing policies and patterns of use, improved marijuana surveillance is critical for public health planning. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Kashyap, Surender; Kashyap, Kartikeya
Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on ...
Bahorik, Amber L; Campbell, Cynthia I; Sterling, Stacy A; Leibowitz, Amy; Travis, Adam; Weisner, Constance M; Satre, Derek D
This study examined whether marijuana use was associated with clinically problematic outcomes for patients with depression and alcohol use disorder (AUD). The sample consisted of 307 psychiatry outpatients with mild to severe depression and past 30-day hazardous drinking/drug use, who participated in a trial of substance use treatment. Participants were assessed for AUD based on DSM-IV criteria. Measures of marijuana use, depression symptoms, and functional status related to mental health were collected at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Differences in these outcomes were analyzed among patients with and without AUD using growth models, adjusting for treatment effects. Marijuana was examined as both an outcome (patterns of use) and a predictor (impact on depression and functioning). Forty percent used marijuana and about half the sample met AUD criteria. Fewer patients with AUD used marijuana than those without AUD at baseline. Over 6 months, the proportion of patients with AUD using marijuana increased compared to those without AUD. Patients with AUD using marijuana had greater depressive symptoms and worse functioning than those without AUD. These findings indicate that marijuana use is clinically problematic for psychiatry outpatients with depression and AUD. Addressing marijuana in the context of psychiatry treatment may help improve outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lobato, Mónica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Mariet
Purpose The purpose of the study?is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the adolescent?s age moderates the association between family or peer use and adolescent marijuana use and/or dependence. Method This study used data from the National Survey on Drug Use in the General ...
Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.
Lamarine, Roland J
Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users.
Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E
Substance use is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among American adolescents. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms have each been found to be associated with adolescent substance use. Although they are highly comorbid, the role of the interaction of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in substance use is not clear. In national samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students from the Monitoring the Future study, latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to estimate the association of conduct problems, depressive symptoms, and their interaction to the use of alcohol (including binge drinking), cigarettes, and marijuana. Moderation by age and sex was tested. The interaction of conduct problems with depressive symptoms was a strong predictor of substance use, particularly among younger adolescents. With few exceptions, adolescents with high levels of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms used substances most frequently. Conduct problems were a strong positive predictor of substance use, and depressive symptoms were a weak positive predictor. Whereas conduct problems are often thought to be a primary predictor of substance use, this study revealed that depressive symptoms potentiate the relation of conduct problems to substance use. Therefore, substance use prevention efforts should target both depressive symptoms and conduct problems.
MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE AND ... Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. ... A comprehensive school health education
Eveningness and Later Sleep Timing Are Associated with Greater Risk for Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Adolescence: Initial Findings from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence Study.
Hasler, Brant P; Franzen, Peter L; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Prouty, Devin; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; De Bellis, Michael D; Nagel, Bonnie J; Baker, Fiona C; Colrain, Ian M; Clark, Duncan B
Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. This study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12 to 21 years) in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and 3 categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past-year marijuana use [y/n]) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the 3 substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under recognized risk factors and future areas of intervention for
Lankenau, Stephen E; Ataiants, Janna; Mohanty, Salini; Schrager, Sheree; Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F
While marijuana has been legal for medical purposes in California since 1996, little is known about the health histories of young adult medical marijuana patients who are a significant proportion of medical marijuana patients. We examined whether young adult medical marijuana patients reported health conditions and motivations for use that were consistent with medical use of marijuana in California. Young adults (N = 366) aged 18 to 26 years were sampled in Los Angeles in 2014-2015 and segmented into medical marijuana 'patients' (n = 210), marijuana users with a current recommendation, and non-patient users or 'non-patients' (n = 156), marijuana users who never had a medical marijuana recommendation. Differences between patients and non-patients regarding self-reported health histories and past/current motivations for marijuana use were expressed as unadjusted risk ratios. Compared with non-patients, patients were significantly more likely to report a range of lifetime health problems, such as psychological, physical pain and gastrointestinal. In the past 90 days, patients were significantly more likely to report motivations for marijuana use than non-patients concerning sleep, anxiety, physical pain and focusing. Psychological and pain problems were the most common health conditions reported to receive a medical marijuana recommendation. Patients were significantly less likely than non-patients to report any privacy concerns about obtaining a medical marijuana recommendation. Patients were significantly more likely to report a range of health conditions and motivations associated with medical use than non-patients. A great majority of patients reported obtaining a medical marijuana recommendation for health problems in accordance with the California law. [Lankenau SE, Ataiants J,Mohanty S, Schrager S, Iverson E, Wong CF.Health conditions and motivations for marijuana use among young adultmedical marijuana patients and non-patient marijuana users. Drug
Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational and medical purposes since ages. Marijuana smoking is an evil, which is on the rise with about 180.6 million active users worldwide. The recent legalization of marijuana in Uruguay has generated global interest. The purpose of this short review is to describe the various preparations, uses and adverse effects of medical marijuana. It also deals with the adverse effects of marijuana smoking when used for recreational purposes. ased on the current literature, medical use of marijuana is justified in certain conditions as an alternative therapy.
Elkins, Irene J; Saunders, Gretchen R B; Malone, Stephen M; Keyes, Margaret A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
We report whether the etiology underlying associations of childhood ADHD with adolescent alcohol and marijuana involvement is consistent with causal relationships or shared predispositions, and whether it differs by gender. In three population-based twin samples (N = 3762; 64% monozygotic), including one oversampling females with ADHD, regressions were conducted with childhood inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms predicting alcohol and marijuana outcomes by age 17. To determine whether ADHD effects were consistent with causality, twin difference analyses divided effects into those shared between twins in the pair and those differing within pairs. Adolescents with more severe childhood ADHD were more likely to initiate alcohol and marijuana use earlier, escalate to frequent or heavy use, and develop symptoms. While risks were similar across genders, females with more hyperactivity-impulsivity had higher alcohol consumption and progressed further toward daily marijuana use than did males. Monozygotic twins with more severe ADHD than their co-twins did not differ significantly on alcohol or marijuana outcomes, however, suggesting a non-causal relationship. When co-occurring use of other substances and conduct/oppositional defiant disorders were considered, hyperactivity-impulsivity remained significantly associated with both substances, as did inattention with marijuana, but not alcohol. Childhood ADHD predicts when alcohol and marijuana use are initiated and how quickly use escalates. Shared familial environment and genetics, rather than causal influences, primarily account for these associations. Stronger relationships between hyperactivity-impulsivity and heavy drinking/frequent marijuana use among adolescent females than males, as well as the greater salience of inattention for marijuana, merit further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…
Harpin, Scott B; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ma, Ming; James, Katherine A; Levinson, Arnold H
As of January 1, 2017, eight states have approved laws for recreational marijuana use. While the social impacts of these changes remain under debate, the influence on adolescent marijuana use is a key policy and health issue across the U.S. To examine changes in adolescent marijuana-use behaviors in the first year after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, and to analyze the effect of retail marijuana store proximity on youth use and perceptions. Secondary analysis of Healthy Kids Colorado Survey data from 40 schools surveyed before and after recreational marijuana sales were implemented (2013 student n = 12,240; 2014 student n = 11,931). Self-reported marijuana use, ease of access, and perceived harms were compared between years and by proximity of recreational marijuana stores to surveyed schools. Adolescent marijuana use behaviors, wrongness of use, and perceptions of risk of harm were unchanged from baseline to one-year follow-up. Perceived ease of access to marijuana increased (from 46% to 52%). Proximity of recreational marijuana stores was not significantly associated with perceived ease of access to marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: In the first study of adolescent marijuana use and perceptions after state retail implementation of recreational marijuana, there was little change in adolescent marijuana use but a significant change in perception of ease of access. Public health workers and policymakers should continue to monitor these changes as essential for evaluating the impact of liberalization of marijuana policies.
Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S
The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This article examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends, and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all.
Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.
The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This paper examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structure...
Desai, Rupak; Patel, Upenkumar; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Kumar, Gautam
Marijuana or Cannabis is extensively used as a recreational substance globally. Case reports have reported cardiac arrhythmias immediately following recreational marijuana use. However, the burden of arrhythmias in hospitalized marijuana users have not been evaluated through prospective or cross-sectional studies. Therefore, we planned to measure temporal trends of the frequency of arrhythmias in hospitalized marijuana users using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database in the United States. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.
High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...
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Hoyt, Les Leanne
Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)
Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.
This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…
Cunningham, William H.; And Others
Presents a study of 547 college students which found that: 1) It is possible to distinguish between undergraduate subjects who smoke marijuana and those who do not, 2) It is possible to draw a reasonable clear picture of the marijuana users' demographic characteristics, and 3) There is a positive relationship between the use of marijuana and the…
Krista M. Lisdahl
Full Text Available Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008. Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2010; Johnston et al., 2009, and marijuana (MJ is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010. The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Giedd, Snell et al., 1996; Gogtay et al., 2004; Lenroot & Giedd, 2006; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 2004; Sowell, Thompson, Holmes, Jernigan, & Toga, 1999; Sowell, Trauner, Gamst, & Jernigan, 2002. Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Barron et al., 2005; Cha, White, Kuhn, Wilson, & Swartzwelder, 2006; Monti et al., 2005; Rubino et al., 2009; Schneider & Koch, 2003; Spear, 2010. In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Fried et al., 2005; Gruber et al., 2011; Gruber et al., 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Hartley et al., 2004; Lisdahl et al., 2012; McQueeny et al., 2009; Medina et al., 2007; Tapert et al., 2002; Townshend & Duka, 2005; Wilson et al., 2000, with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012; White et al., 2011. Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings.
Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…
Targino, Marcelo C.; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Martin, Douglas W.; Hartenbaum, Natalie P.; White, Jeremy M.; Franklin, Phillip
Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggested that marijuana may be used with reasonable safety in some controlled environments, there are potential consequences to its use that necessitate employer scrutiny and concern. Several drug characteristics must be considered, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, or THC) concentration, route of administration, dose and frequency, and pharmacokinetics, as well as the risks inherent to particular workplace environments. PMID:25951421
Berthiller, Julien; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Boffetta, Paolo; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M; Greenland, Sander; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Eluf Neto, José; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Koifman, Sergio; Curado, Maria Paula; Matos, Elena; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Daudt, Alexander W; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia
Marijuana contains carcinogens similar to tobacco smoke and has been suggested by relatively small studies to increase the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). Because tobacco is a major risk factor for HNC, large studies with substantial numbers of never tobacco users could help to clarify whether marijuana smoking is independently associated with HNC risk. We pooled self-reported interview data on marijuana smoking and known HNC risk factors on 4,029 HNC cases and 5,015 controls from five case-control studies within the INHANCE Consortium. Subanalyses were conducted among never tobacco users (493 cases and 1,813 controls) and among individuals who did not consume alcohol or smoke tobacco (237 cases and 887 controls). The risk of HNC was not elevated by ever marijuana smoking [odds ratio (OR), 0.88; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.67-1.16], and there was no increasing risk associated with increasing frequency, duration, or cumulative consumption of marijuana smoking. An increased risk of HNC associated with marijuana use was not detected among never tobacco users (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37; three studies) nor among individuals who did not drink alcohol and smoke tobacco (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.47-2.38; two studies). Our results are consistent with the notion that infrequent marijuana smoking does not confer a risk of these malignancies. Nonetheless, because the prevalence of frequent marijuana smoking was low in most of the contributing studies, we could not rule out a moderately increased risk, particularly among subgroups without exposure to tobacco and alcohol.
Fantasia, Heidi Collins
Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S
Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise
Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…
Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Davis, Dontrell V
Using a survey of drinkers (N = 1,634), we evaluated alternative explanations of heavy and binge drinking, driving under the influence (DUI), DUI arrests, speeding citations, and chargeable accidents. Explanations included socializing, short-term decision-making, unrealistic optimism, risk preferring behavior, and addiction. Most consistent relationships were between substance use and alcohol addiction and dependent variables for (1) binge drinking and (2) DUI episodes. Respondent characteristics (age, marital and employment status, race, etc.) had important roles for DUI arrests. Drinker-drivers and those arrested for DUI are partially overlapping groups with implications for treatment and policies detecting and incapacitating persons from drinking and driving.
Freisthler, Bridget; Gaidus, Andrew; Tam, Christina; Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J
A movement from medical to recreational marijuana use allows for a larger base of potential users who have easier access to marijuana, because they do not have to visit a physician before using marijuana. This study examines whether changes in the density of marijuana outlets were related to violent, property, and marijuana-specific crimes in Denver, CO during a time in which marijuana outlets began selling marijuana for recreational, and not just medical, use. We collected data on locations of crimes, marijuana outlets and covariates for 481 Census block groups over 34 months (N = 16,354 space-time units). A Bayesian Poisson space-time model assessed statistical relationships between independent measures and crime counts within "local" Census block groups. We examined spatial "lag" effects to assess whether crimes in Census block groups adjacent to locations of outlets were also affected. Independent of the effects of covariates, densities of marijuana outlets were unrelated to property and violent crimes in local areas. However, the density of marijuana outlets in spatially adjacent areas was positively related to property crime in spatially adjacent areas over time. Further, the density of marijuana outlets in local and spatially adjacent blocks groups was related to higher rates of marijuana-specific crime. This study suggests that the effects of the availability of marijuana outlets on crime do not necessarily occur within the specific areas within which these outlets are located, but may occur in adjacent areas. Thus studies assessing the effects of these outlets in local areas alone may risk underestimating their true effects.
Anderson, Amy E; Hure, Alexis J; Forder, Peta M; Powers, Jennifer; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Loxton, Deborah J
Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. A sample of 1577 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were included if they first reported being pregnant in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and reported risky drinking patterns prior to that pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine which risky drinking patterns were most likely to continue into pregnancy. When reporting risky drinking patterns prior to pregnancy only 6% of women reported weekly drinking only, whereas 46% reported binge drinking only and 48% reported both. Women in both binge categories were more likely to have experienced financial stress, not been partnered, smoked, used drugs, been nulliparous, experienced a violent relationship, and were less educated. Most women (46%) continued these risky drinking patterns into pregnancy, with 40% reducing these behaviors, and 14% completely ceasing alcohol consumption. Once pregnant, women who binged only prior to pregnancy were more likely to continue (55%) rather than reduce drinking (29%). Of the combined drinking group 61% continued to binge and 47% continued weekly drinking. Compared with the combined drinking group, binge only drinkers prior to pregnancy were less likely to reduce rather than continue their drinking once pregnant (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.47). Over a third of women continued risky drinking into pregnancy, especially binge drinking, suggesting a need to address alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy.
Amy E Anderson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risky patterns of alcohol use prior to pregnancy increase the risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes. It is important to understand how consumption changes once women become pregnant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of women that partake in risky drinking patterns before pregnancy and to examine how these patterns change once they become pregnant. METHODS: A sample of 1577 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were included if they first reported being pregnant in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 and reported risky drinking patterns prior to that pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine which risky drinking patterns were most likely to continue into pregnancy. RESULTS: When reporting risky drinking patterns prior to pregnancy only 6% of women reported weekly drinking only, whereas 46% reported binge drinking only and 48% reported both. Women in both binge categories were more likely to have experienced financial stress, not been partnered, smoked, used drugs, been nulliparous, experienced a violent relationship, and were less educated. Most women (46% continued these risky drinking patterns into pregnancy, with 40% reducing these behaviors, and 14% completely ceasing alcohol consumption. Once pregnant, women who binged only prior to pregnancy were more likely to continue (55% rather than reduce drinking (29%. Of the combined drinking group 61% continued to binge and 47% continued weekly drinking. Compared with the combined drinking group, binge only drinkers prior to pregnancy were less likely to reduce rather than continue their drinking once pregnant (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.47. CONCLUSIONS: Over a third of women continued risky drinking into pregnancy, especially binge drinking, suggesting a need to address alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy.
Lanza, Stephanie T; Vasilenko, Sara A; Dziak, John J; Butera, Nicole M
The purpose of this study was to describe historical trends in rates of recent substance use and associations between marijuana and other substances, among U.S. high school seniors by race and gender. Data from Monitoring the Future (1976-2013; N = 599,109) were used to estimate historical trends in alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED), cigarette use, and marijuana use. We used time-varying effect models to flexibly estimate changes in associations of substance use behaviors. Past-month marijuana use rates peaked in the 1970s, declined through 1990, then rose again to reach levels of use of more than 20% for both black and white participants. Recent years show increasing disparities across groups such that males, and in particular black youth, are on a trajectory toward higher use. This rise in marijuana use is particularly concerning among black youth, with rates far exceeding those for cigarette use and HED. The association of marijuana use with both cigarette use and HED is particularly high in recent years among black adolescents. Substance use recently declined among high school seniors, except for marijuana use, particularly among black youth. The increasing association between marijuana and other substances among black adolescents suggests future amplification in critical health disparities. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Budney, A J; Hughes, J R; Moore, B A; Novy, P L
Although withdrawal symptoms are commonly reported by persons seeking treatment for marijuana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been established. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that occur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Twelve daily marijuana smokers were assessed on 16 consecutive days during which they smoked marijuana as usual (days 1-5), abstained from smoking marijuana (days 6-8), returned to smoking marijuana (days 9-13), and again abstained from smoking marijuana (days 14-16). An overall measure of withdrawal discomfort increased significantly during the abstinence phases and returned to baseline when marijuana smoking resumed. Craving for marijuana, decreased appetite, sleep difficulty, and weight loss reliably changed across the smoking and abstinence phases. Aggression, anger, irritability, restlessness, and strange dreams increased significantly during one abstinence phase, but not the other. Collateral observers confirmed participant reports of these symptoms. This study validated several specific effects of marijuana abstinence in heavy marijuana users, and showed they were reliable and clinically significant. These withdrawal effects appear similar in type and magnitude to those observed in studies of nicotine withdrawal.
Mar 1, 2009 ... Medical students' view of what constitutes at-risk drinking behaviour is ... several forms of cancer.5 Individual susceptibility to alcohol-related complications .... marijuana, tranquillisers and miscellaneous substances. In each.
Shubha Ghosh Dastidar
Full Text Available Both chronic and acute (binge alcohol drinking are important health and economic concerns worldwide and prominent risk factors for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. There are no FDA-approved medications to prevent or to treat any stage of ALD. Therefore, discovery of novel therapeutic strategies remains a critical need for patients with ALD. Relevant experimental animal models that simulate human drinking patterns and mimic the spectrum and severity of alcohol-induced liver pathology in humans are critical to our ability to identify new mechanisms and therapeutic targets. There are several animal models currently in use, including the most widely utilized chronic ad libitum ethanol (EtOH feeding (Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet model, chronic intragastric EtOH administration (Tsukamoto–French model, and chronic-plus-binge EtOH challenge (Bin Gao—National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA model. This review provides an overview of recent advances in rodent models of binge EtOH administration which help to recapitulate different features and etiologies of progressive ALD. These models include EtOH binge alone, and EtOH binge coupled with chronic EtOH intake, a high fat diet, or endotoxin challenge. We analyze the strengths, limitations, and translational relevance of these models, as well as summarize the liver injury outcomes and mechanistic insights. We further discuss the application(s of binge EtOH models in examining alcohol-induced multi-organ pathology, sex- and age-related differences, as well as circadian rhythm disruption.
Lankenau, Stephen E; Fedorova, Ekaterina V; Reed, Megan; Schrager, Sheree M; Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F
Little is known about young adult medical marijuana patients (MMP) and their marijuana using patterns and practices, which includes frequency of use, sourcing of marijuana products, forms/modes of administration, and patterns of illicit/prescription drug misuse, compared to non-patient marijuana users (NPU). Young adults (N=366) aged 18-26 years old were sampled in Los Angeles in 2014-15 and segmented into NPU (n=156), marijuana users who never had a medical marijuana (MM) recommendation, and MMP (n=210), marijuana users with a current, verified MM recommendation. Differences regarding self-reported marijuana and other drug use during the past 90days are expressed as unadjusted risk ratios or differences in means. MMP reported significantly greater mean days of use (76.4 vs. 59.2, pmarijuana products (564.5 vs. 266.9, pmarijuana obtained from a dispensary to someone else in the past 90days. MMP were more likely to report vaporization modalities for concentrates (URR=1.5, 95% C.I.=1.2, 2.0) and for marijuana (URR=1.5, 95% C.I.=1.1, 2.1) than NPU. Though not significant, trends toward lower misuse of prescription drugs in the past 90days were observed among MMP compared to NPU. MMP reported greater access to marijuana via dispensaries, more frequent and intensive use of marijuana, and greater use of non-combustible forms of marijuana compared to NPU. MMP reported less recent misuse of prescription drugs compared to NPU. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N
Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection.
Olukayode Abayomi; Emmanuel Babalola
Desai and Patel highlighted in a recent review that and ldquo;there are several issues related to medical marijuana, which concern public health such as its medical use, harmful effects, laws and physicians role. and rdquo; Certainly, physician's perspectives and position on the relative harm and benefits of marijuana contribute to the growing controversy over its legalization in western countries. Interestingly, the seeming resistance of physicians in western countries to marijuana prescrip...
Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron
Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative ...
Hill, Kevin P.
With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...
Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor
Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to th...
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Bierut, Laura J.
Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with mari...
Friese, Bettina; Slater, Michael D; Annechino, Rachelle; Battle, Robynn S
Recent research indicates that marijuana-infused food product (i.e., edible) use is becoming nearly as common as smoking marijuana where medical marijuana is available. This study explores edible use among teens. We conducted four focus groups in the San Francisco Bay Area with youth, ages 15-17. The focus groups were divided by gender and whether they used marijuana. Some teens mentioned edible use at school. Youth reported that teens consume edibles, primarily to reduce the likelihood of getting caught. Edibles are also attractive to those who do not like to smoke or have concerns about smoking. Both male and female respondents suggested that females are more likely than males to prefer edibles over smoking, one reason for which may be to avoid smelling like marijuana smoke. For some young women, edibles may be a way to avoid publicly presenting themselves as marijuana users. Findings also suggest that youth have access to edibles through multiple sources. Youth reported that they can purchase edibles at school from other students who either make the edibles themselves or are reselling edibles obtained from dispensaries. Both users and non-users were aware of potentially negative consequences related to edible use. Some youth mentioned that they have heard of youth dying from edibles, and several reported being concerned about the high produced by edibles. Female non-users appeared to be more concerned than others about edibles and compared them to drinks that could be spiked with drugs. However, sentiment among some male marijuana users was that if you cannot handle edibles you should not be using them. These findings suggest that strategies to curb access to edibles and use among youth, such as restricting sales of edibles with strong youth appeal and educating youth on the risks of edibles, will need to be developed.
Stein, Richard I; Kenardy, Justin; Wiseman, Claire V; Dounchis, Jennifer Zoler; Arnow, Bruce A; Wilfley, Denise E
Previous research, mostly using retrospective reports, indicated a relation of negative affect and dietary restraint with the occurrence of binge episodes in binge eating disorder (BED). We employed Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to better understand precursors and consequences of binge eating. Thirty-three females with BED carried a handheld computer for 7 days, and were periodically prompted to indicate their current emotions, hunger, and binge status. Negative mood and hunger were significantly higher at prebinge than at nonbinge times, but negative mood was even higher at postbinge. Participants attributed binge episodes to mood more frequently than to hunger or abstinence violation. The finding that negative mood is actually heightened subsequent to a binge suggests the need to further investigate what is reinforcing about a binge, including possible escape from self-awareness. Strengths of EMA technology are discussed, as well as its broad utility in BED assessment and treatment.
Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota; Strumiło, Julia; Chlabicz, Sławomir
In some countries of the world it is legal to use plant-based marijuana for therapeutic purposes. When we had learned that 7,000 petitioners (including doctors) signed the petition to enable access to marijuana for patients in the Czech Republic, we decided to examine the knowledge about marijuana's medical properties among Polish medical students. Anonymous questionnaire study was conducted on a group of 181 of students of the last (sixth) year of medical school. It was demonstrated that students are not provided with sufficient information about therapeutic administration of plant-based marijuana during medical studies. The majority of interviewees mentioned only one indication for medical marijuana use. All students did not interchange medical conditions for which marijuana is used in 30 USA states or Canada. Marijuana smoking for medical purposes differs from recreational smoking, and its effect does not depend on occurrence of symptoms from the central nervous system. Few studies, that were carried out along with numerous previously unreported cases of patients, demonstrated that plant-derived marijuana had therapeutic effect on many diseases where conventional medicine was of no help. All doctors, including medical students, should receive more information about the therapeutic properties of marijuana. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.
Kondrad, Elin; Reid, Alfred
Over the last decade, the use of medical marijuana has expanded dramatically; it is now permitted in 16 states and the District of Columbia. Our study of family physicians in Colorado is the first to gather information about physician attitudes toward this evolving practice. We distributed an anonymous web-based electronic survey to the 1727 members of the Colorado Academy of Family Physicians' listserv. Items included individual and practice characteristics as well as experience with and attitudes toward medical marijuana. Five hundred twenty family physicians responded (30% response rate). Of these, 46% did not support physicians recommending medical marijuana; only 19% thought that physicians should recommend it. A minority thought that marijuana conferred significant benefits to physical (27%) and mental (15%) health. Most agreed that marijuana poses serious mental (64%) and physical (61%) health risks. Eighty-one percent agreed that physicians should have formal training before recommending medical marijuana, and 92% agreed that continuing medical education about medical marijuana should be available to family physicians. Despite a high prevalence of use in Colorado, most family physicians are not convinced of marijuana's health benefits and believe its use carries risks. Nearly all agreed on the need for further medical education about medical marijuana.
Rawal, Swati Y; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Tipton, David A
Marijuana, prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. Marijuana use has been associated with adverse psychosocial and health effects, including effects on oral tissues. Periodontal literature has limited references to the periodontal effects of cannabis use. In this report, we present two cases of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement and review the literature on oral complications of marijuana use. Two asymptomatic males, aged 23 and 42 years, presented independently for oral prophylaxis. Both had an unremarkable medical history and related a history of significant marijuana use of 2-16 years duration. Common findings following oral and periodontal examination were nicotinic stomatitis-like lesions, uvulitis and gingival enlargement. Marginal and papillary gingiva of the anterior dentition were the areas primarily affected by gingival enlargement, while some of these areas exhibited a nodular or "pebbly" appearance. Marijuana-associated gingival enlargement was diagnosed in the reported cases. A review of the literature revealed two other reports of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement, all in young adult males with chronic (2 or more years) cannabis use. These authors reported a resemblance to phenytoin-induced enlargement. Biochemical similarities between phenytoin and cannabis active compounds suggest possible common pathogenetic mechanisms. Uvulitis and nicotinic stomatitis appear to be the two most common of the several oral manifestations of marijuana use. Chronic marijuana use may result in gingival enlargement with clinical characteristics similar to phenytoin-induced enlargement.
Martins, Silvia S; Mauro, Christine M; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Kim, June H; Cerda, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S; Galea, Sandro; Wall, Melanie
Little is known on how perceived availability of marijuana is associated with medical marijuana laws. We examined the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MML) and the prevalence of past-month marijuana use, with perceived availability of marijuana. Data were from respondents included in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health restricted use data portal 2004-2013. Multilevel logistic regression of individual-level data was used to test differences between MML and non-MML states and changes in prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perceived availability from before to after passage of MML among adolescents, young adults and older adults controlling for demographics. Among adults 26+, past-month prevalence of marijuana use increased from 5.87% to 7.15% after MML passage (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.24 [1.16-1.31]), but no change in prevalence of use was found for 12-17 or 18-25 year-olds. Perceived availability of marijuana increased after MML was enacted among those 26+ but not in younger groups. Among all age groups, prevalence of marijuana use and perception of it being easily available was higher in states that would eventually pass MML by 2013 compared to those that had not. Perceived availability was significantly associated with increased risk of past-month marijuana use in all age groups. Evidence suggests perceived availability as a driver of change in use of marijuana due to MML. To date, this has only occurred in adults 26+ and different scenarios that could explain this change need to be further explored. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koupil, Ilona; Tooth, Leigh; Heshmati, Amy; Mishra, Gita
To study social patterning of overeating and symptoms of disordered eating in a general population. A representative, population-based cohort study. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), Survey 1 in 1996 and Survey 2 in 2000. Women (n 12 599) aged 18-23 years completed a questionnaire survey at baseline, of whom 6866 could be studied prospectively. Seventeen per cent of women reported episodes of overeating, 16 % reported binge eating and 10 % reported compensatory behaviours. Almost 4 % of women reported symptoms consistent with bulimia nervosa. Low education, not living with family, perceived financial difficulty (OR=1·8 and 1·3 for women with severe and some financial difficulty, respectively, compared with none) and European language other than English spoken at home (OR=1·5 for European compared with Australian/English) were associated with higher prevalence of binge eating. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses indicated increased risk of persistent binge eating among women with a history of being overweight in childhood, those residing in metropolitan Australia, women with higher BMI, smokers and binge drinkers. Overeating, binge eating and symptoms of bulimia nervosa are common among young Australian women and cluster with binge drinking. Perceived financial stress appears to increase the risk of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. It is unclear whether women of European origin and those with a history of childhood overweight carry higher risk of binge eating because of genetic or cultural reasons.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Objective Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem, with females being victimized by partners at high rates with numerous negative health consequences. Previous research has been equivocal on whether substance use on the part of the victim temporally precedes and, thus, increases the odds of victimization. While the sole responsibility for violence is always with the perpetrator, knowing this information could provide useful information for theory as well as interventions designed to keep women safe. Method Participants were female college students in a current dating relationship who had consumed alcohol in the previous month (N = 173). Students completed daily surveys on their violence victimization, alcohol use, and marijuana use for up to 90 consecutive days. Results On any drinking days, heavy drinking days, and as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed increased, women were more likely to be victimized by psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Marijuana use also preceded and increased the odds of sexual victimization. Relationship length moderated some of these temporal associations, such that the odds of victimization on a drinking day, or marijuana use day, were increased for participants in longer relationships. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of considering the role that alcohol and marijuana use play in increasing the risk for dating violence victimization among women. Intervention programs for dating violence may benefit by attempting to decrease substance use in order to reduce risk for female victims. PMID:27818840
Full Text Available Introduction and the aim: Marijuana is the most commonly used drug in the world (excluding alcohol and tobacco. According to the literature about 16% of Poles at the age of 16 to 64 years old, at least once have used cannabis. The aim of study was to estimate the popularity of marijuana among students of Polish universities. We also asked questions about respondents’ attitude towards marijuana and opinions about its validation. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 2017 on 132 individuals – 60 men and 72 women. The results were analyzed in STATISTICA 10 at p<0.05. Results:Out of interviewees, 63.6% of them, at least once in their lives, have used marijuana. This is a percentage of up to four times greater than that one given in the literature for the general population. Even 80% of men and 50% of women have tried marijuana at least once in their lives. Students of Catholic University of Lublin reach for marijuana significantly more often than students of Medical University of Lublin. The majority of respondents (53% treats marijuana as a "soft" drug, though up 67.4% believe that it has the addictive potential. More than a half of respondents (56.8% stands for liberalization of rules relevant to marijuana in Poland. Vast majority (70% of respondents believes that marijuana is easily available in Poland. Conclusions: Marijuana is a drug popular among students. The criminalization of drug use in Poland is not effective for the prevention of its use, the majority of respondents believes that marijuana is easily available in Poland. Considering the negative health and social consequences of the current state, it is worth wondering about making changes in the education system and Polish drug law.
Ryan P Vetreno
Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.
Twenty-eight states in the U.S have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997-2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=0.008) and 13% (p=0.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Objectives Twenty-eight states in the U.S. have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. Methods State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997–2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1,000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Results Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=.008) and 13% (p=.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR- related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Conclusion Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. PMID:28259087
Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose
Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Cservenka, Anita; Jones, Scott A; Nagel, Bonnie J
Due to ongoing development, adolescence may be a period of heightened vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Binge drinking may alter reward-driven behavior and neurocircuitry, thereby increasing risk for escalating alcohol use. Therefore, we compared reward processing in adolescents with and without a history of recent binge drinking. At their baseline study visit, all participants (age=14.86 ± 0.88) were free of heavy alcohol use and completed a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF) functional magnetic resonance imaging task. Following this visit, 17 youth reported binge drinking on ≥3 occasions within a 90 day period and were matched to 17 youth who remained alcohol and substance-naïve. All participants repeated the WOF task during a second visit (age=16.83 ± 1.22). No significant effects were found in a region of interest analysis of the ventral striatum, but whole-brain analyses showed significant group differences in reward response at the second study visit in the left cerebellum, controlling for baseline visit brain activity (p/αreward processing in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...
Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron
Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights.
Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.
This publication, part of the Office of National Drug Control Policys Asian Language Initiative, offers facts and answers about marijuana. It educates parents about what it is, its physical and physiological effects, slang terms, and how its used. It also identifies signs that indicate marijuana use, and provides tips for parents who want to…
Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.
It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…
Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E; Copeland, Jan
Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their experiences with a vaporizer and their use of marijuana with tobacco. Users identified 4 advantages to using a vaporizer over smoking marijuana: perceived health benefits, better taste, no smoke smell, and more effect from the same amount of marijuana. Users identified 2 disadvantages: inconvenience of setup and cleaning and the time it takes to get the device operating for each use. Only 2 individuals combined tobacco in the vaporizer mix, whereas 15 combined tobacco with marijuana when they smoked marijuana. Almost all participants intended to continue using a vaporizer. Vaporizers seem to have appeal to marijuana users, who perceive them as having harm-reduction and other benefits. Vaporizers are worthy of experimental research evaluating health-related effects of using them.
Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron
Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912
... is also known as cannabis. Medical marijuana is cannabis used as medicine. When used as a drug, marijuana can produce ... THC). CBD and THC are taken from the cannabis plant for use in medicine. They also can be created (synthesized) in a ...
Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.
Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…
Lesch, Elmien; Casper, Rozanne
This article aims to provide a community-specific understanding of a subgroup of South African men who exhibit particularly high rates of hazardous alcohol consumption. Adopting a social constructionist framework, we interviewed 13 Cape Winelands men who lived on farms to explore their drinking constructions. We present three themes that shed light on problematic drinking in this group: (1) the notion of weekend binge-drinking as 'respectable' drinking, (2) drinking as shared activity that fulfils various psycho-social needs and (3) a sense of powerlessness to affect their own or their children's alcohol consumption. These findings are viewed against a specific socio-historical backdrop.
Full Text Available The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC on memory during late adolescence (18–19 years old in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers, BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers, BAC1 (0.3 – 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers or BAC2 (0.54 – 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers. The subjects’ immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III. The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L. No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than
Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Duque, Aránzazu; Montañés, Adriana; Monleón, Santiago
The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) on memory during late adolescence (18-19 years old) in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females) that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers), BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers), BAC1 (0.3 - 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers) or BAC2 (0.54 - 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers). The subjects' immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L). No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than working memory to
are determined by the basic reproduction number, R0. The alcohol-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, and the alcohol problems are eliminated from the population if R01. Numerical simulations are also conducted in the analytic results.
Full Text Available Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA. Drinking in the dark (DID procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone.
Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Ros-Simó, Clara; Milanés, María-Victoria; Valverde, Olga; Laorden, María-Luisa
Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA). Drinking in the dark (DID) procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone. PMID:26509576
The effect of marijuana smoking on blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations in humans was investigated. Eighty Marijuana addicts and twenty non- marijuana smokers were used in the study. Blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations of the marijuana addicts and controls, were ...
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.
A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…
Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.
Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…
Holland, Cynthia L; Nkumsah, Michelle Abena; Morrison, Penelope; Tarr, Jill A; Rubio, Doris; Rodriguez, Keri L; Kraemer, Kevin L; Day, Nancy; Arnold, Robert M; Chang, Judy C
To describe obstetric provider attitudes, beliefs, approaches, concerns, and needs about addressing perinatal marijuana use with their pregnant patients. We conducted individual semi-structured interviews with obstetric providers and asked them to describe their thoughts and experiences about addressing perinatal marijuana use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and reviewed to identify themes. Fifty-one providers participated in semi-structured interviews. Providers admitted they were not familiar with identified risks of marijuana use during pregnancy, they perceived marijuana was not as dangerous as other illicit drugs, and they believed patients did not view marijuana as a drug. Most provider counseling strategies focused on marijuana's status as an illegal drug and the risk of child protective services being contacted if patients tested positive at time of delivery. When counseling about perinatal marijuana use, obstetric providers focus more on legal issues than on health risks. They describe needing more information regarding medical consequences of marijuana use during pregnancy. Provider training should include information about potential consequences of perinatal marijuana use and address ways to improve obstetric providers' counseling. Future studies should assess changes in providers' attitudes as more states consider the legalization of marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Julie B; Ramo, Danielle E; Lisha, Nadra E; Cataldo, Janine K
Medical marijuana legalization is associated with a higher prevalence of marijuana use which may affect cigarette use and nicotine dependence in co-users. In the present study, we examined relationships between statewide legalization of medical marijuana and prevalence of cigarette and marijuana co-use and nicotine dependence in co-using adolescents and adults. Data were analyzed from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We compared cigarette and marijuana co-use in the past 30days across age categories (12-64 years) by statewide medical marijuana legalization. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of having nicotine dependence among current cigarette smokers who also reported past 30-day marijuana use and "ever but not current" marijuana use (vs. "never" use) adjusting for covariates including statewide legalization of medical marijuana. Overall, 5.1% of the sample reported past 30-day cigarette and marijuana co-use and a higher proportion of co-users resided in states where medical marijuana was legal compared to illegal (5.8% vs. 4.8%; p=0.0011). Co-use was associated with greater odds of having nicotine dependence compared to cigarette-only use across age categories. Odds were highest and up to 3-times higher in adolescents aged 12-17 years (OR=3.54; 95%CI: 1.81-6.92) and adults aged 50-64 years (OR=3.08; CI: 1.45-6.55). Marijuana policy could inadvertently affect cigarette and marijuana co-use and pose challenges to tobacco cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G
Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.
Sheer, Amy J; Gorelick, David A; Collins, Charles C; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Heishman, Stephen J; Leff, Michelle K; Moolchan, Eric T
Little is known about adolescents' interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smokers, the 58.8% who endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs took their first puff of marijuana at a younger age than those who did not endorse the need. Those who were willing to participate in a marijuana treatment program were more likely African American and took their first marijuana puff at a younger age than those not interested in treatment. These findings suggest that most adolescent marijuana smokers endorse the need for and are willing to attend marijuana treatment programs.
Miller, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Joseph H; Barnes, Grace M; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J
Alcohol remains the drug of choice for many adolescents; however, the nature of the relationship between athletic involvement and alcohol misuse remains ambiguous. In this article, we used a longitudinal sample of over 600 Western New York adolescents and their families to explore the gender-specific and race-specific relationships between identification with the "jock" label and adolescent alcohol consumption, specifically problem drinking. Operationalization of problem drinking included frequency measures of heavy drinking, binge drinking, and social problems related to alcohol (e.g., trouble with family, friends, school officials over drinking). Self-identified adolescent "jocks" were more likely to engage in problem drinking than their non-jock counterparts, even after controlling for gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, physical maturity, social maturity, and frequency of athletic activity. Jock identity was strongly associated with higher binge drinking frequency in Black adolescent girls. This study underscores the need to distinguish between objective and subjective meanings of athletic involvement when assessing the relationship between sport and adolescent health-risk behavior.
Gordon, Adam J.; Conley, James W.; Gordon, Joanne M.
With the advent of legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes, and the increase use of marijuana, healthcare providers will be increasingly confronted with marijuana users as patients in clinical environments. While there is vast literature regarding the societal and mental health harms associated with marijuana use, there is a paucity of reviews of the potential consequences of marijuana use on physical health or medical conditions. We examine the recent literature on ...
Introduction This study examined whether exposure to marijuana advertisements was associated with current marijuana use and frequency of use among US adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12. Methods Weighted estimates of exposure to marijuana advertisements and marijuana use from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future studies were investigated. Factors associated with the prevalence and frequency of marijuana use were analyzed by using logistic regression and linear regression models, respective...
Bierut, Tatiana; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.
With an increase in the legalization of recreational marijuana across the U.S., advertising for marijuana products is more widespread, especially on the Internet where such practices pose a regulatory challenge. In this study, we examined the content of marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular website that markets marijuana retailers online. A total of 146 recreational marijuana retailers in Colorado and Washington were examined on Weedmaps. We studied the age verification practices made ...
Brents, Lisa K.
Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormo...
Hayaki, Jumi; Hagerty, Claire E.; Herman, Debra S.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.
This study examined associations between the endorsement of drug use expectancies and the frequency and severity of marijuana use in a community sample of 332 women aged 18–24 years who were not explicitly seeking treatment for their marijuana use. Participants were enrolled in a larger intervention study of motivational interviewing for various health behaviors and provided self-reports of their current and past marijuana use, marijuana abuse/dependence symptoms, and marijuana use expectanci...
Determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in indoor air as an indicator of marijuana cigarette smoking using adsorbent sampling and in-injector thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Chou, Su-Lien; Ling, Yong-Chien; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Pai, Chung-Yen
The marijuana leaves are usually mixed with tobaccos and smoked at amusement places in Taiwan. Recently, for investigation-legal purposes, the police asked if we can identify the marijuana smoke in a KTV stateroom (a private room at the entertainment spot for singing, smoking, alcohol drinking, etc.) without marijuana residues. A personal air-sampler pump fitted with the GC liner-tube packed with Tenax-TA adsorbent was used for air sampling. The GC-adsorbent tube was placed in the GC injector port and desorbed directly, followed by GC-MS analysis for the determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) in indoor air. The average desorption efficiency and limit of detection for delta9-THC were 89% and 0.1 microg m(-3), respectively, approximately needing 1.09 mg of marijuana leaves smoked in an unventilated closed room (3.0 m x 2.4 m x 2.7 m) to reach this level. The mean delta9-THC contained in the 15 marijuana plants seized from diverse locations was measured to be 0.32%. The delta9-THC in room air can be successfully identified from mock marijuana cigarettes, mixtures of marijuana and tobacco, and an actual case. The characteristic delta9-THC peak in chromatogram can serve as the indicator of marijuana. Positive result suggests marijuana smoking at the specific scene in the recent past, facilitating the formulation of further investigation.
Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig
Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...
Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M
We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W
Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nab...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect
Recent raids on buyers' clubs in San Francisco have focused attention on medicinal uses of marijuana. The Clinton administration's policy is that there is no scientific evidence that smoked marijuana is useful in treating pain and nausea in AIDS and cancer patients. However, mainstream medical literature has supported the use of cannabis in managing symptoms of diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. Well designed, controlled studies of marijuana are needed to determine the effective medical uses of the drug and break the political stalemate on this issue.
Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.
Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseli...
Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price
The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel
Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major
Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Choo, Tse-Hwei J; Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Binge eating is prevalent among adolescents, but little is known about how parents and friends may influence such behaviors. This study examined associations between adolescent binge eating behaviors, and similar behaviors in their parents and friends. Participants were 2,770 target adolescent boys and girls who had at least one friend and/or parent who also participated. Logistic regression, stratified by gender, examined associations between parents' and friends' self-reported binge eating, and similar behaviors in target adolescents. Girls' binge eating was associated with their male friends' (odds ratio = 2.33; p = 0.03) and fathers' binge eating (odds ratio = 3.38; p = 0.02), but not with their female friends' or mothers' binge eating (p > 0.05). For boys, binge eating was not associated with parents' or friends' behavior. Adolescent girls' binge eating is associated with similar behaviors in their other-sex parents and friends. Results should be replicated, and mechanisms explaining this relation should be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Holst, Charlotte; Becker, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Marit E
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with diabetes, but little is known about the role of drinking patterns. We examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and diabetes risk in men and women from the general Danish population. METHODS: This cohort study...... was based on data from the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Of the 76,484 survey participants, 28,704 men and 41,847 women were eligible for this study. Participants were followed for a median of 4.9 years. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain information on alcohol drinking patterns......, i.e. frequency of alcohol drinking, frequency of binge drinking, and consumption of wine, beer and spirits, from which we calculated beverage-specific and overall average weekly alcohol intake. Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained from the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox...
Adams, Michael; Effertz, Tobias
The study aimed to explore the place of taxation in preventing underage binge drinking in Germany. We reviewed evidence on the role of excise taxes on alcohol in preventing alcohol problems and underage drinking. We analyzed historical German data on tax on alcoholic beverages and compared this with European data, finally calculating tax scenarios and their impact on underage binge drinking. Germany applies lower taxes than many other European countries and alcohol beverage prices have decreased by 30% relative to overall price levels during the last 40 years. An optimal tax rate for reducing underage drinking would be set between the European average tax rates and Scandinavian tax rate levels.
Birdsall, Shauna M; Birdsall, Timothy C; Tims, Lucas A
The use of medical marijuana in cancer care presents a dilemma for both patients and physicians. The scientific evidence is evolving, yet much of the known information is still insufficient to adequately inform patients as to risks and benefits. In addition, evidence-based dosing and administration information on medical marijuana is lacking. Medical marijuana is now legal, on some level, in 24 states plus the District of Columbia, yet is not legal on the federal level. This review addresses the current state of the research, including potential indications, risks and adverse effects, preliminary data on anticancer effects, as well as legal and quality issues. A summary of the clinical trials underway on medical marijuana in the oncology setting is discussed.
Ford, Benjamin M; Tai, Sherrica; Fantegrossi, William E; Prather, Paul L
In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB 1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ 9 -THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes. Instead, SCBs are a highly structural diverse group of compounds, easily synthesized, which produce very dangerous adverse effects occurring by, as of yet, unknown mechanisms. Therefore, available evidence indicates that K2/Spice products are clearly not safe marijuana alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murray, J B
Marijuana is complex chemically and not yet fully understood, but it is not a narcotic. Like alcohol, marijuana acts as both stimulant and depressant, but it lingers in body organs longer than alcohol. Smoking marijuana can injure mucosal tissue and may have more carcinogenic potential than tobacco. Research has indicated that marijuana intoxication definitely hinders attention, long-term memory storage, and psychomotor skills involved in driving a car or flying a plane. Expectations and past experience with marijuana have often influenced results more than pharmacological aspects have. Marijuana has triggered psychotic episodes in those more vulnerable. Psychological and some instances of physiological dependence on marijuana have been demonstrated. As a psychoactive drug, marijuana surely alters mental functioning. Although it is possible that chronic use of marijuana produces irreversible damage to mind or brain areas, this has not been determined by research.
Brents, Lisa K
Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system.
Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah
Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ∼68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...
Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the ...
Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth
Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple...
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil PARTICIPANTS: The study was made among 123 patients interned in the Hospital Espírita de Marília from October 1996 to December 1998, divided into 3 groups: 26 (21% using only marijuana, 83 (67.5% using marijuana and crack, and 14 (11.4% consuming marijuana and alcohol. PROCEDURES AND MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Patients were examined clinically with special emphasis on types of drugs used, drug intake route, age when consumption began, length and pattern of usage, presence of tattooing, jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Serum determinations of total proteins, albumin, globulin, total and fractions of bilirubin, aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma-glutamyltransferase and prothrombin activity were performed. RESULTS: Among users of only marijuana, hepatomegaly was observed in 57.7% and splenomegaly in 73.1%, and slightly elevated AST (42.3%, ALT (34.6% and AP (53.8%. The three groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly. The group using both marijuana and alcohol showed the highest prevalence of alterations and highest levels of aminotransferases. Mean AP levels were above normal in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic marijuana usage, on its own or in association with other drugs, was associated with hepatic morphologic and enzymatic alterations. This indicates that cannabinoids are possible hepatotoxic substances.
Mair, Christina; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Gaidus, Andrew
Background As an increasing number of states liberalize cannabis use and develop laws and local policies, it is essential to better understand the impacts of neighborhood ecology and marijuana dispensary density on marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We investigated associations between marijuana abuse/dependence hospitalizations and community demographic and environmental conditions from 2001–2012 in California, as well as cross-sectional associations between local and adjacent marijuana dispensary densities and marijuana hospitalizations. Methods We analyzed panel population data relating hospitalizations coded for marijuana abuse or dependence and assigned to residential ZIP codes in California from 2001 through 2012 (20,219 space-time units) to ZIP code demographic and ecological characteristics. Bayesian space-time misalignment models were used to account for spatial variations in geographic unit definitions over time, while also accounting for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive priors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations between marijuana abuse/dependence and the density of dispensaries in local and spatially adjacent ZIP codes in 2012. Results An additional one dispensary per square mile in a ZIP code was cross-sectionally associated with a 6.8% increase in the number of marijuana hospitalizations (95% credible interval 1.033, 1.105) with a marijuana abuse/dependence code. Other local characteristics, such as the median household income and age and racial/ethnic distributions, were associated with marijuana hospitalizations in cross-sectional and panel analyses. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for marijuana abuse and dependence may be particularly essential in areas of concentrated disadvantage. Policy makers may want to consider regulations that limit the density of dispensaries. PMID:26154479
Aroor, Annayya R; Jackson, Daniel E; Shukla, Shivendra D
Binge drinking after chronic ethanol consumption is one of the important factors contributing to the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis. The molecular mechanisms of this effect remain poorly understood. We have therefore examined in rats the effect of single and repeat ethanol binge superimposed on chronic ethanol intake on liver injury, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and gene expression. Rats were chronically treated with ethanol in liquid diet for 4 weeks followed by single ethanol binge (5 gm/kg body weight) or 3 similar repeated doses of ethanol. Serum alcohol and alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels were determined by enzymatic methods. Steatosis was assessed by histology and hepatic triglycerides. Activation of MAPK, 90S ribosomal kinase (RSK), and caspase 3 were evaluated by Western blot. Levels of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), early growth response-1 (egr-1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured by real-time qRT-PCR. Chronic ethanol treatment resulted in mild steatosis and necrosis, whereas chronic ethanol followed by binge group exhibited marked steatosis and significant increase in necrosis. Chronic binge group also showed significant increase (compared with chronic ethanol alone) in the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, and RSK. Phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK did not increase by the binge. Ethanol binge, after chronic ethanol intake, caused increase in mRNA for egr-1 and PAI-1, but not TNFα. Chronic ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of rat liver to increased injury by 1 or 3 repeat binge. Among other alterations, the activated levels of ERK1, and more so ERK2, were remarkably amplified by binge suggesting a role of these isotypes in the binge amplification of the injury. In contrast, p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 activities were not amplified. These binge-induced changes were also reflected in the increases in the
Fligiel, S E; Beals, T F; Tashkin, D P; Paule, M G; Scallet, A C; Ali, S F; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W
As part of a large multidisciplinary study, we examined lungs from 24 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys that were sacrificed seven months after daily marijuana smoke inhalation of 12 months duration. Animals were divided into four exposure groups: A) high-dose (one marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), B) low-dose (one marijuana cigarette 2 days/week and sham smoke 5 days/week), C) placebo (one extracted marijuana cigarette 7 days/week), and D) sham (sham smoke 7 days/week). Lungs, removed intact, were formalin inflated, sectioned and examined. Several pathological alterations, including alveolitis, alveolar cell hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation, were found with higher frequency in all cigarette-smoking groups. Other alterations, such as bronchiolitis, bronchiolar squamous metaplasia and interstitial fibrosis, were found most frequently in the marijuana-smoking groups. Alveolar cell hyperplasia with focal atypia was seen only in the marijuana-smoking animals. These changes represent mostly early alterations of small airways. Additional follow-up studies are needed to determine their long-term prognostic significance.
Tashkin, Donald P
Regular smoking of marijuana by itself causes visible and microscopic injury to the large airways that is consistently associated with an increased likelihood of symptoms of chronic bronchitis that subside after cessation of use. On the other hand, habitual use of marijuana alone does not appear to lead to significant abnormalities in lung function when assessed either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, except for possible increases in lung volumes and modest increases in airway resistance of unclear clinical significance. Therefore, no clear link to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been established. Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, findings from a limited number of well-designed epidemiological studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use, although evidence is mixed concerning possible carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term use. Although regular marijuana smoking leads to bronchial epithelial ciliary loss and impairs the microbicidal function of alveolar macrophages, evidence is inconclusive regarding possible associated risks for lower respiratory tract infection. Several case reports have implicated marijuana smoking as an etiologic factor in pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum and bullous lung disease, although evidence of a possible causal link from epidemiologic studies is lacking. In summary, the accumulated weight of evidence implies far lower risks for pulmonary complications of even regular heavy use of marijuana compared with the grave pulmonary consequences of tobacco.
Full Text Available Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana, which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.
Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean
Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.
Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean
Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334
Unique clinical challenges arise with the growing number of patients who possess medical marijuana cards. Medical marijuana patients with mental disorders can have worsening symptoms with marijuana use. Often there is sparse continuity of care between the patient and the medical marijuana practitioner. Lack of communication between the patient's treating practitioners and the practitioner who has authorized the medical marijuana can be problematic. This article is a discussion of the new clinical challenges practitioners are likely to encounter with the growing number of medical marijuana patients. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-02.asp].
White, Helene Raskin; McMorris, Barbara J; Catalano, Richard F; Fleming, Charles B; Haggerty, Kevin P; Abbott, Robert D
This study examined the effects of leaving home and going to college on changes in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use shortly after leaving high school. We also examined how protective factors in late adolescence predict post-high school substance use and moderate the effects of leaving home and going to college. Data came from subjects (N = 319; 53% male) interviewed at the end of 12th grade and again approximately 6 months later, as part of the Raising Healthy Children project. Leaving home and going to college were significantly related to increases in the frequency of alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking from high school to emerging adulthood but not to changes in marijuana use. Having fewer friends who used each substance protected against increases in the frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, and marijuana use. Higher religiosity protected against increases in alcohol-and marijuana-use frequency. Higher parental monitoring protected against increases in heavy episodic drinking and moderated the effect of going to college on marijuana use. Lower sensation seeking lessened the effect of going to college on increases in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. To prevent increases in substance use in emerging adulthood, interventions should concentrate on strengthening prosocial involvement and parental monitoring during high school. In addition, youths with high sensation seeking might be targeted for added intervention.
Smith, Philip H.; Homish, Gregory G.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Collins, R. Lorraine
Background Previous laboratory-based research suggests that withdrawal from marijuana may cause increased aggression. It is unclear whether this finding extends beyond the laboratory setting to the general population of marijuana users. The purpose of this study was to test a cross-sectional association between marijuana withdrawal symptoms and aggression among a representative sample of U.S. adult marijuana users, and to test whether this association was moderated by previous history of aggression. Methods Data were analyzed from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Wave Two data (2004–2005) were used for all variables except for history of aggression, which was assessed during the Wave One interview (2001–2002). Two outcomes were examined: self-report general aggression and relationship aggression. Odds ratios for aggression based on withdrawal symptoms and the interaction between withdrawal symptoms and history of aggression were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for covariates and accounting for the complex survey design. Results Among marijuana users with a history of aggression, marijuana withdrawal was associated with approximately 60% higher odds of past year relationship aggression (p aggression among those without a history of aggression, and no association with general aggression regardless of history of aggression. Conclusions The findings from this study support the notion that laboratory-based increases in aggression due to marijuana withdrawal extend to the general population of marijuana users who have a previous history of aggression. PMID:23380439
Clarke, Paige; Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle L
There is little published research that tests the effect of recreational marijuana legislation on risk-related cognitions and how individuals respond immediately after legislative approval. The objective was to test whether learning about the passage of Initiative 71, a voter referendum that legalized recreational use of marijuana in the District of Columbia, would lead individuals to adopt more favorable marijuana cognitions than they had before the Initiative was passed. Undergraduate students (N = 402) completed two web-based questionnaires in 2014. The first questionnaire was completed prior to the referendum vote and the follow-up questionnaire was completed after voters approved Initiative 71. Attitudes, perceived norms, intentions, prototypes, and willingness were measured at time 1 and time 2. Study hypotheses were tested using repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results showed that attitudes, intentions, perceived norms, and willingness to use marijuana were more favorable after Initiative 71 was passed. However, the increase in attitudes and willingness was moderated by past experience with marijuana whereby the increases were statistically significant only among those with the least experience. The increase in perceived norms was also moderated by past experience whereby increases were statistically significant among those who were moderate or heavy users. The passage of Initiative 71 had no effect on favorable prototypes. Conclusion/Importance: Legalization may have the unintended outcome of leading to more favorable intentions to use marijuana and might lead abstainers or experimental users to become more frequent users of marijuana via more positive attitudes and willingness towards marijuana use.
Martz, Meghan E; Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E
The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a risky drinking behavior, most commonly studied using college samples. We know little about rates of AmED use and its associations with other risk behaviors, including unsafe driving, among high school students. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of AmED use among high school seniors in the United States. Nationally representative analytic samples included 6,498 12th-grade students who completed Monitoring the Future surveys in 2012 and 2013. Focal measures included AmED use, sociodemographic characteristics, academic and social factors, other substance use, and unsafe driving (i.e., tickets/warnings and accidents) after alcohol consumption. Approximately one in four students (24.8%) reported AmED use during the past 12 months. Rates of AmED use were highest among males and white students. Using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, results indicate that students who cut class, spent more evenings out for fun and recreation, and reported binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use had a greater likelihood of AmED use. AmED use was also associated with greater odds of alcohol-related unsafe driving, even after controlling for sociodemographic, academic, and social factors and other substance use. AmED use among 12th-grade students is common and associated with certain sociodemographic, academic, social, and substance use factors. AmED use is also related to alcohol-related unsafe driving, which is a serious public health concern. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…
Thompson, Kyle J; Nazari, Shayan S; Jacobs, W Carl; Grahame, Nicholas J; McKillop, Iain H
This study sought to compare mice bred to preferentially consume high amounts of alcohol (crossed-high alcohol preferring, cHAP) to c57BL/6 (C57) mice using a chronic-binge ethanol ingestion model to induce alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Male C57 and cHAP mice were randomized to a Lieber-DeCarli control (LDC) diet, Lieber-DeCarli 5% (v/v) ethanol (LDE) diet or free-choice between 10% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water (EtOH-DW) and DW. After 4 weeks mice were gavaged with either 9 g/kg maltose-dextrin (LDC+MD) or 5 g/kg EtOH (LDE+Binge, EtOH-DW+Binge). Nine hours later tissue and serum were collected and analyzed. cHAP mice on EtOH-DW consumed significantly more ethanol than cHAP or C57 mice maintained on LDE. However, cHAP and C57 mice on the LDE+Binge regiment had greater hepatosteatosis and overall degree of liver injury compared to EtOH-DW+Binge. Changes in pro-inflammatory gene expression was more pronounced in cHAP mice than C57 mice. Analysis of liver enzymes revealed a robust induction of CYP2E1 in C57 and cHAP mice maintained on EtOH-DW+Binge or LDE+Binge. However, while C57 mice exhibited higher basal hepatic glutathione than cHAP mice, these mice appeared more susceptible to oxidative stress following LDE+Binge than cHAP counterparts. Despite cHAP mice consuming more total ethanol prior to gavage when maintained on EtOH-DW, LDE followed by gavage created a more severe model of ALD in both C57 and cHAP mice. These data suggest factors other than total amount of alcohol consumed affect degree of ALD development in the chronic-binge model in cHAP mice. cHAP mice voluntarily consume high amounts of ethanol and exhibited hepatic injury when subject to chronic-binge ethanol feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli diet. However, hepatic injury was reduced in cHAP mice in a chronic-binge model following voluntary high ethanol consumption in drinking water. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Kerlin, Ann Marie; Long, Millie; Kappelman, Michael; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S
Marijuana is legal in a number of states for indications that include inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and patients are interested in its potential benefits. We aimed to describe the legal use of marijuana in individuals with IBD in the USA who participate within the CCFA Partners internet-based cohort. A total of 2357 participants who lived in states where prescription or recreational marijuana was legal, were offered the opportunity to complete a survey on marijuana use and IBD symptoms including perceived benefits of therapy. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with marijuana use. Surveys were completed by 1666 participants (71%) with only 214 (12.8%) indicating they had asked their medical doctor about its use and 73 actually using prescribed marijuana (4.4%). Within the respondent group (N = 1666), 234 participants lived where both medical and recreational marijuana is legal and 49 (20.9%) reported recreational marijuana use specifically for IBD. Users reported positive benefits (80.7%), but users also reported more depression, anxiety, pain interference, and lower social satisfaction than non-users. Those prescribed marijuana reported more active disease, and more use of steroids, narcotics, and zolpidem. Few IBD patients consulted their medical doctors about marijuana use or used prescription marijuana. Where recreational marijuana was available, usage rates were higher. Users reported benefits but also more IBD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and pain. Marijuana use may be higher in patients with IBD symptoms not well treated by conventional medical approaches.
Ravikoff Allegretti, Jessica; Courtwright, Andrew; Lucci, Matthew; Korzenik, Joshua R; Levine, Jonathan
The prevalence and perceived effectiveness of marijuana use has not been well studied in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) despite increasing legal permission for its use in Crohn's disease. Health care providers have little guidance about the IBD symptoms that may improve with marijuana use. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, sociodemographic characteristics, and perceived benefits of marijuana use among patients with IBD. Prospective cohort survey study of marijuana use patterns in patients with IBD at an academic medical center. A total of 292 patients completed the survey (response rate = 94%); 12.3% of patients were active marijuana users, 39.0% were past users, and 48.6% were never users. Among current and past users, 16.4% of patients used marijuana for disease symptoms, the majority of whom felt that marijuana was "very helpful" for relief of abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. On multivariate analysis, age and chronic abdominal pain were associated with current marijuana use (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-0.97; P marijuana (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.97; P marijuana for abdominal pain, were it legally available. A significant number of patients with IBD currently use marijuana. Most patients find it very helpful for symptom control, including patients with ulcerative colitis, who are currently excluded from medical marijuana laws. Clinical trials are needed to determine marijuana's potential as an IBD therapy and to guide prescribing decisions.
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... in risky behavior, including drinking and driving, sexual activity (such as unprotected ... the risk of physical and sexual assault Underage youth who drink are ...
Berg, Carla J; Henriksen, Lisa; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Haardoerfer, Regine; Freisthler, Bridget
The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults. Moreover, retail marketing or point-of-sale practices may differentially target subpopulations and differ by neighborhood demography and local policy. This literature and the methods employed for studying the tobacco and alcohol market could inform research on the retail environment for marijuana, as current gaps exist. In particular, much of the existing literature involves cross-sectional research designs; longitudinal studies are needed. Moreover, standardized measures are needed for systematic monitoring of industry marketing practices and to conduct research examining neighborhood differences in exposure to retail marketing for marijuana and its contribution to use modality and frequency, alone and in combination with nicotine and alcohol. The use of standardized measures for tobacco and alcohol marketing have been critical to develop an evidence base from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that document the impact of retail marketing on substance use by adolescents and adults. Similar research is needed to establish an evidence base to inform federal, state, and local regulations of marijuana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hanson, Koren; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Skinner, Martie L; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Mason, W Alex; Thompson, Ronald W; Redmond, Cleve
As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements. The messages fell into four categories: information about the law, general advice/conversation starters, consequences of marijuana use/positive alternatives, and information on potential harmful effects of teen marijuana use. The messages were presented through an online survey to 282 parent (84% female) and 283 teen (54% female) participants in an ongoing study in Washington State. Both parents and youth rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Messages about potential harms of marijuana use were rated lower than other messages by both generations. Parents who had used marijuana within the past year (n = 80) rated consequence/positive alternative messages lower than parent nonusers (n = 199). Youth marijuana users (n = 77) and nonusers (n = 202) both rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Youth users and nonusers were less likely than parents to believe messages on the harmful effects of marijuana. The high ratings for messages based on information about the marijuana law highlight the need for informational health campaigns to be established as a first step in the marijuana legalization process.
In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...
Brownley, Kimberly A.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Peat, Christine M.; Lohr, Kathleen N.; Cullen, Katherine E.; Bann, Carla M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Background The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. Purpose To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of psychological and pharmacologic therapies for adults with binge-eating disorder. Data Sources English-language publications in EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov through 18 November 2015, and in MEDLINE through 12 May 2016. Study Selection 9 waitlist-controlled psychological trials and 25 placebo-controlled trials that evaluated pharmacologic (n = 19) or combination (n = 6) treatment. All were randomized trials with low or medium risk of bias. Data Extraction 2 reviewers independently extracted trial data, assessed risk of bias, and graded strength of evidence. Data Synthesis Therapist-led cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, and second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) decreased binge-eating frequency and increased binge-eating abstinence (relative risk, 4.95 [95% CI, 3.06 to 8.00], 2.61 [CI, 2.04 to 3.33], and 1.67 [CI, 1.24 to 2.26], respectively). Lisdexamfetamine (mean difference [MD], −6.50 [CI, −8.82 to −4.18]) and SGAs (MD, −3.84 [CI, −6.55 to −1.13]) reduced binge-eating–related obsessions and compulsions, and SGAs reduced symptoms of depression (MD, −1.97 [CI, −3.67 to −0.28]). Headache, gastrointestinal upset, sleep disturbance, and sympathetic nervous system arousal occurred more frequently with lisdexamfetamine than placebo (relative risk range, 1.63 to 4.28). Other forms of cognitive behavioral therapy and topiramate also increased abstinence and reduced binge-eating frequency and related psychopathology. Topiramate reduced weight and increased sympathetic nervous system arousal, and lisdexamfetamine reduced weight and appetite. Limitations Most study participants were overweight or obese white women aged 20 to 40 years. Many treatments were examined only in single studies. Outcomes were measured inconsistently across trials and rarely
Sheer, Amy J.; Gorelick, David A.; Collins, Charles C.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Leff, Michelle K.; Moolchan, Eric T.
Little is known about adolescents’ interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smoker...
mari- juana grown indoors , the involvement of large criminal organizations, and the patterns of domestic marijuana distribution. In response to a GAO...information is particularly important if the amount of marijuana grown indoors and the number of large-scale cultiva- tion and distribution organizations... marijuana indoors is becoming increasingly popular. A 1982 narcotics assessment by the Western States Information Network (WSIN)2 of marijuana
Over half of the US states have adopted "medical marijuana" laws (MMLs), and 58% of Americans now favor marijuana legalization. Despite public support, federal law continues to prohibit the use and sale of marijuana due to public health concerns of increased dependence and abuse, youth access, and drugged driving. These essays contribute toward understanding the likely health consequences of marijuana liberalization using evidence from MMLs.Chapter 1 -- Growing Like Weed: Explaining Variation...
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Murphy, Gabrielle M; Bierut, Laura J
Many individuals now seek out product reviews in order to make an informed decision prior to making a purchase. In this study, we investigate consumers' exposure to and content within product reviews about marijuana because of their potential to shape marijuana purchasing decisions. The terms "weed review," "marijuana review," and "cannabis review" were searched on YouTube on June 10-11, 2015; the team viewed and coded the content of 83 product review videos about marijuana. In addition, we surveyed young adult (18-34 years old) current (past month) marijuana users (n = 742) from across the USA online to assess exposure to product reviews about marijuana and associations with socio-demographic characteristics and marijuana use behaviors. In our content analysis of videos, we observed that the reviewers tended to consume marijuana during the video and often shared personal, favorable experiences towards the marijuana they ingested (e.g., became as high as possible or experienced positive effects on physical and mental health). Most videos normalized marijuana use and could be easily accessed by underage youth. About one third (34%) of the survey participants viewed/sought a product review about marijuana in the past 30 days. In a multivariable logistic regression model, living in a state where recreational use is legal or using multiple forms of marijuana was associated with increased odds of viewing/seeking marijuana reviews. Prevention messages should counter product reviews about marijuana that tend to normalize and promote marijuana use given that they are more readily viewed by individuals who are increasingly susceptible to marijuana's potential harms.
Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.
To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...
Zimmermann, Kaeli; Walz, Christina; Derckx, Raissa T; Kendrick, Keith M; Weber, Bernd; Dore, Bruce; Ochsner, Kevin N; Hurlemann, René; Becker, Benjamin
Effective regulation of negative affective states has been associated with mental health. Impaired regulation of negative affect represents a risk factor for dysfunctional coping mechanisms such as drug use and thus could contribute to the initiation and development of problematic substance use. This study investigated behavioral and neural indices of emotion regulation in regular marijuana users (n = 23) and demographically matched nonusing controls (n = 20) by means of an fMRI cognitive emotion regulation (reappraisal) paradigm. Relative to nonusing controls, marijuana users demonstrated increased neural activity in a bilateral frontal network comprising precentral, middle cingulate, and supplementary motor regions during reappraisal of negative affect (P marijuana users relative to controls. Together, the present findings could reflect an unsuccessful attempt of compensatory recruitment of additional neural resources in the context of disrupted amygdala-prefrontal interaction during volitional emotion regulation in marijuana users. As such, impaired volitional regulation of negative affect might represent a consequence of, or risk factor for, regular marijuana use. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4270-4279, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor
Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit. In contrast to its medical use, the recreational use of marijuana cannot be justified for at least three reasons. First, as scientists have amply documented, it harms the organic functioning of the human body. Second, it impedes our ability to reason and in so doing does harm to us. Finally, it has lasting detrimental effects on the user and his neighbor, even when it occurs in a casual setting. Intoxication is always contrary to the integral good of the person. Thus, the use of marijuana is never warranted even for good, non-medical reasons.
In conclusion, among adult ever users of marijuana, current tobacco use is high and strongly associated with suboptimal SRH; regular marijuana smoking with or without current tobacco use is significantly associated with suboptimal SRH.
Sean M. Molnar
Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking is prevalent among young adults and is a public issue of increasing importance. Its initiation and maintenance are associated with deficits in the capacity to inhibit automatic processing in favor of non-habitual responses. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine behavioral and brain activity indices of cognitive control during the Stroop task as a function of binge drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers (HED reported consuming 5+/6+ drinks in two hours at least five times in the past six months and were compared to light drinkers (LED who reported two or fewer binge episodes but were matched on demographics, intelligence and family history of alcoholism. Greater conflict-induced activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and thalamus was observed in HED participants and it was positively correlated with alcohol intake and alcohol-related harmful consequences. HEDs maintained intact accuracy but at a cost of prolonged reaction times to high-conflict trials and increased ratings of task difficulty. Greater activation of the areas implicated in cognitive control is consistent with compensatory network expansion to meet higher cognitive demands. These results provide further insight into degradation of cognitive control in HEDs which may benefit development of detection and prevention strategies.
Wilson, G. Terence; Sysko, Robyn
Objective In DSM-IV, to be diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or the provisional diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), an individual must experience episodes of binge eating is “at least twice a week” on average, for three or six months respectively. The purpose of this review was to examine the validity and utility of the frequency criterion for BN and BED. Method Published studies evaluating the frequency criterion were reviewed. Results Our review found little evidence to support the validity or utility of the DSM-IV frequency criterion of twice a week binge eating; however, the number of studies available for our review was limited. Conclusion A number of options are available for the frequency criterion in DSM-V, and the optimal diagnostic threshold for binge eating remains to be determined. PMID:19610014
Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok
Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.
Moustafa Elsheshtawy; Priatharsini Sriganesh; Vasudev Virparia; Falgun Patel; Ashok Khanna
Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools.
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
Phillips, Kristina T; Lalonde, Trent L; Phillips, Michael M; Schneider, Maryia M
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students, with heavy use leading to negative outcomes. Use of marijuana for medical and recreational purposes in select U.S. states has been controversial, with concerns surrounding increased prevalence rates and harm. The current exploratory study aimed to assess marijuana use in college students in Colorado, demographic differences in frequency of use, and motives for using. College students (N = 300; 61% female) were recruited through introductory psychology courses and completed a series of questionnaires and a marijuana urine screen. Almost three-fourths of the sample reported lifetime use of marijuana. Sixty-five percent used marijuana within the last year and 29% tested positive on the urine screen. Hurdle Poisson regression models with a subset of participants (n = 117) showed non-Greek and freshman status were associated with increased number of days participants used marijuana in the last month. Problem marijuana use was positively associated with a range of motives-of note-motives focused on coping, boredom, alcohol, and food. Prevalence rates of marijuana use were high in this sample of college students in a state with legal recreational marijuana use. Particular students (eg, students who use marijuana to cope) may be at higher risk for problem marijuana use. Developing effective, tailored interventions for university students is warranted. (Am J Addict 2017;26:830-837). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Seamon, Matthew J; Fass, Jennifer A; Maniscalco-Feichtl, Maria; Abu-Shraie, Nada A
The pharmacology, therapeutic uses, safety, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions of medical marijuana are reviewed, and the legal issues related to its use and the implications of medical marijuana for the pharmacist are presented. Marijuana contains more than 460 active chemicals and over 60 unique cannabinoids. The legal landscape surrounding marijuana is surprisingly complex and unsettled. In the United States, 11 states and several municipalities have legalized medical marijuana. Another state provides legislation that allows patients to claim a defense of medical necessity. Nevertheless, patients using medical marijuana may never interact with a pharmacist. Marijuana is a Schedule I controlled substance and its use is illegal under federal law. Marijuana has a number of purported therapeutic uses with a broad range of supporting evidence. There are five general indications for medical marijuana: (1) severe nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy or other causes, (2) weight loss associated with debilitating illnesses, including HIV infection and cancer, (3) spasticity secondary to neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, (4) pain syndromes, and (5) other uses, such as for glaucoma. Marijuana is associated with adverse psychiatric, cardiovascular, respiratory, and immunologic events. Moreover, marijuana may interact with a number of prescription drugs and concomitant disease states. Several states have legalized the use of marijuana for chronic and debilitating medication conditions. Pharmacists need to understand the complex legal framework surrounding this issue so that they can protect themselves and better serve their patients.
Finn, Kristin V.
Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…
Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci
Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…
Zaso, Michelle J; Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A; Kwon, Hoin; Maisto, Stephen A
Although the many positive and negative psychosocial consequences of alcohol use are well documented, evidence of the association between prior drinking consequences and subsequent alcohol-related outcomes is mixed. Social learning theory highlights that cognitive appraisals of prior drinking consequences play a crucial intermediate role in the relation of prior drinking consequences with subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. This prospective study was designed to test the mediating effects of subjective evaluations (i.e., perceived valence and controllability) in the association of prior drinking consequences with change in binge drinking and drinking consequences over time. Participants were 171 college students (69% female, 74% White, M age = 18.95 years, SD = 1.35) who completed 2 online surveys, with an average interval of 68 days (SD = 10.22) between assessments. Path analyses of the data did not support mediational effects of perceived valence or controllability of prior drinking consequences on subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. Specifically, greater frequency of negative consequences was associated with lower perceived valence and controllability, and greater frequency of positive consequences was associated with lower perceived controllability of the experienced consequences. However, perceptions of valence and controllability were not in turn associated with subsequent binge drinking and drinking consequences. Instead, greater frequency of positive consequences was directly associated with greater subsequent frequency of binge drinking. Findings highlight the importance of prior positive consequences in the escalation of binge drinking over a short period of time, although this relation may not be accounted for by perceptions of valence and controllability of the prior drinking consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N.; Fishbein, Martin
This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature—marijuana scenes—on adolescents’ perception of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents’ evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements (PSAs) that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana PSAs negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads amon...
Nikčević, A V; Marino, C; Caselli, G; Spada, M M
Impulsivity, Body Mass Index, negative emotions and irrational food beliefs are often reported as predictors of binge eating. In the current study we explored the role played by two thinking styles, namely food thought suppression and desire thinking, in predicting binge eating among young adults controlling for established predictors of this condition. A total of 338 university students (268 females) participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires measuring the study variables. Path analysis revealed that impulsivity was not associated with binge eating, that Body Mass Index and negative emotions predicted binge eating, and that irrational food beliefs only influenced binge eating via food thought suppression and desire thinking. In conclusion, thinking styles appear an important predictor of binge eating and they should be taken into consideration when developing clinical interventions for binge eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl using the search strategy ‘‘topiramate’’ AND ‘‘binge’’, ‘‘binge eating disorder.’’ No time limits were applied, and only reports of randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Results: In clinical studies, topiramate use has been associated with significant weight loss mediated by reductions in the frequency of bingeing episodes. The most common side effects of the drug are paresthesias, but nephrolithiasis, oligohydrosis, and dizziness have also been described. Conclusions: Available data are limited, but the literature we reviewed suggests that topiramate can be useful in the medical treatment of BED, reducing both body weight and binge episodes. Side effects are not negligible. Before topiramate can be regarded as a good tool for the treatment of BED, further data must be obtained from longer, methodologically correct studies of larger populations.
Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…
Grunberg, Victoria A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A
Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression 1 year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D
Our objective was to assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from 2 Latin American countries. We performed a cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style, and media access. Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7), and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8 and 10.9%, respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) comparing quartiles 4 and 1, 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73 to 2.30) for current drinking, aOR 1.68 (CI 1.39 to 2.02) for binge drinking, and aOR 1.80 (1.52 to 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.76) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to try drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.64). Higher levels of exposure to AUF were associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
This study examined whether exposure to marijuana advertisements was associated with current marijuana use and frequency of use among US adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12. Weighted estimates of exposure to marijuana advertisements and marijuana use from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future studies were investigated. Factors associated with the prevalence and frequency of marijuana use were analyzed by using logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. Of all respondents (n = 12,988), 13.8% reported marijuana use in the past 30 days. Exposure to marijuana advertisements was prevalent among adolescents, with 52.8% reporting exposure from internet advertisements, 32.1% from television advertisements, 24.1% from magazine or newspaper advertisements, 19.7% from radio advertisements, 19.0% from advertisements on storefronts, and 16.6% from billboards. In the multivariable analysis, current use of marijuana among adolescents was associated with exposure to marijuana advertisements on storefronts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, P < .001), magazines or newspapers (adjusted OR = 1.6, P < .001), billboards (adjusted OR = 1.4, P = .002), internet (adjusted OR = 1.8, P < .001), television (adjusted OR = 1.4, P < .001) and radio (adjusted OR = 1.7, P < .001). Exposure to marijuana advertisements from the internet was associated with increased use of marijuana (β = 0.3, P = .04). Exposure to marijuana advertisements was associated with higher odds of current marijuana use among adolescents. Regulations that limit marijuana advertisements to adolescents and educational campaigns on harmfulness of illicit marijuana use are needed.
Borini, Paulo; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso; Borini, Sabrina Bicalho
CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Braz...
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pedersen, Eric R; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
This study assesses the independent and combined effects of (1) perceived peer norms, (2) best friend use, and (3) being in the presence of others who use on middle school adolescents' consumption of marijuana and alcohol, and how the effects of these sources of social influence evolve over time as youth progress through middle school. The analytic sample consisted of 11,667 adolescents (50% female; >65% Hispanic) in 6th, 7th or 8th grade from 16 middle schools across three school districts in Southern California. Participants were assessed at 5 time points from 2008 to 2011. All sources of social influence were predictive of alcohol and marijuana consumption. As youth grew older, spending time with other adolescents who drink increased adolescents' likelihood of drinking alcohol, whereas perceived norms became less influential. Furthermore, as adolescents spent more time around other youths who drink, the predictive value of perceived norms on alcohol consumption decreased. Similarly, as youth grew older, the influence of best friend's use and spending time with other adolescents who use marijuana remain stable, whereas perceived norms became less influential. Findings suggest that perceived peer norms may be more influential in early adolescence; whereas proximal social determinants (e.g., being in the presence of other peers who consume) become more influential as youth enter middle adolescence. Prevention programs should continue to address misperception of norms with younger adolescents to decrease the chances of initiation, but also utilize strategies such as refusal skills and alternate coping mechanisms for older adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nkemdirim Okere, Arinze
With the current legalization of medical marijuana and the possibility of recreational use being permitted in some states, the health care benefits associated with the use of marijuana is questionable. States that are on the path of legalizing marijuana, should recognize that as there are perceived positive benefits, there are also many evidence-based negative health consequences which may result in negative economic and societal consequences. As more data on health outcomes regarding the use of marijuana continue to emerge, policies directed toward legalizing marijuana, whether medical or recreational, should consider protecting the society from both harm and societal cost.
Whitehurst, Lauren N; Fogler, Kethera; Hall, Kate; Hartmann, Matthew; Dyche, Jeff
Animal literature suggests a connection between marijuana use and altered circadian rhythms. However, the effect has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The present study examined the effect of chronic marijuana use on human circadian function. Participants consisted of current users who reported smoking marijuana daily for at least a year and non-marijuana user controls. Participants took a neurocognitive assessment, wore actigraphs and maintained sleep diaries for three weeks. While no significant cognitive changes were found between groups, data revealed that chronic marijuana use may act as an additional zeitgeber and lead to increased entrainment in human users.
de Bruijn, Avalon; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Bujalski, Michal; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Wohtge, Jördis; de Leeuw, Rebecca
Aims: The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in
Bruijn, A. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anderson, P.D.; Bujalski, M.; Gosselt, J.; Schreckenberg, D.; Wohtge, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de
Aims: The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times; even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in
Bierut, Tatiana; Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.
With an increase in the legalization of recreational marijuana across the U.S., advertising for marijuana products is more widespread, especially on the Internet where such practices pose a regulatory challenge. In this study, we examined the content of marijuana advertising on Weedmaps, a popular website that markets marijuana retailers online. A total of 146 recreational marijuana retailers in Colorado and Washington were examined on Weedmaps. We studied the age verification practices made in retailers’ own websites, the presence of health claims they made about marijuana on Weedmaps, and the characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on social media sites. Many retailers had no security measure to determine age (41% in Colorado, 35% in Washington). Approximately 61% of retailers in Colorado and 44% in Washington made health claims about the benefits of marijuana, including anxiety reduction, treatment of depression, insomnia, and pain/inflammation. Inferred demographic characteristics of followers of Weedmaps on Twitter and Instagram revealed that over 60% were male and nearly 70% or more were age 20–29 years old, yet some (15%–18%) were under the age of 20. Our findings indicate that marijuana retailers have a visible presence on the Internet. Potential customers might be enticed by retailers who tout health claims about marijuana use. It may also be appealing for a younger demographic to overlook age restrictions and engage with marijuana retailers via social media. As a whole, our findings can help to guide future policy making on the issue of marijuana-related advertising. PMID:27534665
Ketcherside, Ariel; Filbey, Francesca M
The literature widely reports that stress is associated with marijuana use, yet, to date, the path from stress to marijuana-related problems has not been tested. In this study, we evaluated whether negative affect mediates the relationship between stress and marijuana use. To that end, we tested models to determine mediators between problems with marijuana use (via Marijuana Problem Scale), stress (via Early Life Stress Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale), and negative affect (via Beck Depression Inventory; Beck Anxiety Inventory) in 157 current heavy marijuana users. Mediation tests and bootstrap confidence intervals were carried out via the "Mediation" package in R. Depression and anxiety scores both significantly mediated the relationship between perceived stress and problematic marijuana use. Only depression significantly mediated the relationship between early life stress and problematic marijuana use. Early life stress, perceived stress and problematic marijuana use were significant only as independent variables and dependent variables. These findings demonstrate that (1) depression mediated both early life stress and perceived stress, and problematic marijuana use, and, (2) anxiety mediated perceived stress and problematic marijuana use. This mediation analysis represents a strong first step toward understanding the relationship between these variables; however, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality between these variables. To conclude, addressing concomitant depression and anxiety in those who report either perceived stress or early life stress is important for the prevention of cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Moeller, Karen E; Woods, Barbara
To determine pharmacy students' knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers' questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum.
Metrik, Jane; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.; McGeary, John; Cook, Travis A. R.; de Wit, Harriet; Haney, Margaret; Kahler, Christopher W.
Although alcohol and nicotine administration studies have demonstrated that manipulating subjects’ expectancies regarding drug content affects drug response, research with marijuana has not adequately studied drug expectancy effects. The present pilot study was the first to evaluate the credibility and effect of expectancy manipulation on subjective measures and smoking patterns using a marijuana administration balanced-placebo design (BPD). In a 2 × 2 instructional set (told delta-9-tetrahyd...
Cohn, Amy M; Johnson, Amanda L; Rose, Shyanika W; Rath, Jessica M; Villanti, Andrea C
As of 2015, more than half of U.S. states have legalized, medicalized, or decriminalized marijuana. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of support for marijuana legalization in a national sample of young adults and the intention to use marijuana more frequently if it were legalized. Data were from Wave 7 (weighted N = 3532) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort, a national sample of men and women aged 18-34. We assessed demographics, past 30-day substance (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, other drug use), depression and anxiety, social smoking, marijuana harm perceptions (relative to cigarettes), and state-level marijuana policies as correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana more often if it were legalized. Multivariable models of correlates of support for legalization and intentions to use marijuana were conducted separately for the full sample and for nonmarijuana users. Weighted estimates showed that 39% of the full sample and 9% of nonmarijuana users supported marijuana legalization. Multivariable models showed that lower marijuana harm perceptions and lifetime and past 30-day tobacco use were common predictors of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use marijuana among non-users of marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: Over a third of the sample supported marijuana legalization. Tobacco use and perceptions that marijuana is less harmful than cigarettes were robust risk correlates of support for marijuana legalization and intentions to use more frequently among nonusers. Public health campaigns should target these factors to deter marijuana-related harm in susceptible young adults.
Guss, Janet L; Kissileff, Harry R; Devlin, Michael J; Zimmerli, Ellen; Walsh, B Timothy
To determine whether meal size is related to body mass index (BMI) in obese subjects with binge-eating disorder (BED). Five groups of subjects each consumed two laboratory-test meals on nonconsecutive days. Forty-two women, categorized by BMI and BED diagnosis, were instructed to "binge" during one meal and to eat "normally" during another. Eighteen women had BMI values >38 kg/m(2) (more-obese) and 17 had BMI values between 28 to 32 kg/m(2) (less-obese). Twelve of the more-obese and nine of the less-obese individuals met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV criteria for BED. Seven normal-weight women also participated as controls. Subjects with BED ate significantly more in both meals than subjects without BED. Binge meals were significantly larger than normal meals only among subjects with BED. The more-obese subjects with BED ate significantly more than the less-obese subjects with BED, but only when they were asked to binge. Intake of the binge meal was significantly, positively correlated with BMI among subjects with BED. Subjects with BED reported significantly higher satiety ratings after the binge than after the normal meal, but subjects without BED reported similar ratings after both meals. Regardless of instructions and diagnosis, obese subjects consumed a significantly higher percentage of energy from fat (38.5%) than did normal-weight subjects (30.8%). During binge meals, the energy intake of subjects with BED is greater than that of individuals of similar body weight without BED and is positively correlated with BMI.
Valerie L Forman-Hoffman; Cristie Glasheen; Kathryn R Batts
Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005?2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse or dependence) among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954). Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, me...
Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo
Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pisinger, Veronica S C; Holst, Charlotte A; Bendtsen, Pernille
The aim of the study was to examine whether young people with parental alcohol problems have different drinking patterns than those without parental alcohol problems. Further, we examined whether the association between parental alcohol problems and young people's drinking patterns differed...... depending on the gender of the child and the parent, and whether more severe parental alcohol problems and cohabitation with the parent with alcohol problems was associated with earlier and heavier drinking patterns. Data came from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. 75......,025 high school and vocational school students (15-25years) participated. Drinking patterns were investigated by the following outcomes: non-drinking, weekly alcohol consumption, frequent binge drinking, and early intoxication debut age. The main predictor variables were perceived parental alcohol problems...
Petersen, Robert C.
Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)
Hosová, Dominika; Spear, Linda Patia
The still maturing adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to lasting consequences of ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Yet, human adolescents are the age group most likely to engage in binge drinking (a pattern of drinking leading to blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 80 mg/dl or greater). Most studies to date assessing the long-term effects of adolescent EtOH exposure in outbred rodent populations have either used experimenter-administered EtOH to produce BECs in the binge range or assessed voluntary intake of EtOH at well below binge levels. Beginning with a modified schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) procedure, this study examined the suitability of several approaches to induce voluntary binge-like consumption during adolescence in an outbred rat strain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were food deprived to 85% projected free-feeding weights beginning on postnatal day (P) 24 and were given 30 minutes of access to 10% EtOH in chocolate Boost ® or Boost ® alone daily from P28 to P41 (followed later by their daily allocation of food). Animals were tested within operant chambers (Exp. 1a, 1b and Exp. 2) or home and novel cages (Exp. 3). Animals received either scheduled delivery of banana pellets to examine SIP (Exp. 1a,b) or massed pellet presentation (Exp. 2 and Exp. 3). Blood samples were collected via the lateral tail vein on P33 and P41. Intakes produced BECs frequently in the binge range (>80 mg/dl) and modeled binge-like consumption patterns, with high consumption days typically followed by 1 to 2 days of lower consumption; this variability was less evident with Boost ® alone. Consumption was not schedule induced and was generally high across all studies, although consumption in males appeared to be particularly pronounced when animals were tested in the presence of their cage mate. Binge-like patterns of EtOH consumption were produced using these procedures in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes and may prove to be a useful
Fox, Helen C.; Tuit, Keri L.; Sinha, Rajita
Objective To date, little research exists defining bio-behavioral adaptations associated with both marijuana abuse and risk of craving and relapse to other drugs of abuse during early abstinence. Method Fifty-nine treatment-seeking individuals dependent on alcohol and cocaine were recruited. Thirty of these individuals were also marijuana (MJ) dependent; 29 were not. Twenty-six socially drinking healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were exposed to three 5-min guided imagery conditions (stress, alcohol/cocaine cue and relaxing), presented randomly, one per day across three consecutive days. Measures of craving, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol were collected at baseline and subsequent recovery time points. Results The MJ-dependent group showed increased basal anxiety ratings and cardiovascular output alongside enhanced alcohol craving and cocaine craving, and dampened cardiovascular response to stress and cue. They also demonstrated elevated cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, which were not observed in the non-MJ-dependent group or controls. Cue-related alcohol craving and anxiety were both predictive of a shorter number of days to marijuana relapse following discharge from inpatient treatment. Conclusions Findings provide some support for drug cross-sensitization in terms of motivational processes associated with stress-related and cue-related craving and relapse. PMID:23280514
Tara L Crowell
Full Text Available Given the necessity to better understand the process patients need to go through in order to seek treatment via medical marijuana, this study investigates this process to better understand this phenomenon. Specifically, Compassion Care Foundation (CCF and Stockton University worked together to identify a solution to this problem. Specifically, 240 new patients at CCF were asked to complete a 1-page survey regarding various aspects associated with their experience prior to their use of medicinal marijuana—diagnosis, what prompted them to seek treatment, level of satisfaction with specific stages in the process, total length of time the process took, and patient’s level of pain. Results reveal numerous patient diagnoses for which medical marijuana is being prescribed; the top 4 most common are intractable skeletal spasticity, chronic and severe pain, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Next, results indicate a little over half of the patients were first prompted to seek alternative treatment from their physicians, while the remaining patients indicated that other sources such as written information along with friends, relatives, media, and the Internet persuaded them to seek treatment. These data indicate that a variety of sources play a role in prompting patients to seek alternative treatment and is a critical first step in this process. Additional results posit that once patients began the process of qualifying to receive medical marijuana as treatment, the process seemed more positive even though it takes patients on average almost 6 months to obtain their first treatment after they started the process. Finally, results indicate that patients are reporting a moderately high level of pain prior to treatment. Implication of these results highlights several important elements in the patients’ initial steps toward seeking medical marijuana, along with the quality and quantity of the process patients must engage in prior to
Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Warnock, Kaitlin T; Wang, Hong; June, Harry L; Bell, Kimberly A; Rabe, Holger; Tiruveedhula, Veera Venkata Naga Phani Babu; Cook, James; Lüddens, Hartmut; Aurelian, Laure; June, Harry L
Childhood stress and trauma are associated with substance use disorders in adulthood, but the neurological changes that confer increased vulnerability are largely unknown. In this study, maternal separation (MS) stress, restricted to the pre-weaning period, was used as a model to study mechanisms of protracted effects of childhood stress/traumatic experiences on binge drinking and impulsivity. Using an operant self-administration model of binge drinking and a delay discounting assay to measure impulsive-like behavior, we report that early life stress due to MS facilitated acquisition of binge drinking and impulsivity during adulthood in rats. Previous studies have shown heightened levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) after MS, and here, we add that MS increased expression levels of GABA(A) α2 subunit in central stress circuits. To investigate the precise role of these circuits in regulating impulsivity and binge drinking, the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and the novel GABA(A) α2 subunit ligand 3-PBC were infused into the central amygdala (CeA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Antalarmin and 3-PBC at each site markedly reduced impulsivity and produced profound reductions on binge-motivated alcohol drinking, without altering responding for sucrose. Furthermore, whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed that low concentrations of 3-PBC directly reversed the effect of relatively high concentrations of ethanol on α2β3γ2 GABA(A) receptors, by a benzodiazepine site-independent mechanism. Together, our data provide strong evidence that maternal separation, i.e. early life stress, is a risk factor for binge drinking, and is linked to impulsivity, another key risk factor for excessive alcohol drinking. We further show that pharmacological manipulation of CRF and GABA receptor signaling is effective to reverse binge drinking and impulsive-like behavior in MS rats. These results provide novel insights into the role of the brain stress systems in the
Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…
Wang, George Sam; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Deakyne, Sara J; Bronstein, Alvin C; Bajaj, Lalit; Roosevelt, Genie
As of 2015, almost half of US states allow medical marijuana, and 4 states allow recreational marijuana. To our knowledge, the effect of recreational marijuana on the pediatric population has not been evaluated. To compare the incidence of pediatric marijuana exposures evaluated at a children's hospital and regional poison center (RPC) in Colorado before and after recreational marijuana legalization and to compare population rate trends of RPC cases for marijuana exposures with the rest of the United States. Retrospective cohort study of hospital admissions and RPC cases between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015, at Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, a tertiary care children's hospital. Participants included patients 0 to 9 years of age evaluated at the hospital's emergency department, urgent care centers, or inpatient unit and RPC cases from Colorado for single-substance marijuana exposures. Marijuana. Marijuana exposure visits and RPC cases, marijuana source and type, clinical effects, scenarios, disposition, and length of stay. Eighty-one patients were evaluated at the children's hospital, and Colorado's RPC received 163 marijuana exposure cases between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015, for children younger than 10 years of age. The median age of children's hospital visits was 2.4 years (IQR, 1.4-3.4); 25 were girls (40%) . The median age of RPC marijuana exposures was 2 years (IQR, 1.3-4.0), and 85 patients were girls (52%). The mean rate of marijuana-related visits to the children's hospital increased from 1.2 per 100 000 population 2 years prior to legalization to 2.3 per 100,000 population 2 years after legalization (P = .02). Known marijuana products involved in the exposure included 30 infused edibles (48%). Median length of stay was 11 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 6-19) and 26 hours (IQR, 19-38) for admitted patients. Annual RPC pediatric marijuana cases increased more than 5-fold from 2009 (9) to 2015 (47). Colorado had an
Carbia, Carina; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Corral, Montserrat; Cadaveira, Fernando
Binge drinking (BD) is a public health concern with serious implications for brain development. This review is the first in which neuropsychological studies of healthy young BDs are synthesized following PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a literature search in PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were screened using strict inclusion criteria. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality. Of the 27 studies included, 14 (52%) were of intermediate quality, 7 (26%) of poor quality and 6 (22%) of high quality. BD is associated with deficits in verbal memory and executive functions, principally poor inhibitory control. Tentatively, BD may be related to deficits in cognitive flexibility and monitoring of information in working memory. Further studies are needed to determine potential impairments in prospective memory and decision-making. BDs do not seem to show difficulties in planning, short-term memory, attention, processing speed or visuospatial construction. The evidence does not seem to support greater vulnerability in females. Future longitudinal studies should identify the characteristics of extreme trajectories, explore recovery deficits and design intervention programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A
The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients.
Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E
The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Johnson Joy L
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress, sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.
Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H
Breastfeeding is associated with substantial benefits for both the child and mother. Most guidelines state that women who use illicit drugs should not breastfeed. Although this recommendation has traditionally included marijuana, this drug's changing legal status and the limited scientific research regarding marijuana's effect on breastfeeding and the nursing child may lead to varying recommendations made by lactation professionals to clients who use marijuana. Additionally, to our knowledge, there are no data estimating the prevalence of marijuana use among breastfeeding women, making it unclear how common it is. This study assessed recommendations around breastfeeding and marijuana use and estimated the prevalence of marijuana use among breastfeeding women. A convenience sample of lactation professionals who practice throughout New England and were attending the 2014 Vermont Lactation Consultant Association conference was offered the opportunity to complete a five-item survey. Of 120 conference attendees, 74 completed the survey. Forty-four percent reported their recommendations around breastfeeding and marijuana use depended on factors like the severity of maternal use. Another 41% reported recommending continued breastfeeding because the benefits outweigh the harms. The remaining 15% reported recommending that a woman should stop breastfeeding if she cannot stop using marijuana. Survey completers estimated that 15% (1,203/7,843) of their breastfeeding clients in the past year used marijuana. Lactation professionals vary widely in their recommendations to breastfeeding clients who use marijuana. The estimate of prevalence also suggests this is a relatively common issue. More research is needed to assess the generalizability of these findings.
Lamers, C. T. J.; Ramaekers, J. G.
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of low doses of marijuana and alcohol, and their combination, on visual search at intersections and on general driving proficiency in the City Driving Test. Sixteen recreational users of alcohol and marijuana (eight males and eight females) were treated with these substances or placebo according to a balanced, 4-way, cross-over, observer- and subject-blind design. On separate evenings, subjects received weight-calibrated doses of THC, alcohol or placebo in each of the following treatment conditions: alcohol placebo + THC placebo, alcohol + THC placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol. Alcohol doses administered were sufficient for achieving a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of about 0.05 g/dl. Initial drinking preceded smoking by one hour. The City Driving Test commenced 15 minutes after smoking and lasted 45 minutes. The test was conducted over a fixed route within the city limits of Maastricht. An eye movement recording system was mounted on each subject's head for providing relative frequency measures of appropriate visual search at intersections. General driving quality was rated by a licensed driving instructor on a shortened version of the Royal Dutch Tourist Association's Driving Proficiency Test. After placebo treatment subjects searched for traffic approaching from side streets on the right in 84% of all cases. Visual search frequency in these subjects did not change when they were treated with alcohol or marijuana alone. However, when treated with the combination of alcohol and marijuana, the frequency of visual search dropped by 3%. Performance as rated on the Driving Proficiency Scale did not differ between treatments. It was concluded that the effects of low doses of THC (100 &mgr;g/kg) and alcohol (BAC < 0.05 g/dl) on higher-level driving skills as measured in the present study are minimal. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Akano, Obinna F
There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.
M. Tech. Binge eating is defined as eating an inordinate amount of food in a discrete period of time, during which the eater experiences a subjective loss of control (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The event is often followed by emotional distress, including feelings of disgust, shame, fear, guilt or discomfort (Herrin, 2003). Binge eating is found in all eating disturbances, and is especially associated with binge eating disorder, which affects all races and both genders almost ...
Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Sehi, Auriann; Spitznagel, Edward L; Berg, Carla J; Bierut, Laura J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A
Little is known about marijuana advertising exposure among users in the U.S. We examined the prevalence of advertising exposure among young adult marijuana users through traditional and new media, and identified characteristics associated with seeking advertisements. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 18-34 year-old past-month marijuana users in the U.S. using a pre-existing online panel (N=742). The survey queried about passively viewing and actively seeking marijuana advertisements in the past month, sources of advertisements, and marijuana use characteristics. Over half of participants were exposed to marijuana advertising in the past month (28% passively observed advertisements, 26% actively sought advertisements). Common sources for observing advertisements were digital media (i.e., social media, online, text/emails; 77%). Similarly, those actively seeking advertisements often used Internet search engines (65%) and social media (53%). Seeking advertisements was more common among those who used medically (41% medical only, 36% medical and recreational) than recreational users (18%), who used concentrates or edibles (44% and 43%) compared to those who did not (20% and 19%), and who used multiple times per day (33%) compared to those who did not (19%) (all padvertising among users is common, especially via digital media, and is associated with medical use, heavier use, and use of novel products with higher THC concentrations (i.e., concentrates) or longer intoxication duration (i.e., edibles). As the U.S. marijuana policy landscape changes, it will be important to examine potential causal associations between advertising exposure and continuation or frequency/quantity of use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Chung Gun; Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Lohrmann, David K.; Song, Tae Min
Background: We examined the longitudinal trajectory of substance use (binge drinking, marijuana use, and cocaine use) in relation to self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: Generalized estimating equation models were fit using SAS to investigate changes in the relation between self-esteem and each substance use (binge drinking,…
Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L
Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo
Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147
McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I
In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p binge eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Idrus, Nirelia M; Napper, Ruth M A
In the rat, binge-like ethanol (EtOH) exposure during the early neonatal period (a developmental period equivalent to the human third trimester) can result in a permanent deficit of cerebellar Purkinje cells (Pcells). However, the consequences of a moderate binge alcohol exposure on a single day during this postnatal period have not been established. This is an issue of importance as many pregnant women binge drink periodically at social drinking levels. This study aimed to identify both the acute and long-term effects of exposure to a single alcohol binge that achieved a mean peak blood EtOH concentration of approximately 250 mg/dl during early postnatal life using a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Acute apoptotic Pcell death 10 hours after a moderate dose binge EtOH exposure from postnatal days (PDs) 0 to 10 was assessed using active caspase-3 immunolabeling. Acute Pcell apoptosis was quantified in cerebellar vermal lobules I-X using the physical disector method. Long-term effects were assessed at PD 60 using stereological methods to determine total Pcell numbers in the vermis, lobule III, and lobule IX, following a moderate dose binge EtOH exposure at PDs 0, 2, or 4. Acute apoptosis was induced by EtOH on PDs 1 to 8 in a time and lobular-dependent manner. For EtOH exposure on PD 2, significant long-term Pcell loss occurred in lobule III. EtOH exposure on PD 4 resulted in significant long-term Pcell loss throughout the entire vermis. These results indicate that a single, early EtOH episode of moderate dose can create significant and permanent Pcell loss in the developing cerebellum. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.